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Scrapbooks--Book I

Collection Creator:
Bosfield, Joy McLean (McLean Bosfield)  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1923-1964
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for unrestricted research. Use requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Joy McLean papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Collection Citation:
The Joy McLean Bosfield papers, Anacostia Community Museum, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Joy McLean Bosfield.
See more items in:
Joy McLean Bosfield papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-008-ref36
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Doughnut Machine Company Scrapbooks

Creator:
Vorchheimer, Bert  Search this
Wertheimer, Frederick P.  Search this
Vorchheimer, Carol  Search this
Names:
Doughnut Machine Company.  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Date:
ca. 1928.
Summary:
Two scrapbooks dating from 1927-1928 documenting Frederick Philip Wertheimer's advertising and marketing work for the Doughnut Machine Corporation.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection contains sales and marketing plans for doughnut machines, as well as, plans for advertisements and devices to sell "Downyflake Doughnuts" to consumers. There are catalogs for bakery equipment, print advertisements and promotional items. There are also detailed plans for sales and marketing include scripted dialog to assist local bakeries in selling more doughnuts. Most items are black ink on white paper, but there are some in full color. There is also an interesting recipe book showing how to utilize doughnuts in several dessert variations. There are promotional items showing then current views on nutrition and gender roles.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.

Series 1, Scrapbooks, 1927-1928
Historical:
The Doughnut Machine Corporation operated out of New York City in 1927 and 1928. They manufactured doughnut machines, which they sold to individual bakeries. They also provided selling strategies to the bakeries to improve doughnut sales. The brand name they were marketing was "Downyflake Doughnuts." In 1927, Frederick Philip Wertheimer, a newly minted New York University liberal arts graduate with a major in advertising, was employed by Doughnut Machine Corporation as the assistant to the advertising manager, George LeRoy. The output was a number of concurrent sales campaigns designed and implemented by Wertheimer.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Bert and Carol Vorchheimer.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Doughnut making machine  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Doughnut Machine Company Scrapbooks, ca. 1928, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0662
See more items in:
Doughnut Machine Company Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0662
Additional Online Media:

Scrapbook, Volume 2 (2 of 2)

Collection Creator:
Studenski, Paul, 1887-1961  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1915-1961
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Paul Studenski Collection, Acc. 1989-0012, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul Studenski Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0012-ref29
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C. Willard Geer Scrapbooks

Creator:
Geer, C. Willard, 1902-1975 ((physicist))  Search this
Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
University of Southern California.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Diagrams
Patents
Notebooks
Legal documents
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1944-1962
Scope and Contents:
Two notebooks (scrapbooks) of clippings, correspondence, original United States patents, briefs on hearings of patent interference suits, drawings of color television tubes, photographs of Geer and his model of the receiving tube, licensing agreement proposal on the sale of patent rights to the (Bob) Hope Enterprises, and biographical information.
Biographical / Historical:
Assistant Professor of Physics, University of Southern California, 1943-1968. In 1944, he was granted the basic patent in color television for his tri-color television device which enabled the practical production of color images by television receiving apparatus. He held fourteen additional patents on the television.
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts in the Division of Work and Industry (electricity collections).
Provenance:
Transferred from the Division of Electricity, 3/30/84.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Color television  Search this
Physicists  Search this
Tri-color television device  Search this
Television  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Diagrams
Patents -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 1950-2000
Legal documents
Photographs -- 1940-1970
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
C. Willard Geer Papers, 1944-1962, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0096
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0096

Pipes and Tobacco Scrapbooks

Collector:
Dibner Library (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 volumes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Cartoons (humorous images)
Contracts
Scrapbooks
Date:
1930s-1950s.
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbooks contain clippings of newspaper and magazine cartoons, photographs and articles, surveying pipes and tobacco mostly from 1930s to 1950s.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Tobacco -- 1930-1960  Search this
Pipes -- 1930-1960  Search this
Tobacco-pipes -- 1930-1960  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 1930-1960
Contracts
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Pipes and Tobacco Scrapbooks, 1930s-1950s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0159
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0159

Elaine M. Kilbourne Scrapbooks

Creator:
Kilbourne, Elaine Margretta, 1923-2014  Search this
Names:
American Chemical Society  Search this
Extent:
0.06 Linear feet (1 box, scrapbooks, certificates, photographs, )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Certificates
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1924-2014
Summary:
This collection, which dates from 1924-1992, documents the career of high school chemistry teacher, Elaine Margretta Kilbourne (1923-2014). Materials include three scrapbooks compiled by Ms. Kilbourne and two folders, which contain aspects of her personal life, photographs, awards, correspondence, and a 2014 tribute booklet created by her former student, Ysabel L. Lightner to commemorate her passing.
Content Description:
This collection of Elaine Margarette Kilbourne Scrapbooks (1923-2014) and documents measure 6 linear feet and dates from 1924 to 2014 with the bulk of material dating from 1924 to 1992. Included are three scrapbooks and two folders that contain aspects of her personal life, photographs,awards,and correspondence. The first scrapbook dates from 1924 to 2014 with the bulk of materials dating from 1924 to 1992 and includes snapshots and studio portraits of Ms. Kilbourne and her family. There are images of graduation, prom, and vacation, and snapshots of family gatherings. Also present are records relating to her education, including her high school diploma from Eastside High School, Bachelor of Arts degree from Montclair Teachers College in New Jersey, and her Columbia University's Masters of Arts degree. Also present are photographs with her husband Charles Kilbourne, Ms. Kilbourne in the classroom, and snapshots with former students after her retirement. The scrapbook features correspondence from various public schools and students. Certificates and awards are present as well.

The second scrapbook dates from 1955 to 1966 and contain mostly correspondence, newspaper clippings, awards, and samples of her U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Administration chemistry projects. Photographs in the book document Ms. Kilbourne's tenure at Anacostia High School.

The third scrapbook dates from 1966 to 1967 and documents Ms. Kilbourne's professional achievements including being one of six national recipients of the American Chemical Society's James Bryant Conan Award for High School Chemistry teaching. Letters of congratulations from the Smithsonian Institution, General Electric, and Du Pont Company are included in the book, in addition to clippings, photographs, and other memorabilia.
Biographical Note:
Elaine Margretta Kilbourne, was born January 14, 1923, and grew up in Patterson, New Jersey, one of two children of Max and Emily Stecher. She graduated from Eastside High School in 1940, received her B.A. in Physical Sciences from Montclair State Teachers College in 1944 and completed a M.A. degree in Student Personnel Administration at Columbia University in 1947. Her marriage to Charles Kilbourne ended in divorce.

