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General Sherman's Christmas : Savannah, 1864 / Stanley Weintraub

Author:
Weintraub, Stanley 1929-  Search this
Subject:
Sherman, William T (William Tecumseh) 1820-1891  Search this
Physical description:
xvi, 238 p. : ill., map ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Savannah (Ga.)
Date:
2009
C2009
Siege, 1864
Topic:
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1004176

The soul of battle : from ancient times to the present day, how three great liberators vanquished tyranny / Victor Davis Hanson

Author:
Hanson, Victor Davis  Search this
Subject:
Epaminondas b. ca. 420 B.C Military leadership  Search this
Sherman, William T (William Tecumseh) 1820-1891 Military leadership  Search this
Patton, George S (George Smith) 1885-1945 Military leadership  Search this
Physical description:
480 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1999
C1999
Topic:
Military history  Search this
Motivation (Psychology)  Search this
Call number:
D25.5 .H26 1999X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_588749

Our wild Indians : thirty-three years' personal experience among the red men of the great West. A popular account of their social life, religion, habits, traits, customs, exploits, etc. With thrilling adventures and experiences on the great plains and in the mountains of our wide frontier / by Colonel Richard Irving Dodge, with an introduction by General Sherman

Author:
Dodge, Richard Irving 1827-1895  Search this
Sherman, William T (William Tecumseh) 1820-1891  Search this
Subject:
United States Army History  Search this
Physical description:
653 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), port. ; 23 cm
Type:
Miscellanea
Personal narratives
Place:
West (U.S.)
Date:
1885
19th century
Topic:
Indians of North America--Religion  Search this
Indians of North America--Kings and rulers  Search this
History  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Indians of North America--Funeral customs and rites  Search this
Wars  Search this
Indians of North America--History  Search this
Call number:
E78.W5 D645 1885
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1002930

[Assistant Quartermaster H. C. Garsonall Letter,]

Author:
Garsonall, H.C.  Search this
Names:
National Intelligencer Office (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885  Search this
Hooker, General  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 9.5" x 8".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Tennessee
Date:
1864
August 12, 1864
Scope and Contents:
Letter from Assistant Quartermaster H. C. Garsonall of the Forage Department, Nashville. Tennessee, to Ben(?) or Bro. Horatio, August 12, 1864. Garsonall complains about difficulties in foraging for food and lack of ice for drinking water. He also says he considers Ulysses Grant a poor general because of his loss of 81,290 men and refers to the National Intelligencer for this information. Additional references to Gen. Hooker, Gen. Sherman, Capt. Norton, and Captain George B. Hibbard of Vermont.
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001194a (AC Scan No.: p. 1)

AC0060-0001194b (AC Scan No.: p. 2)
General:
Civil War Selections from the Archives Center
Related Materials:
Civil War series, Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Drinking water  Search this
Ice  Search this
Foraging  Search this
Food  Search this
Civil war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1850-1900
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Civil War
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Civil War / Government Records, Business Records, and Other / Civil War
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-civilwar-ref572
Additional Online Media:

General William Tecumseh Sherman Monument

Creator:
Gruber, Martin A  Search this
Subject:
Sherman, William T (William Tecumseh) 1820-1891  Search this
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1919
C. 1920-1924
Topic:
Monuments  Search this
Local number:
SIA RU007355 [SIA2010-2013]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
No Copyright - United States
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_291808

General William T. Sherman Monument

Creator:
Gruber, Martin A  Search this
Subject:
Sherman, William T (William Tecumseh) 1820-1891  Search this
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1919
C. 1920-1924
Topic:
Monuments  Search this
Local number:
SIA RU007355 [SIA2010-2023]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
No Copyright - United States
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_291818

William Babcock Hazen Papers

Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Diplomas
Military commissions
Legal documents
Correspondence
Cartes-de-visite
Place:
Greenland -- Exploration
Date:
1855-1909
Summary:
Papers document General William Babcock Hazen's military career, primarily through correspondence, photographs, and publications.
Scope and Contents:
The General William Babcock Hazen Collection, 1856-1905, consists of approximately four cubic feet of material. Collection materials include biographical, correspondence (military and family), documents on the Greely Arctic Expedition, photographs, stereographs, and material on General Hazen's book, A Narrative of Military Service.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1885-1867

