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Records of the Field Offices for the State of Alabama, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
34 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
This collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 34 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1900. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Alabama Office of the Assistant Commissioner, his staff offices, and subordinate field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters and endorsements sent and received, monthly reports, applications of freedmen for rations, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and homesteads.
Records Description:
The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are a number of blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, fair copies of letters received, letters and orders received, registers of freedmen issued rations, special orders and circulars issued, registers of bounty claimants, reports, registers of contracts, registers of complaints, registers of patients, registers of disbursements, account books, miscellaneous records, and monthly reports forwarded to the Assistant Commissioner. The unbound documents consist of letters sent and received and endorsements sent, reports, applications for relief, labor contracts, rosters of officers and employees, court records, special and general orders and circulars received, and miscellaneous records. The unbound records also contain monthly reports; oaths of office; applications of freedmen for rations; and records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads.

From June 1866 to January 1868, Assistant Commissioner Swayne also served as the military commander of Alabama. He therefore created and received records in both capacities. The dual function of the Assistant Commissioner resulted in a succession of changes in the official headings used on correspondence and issuances. The title "Office of the Assistant Commissioner" was changed in June 1866 to "Headquarters, District of Alabama," and in August 1866 to "Headquarters, Subdistrict of Alabama." The heading "District of Alabama" was used again from March 1867 until superseded by "State of Alabama" in February 1868. The dual function of the office is also reflected in the recordkeeping practices for that period. Although the Assistant Commissioner generally maintained separate records for each of his capacities, in the case of letters and endorsements sent the records were frequently combined. Wherever they were separable, the records created by the Assistant Commissioner in his military capacity were placed with the Records of United States Army Continental Commands, 1821–1920, RG 393.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1900.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. In Alabama, operations began in July 1865 when Brig. Gen. Wager Swayne took command as Assistant Commissioner. Bvt. Brig. Julius Hayden succeeded Swayne and served from January to March 1868. Col. Oliver L. Shepherd served from March to August 1868, and Col. T. H. Ruger held the position of Assistant Commissioner for only a few days in August before the arrival of Bvt. Lt. Col. Edwin Beecher later in that month. In January 1869, in accordance with an act of July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), Bureau operations in Alabama were terminated except for the educational functions and the collection of claims. Colonel Beecher remained in Alabama as superintendent of education and held that position until the office was closed in July 1870. The majority of Bureau officers and agents in Alabama were active duty military officers, and for the first two years of the Bureau's existence in Alabama, the agency doubled as the military command for the district. Brig. Gen. Swayne, for example, served as Assistant Commissioner and District Military Commander for Alabama from 1866 to 1868. As a consequence of the wide use of military officers to staff the Bureau, the agency constantly struggled with issues of continuity as well as a lack of personnel to staff the various field offices. At one point at the end of 1866, the Bureau could only staff eight stations in Alabama due to a critical shortage of qualified personnel.

While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts. The major subordinate field offices for the Bureau at Alabama included headquarters at Demopolis, Eufaula, Garland, Greenville, Huntsville, Mobile, Montgomery, Opelika, Selma, Talladega, Tuscaloosa, and Tuskegee. Under the direct supervision of the subassistant commissioners were the civilian and military agents. Occasionally, the Bureau retained military officers in a civilian capacity after the termination of their military service. For a list of known Alabama subordinate field office personnel and their dates of service, see the Appendix.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half, the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

Constrained by limited resources, Southern opposition, and the politics of Reconstruction, the Bureau faced an enormous challenge in its efforts to assist the freedmen and refugees. Its relief efforts, without question, saved thousands of southerners from starvation. Its attempts to assist freedmen to become self–sufficient, to provide public education, administer justice, and, to a lesser degree, to provide land, all worked with varying degrees of success to lessen the difficulties during the transition from slavery to freedom. One of the Bureau's greatest legacies is the body of records it created and received during the course of its operations. These records are arguably some of the most important documents available for the study of the Federal Government's policies, efforts to reconstruct the South, and Southern social history and genealogy.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN ALABAMA

The Freedmen's Bureau's major activities in Alabama generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, and assisted freedmen in locating land.

Shortly after accepting the position of Assistant Commissioner in Alabama, Brig. Gen. Swayne requested permission from the Freedmen's Bureau headquarters in Washington, DC, to set aside 1,225 acres of land on the Broward Plantation near Montgomery for freedmen. The plantation had been abandoned shortly before the end of the war and was confiscated by Federal authorities. Montgomery Home Colony, established on some of this land, became the largest of several "home colonies" set aside to provide services for the freedmen. Home colonies were also established at Talladega, Mobile, Garland, Butler County, Montgomery, Selma, Demopolis, and Huntsville. The colonies were not self–sufficient communities of freedmen like those found in South Carolina or Louisiana. Instead, the colonies were distribution centers where the Bureau disseminated rations, clothes, seeds, and tools; processed claims; provided medical care; and organized services for the infirm, orphans, and the elderly. The central functions of these colonies were organized around a freedmen's hospital. The freedmen's hospital at Montgomery offered services to all races. From November 1866 to August 1867, it treated 168 refugees (whites), five of whom died. During the same period, the hospital treated 6,058 freedmen, of whom 162 died.