Ms. Kilbourne taught chemistry at Anacostia High School in Washington, DC from 1948 to 1968. Throughout her long and distinguished career, she earned a local and national reputation for excellence in her teaching methods. In 1955, she received a special award from the Chemical Society of Washington for her excellence in teaching. In 1958 and 1963, Ms. Kilbourne received Principal Awards for Excellence in Science Teaching by the District of Columbia. The American Chemical Society recognized her contribution to the STEM field with numerous awards, including receiving the Second District James Bryant Conan Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

While serving as Science Education Specialist for the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Ms. Kilbourne created a series of national curricula for high school chemistry seniors. She also worked as a Teaching Associate in the chemistry department at the University of Maryland, and for the National Science Foundation's summer program for chemistry teachers.

Her passion for teaching students led to an appointment at Thomas S. Wootton High School in Rockville, Maryland where she taught for 16 years until her retirement. Throughout her long career, Ms. Kilbourne found inspiration in the "intrinsic challenge [of teaching chemistry] and the enthusiasm of the students—above all, witnessing their later successes in life." Elaine Margretta Kilbourne passed away peacefully at the age of 91 at Paul Spring Retirement Community in Alexandria, VA., on June 14, 2014.
Provenance:
Donated by Guy A. Toscano in 2017.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Women chemists -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Certificates -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence)
Citation:
Elaine M. Kilboroune Scrapbooks, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Guy A.Toscano.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-105
See more items in:
Elaine M. Kilbourne Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-105
Additional Online Media:

Botanical scrapbook, 1905

Physical description:
1 album: leatherette with pressed flowers. dimensions L. 11 1/2 in.x W. 9 1/4 in.x D. 1 in
Type:
Scrapbooks
Albums
Date:
1905
20th century
1900-1920
Topic:
Botanical specimens  Search this
Flowers  Search this
Horticulture  Search this
Local number:
FJP.1987.364
Digital ID:
Artifacts #1644
Restrictions & Rights:
Access to original artifacts by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to Smithsonian Gardens: gardens@si.edu
See more items in:
Horticulture Artifact Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian Gardens
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_362655

Baldwin Locomotive Works Scrapbooks

Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
Baldwin, Matthias W. (industrialist)  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (4 volumes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business records
Clippings
Articles
Blueprints
Trade literature
Photographs
Specifications
Scrapbooks
Letterheads
Contracts
Date:
1867-1929.
Scope and Contents note:
Four scrapbooks containing items relating to the Baldwin Locomotive Works, including: blueprints, photographs, examples of company letterhead and blank company forms, clippings and articles, business records such as contracts and specifications, trade literature, and miscellany.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Baldwin Locomotive Works was started as a sole proprietorship by Matthias W. Baldwin in 1831. The company was the largest railroad engineering plant of its kind in the world. It is now out of business.
Provenance:
Collection donated by James C. Macinnes.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Fees for commercial reproduction.
Smithsonian Institution owns rights.
Topic:
Transportation  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Locomotive industry -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1860-1930
Clippings
Articles
Blueprints
Trade literature
Photographs -- 20th century
Specifications
Scrapbooks
Letterheads
Contracts
Photographs -- 19th century
Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Scrapbooks, 1867-1929, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1181
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1181

Scrapbooks--Book II

Collection Creator:
Bosfield, Joy McLean (McLean Bosfield)  Search this
Container:
Box 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1945-1985
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for unrestricted research. Use requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Joy McLean papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Collection Citation:
The Joy McLean Bosfield papers, Anacostia Community Museum, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Joy McLean Bosfield.
See more items in:
Joy McLean Bosfield papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-008-ref37
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  • View Scrapbooks--Book II digital asset number 1

Theatre Program Scrapbooks

Publisher:
Belasco Theatre (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Columbia Theatre (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Belasco Theatre (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Herald Square Theatre (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Grand Opera House (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Keith-Albee's New York Hippodrome  Search this
Knickerbocker Theatre (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Lafayette Square Opera House (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Majestic Theatre (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
New Amsterdam Theatre (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Donor:
Little Theatre of Alexandria  Search this
Little Theatre of Alexandria  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Playbills
Theater programs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1893-1948, undated
bulk 1897-1918
Summary:
These scrapbooks were created to record programs from various theaters in Washington, D.C. and New York. They contain playbills, advertisements, and cast lists.
Scope and Contents:
Though two of the volumes are labeled "Theatre Program" these volumes actually consist of playbills. The volumes contain an extensive array of playbills for productions that played in Washington, D.C. and New York City. The printed broadsides contain information on the theater management, the production, cast list, production personnel, synopsis, and the program of the play. The playbills are mainly for musical productions, but there are playbills for dramas as well. Each volume was numbered, some have retained the actual number on the front of the volume, and two volumes do not but can be put in the proper order from the dates of the playbills therein. Many personalities and supporting players of the period are listed on the playbills.

Many Washington, D.C. theaters are represented: the Grand Opera House, the Majestic, the Columbia, Poli's, The Lafayette Square Opera House in Washington, D.C. that was eventually renamed The Belasco and others. There are early playbills for the Knickerbocker Theater which became famous for the tragedy that occurred there in 1922 with the collapse of its roof due to heavy snow fall. There are also many New York City theaters represented, including the New Amsterdam, Hammerstein's Victoria, and the Herald Square Theatre. There is one playbill for the Bijou Theatre in Richmond, Virginia. Also, there are playbills for theaters in Montauk, New York. There is an ad for The Clansman by Thomas Dixon, Jr. at the Columbia Theater, Washington, D.C. during the season of 1905-1905. There are a few theater programs pasted into the volumes, many for The Lambs' Star Gambol, one for a Ruth St. Denis dance program, and two "souvenir books" for the Hippodrome in New York City.