Series 2, Correspondence and Military Forms 1856-1886 and undated

Series 3, Correspondence to General William Babcock Hazen, 1861-1887

Series 4, Correspondence of Hazen Family, 1858-1909

Series 5, Photographs, 1864-1881

Series 6, Publications, 1865-1886
Biographical / Historical:
General William Babcock Hazen was born September 27, 1830 in West Hartford, Vermont. Four years later, the family moved to a farm outside Hiram, Portage County, Ohio where he attended school with James A. Garfield. Hazen's goal was service in the Army, and he wrote his congressman for admission to the United States Military Academy at West Point. Hazen graduated in 1855, twenty-eighth out of a class of thirty-four.

After graduation, General Hazen was assigned as Brevet Second Lieutenant, Company D, Fourth Infantry, Redding, California. After arriving in California, he was ordered to Fort Lane in the Oregon Territory. Lieutenant Hazen was authorized to establish a command at Grand Ronde and build a blockhouse that became the post Fort Yamhill, located west of Portland, Oregon. On April 20, 1857, he was transferred to Fort Jones, California, and then ordered to join the Eighth Infantry, Fort Davis, Texas. Hazen was transferred to Fort Inge, Texas, to protect a road from San Antonio to Eagle Pass. During a chase, Hazen was wounded by a bullet that was not removed. The lingering effect of the bullet wound would cause him frequent pain.

During the period of service in Texas, Hazen reportedly gained leadership experience, practical military knowledge, and considerable confidence in his own abilities. Following twelve months of convalescence, Hazen was nominated assistant instructor of military tactics at West Point on January 28, 1861. He was promoted to First Lieutenant on April 1861 and captain on May 14, 1861. Colonel James A. Garfield influenced the appointment of Hazen as colonel in command of the newly organized forty-first Ohio Volunteer Regiment. Hazen quickly transformed the regiment's inexperienced personnel into a firmly disciplined body. The intensive training paid large dividends later in the war, and he always held the regiment in high regard.

As brigade and division commander, General Hazen led troops in many important battles and campaigns: Shiloh (Place of Peace), Stones River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, Resaca, Picketts Mill, Jonesboro, Fort McAllister, and Bentonville. On December 13, 1864, Hazen was appointed a major general of volunteers in recognition of long and faithful service and the capture of Fort McAllister. It was after the performance of his troops at Fort McAllister that a friendly relationship developed with General William T. Sherman. With the capitulation of the Confederate armies in spring of 1865, Hazen's division and the Army of the Tennessee left North Carolina where they saw their last fighting. The destination was Washington, D.C., site of a two-day grand review of the victorious Union Armies. On May 19, 1865 Hazen was elevated to commander of the Fifteenth Corps. After a thirty day furlough, he held command of the District of Middle Tennessee until the following summer. In July 1866, Hazen returned west.

In August 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant granted Hazen indefinite leave to observe the Franco-Prussian War. He viewed several battles and personally interviewed Otto von Bismarck and General Helmut von Moltke. Observations and research convinced Hazen that the United States Army was mismanaged and lacked tactical and logistical organization.

Before returning to the Sixth Infantry command, Hazen married Mildred McLean, the twenty-one year-old daughter of prominent Cincinnati Enquirer owner Washington McLean. A son John was born in 1876, but died at the age of twenty-two in 1898.

In June 1877, Hazen was appointed military attaché to the United States Legation in Vienna, Austria, and assigned as military observer of the Russo-Turkish War that had started in April 1877.

In 1878 Colonel Stanley accused Colonel Hazen of perjury and cowardice in the Civil War and requested a court-martial. Colonel Hazen retaliated by formally requesting that Stanley be arraigned by a court-martial on charges of publishing and circulating libelous material against him. On March 19, 1879, General Sherman reluctantly recommended that both generals be arraigned by the same court-martial. The New York Tribune reported "inasmuch as by the decisions of the court-martial Hazen has secured a substantial vindication." Hazen returned to Fort Buford.

