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Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project

Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Inventor:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company  Search this
Bell Telephone Laboratories  Search this
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology  Search this
Klatt, Dennis  Search this
Kurzweil, Ray  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sound recordings
Diskettes
Dictograph
Date:
1939-1999
Summary:
The Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project, conducted by H. David Maxey from 1986 through 2002, created a collection of archival materials documenting the history and development of speech synthesis technology. Maxey collaborated with Dr. Bernard Finn, Elliot Sivowitch and Harold Wallace of the National Museum of American History's Division of Information, Technology, and Society.
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Original Website:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project website

This website was created by Dave Maxey in 2002 to document the history of the project and to provide extensive information about the collection materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents a project done by H. David Maxey in collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution. The collection consists of administrative files containing correspondence, project reports, and other infomation about the Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project. The project files, arranged geographically and alphabetically contains information about specific speech synthesis projects and inventions. The reprints series consists of reprints of articles which Maxey collected and organized separately. This series is organized both numerically and alphabetically. The audiovisual materials contain the recordings of talks, meetings, and samples of speech synthesis described in the projects outlined in the project files.
Arrangement:
The original SSSHP numbers assigned by Dave Maxey are included in portions of the Container List. They are the basis for the organization of Maxey's original index to and description of the collection. Maxey assigned the numbers sequentially in the order he received each numbered item.

The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Administrative Files,1986-2002

Series 2, Project Files, 1939-1999

Series 3, Reprints, 1939-1999

Series 4: Audiovisual Materials,1939-1999

Subseries 1, ΒΌ" Open Reel Audiotape

Subseries 2, Audiocassettes

Subseries 3, Miscellaneous

Subseries 4, Reference and Protection Audiotapes and CDs
Biographical / Historical:
The Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project, conducted by H. David Maxey from 1986 through 2002, created a collection of archival materials including sound recordings documenting the history and development of speech synthesis technology. Maxey collaborated with Dr. Bernard Finn of the National Museum of American History's Division of Information, Technology, and Society. Elliot Sivowitch and Harold Wallace of the same division served as Smithsonian liaisons with the project.

"Speech synthesis technology" refers to the results of a long, evolutionary process in which researchers learned to create artificial sounds that people would interpret as speech. As early as the eighteenth century scientists were inventing mechanical machines to create sounds similar to human speech. Later electronics led to additional developments, The Voder was one of the earliest examples which was demonstrated to wide acclaim at the 1939 New York World's Fair. However, it was the widespread use of computers that led to the greatest progress in the field of speech synthesis.

Speech synthesis is the process by which a computer speaks. By contrast, speech recognition is when a computer can interpret spoken language. The application of both of these capabilities has been important for creating assistive computer technology for the visually impaired (speech recognition) and for individuals unable to speak (speech synthesis).

Among the leading researchers and organizations involved with the development of speech synthesis technologies are the Anerican Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), Bell Telephone Laboratories, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Dennis H. Klatt, and Ray Kurzweil.

Today speech synthesis is a common feature of daily life from the cultured voice on the GPS saying exactly which road to take to making a train reservation on the telephone. However, many speech synthesis developers continue to explore and design methods to make the speech sound less mechanical, with the ultimate challenge being natural sounding speech that shows emotion.

Dave Maxey's dedication to the project, with support from members of the staff of the National Museum of American History, has ensured the preservation of materials documenting the early history of electronic and computer engineered synthetic speech.
Related Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection are in the Division of Work & Industry, Electricity Collections.
Provenance:
The collection was created for the Smithsonian Institution from 1986-2002 by Dave Maxey in collaboration with Dr. Bernard Finn of the National Museum of American History's Division of Information, Technology, and Society, assisted by Elliot Sivowitch and Harold Wallace of the same division.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computer sound processing  Search this
Voder  Search this
Speech synthesis  Search this
Speech  Search this
Computers  Search this
Assistive computer technology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Diskettes
Dictograph
Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0417
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0417

"Speech Synthesis by Rule: ETL (1969)" (SSSHP 39)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 26
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref204

"IBM Diphone Speech Synthesis, WALRUS System, circa 1984" (SSSHP 117)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 28
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref229

"Cornell University speech synthesis samples," Susan R. Hertz (SSSHP 171)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 28
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref238

Speech synthesis [by] J.N. Holmes

Author:
Holmes, John Nicholas 1929-  Search this
Physical description:
68 p. illus. 22 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1972
Topic:
Speech processing systems  Search this
Speech  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_743295

"Speech Synthesis by Rule - JSRU England, 3/65,"(Demo for "Speech Synthesis by Rule," Language and Speech, 1964) Copy of International Business Machine's copy (SSSP 133)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 24
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref181

"Speech Synthesis, W.A. Ainsworth, University of Keele, 17/8/88" (SSSHP 9)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 22
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref146

"Text-to-Speech Synthesis Using Dyads", M.Y. Liberman and J.P. Olive, 1988 December (SSSHP 48)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 26
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref207

"Text-to-Speech Synthesis from an Articulatory Model, C.H. Coker, 1-28-80" (SSSHP 52)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 26
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref211

"IBM Diphone Speech Synthesis (1961-1970), H.D.Maxey, May 2001" (SSSHP 150)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 28
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref237

"Eloquent Technology, Inc. speech synthesis samples," Susan R. Hertz (SSSHP 172)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 28
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref239

"Smithsonian Speech Synthesis Project, #808, Haskins Laboratories, Dr. Patrick W. Nye, recorded April, 1989" (SSSHP 66)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 22
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref154

"Text-to-Speech in Japanese (standard reading)", Kyushu Institute of Design speech synthesis system (SSSHP 45)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 26
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref206

Interim Report: Tape recordings of Speech Synthesis Development from 1969 to 1990 with outlines of speech research

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1991 August
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref9

IBM TASS-II SPEECH SYNTHESIS SYSTEM CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS. Original circuit diagrams and design notes for TASS-II

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref93

Speech synthesis, edited by James L. Flanagan and Lawrence Rabiner

Author:
Flanagan, James L (James Loton) 1925-  Search this
Rabiner, Lawrence R. 1943-  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 511 p. illus. 27 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1973
[1973]
Topic:
Speech processing systems  Search this
Electro-acoustics  Search this
Call number:
TK7882.S65 F55X
TK7882.S65F55X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_33482

IBM SPEECH SYNTHESIS DIPHONE SEGMENT DATA, Development data for Diphone Libraries 1 to 5, 1962 October 30 1962 to 1970 January 8.

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref95

"Genesis of Speech Synthesis in Japan, Radio Research Laboratories, MPT (Communications Res. Lab.), 1959-1960, Edited by Jouji Suzuki, CRL, 2-Mar-1989" (SSSHP 47)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 22
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref152

"A SPEECH SYNTHESIS SYSTEM BY RULE IN JAPANESE," Sample of the synthesized speech, by R. Teranishi sample output of the SSSHP 40 system (SSSHP 42)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 26
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref205

"Speech synthesis by rule supplementarily using natural speech segments," Nippon Electric Corporation, copied by Yukio Mitome, 1989 January 31 (SSSHP 62)

Collection Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Container:
Box 26
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0417-ref212

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