The volumes are arranged chronologically according to year. The exception is Volume 3, which carries an earlier date than Volume 1 because a few stray playbills from 1893-1897 were pasted into the back of the volume. The bulk of Volume 3's contents span the dates 1905-1907. Volume 3 and Volume 4 are labeled on the cover, "Theatre Program". Volume 6 is indexed alphabetically according to title of play. There is one folder of loose playbills, a Woodrow Wilson Memorial Address, by Edwin Anderson Alderman, 1924, and a broadside for the Sanitary Grocery Company in Alexandria, Virginia, 1932.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in one series, chronologically.

Series 1, Theatre Program Scrapbooks, 1893-1948, undated
Biographical / Historical:
American theater came into its own during the nineteenth century. American musical theater is generally acknowledged to have begun with The Black Crook, which opened September 12, 1866 at the 3,200-seat Niblo's Garden on Broadway in New York City and ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. By the end of the century most American cities and towns of any size boasted an opera house or theater, with many cities having numerous venues for traveling productions. Local companies as well as companies out of New York City mounted productions of musicals and dramas for the theater-going public. Showmen such as Florenz Ziegfeld, Charles Dillingham, David Belasco, and Charles Frohman mounted traveling productions of their successful New York productions and sent them on the road. In the days before the existence of unions for actors, musicians, and stagehands these productions could have huge casts working many hours and nearly every day of the week. Theater-producing organizations employed booking agents to schedule the production's tour. Each theater usually had its own management team, many being independently owned and operated. Washington, D.C., like any other city, had more than one theater competing for the public's business. The Washington theater district was generally located between Lafayette Square and the area around 15th and Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.

Not much is known about these six volumes of theater playbill scrapbooks. They appear to have belonged to either a theater owner or booking agent. They were donated to the Little Theatre of Alexandria by Mrs. Mark Price in 1963 and may have been salvaged by Mrs. Price when a theater was demolished or perhaps acquired by an acquaintance or member of her family who worked in a theater.
Related Materials:
AC0060 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Theater and Motion Picture subject categories

AC0300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music

AC0404 Archives Center Collection of Business Americana, Theater and Motion Picture subject categories

AC1211 Donald J. Stubblebine Collection

The British spelling of this collection's title is on the scrapbooks.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Little Theatre of Alexandria, Virginia in 2010 which had received them from Mrs. Mark Price in 1963.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Poli's Theatre (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Theater  Search this
Genre/Form:
Playbills
Theater programs
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Theatre Scrapbook Collection, 1893-1948, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1205
See more items in:
Theatre Program Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1205

Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks

Photographer:
Nadel, Leonard, 1916-1990  Search this
Author:
Galarza, Ernesto  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Scrapbooks
Place:
Mexico
Texas -- 20th century
Texas
California
Date:
1950-2006
bulk 1956-1960
Summary:
Photographer Leonard Nadel's supplemental material relating to and photographs of the Mexican braceros (manual laborers). They were photographed in California, Texas, and Mexico for the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic during the late 1950s and early 1960s in support of a report entitled Strangers in Our Fields by Dr. Ernesto Galarza.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into three series. Each series is arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1950-1968, contains scrapbooks of clippings of magazine articles and newspaper stories written by Nadel and others as well as magazines and newspaper articles making use of his photographs. The material is from a variety of specialty and mainstream publications and varies in subject matter. The scrapbooks are not only focused on Nadel's work for the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic but also offer a broad sampling of his work throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Material in the scrapbooks are arranged in rough chronological order. There is also a sample custom cover from one of the scrapbooks.

Series 2: Photographs, 1956-1960, undated, contains photographs printed from his negatives of the braceros. This series also contains a complete run of 8" x 10" contact sheets from his negatives of the bracero. The negatives themselves are in this series but not available for research per donor request. There are photographs ranging in size from 8" x 10" to large format photographs (10 1/2" x 13 1/2") that are keyed to frames on the contact sheets for easy reference. Negatives are arranged chronologically and captions are keyed to the negative numbers. These images have been digitized and may be found by searching "Nadel" on the collections section of the National Museum of American History website or by contacting the Archives Center.

Series 3: Publications and Supplemental Materials, 1956-2006, undated, contains correspondence, copies of Strangers in Our Fields, the publication making use of Nadel's bracero photographs, and other publications citing Nadel's work or based on it. This series also contains correspondence and written material from Evelyn De Wolfe Nadel, wife of Leonard Nadel; material relating to Nadel's photographic archive and captions for a selection of the bracero photographs. There is a selection of assorted loose news clippings.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into three series:

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1950-1968

Series 2: Photographs, 1956-1960, undated

Series 3: Publications and Supplemental Materials, 1956-2006, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Primarily known as a freelance photographer and photojournalist, Leonard Nadel (1916-1990) was born in Harlem, New York to Austro-Hungarian immigrant parents. He attended the City College of New York. Entering the Army during World War II, he trained at the Army Signal Corps Photographic Center. During the war he served in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. After the war he returned to New York and received his master's degree in education from Teachers College, Columbia University. He moved to Los Angeles, California and studied at the Art Center College of Design.

In Los Angeles, Nadel photographed both the Pueblo del Rio and Aliso Village housing projects. He was also hired by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA) to document living conditions in the city's slums and their new post-World War II housing projects. Nadel continued his employment with HACLA until 1953, when he resigned because his HACLA colleague, Frank Wilkinson, was blacklisted by the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) and forced to resign.

Between 1953 and 1980 Nadel worked as a freelance photographer for such publications as the Los Angeles Times, Harvester News, Life, Business Week, and other major publications. His work with the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic resulted in his work documenting the bracero program. These photographs were taken by Leonard Nadel in connection with a survey of braceros done by Ernesto Galarza for the Fund for the Republic in 1956 in support of the publication, Strangers in Our Fields. During World War II, the United States and Mexico entered an agreement to alleviate the US labor shortage created by the war by importing Mexican workers. This arrangement outlasted the end of the war and by the time of Nadel's photographs nearly half a million Mexican contract workers, in the common vernacular of the time known as "drybacks," were legally imported to the United States annually working on short term labor contracts predominately in agriculture. These workers were also known as braceros, in Spanish translated as "manual laborer".

Nadel wrote of his work with the braceros, "I covered 5,000 miles during a circuit that took me from California to Mexico to Texas. It would have been easy enough just to turn over to the Fund the finished collection of photographs from the 2,000 images I took in attempting to accurately document the story of Strangers in Our Fields. But the conditions I had witnessed stirred me deeply. I felt that it was as much my responsibility to help 'sell' the picture story."