While on detached service in Washington, D.C., Hazen actively campaigned for James A. Garfield for president. On August 24, 1880, General Albert James Myer, Chief of the Army Signal Corps, died, opening up a staff position subject to presidential appointment. President Rutherford B. Hayes, after consulting with President-elect Garfield, announced the promotion of Hazen to the rank of brigadier general and appointment as chief signal officer. One of Hazen's lasting legacies in this new role was advancing the development of meteorological science in the Army Signal Corps.

In May 1880, Lady Franklin Bay in northern Canada was chosen as the site for a signal service polar station, one of several conducted by eleven nations for the first International Polar Year (1882-1883). The initial two-year expedition set out in 1881 under the command of Regular Army First Lieutenant Adolphus W. Greely, a Civil War veteran from Massachusetts. The twenty-five man party did not get relief from the long winter in 1882, and a second rescue attempt was disrupted by ice. In September 1883, Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln, decided it was too late to send another relief party and they were left to spend a third winter in the Arctic. The demoralized party was forced to march south in search of supplies and landed at Cape Sabine, spending the next eight months in desperate circumstances. In June 1884, rescuers finally reached them and found only Greely and seven others alive. The remaining expedition members froze or starved to death.

Hazen never forgave Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln for his inaction with the Greely Arctic Expedition, and in 1884 Lincoln censured Hazen for his criticism. Hazen replied to Lincoln by letter, which was returned with a warning to keep the matter private. Hazen went to the press and stated in a published account that he wrote such a letter. He immediately found himself ordered before another court-martial, resulting in a reprimand by President Chester A. Arthur for "unwarranted and captious criticism." Greely supported Hazen's position. In 1885, Hazen produced A Narrative of Military Service, a report devoted to the defense of his Civil War record and personal reputation.

Health problems-diabetes and recurring pain from his bullet wound-forced Hazen to obtain a 12-month leave of absence from his military service. On January 13, 1887, he attended a White House reception where he caught a cold. He died on January 16, 1887, at the age of fifty-six.
Provenance:
In 1985, the Smithsonian received from the Estate of Fredrick McLean Bugher, grandnephew of General Hazen's wife Mildred McLean Hazen, manuscripts and letters concerning General Hazen. Part of the collection was rescued by a private individual from a Lorton, Virginia land fill and sold to the Smithsonian in 1987 in two sections. The first section contained material about the career of General William Babcock Hazen as chief signal officer of the United States Army. The second section contained manuscript materials related to Hazen's duties on the frontier and Indian tribes covering the period of 1855 to 1860, and from 1866 to 1880. Also included are family letters and land holdings in the Midwest.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Topic:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration -- 1880-1890  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diplomas
Military commissions
Legal documents
Correspondence -- 1850-1900
Cartes-de-visite
Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0427
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0427
Additional Online Media:

[Note from Abraham Lincoln to the General in Chief, on an envelope.]

Author:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 9.5" x 6.4".)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Envelopes
Notes
Holographs
Date:
June 1, 1863
Scope and Contents:
Note written on an envelope from Abraham Lincoln to the General in Chief, dated June 1, 1863.
Local Numbers:
AC0427-0000003 (AC Scan No.)
General:
In Box 4, Folder 3.
Civil War Selections from the Archives Center
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Topic:
Civil war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Envelopes
Notes
Holographs
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref68

[James A. Garfield : holograph letter.]

Author:
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Names:
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 9.8" x 7.9".)
Type:
Archival materials
Holographs
Letters (correspondence)
Date:
April 9, 1861
Scope and Contents:
Letter to William Babcock Hazen from James A. Garfield, dated April 9, 1861
Local Numbers:
AC0427-0000001a (AC Scan No.: recto)

AC0427-0000001b (AC Scan No.: verso)
General:
In Box 4, Folder 2.
Civil War Selections from the Archives Center
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Topic:
Civil war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Holographs
Letters (correspondence) -- 1860-1870
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref762
Additional Online Media:

[James A. Garfield to William Babcock Hazen : telegram.]