Nadel's photographs were the subject of the National Museum of American History (NMAH) exhibition, "Bittersweet Harvest: The Bracero Program, 1942-1964" in 2009-2010. Nadel's photographs are featured in NMAH's "America on the Move" exhibit. This quote from the "America on the Move" exhibition website gives the history of the photographs as well as the bracero program.

"In 1956, Leonard Nadel was hired by the Fund for the Republic, an anti-McCarthy liberal spin off of the Ford Foundation, to document the Bracero Program. In the 1990s, the Smithsonian Institution acquired the Nadel images. The collection contains 64 captioned photographic prints and 1730 original 35mm negatives (with corresponding contact sheets). The images document life in Mexico, men's experiences of crossing the border, and work and life in the US.

"The Bracero Program came into existence in 1942. Growers argued that labor shortages in the United States resulting from World War II required the recruitment of Mexican nationals. Mexico saw the program as a contribution to the war effort. Although the program began as a temporary war measure, it became a fixture of agricultural work landscape until it was finally terminated in 1964.

"Over the course of its lifetime, the Bracero Program became the largest and most significant U.S. labor guest worker program of the 20th century. In all, over 4.5 million contracts were awarded through the twenty-two years of the program. Despite the well-intentioned contracts, the program did not escape controversy. Some point out the widespread abuses of many of the contract's protective provisions and the violation of the legal rights and civil liberties of the braceros while others describe the program as an opportunity for Mexican nationals to make a living and improve the conditions of their families. Regardless of one's opinion of the program, it had a profound effect on Mexican American settlement patterns in the U.S. and numerous Latino families have ancestors who were involved in the Bracero Program."

Nadel married Los Angeles Times staff writer Evelyn De Wolfe in August 1961. She was Brazilian by birth and after their marriage she resigned from the Times and collaborated with Nadel on many projects that covered both national and international subjects. Nadel died in 1990.
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

The collections of the Los Angeles Public Library and the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research each contain photographic images made by Leonard Nadel during the time he worked for The Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA). The Photo Collection of the Los Angeles Public Library contains approximately 290 copy negatives and corresponding black-and-white copy prints made from original materials held by HACLA. The Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Photograph Collection, held at the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research, contains 225 black-and-white photographs produced by HACLA, forty-two of which were taken by Nadel.

The Getty Research Institute, Special Collections, Los Angeles, California, contain 8.75 linear feet (14 boxes) of Leonard Nadel photographs and other material relating to housing and urban redevelopment in Los Angeles, 1947-1998. The collection is described as, "Consisting primarily of photographic material by Leonard Nadel from 1947 to 1957, the collection records early efforts by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA) to promote integrated public housing for the city's growing multi-ethnic population, and also documents several areas of the city that the Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) had targeted for commercial revitalization. Nadel's black-and-white negatives, contact prints and two unpublished photographic books form the bulk of the collection, supplemented by handwritten notes and related documents."
Provenance:
The collection was purchased with funds from the Jackson Fund in 2000. All rights were transferred to the National Museum of American History in 2000-2001.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use. Photographic negatives are not available for research at the donor's request, but contact sheets of the negatives are available in the collection. Some images are restricted for publication, but may be viewed in the Archives Center's reading room.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farmers -- Mexico  Search this
Agriculture -- Research  Search this
Agriculture -- Photographs -- 20th century  Search this
Labor  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs  Search this
Documentary photography -- United States  Search this
Photographers -- 1950-1980  Search this
Bracero Program  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white photographs
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1313
See more items in:
Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1313

Mexican Border Veterans, Inc., and Auxiliary Scrapbooks

Topic:
Bugler, The (newsletter)
Creator:
Hubbard, Howard  Search this
Mexican Border Veterans, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Closson, Clairice A.G.  Search this
Villa, Pancho  Search this
Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924  Search this
Extent:
1.3 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Annual reports
Photographs
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Newsletters
Minutes
Correspondence
Date:
1916 - 1982
Summary:
The collection consists of five scrapbooks of materials relating to the Mexican Border Veterans, Inc. and Auxiliary's activities.
Scope and Contents:
The scrapbooks contain Mexican Border Veterans annual reports; convention minutes; samples of the Mexican Border Veterans newsletter, The Bugler; photographs of various officers and members of the association and their spouses; brochures of the association's conventions; brief historical sketches of the association; some biographical sketches of the founders of the association; newspaper clippings from unidentified newspapers; limited correspondence among national, state or regional Mexican Border Veterans officials and other miscellaneous correspondence.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Mexican Border Veterans, Inc. (MBV) was a civilian association founded by Clairice A. G. Closson of Independence, Missouri in 1929. Closson was one of the participants in the Mexican border initiative of mid 1916. The association consisted of men who patrolled the Mexican-American border between May 9, 1916 and April 1917. Their presence on the border came about as a response to President Woodrow Wilson's call on the National Guard and the Army in mid 1916 to guard the border which had been repeatedly invaded by Francisco (Pancho) Villa, a Mexican revolutionary leader who carried out his incursions against residents of southern Texas. The MBV was formed by ex-Mexican-American border veterans to seek recognition and veteran benefits to which they were entitled as U.S. government ex-servicemen of a foreign war.
Related Materials:
Materials in the National Museum of American History

The Division of Home and Community Life holds related materials. See accessions 1984.0781 and 1985.0781.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Museum in 1986, through Howard Hubbard and Fabian E. Johnson.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mexican-American Border Region  Search this
Mexico -- Boundaries -- United States -- 1910-1920  Search this
Veterans -- 1910-1920 -- United States  Search this
Military pensions  Search this
United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
United States. Army -- History -- Punitive Expedition into Mexico, 1916  Search this
Genre/Form:
Annual reports
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Minutes
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Mexican Border Veterans, Inc. and Auxiliary Scrapbooks, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0119
See more items in:
Mexican Border Veterans, Inc., and Auxiliary Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0119

California Art Club guest register and scrapbooks, 1916-1961

Creator:
California Art Club  Search this
Subject:
Vysekal, Edouard A.  Search this
Miller, Evelyna Nunn  Search this
Deutsch, Boris  Search this
Reiffel, Charles P.  Search this
Kosa, Emil Jean  Search this
Modra, Theodore B.  Search this
Borg, Carl Oscar  Search this
St. Maur, Elaine  Search this
Anderson, Antony  Search this
Sheets, Millard Owen  Search this
Barnsdall, Aline  Search this
Cook, Alma Mae  Search this
Millier, Arthur Henry Thomas  Search this
Alvarez, Mabel  Search this
Topic:
Visitors' books  Search this
Art critics  Search this
Artists  Search this
Art criticism  Search this
Scrapbooks  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Drawings  Search this
Art  Search this
Cartoons (humorous images)  Search this
Sketches  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9878
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212380
AAA_collcode_caliart
Theme:
Audio - Visual
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212380

Scrapbook

Company:
William Openhym & Sons  Search this
Medium:
Medium: silk, wool Technique: various weave structures
Type:
sample books
Scrapbook
Made in:
France
Date:
early 20th century
Credit Line:
Bequest of Benjamin E. Marks
Accession Number:
1967-54-9
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Textiles Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1967-54-9

California Art Club guest register and scrapbooks

Creator:
California Art Club  Search this
Names:
Alvarez, Mabel, 1891-1985  Search this
Anderson, Antony  Search this
Barnsdall, Aline, 1882-1946  Search this
Borg, Carl Oscar, 1879-1947  Search this
Cook, Alma Mae  Search this
Deutsch, Boris, 1892 or 5-1978  Search this
Kosa, Emil Jean, 1903-1968  Search this
Miller, Evelyna Nunn  Search this
Millier, Arthur, 1893-  Search this
Modra, Theodore B., 1873-1930  Search this
Reiffel, Charles P., 1862-1942  Search this
Sheets, Millard, 1907-1989  Search this
St. Maur, Elaine  Search this
Vysekal, Edouard A., 1890-1939  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Linear Feet
Culture:
Art criticism--California--Los Angeles  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Cartoons (humorous images)
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Date:
1916-1961
Summary:
The California Art Club guest register and scrapbooks measure 1.5 linear feet and date from 1916 to 1961. Included are guest registers spanning 1927 to 1931; a Year Book 1916 of the California Art Club containing images of member artwork and essays; and eleven scrapbooks with clippings, exhibition materials, club bulletins, and place settings.
Scope and Contents:
The California Art Club guest register and scrapbooks measure 1.5 linear feet and date from 1916 to 1961. Included are guest registers spanning 1927 to 1931; a Year Book 1916 of the California Art Club containing images of member artwork and essays; and eleven scrapbooks with clippings, exhibition materials, club bulletins, and place settings.

The scrapbooks contain local Los Angeles area newspaper clippings and magazine articles on social events, elections, art forums, club bulletins, and club activities in Los Angeles. Also included is art criticism by critics such as Arthur Millier, Alma May Cook, and Elaine St. Maur, as well as artist obituaries; exhibition announcements and invitations; press releases; and cartoons, sketches, and drawings. These scrapbooks record the events around the club and the Los Angeles art scene, as well as the people and artists involved including Aline Barnsdall, Antony Anderson, Evelyna Nunn Miller, Charles Reiffel, Edouard Vysekal, Theodore B. Modra, Boris Deutsch, Millard Sheets, Mabel Alvarez, Carl Oscar Borg, and Emil J. Kosa.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of this collection, the materials are arranged as one series.

Series 1: California Art Club Guest Register and Scrapbooks, 1916-1961 (Boxes 1-5; 1.5 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The largest and most influential Los Angeles art organization during the early 20th century, the California Art Club was organized in 1909 from the Painters' Club. The group holds exhibitions, member talks, and other programs.
Provenance:
The California Art Club guest register and scrapbooks were donated to the Archives of American Art by Henry Ketting Olivier, a past president of the California Art Club, in 1981.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Topic:
Art -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Art -- Societies, etc. -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Art critics -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Artists -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Visitors' books  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cartoons (humorous images)
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Citation:
California Art Club guest register and scrapbooks, 1916-1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.caliart
See more items in:
California Art Club guest register and scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-caliart

Franz Bader Gallery Scrapbooks and Guestbooks

Creator:
Franz Bader Gallery  Search this
Names:
Franz Bader Gallery and Bookstore  Search this
Franz Bader Inc.  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Bader, Franz, 1903-1994  Search this
Bader, Virginia  Search this
Extent:
1.9 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Visitors' books
Date:
1952-1992
Summary:
The Franz Bader Gallery Scrapbooks and Guestbooks measure 1.9 linear feet and date from 1952 to 1992. The materials document the gallery's history in Washington D.C., the artists represented by the gallery, and the exhibitions held at the space. Included in the collection are gallery documentation consisting of biographical material about Franz Bader, correspondence relating to Bader and the gallery, printed material regarding exhibitions, photographs of the gallery space, and candid photographs from exhibition openings. The bulk of the collection is made up of gallery guestbooks which hold signatures and notes from gallery patrons, and scrapbooks including printed material related to Franz Bader Gallery's exhibitions, D.C.-based artists the gallery represented, and other gallery events.
Scope and Contents:
The Franz Bader Gallery Scrapbooks and Guestbooks measure 1.9 linear feet and date from 1952 to 1992. The materials document the gallery's history in Washington D.C., the artists represented by the gallery, and the exhibitions held at the space. Included in the collection are gallery documentation consisting of biographical material about Franz Bader, correspondence relating to Bader and the gallery, printed material regarding exhibitions, photographs of the gallery space, and candid photographs from exhibition openings. The bulk of the collection is made up of gallery guestbooks which hold signatures and notes from gallery patrons, and scrapbooks including printed material related to Franz Bader Gallery's exhibitions, D.C.-based artists the gallery represented, and other gallery events.

Gallery Documentation includes interviews with Bader, clippings about Bader and the Franz Bader Gallery and Bookstore, and clippings pertaining to awards and honorary degrees received by Bader. Letters from artists, the Smithsonian Institution, Austrian government officials, and German-language correspondence are also present. This series also includes printed materials connected to exhibitions held at the Franz Bader Gallery, as well as photographs of the gallery and patrons.

Guestbooks span the years 1975 to 1980 and include the signatures, notes, and contact information of Franz Bader Gallery patrons.