Author:
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Creator:
New York, Albany & Buffalo Telegraph Co. (sender)  Search this
Names:
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 5.6" x 8.5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Telegrams
Date:
June 12, 1861
Scope and Contents:
Telegram to Lieutant W.B. Hazen from James A. Garfield, dated June 12, 1861, in which Garfield ask Hazen to accept a Colonelcy of the Ohio Regiment.
Local Numbers:
AC0427-0000002 (AC Scan No.)
General:
In Box 4, Folder 2.
Civil War Selections from the Archives Center
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Topic:
Civil war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Telegrams
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref763

[Land Grant for William Hazen : certificate.]

Signer:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Names:
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 10" x 16.2".)
Type:
Archival materials
Signatures (names)
Land titles
Certificates
Date:
August 15, 1861
Scope and Contents:
Land Grant given to William Hazen for military service, signed by President Abraham Lincoln, August 15, 1861.
Local Numbers:
AC0427-0000004 (AC Scan No.)
General:
In Box 4, Folder 10.
Civil War Selections from the Archives Center
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Topic:
land  Search this
Civil war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Signatures (names)
Land titles
Certificates
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref764

Fort McAllister, Georgia

Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1964
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref148

Ground Plan and View of Fort McAllister on the Ogeechee River, Georgia [drawing]

Artist:
Willenber, Eugene  Search this
Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (10" x 12.2".)
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Place:
Fort McAllister (Georgia)
Ogeechee River (Georgia)
Georgia
Date:
circa 1865
undated
Scope and Contents:
Ground plan view of Fort McAllister on the Ogeechee River, Georgia, surveyed and drawn by Eugene Willenber.
Local Numbers:
AC0427-0000005 (AC Scan No.)
General:
In Box 9, Folder 1.
Civil War Selections from the Archives Center
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Topic:
Forts  Search this
Civil war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref765

Commissions by Abraham Lincoln, 1861-1863

Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref12

James A. Garfield, 1861-1882 and Mrs. Garfield, 1885

Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref67

A Narrative of Military Service

Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref80

Biographical Materials

Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1855-1867
Scope and Contents:
This series includes Hazen's West Point Academy Diploma, commission as Colonel of Ohio Volunteers, and commissions signed by Presidents Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0427, Series 1
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref9

William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Extent:
61 Photographic prints
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Kansas
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1866-1868
Summary:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations. This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Photographs depict American Indian tribes and Peace Commissioners involved in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty; photographs shot along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division in 1867; and photographs of American Indian delegations visiting Washington, D. C. from 1866-1868.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by photographer Alexander Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Among the photographs are depictions that were shot in and around Fort Laramie, Wyoming during the 1868 peace treaty negotiations between the U.S. Government and tribal leaders from several American Indian Northern Plains tribes including Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho); survey photographs shot in Kansas in 1867 for the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division (later renamed the Kansas Pacific Railway); and portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. including Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kaw (Kansa), Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), and Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) tribes, 1866-1868. Some of the photographs in this collection, particularly those in Series 2, may have been shot by photographers working with Gardner such as Dr. William A. Bell (1841-1921), William Redish Pywell, and Lawrence Gardner (Alexander Gardner's son).
Arrangement:
This collection is intellectually arranged in three series. Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming, Series 2: Kansas Pacific Railroad, Series 3: Portraits of American Indian delegates, Washington, D.C.

The photographs are physically arranged in eight boxes according to the following: size, conservation work, and series. Within each box they are arranged by photo number. The photographs in boxes 1-4 had conservation work performed by a photo conservator in 2014.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations.

Gardner was born in Paisley, Scotland on October 17, 1821 to James Gardner and Jean Glenn. He worked in a number of positions including as a jeweler, journalist, and editor before entering the field of photography circa 1855.