Scrapbooks include exhibition announcements and invitations; clippings of exhibition reviews; photographs, clippings, and articles about the gallery and exhibitions; information about Franz and Virginia Bader; and clippings and news stories about the artists represented by the Franz Bader gallery.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 3 series.

Series 1: Gallery Documentation, 1959-1992, (Boxes 1-2; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Guestbooks, 1975-1980, (Boxes 1-3; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Scrapbooks, 1952-1985, (Boxes 1-2, 4; 0.9 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Franz Bader Gallery was an art gallery and bookshop in Washington D.C. operated by Franz Bader (1903-1994) under various names including Franz Bader Gallery, Franz Bader Inc., and Franz Bader Gallery and Bookshop. In 1953, Bader established the gallery at 1705 G Street Northwest, where he showed local and/or upcoming artists, as well as contemporary prints. The gallery moved in September 1964 to 2124 Pennsylvania Avenue and in October 1979 to 2001 I Street, where Bader remained until his retirement in 1985. The gallery continued on after his retirement, and moved location to 1701 Pennsylvania Avenue in 1987, and to 1500 K Street in 1990. The final show held by the gallery was in 1995. Among the artists represented by the gallery and included in this collection are Alice Acheson, Anita Bucherer, Frank Bunts, Bernice Cross, Harry Irving Gates, Peter Milton, Michael Platt, Alma Thomas, Leonard Maurer, and others.

Franz Bader was born in Vienna, Austria in 1903. By 1937, Vienna had succumbed to Nazi occupation, and in 1939 Bader and his wife Virginia fled, moving to America where he found employment at the Whyte Bookshop and Gallery in Washington D.C. He was inspired to create a gallery different than those typically found in the conservative atmosphere of Washington D.C., and he made it his mission to represent contemporary artists living and working in Washington D.C. His work with modern art set him apart, eventually earning him the moniker of "Dean of the Washington Gallery Dealers". He passed away in 1994.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art holds the Franz Bader Gallery records, circa 1975-1985, and an oral history interview with Franz Bader conducted by Julie Link Haifley in 1978.
Provenance:
The Franz Bader Gallery Scrapbooks and Guestbooks were donated to the Archives of American Art by Virginia F. Bader, Franz Bader's wife, in 1995.
Restrictions:
Use of original materials requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Artists -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Art -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Visitors' books
Citation:
Franz Bader Gallery Scrapbooks and Guestbooks, 1952-1995. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.franbade
See more items in:
Franz Bader Gallery Scrapbooks and Guestbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-franbade

Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis

Creator:
Black, Julian, Mrs.  Search this
Black, Julian (boxing manager)  Search this
Names:
Jacobs, Mike  Search this
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Roxborough, John  Search this
Extent:
109 Volumes
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Volumes
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Date:
1935-1944
Summary:
The collection consists of 109 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings assembled by Julian Black, manager of Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. They document Louis's career from 1935 to 1944.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 109 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings assembled by Julian Black, manager of Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. They document Louis's career from 1935 to 1944. Louis became one of America's most celebrated sports figures both for his extraordinary boxing skills and for his role as a symbol of national pride, especially in his bouts with the German champion Max Schmeling. His national respect and international prominence stood in ironic contrast to the nation's legal and social practices of racial segregation.

Joe Louis's manager, Julian Black, assembled three sets of scrapbooks to document Louis's career. This collection consists of ninety-two volumes from Black's set, sixteen volumes from a similar but not identical set of scrapbooks assembled for Louis, and one oversize miscellaneous volume.

The third set of scrapbooks belonged to John W. Roxborough, Joe's manager or co-manager from 1933 to 1948. It is held by the Bentley Historical Library at the University of Michigan. This set contains ninety-four volumes covering the period 1935 to November 1941. Part of this collection has been microfilmed. Although the numbering of the volumes in each of the three sets is different it appears that each set has the same information.

The scrapbooks contain newspaper clippings from throughout the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1944 and articles from Ring magazine. This collection documents Joe Louis's fights from June 25, 1935, through 1944, including championship fights from June 22, 1937, through September 29, 1941. (The Steve Ketchel fight on January 11, 1937, in Buffalo is not represented. See the scrapbook volume listing at the end of this guide.)

The scrapbooks were assembled with great care using high-quality binding and paper. The clippings are neatly mounted and show great attention to detail. All clippings are identified by the name of the paper; the day of the week and the date; and the author, artist, or photographer. Clippings include full-length articles and brief sketches, cartoons, photographs, and records and statistics of the boxers. The clippings are grouped in volumes by each of Louis's fights and then arranged chronologically.

Hundreds of major and minor newspapers throughout the United States and Canada are represented in the scrapbooks. Coverage extends from very large metropolitan dailies to small-town newspapers. Among the newspapers represented are titles as diverse as: Akron Beacon Journal; Daily Colonist, Victoria, British Columbia; Shreveport Times; Tribune Tulsa; and the Worchester Daily Telegraph.

While these scrapbooks are about the Joe Louis fights, there is a wealth of material on many other people connected with boxing in this period, including all of Joe Louis's opponents, his trainer, his managers, his promoter Mike Jacobs, and most of the sports reporters and writers of the time. Anyone of any importance connected with boxing during this period can be found in the pages of these volumes. There are also retrospective articles on earlier boxers and historical fights.

The two sets of scrapbooks in this collection are numbered separately: the Julian Black Scrapbooks, Volumes 1-92; and the Joe Louis Scrapbooks, Volumes 17-20, 52-58, 61-63, and 71 and 72. Although much of the same material is found in both sets, there are sufficient differences in content and in physical condition of the volumes. The container list indicates the relationship between the two sets. The 109th volume consists of an oversize miscellaneous scrapbook of random news clippings, 1941-1944, of later Louis matches.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series. Clippings arranged chronologically in scrapbooks, grouped in volumes.

Series 1: Julian Black Volumes, 1935-1941

Series 2: Joe Louis Volumes, 1936-1940
Biographical note:
Joe Louis Barrow, the seventh child of Monroe and Lily Barrow, was born May 13, 1914 in a cabin in the cotton fields of Lexington, Alabama. While Joe was still a young boy, his father suffered a mental breakdown and later died in the Searcy State Hospital near mobile, Alabama. His mother later married Pat Brooks, a widower with many children of his own, and the combined family moved to Detroit when Joe was ten.

After an introduction to boxing and lessons by his friend Thurston McKinney, Joe tried his luck at competition. The Brewster East Side Gymnasium became a second home for him. At sixteen he entered his first amateur tournament.

Joe Louis was an outstanding amateur. He lost only four decisions in fifty-four fights, and forty-one of his wins were by a knockout. Joe fought his last amateur fight on April 13, 1934, in St. Louis.

John Roxborough had encouraged Louis as an amateur and became his manager when Joe turned pro. Roxborough hired Jack Blackburn, a boxer himself, to coach and train the young Joe Louis. At this time Roxborough also teamed up with Julian Black of Chicago in a business venture that carried over into the management of Joe Louis.

Joe's professional debut took place in Bacon's Arena in Chicago on July 4, 1934. He decisively defeated Jack Kracken for a fifty-dollar purse. Only four of his first twenty-seven foes lasted all fifteen rounds.

As Joe Louis worked his way up the ladder as a contender for the heavyweight championship he acquired the nickname the "Brown Bomber." On May 14, 1935, one day after his twenty-first birthday, the young pugilist signed a ten-year contract with Julian Black. The contract stipulated that fifty percent of Joe Louis's gross earnings from boxing contests, exhibitions, movies, and radio would go to Julian Black. Jack Blackburn, the trainer, was paid from Joe's portion of the money. John Roxborough, the other manager, claimed "to have a contract for twenty-five percent of Louis's gross earnings for an indefinite period."

The newly organized 20th Century Sporting Club, with Mike Jacobs as promoter, operated in competition with Madison Square Garden. The club signed the promising young boxer to an exclusive contract. Joe's first appearance in a New York ring took place at Yankee Stadium on June 25, 1935, against Primo Carnera. Joe KO'd Carnera in the sixth round. On September 24, 1935, also at Yankee Stadium, Joe knocked out Max Baer in the fourth round.

After winning twenty-seven straight fights, including twenty-three KO's, Louis was the heir apparent to James J. Braddock's heavyweight title. On June 19, 1936 he battled max Schmeling, the former champ who was considered washed up. Schmeling surprised everyone by punishing and then finishing Louis off with a twelfth-round knockout.

A year later, in his thirty-sixth professional fight, Joe Louis won the heavyweight crown at twenty three years of age by defeating Jim Braddock in Chicago in eight rounds. Braddock fought Louis to avoid a fight with Max Schmeling and the possible loss of the title to a German. Braddock, however, insisted on a percentage of Louis's future purses. It is generally believed he received ten percent of all Joe's earnings over a period of fifteen years.

After defeating two easy opponents, Louis met max Schmeling in a dramatic rematch on June 22, 1938. Like Jesse Owens in the Berlin Olympic Games, Louis symbolized American democracy versus an increasingly menacing Nazi Germany. The irony of a black hero representing a racially segregated society in a symbolic battle between freedom and oppression was not lost on all Americans and, although Louis himself was not a political activist, his example added fuel to the movement for racial equality and civil rights. Louis defeated Schmeling in two minutes and four seconds of the first round.

In the following years promoter Jacobs searched for opponents for Louis. After defeating five former champions - Carnera, Baer, Sharkey, Braddock, and Schmeling-the pickings were slim. on January 25, 1939, Joe "squared-off" with the first Black to fight him professionally -- John Henry Lewis (great-great nephew of Tom Molineaux, the first of America's Black heavyweight champions). Lewis was the light-heavyweight champion of the world and a natural 175 "pounder." He and Joe were close personal friends outside of the ring. Nevertheless, Joe totally outclassed Lewis in the ring.

Joe Louis defended his title twenty times before World War II interrupted his career. He was eventually classified 1-A and inducted into the Army. During the winter of 1941-1942 he staged bouts for the Navy and Army. The service relief fund received $75,000 from the purse of each fight. While in the service the Brown Bomber traveled extensively, giving boxing exhibitions and refereeing bouts. For his service on behalf of the armed forces, he received a citation from the United States government.

Louis retired an undefeated champion March 1, 1949. He came out of retirement and lost a fifteen-round decision to Ezzard Charles on September 27, 1950 at Yankee Stadium. He won eight more fights from the end of 1950 until the fall of 1951. However, on October 26, 1951, Louis lost by a knockout in the eighth round to Rocky Marciano. He retired for good after this comeback attempt. For many years after he retired, Joe had income tax problems and other financial problem. He also underwent a brief stay in a Denver psychiatric hospital. Joe Louis died in 1981. Click here to go to scope and content note.
Joe Louis Heavyweight Championship Fights, 1937-1950:
1937 June 22 -- Joe Louis knocked out James J. Braddock, 8 rounds, Chicago.