In 1856, Gardner immigrated to the United States with his wife Margaret Sinclair Gardner, his son Lawrence Gardner, and his daughter Eliza Gardner and later that year he began working as a photographer in Mathew Brady's gallery in New York. While working for Brady, it is thought that Gardner invented the "imperial print," a large photograph printed on approximately 21 x 17 inch paper that was often enhanced with hand-coloring and ink. Wealthy politicians and businessmen were among the clients who sat for their photographic portraits in the Brady studio and paid as much as $50- $500 per imperial print (today the equivalent of about $1,000 to 10,000).

By 1858, Gardner was managing Brady's gallery at 352 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, Gardner was part of Brady's photography team that documented battle aftermaths and military campsites for the Union. Gardner left the Brady studio circa late 1862 and established his own studio in Washington, D.C. where he continued photographing the war along with his brother James Gardner, and other former Brady photographers including Timothy O'Sullivan.

During the war he documented the remnants of important battle scenes including the Battle of Antietam (1862) and the Battle of Gettysburg (1863). Gardner published 100 of his Civil War images in the publication Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War. The two volume work included photographs shot by additional photographers including O'Sullivan and John Reekie.

In addition to war photography, Gardner was also a portrait photographer and photographed many civilians, soldiers, and politicians in Washington, D.C. Between the years 1861-1865, Gardner photographed President Abraham Lincoln on seven different occasions, including both inaugurations, as well as studio portrait sittings. On July 7, 1865, Gardner was the only photographer allowed to photograph the execution of four conspirators in the President Lincoln assassination.

In 1866, Gardner along with Antonio Zeno Shindler and Julian Vannerson were contracted to photograph portraits of American Indian delegates visiting Washington, D.C. Between the years 1866 to 1868, Gardner photographed many tribes in his studio including Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kaw (Kansa), Dakota, and Lakota. In 1868, Gardner was hired by the U.S. Government to serve as photographer for the peace talks that took place in Fort Laramie, Wyoming. During this trip, Gardner photographed the Lakota (Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho) tribes. Among the government officials at Fort Laramie that Gardner photographed was General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891). Sherman served as a General for the Union Army during the Civil War and later in 1869 became the Commanding General of the U.S. Army under President Ulysses Grant's administration. A member of the Peace Commission established in 1867, Sherman traveled to negotiate treaties with American Indian Plains tribes. Upon returning to Washington, D.C., Gardner published a set of his Fort Laramie photographs in the publication, Scenes in Indian Country. Members of the Peace Commission were given photo portfolios and it is believed that the photos in this collection may have been from General Sherman's personal set. Gardner went on to become the official photographer for the Office of Indian Affairs in 1872.

In his later years, Gardner also was involved in philanthropic causes, such as helping to establish the Masonic Mutual Relief Association which aided widows and orphans of Master Masons. He also founded the Saint John's Mite Association which provided aid to the poor in Washington, D.C. Alexander Gardner died in Washington, D.C. in 1882.
Related Materials:
Alexander Gardner photographs are housed in many archival and museum repositories. Photographs from the Scenes in Indian Country series are also held in the Newberry Library in Chicago, the Missouri Historical Society, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the St. Louis Mercantile Library in Missouri.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were originally owned by General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) and may have been part of a portfolio of photographs that Alexander Gardner gifted to Sherman and other Fort Laramie Treaty peace commissioners. Photographs were then donated to the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) by Sherman's son P(hilemon) Tecumseh Sherman (1867-1941) in May 1932 and by Sherman's granddaughter Eleanor Sherman Fitch (1876-1959) in March 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-077
Additional Online Media:

West Point Diploma 1855 June

Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref10

Hazen Family Tree

Collection Creator:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Belknap, William W. (William Worth), 1829-1890  Search this
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893  Search this
Greely, Adolphus Washington  Search this
Garfield, James A. (James Abram), 1831-1881  Search this
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Rights situation uncertain, but most of the collection is probably in the public domain due to its age.
Collection Citation:
William B. Hazen Papers, 1855-1909, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Babcock Hazen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0427-ref100

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