1937 August 30 -- Joe Louis defeated TOUT Farr, 15 rounds, decision, New York City.

1937 August 30 -- Joe Louis defeated TOUT Farr, 15 rounds, decision, New York City.

1938 February 23 -- Joe Louis knocked Out Nathan Mann, 3 rounds, New York City.

1938 April 1 -- Joe Louis knocked out Harry Thomas, 5 rounds, New York city.

1938 June 22 -- Joe Louis knocked out Max Schmeling, one round,, New York City.

1939 January 25 -- Joe Louis knocked out John H. Lewis, one round, New York City.

1939 April 17 -- Joe Louis knocked out Jack Roper, one round, Los Angeles.

1939 June 28 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tony Galento, 4 rounds, New York city.

1939 September 30 -- Joe Louis knocked out Bob Pastor, 11 rounds, Detroit, Michigan.

1940 February 9 -- Joe Louis defeated Arturo Godoy, 15 rounds,decision, New York City.

1940 March 29 -- Joe Louis knocked out John Paychek, 2 rounds, New York city.

1940 June 20 -- Joe Louis knocked out Arturo Godoy, 8 rounds, New York city.

1940 Decenber 16 -- Joe Louis knocked out Al McCoy, 6 rounds, Boston.

1941 January 31 -- Joe Louis knocked Out Red Burman, 5 rounds, New York city.

1941 February 17 -- Joe Louis knocked out Gus Dorazio, 2 rounds, Philadelphia.

1941 March 21 -- Joe Louis knocked out Abe Simon, 13 rounds, Detroit, Michigan.

1941 April 8 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tony musto, 9 rounds, St. Louis, Misssouri.

1941 May 23 -- Joe Louis beat Buddy Baer, 7 rounds, Washington, D.C., on a disqualification.

1941 June 18 -- Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn, 13 rounds, New York city.

1941 September 29 -- Joe Louis knocked out Lou Nova, 6 rounds, New York city.

1942 January 9 -- Joe Louis knocked out Buddy Baer, one round,, New York City.

1942 March 27 -- Joe Louis knocked out Abe Simon, 6 rounds, New York city.

1946 June 19 -- Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn, 8 rounds, New York city.

1946 September 13 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tami Mauriello, one round, New York City.

1947 December 5 -- Joe Louis defeated Joe Walcott in a 15-round bout by a split decision, New York city.

1948 June 25 -- Joe Louis knocked out Joe Walcott 11 rounds, New York city.

1950 September 27 -- Ezzard Charles defeated Joe Louis in latter's attempted comeback, 15 rounds, New York City.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Mrs. Julian Black in two installments to the Division of Community Life (now the Division of Home and Community Life), National Museum of American History: twenty-two volumes in 1976 and eighty-seven volumes in 1977.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of microfiche and microfilm recommended. Some original volumes are fragile.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American athletes  Search this
Boxers (Sports) -- 1930-1950  Search this
Sports -- 1930-1950  Search this
Boxing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0002
See more items in:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0002
Additional Online Media:

Archives Center Scrapbook Collection

Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Harvard University  Search this
Extent:
13 Cubic feet (48 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Trade cards
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Advertising cards
Postcards
Place:
New Jersey
Tennessee
South Carolina
New England
New Hampshire
Mexico
Virginia
Vermont
Washington (D.C.)
Michigan
Middle East
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Indiana
Illinois
Ausable Chasm (N.Y.)
New York
Rhode Island
Asia
California
Colorado
Canada
Coney Island (New York, N.Y.)
Connecticut
Europe
Hawaii
North Carolina
Ohio
Panama
Pennsylvania
Plymouth (England)
Rochester (N.Y.)
Date:
circa 1880-circa 1960
Scope and Contents note:
Miscellaneous late nineteenth/early twentieth century scrapbooks containing postcards, trade cards, greeting cards, decals, and other ephemera. Included are: (1) trade cards for thread, tobacco, barbers, sewing machines, toiletries and shaving products, tobacco, undertakers and patent medicine; (2) images of women, children, pets, and flowers; (3) greeting cards celebrating Christmas, birthdays, Halloween, and St. Patrick's Day; and (4) postcards from the United States and around the world. Some of the items in the scrapbooks are comical or picturesque. Most of the scrapbooks were created by women. Also included are several twentieth century diaries, including two travel diaries written by women.
Arrangement:
1 series. Unarranged.
Provenance:
Transfer.,1997/09/19.,1997.3004.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Copyright status of items varies.
Topic:
Shaving  Search this
Travel  Search this
Women -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women -- History -- 19th century  Search this
Wit and humor  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Lighthouses  Search this
Barbering  Search this
Greeting cards -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Trade cards
Diaries -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Advertising cards
Postcards
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Citation:
Archives Center Scrapbook Collection, ca. 1880- ca. 1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0468
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0468
Additional Online Media:

Jean Clairmook Radio Scrapbook

Creator:
Clairmook, Jean  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Greeting cards
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1930 - 1932
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbook documenting the radio career of young Jean Clairmook, containing letters, greeting cards, clippings and photographs.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Child radio singer during the 1930s.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Fees for commercial reproduction.
Copyright transferred to Smithsonian Institution in Deed of Gift.
Topic:
Radio programs, Musical  Search this
Singers -- 1930-1950  Search this
Radio -- 1930-1940  Search this
Genre/Form:
Greeting cards -- 1920-1940
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Correspondence -- 1920-1930
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Jean Clairmook Radio Scrapbook, 1930-1932, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0674
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0674
Additional Online Media:

Finlay Straus Scrapbook

Creator:
Wertheimer, Frederick P.  Search this
Vorchheimer, Bert  Search this
Vorchheimer, Carol  Search this
Finlay Straus Company.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Date:
ca. 1929-1933.
Summary:
Scrapbook documenting Frederick P. Wertheimer's advertising and marketing work for the Finlay Straus Company, a jewelry and optical dealer. The scrapbook contains advertising, mostly in the form of circulars and newspaper advertisements, but also catalogs and mailings.
Scope and Contents:
The scrapbook contains advertisements dating from circa 1929-1933 from the Finlay Straus Company. Although the advertisements focus on jewelry, many other items are advertised as well. Especially prominent are the Christmas advertisements for Finlay Straus stores in which buyers receive a free baby doll if they spend twenty dollars or more. Catalogs, circulars, mailings, and other advertisements are also included among these materials.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Finlay began as a mail order house for fine jewelry in 1887. In 1924, Abraham Hirshberg took over the debt-ridden business and expanded with Finlay-Straus stores throughout the metropolitan New York area. In 1968, Finlay was purchased by Seligman & Latz, a publicly traded company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Seligman & Latz operated Finlay until 1985 when it became privately owned. Finlay remained privately held until April 1995, when its parent, company Finlay Enterprises, Incorporated held its initial public stock offering.

With the acquisition of Carlyle & Company Jewelers in May 2005, Finlay returned to operating freestanding luxury stores. Carlyle consisted of 35 stores located primarily in southeastern United States under the Carlyle, J. E. Caldwell, and Park Promenade names. In November 2006 Congress Jewelers (a group of five stores located in Southwest Florida) was added, By August 2009, there were 182 Finlay locations: 67 Bailey Banks & Biddle, 34 Carlyle & Company four Congress specialty jewelry stores, and 77 licensed departments with The Bon Ton. On September 24, 2009, Finlay Enterprises announced completion of a bankruptcy auction for its business and assets to Gordon Brothers Retail Partners, LLC. Gordon Brothers was appointed to act as the Company's agent to conduct "store closings" or similar sales of merchandise located at all of the Company's retail store locations and the Company's two distribution centers.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Bert and Carol Vorchheimer.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jewelry  Search this
advertising  Search this
Opticians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Finlay Straus Scrapbook, 1929-1933, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0663
See more items in:
Finlay Straus Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0663
Additional Online Media:

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