From 1865 to 1867, Alabama suffered repeated and massive crop failures due to drought or frost conditions. During the same period, the state was swept by a series of epidemics, with smallpox proving the most deadly disease affecting the freedmen. In addition to medical care, one of the most important duties for the Bureau in Alabama was the issuance of rations to refugees and freedmen to stave off malnutrition and starvation.

The Alabama Bureau also expended great resources and energy mitigating contract disputes between freedmen and white landowners as well as attempting to overturn draconian "black codes" enacted by the Alabama State Legislature and signed by the Governor. In his 1866 annual report to the Washington, DC, headquarters of the Bureau, Swayne complained that white landowners rampantly defrauded freedmen of benefits spelled out in their labor contracts.1 However, Swayne complained most extensively in this report about a particular set of "black codes" passed by the Legislature late in 1865 as vagrancy laws. These codes were passed shortly before Christmas after widespread complaints by white landowners that freedmen refused to work during the Christmas week. Apparently, freedmen expected to continue the tradition of time off from work at Christmas dating back to the antebellum years. Brig. Gen. Swayne charged that these laws returned freedmen to a state of slavery. First, he pointed to the authorized use of chain gangs in which freedmen worked with no compensation for even the most minor offenses. Second, the newly established probate courts often worked against freedmen. They were responsible for settling contract disputes between freedmen and white landowners. However, one component of the law passed by the Legislature stipulated that freedmen were not allowed to testify against whites or serve on juries. In cases where the courts found in favor of the white landowners, the presiding judge had the option of forcing freedmen into uncompensated labor for the white landowners or impressing freedmen's children as free laborers for the litigant. The black codes also authorized county officials to impress orphaned children as laborers on local plantations. Swayne was able to convince the Alabama Legislature to eventually overturn most of these codes. In districts where he could not force the probate courts to fairly enforce the law, he set up special freedmen's courts to hear complaints.

However, Swayne was unable to convince the Legislature to overturn provisions of the vagrancy laws that allowed widespread arrests of freedmen. The code authorized local and state law enforcement officials to summarily arrest those freedmen without contract papers who were allegedly causing "disturbances" in public places and roads. The normal punishment under this penal code was forced labor on nearby plantations. Finally, in March 1867, the Bureau saw this law overturned through the Military Reconstruction Bill for the District of Alabama (14 Stat. 429).

The Freedmen's Bureau in Alabama had a major impact in providing education for freedmen from 1866 to 1869. Due to its limited budget and resources, the Bureau was unable to directly establish and operate the great number of freedmen schools needed. However, the successive Assistant Commissioners proved very adept at finding other means for establishing these schools. They successfully implemented a three–way partnership program in which a wide variety of Northern relief societies flooded the state with resources to build schools, money for books and teachers, or volunteer members who instructed the freedmen for no fee. The freedmen were often responsible for actual maintenance of facilities as well as contributions of money and resources for upkeep of the local schools. Bureau agents oversaw the education program and provided land and protection for the schools. The results of this program were impressive. At the beginning of the school year in October 1866, there were 3,100 freedmen in classes taught by 68 teachers. By June 1867, these figures had grown to just under 10,000 students instructed by 150 teachers.

ENDNOTES

1 Annual Report of the Assistant Commissioner, Montgomery, AL, October 31, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Alabama, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 (National Archives Microfilm Publication M809, Roll 2), Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Record Group (RG) 105, National Archives Building, Washington, DC.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Alabama:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices in Alabama. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.

DEMOPOLIS

Aug.–Dec. 1865 -- Subassistant Commissioner Capt. A. C. Haltonstall

Jan. 1866–Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Bvt Maj. C. W. Pierce

Feb.–May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Lt. A. J. Bennett

June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C. L. Drake

July–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner R. A. Wilson

GREENVILLE

Sept.–Nov. 1865 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. L. Brown

Nov. 1865–ca. June 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. W. Mostyn

ca. June 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. F. McGogy

Feb.–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Samuel Gardner

June–Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner William H. Peck

Sept.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Samuel Gardner

Nov.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. A. Hart

Dec. 1867–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Samuel Gardner

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. F. McGogy

HUNTSVILLE

Sept. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. M. Goodfellow

Jan. 1866–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. B. Callis

Jan.–Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Robert Harrison

Mar.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner D. C. Rugg

HUNTSVILLE AND ATHENS

Apr.–Sept. 1868 -- Claims Agent J. W. Wilis

Sept. 1868–Jan. 1872 -- Claims Agent John Wager

JACKSONVILLE

May–Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner and Agent Robert Harrison

Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner and Agent William McKibbin (Agent)

MOBILE

Apr.–Aug. 1865 -- Subassistant Commissioner George Harmount

Oct. 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner George Robinson

Apr.–May 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner G. A. Washbum

May–Aug. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner L. J. Whiting

Sept.–Oct. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Joseph Logan

Nov. 1866–Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner George Tracy

Sept. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Gillette

Aug.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner John Hyde

Sept.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner E. H. Weirman

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Frank Towle

MONTGOMERY

Oct. 1865–Dec. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner George A. Harmount

Dec. 1866–Aug. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner L. J. Whiting

Aug. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. C. Hendrix

OPELIKA

June 1867–June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner R. T. Smith

July–Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner John Bannister

Aug.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner D. B. Smith

Sept.–Oct. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner G. W. Kingsbury

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner D. B. Smith

SELMA

Mar.–June 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Samuel S. Gardner

June–July 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. D. Ogilby

July–Aug. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Samuel S. Gardner

Aug. 1866–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner George Shorkley

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles C. Bartlett

TALLADEGA

Oct.–Nov. 1865 -- Subassistant Commissioner D. P. Cilley

Dec. 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. Humphrey

Apr. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner R. Tlieune

Feb. 1867–June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. F. McGogy

June–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner George P. Sherwood

TUSCALOOSA

Jan.–Apr. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Jesse W. Cogswell

Apr. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Peck

Apr. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Robert Blair

TUSCUMBIA

May–June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Henry Sweeney

June–Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Heilman

Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner John Raines

TUSKEGEE

Sept.–Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Andrew Geddes

Nov. 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Spencer Smith
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1900
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Alabama, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1900
Additional Online Media:

Rosters of Officers and Employees

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan.–Mar. 1866
Scope and Contents:
Unbound rosters of officers and employees, January–March 1866, are arranged chronologically.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1900, File 4.13.10
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Alabama, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Alabama, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872 / Series 4: Subordinate Field Offices / 4.13: Huntsville (Subassistant Commissioner)
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1900-ref180

That's Entertainment!

Producer:
Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios Inc., founded 1924  Search this
Subject:
Elizabeth Taylor  Search this
Medium:
Offset lithograph on paper
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
USA
Produced in:
Los Angeles, California, United States
Date:
1974
Credit Line:
Gift of Various Donors
Accession Number:
1981-29-412
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1981-29-412

Memo - pilot roster, Blimp Squadron Twelve

Collection Creator:
Mills, George H., 1895-1975  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 37
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
January 1945
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at http://airandspace.si.edu/permissions
Collection Citation:
George Henry Mills Collection, Acc. 1994-0022, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
George Henry Mills Collection
George Henry Mills Collection / Series 1: Naval Career of George H. Mills
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1994-0022-ref80

The Women Behind the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Lectures
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 22 Jan 2020 21:56:51 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_480855e61c891d334c72b99e69565714

Superbowl XVIII

Sponsor:
United Air Lines  Search this
Medium:
Poster, Advertising, Commercial Aviation
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 58.6 × 43.2cm (1 ft. 11 1/16 in. × 1 ft. 5 in.)
Type:
ART-Posters, Original Art Quality
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1983
Credit Line:
Official 1984 Joe Theismann's Redskin Report Super Bowl XVIII Poster. All Rights Reserved.
Inventory Number:
A19950150000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19950150000

Douglas M-2

Manufacturer:
Douglas Aircraft Company  Search this
Materials:
Overall: Steel Tubing with Doped Cotton Fabric Covering
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 12.1 m (39 ft 8 in)
Length: 8.8 m (28 ft 11 in)
Height: 3.1 m (10 ft 1 in)
Weight, gross: 2,253 kg (4,968 lb)
Weight, empty: 1,329 kg (2,910 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1936
Credit Line:
Transferred from the World War Postal Center
Inventory Number:
A19772556000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19772556000
Additional Online Media:

Insignia, 848th Signal Training Battlalion, United States Army Air Forces

Materials:
Wool Felt
Embroidery Thread
Paper
Adhesive
Dimensions:
3-D: 8.7 × 8.1 × 0.5cm (3 7/16 × 3 3/16 × 3/16 in.)
Type:
AWARDS-Insignia
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Donated by the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, Inc.
Inventory Number:
A19711370000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19711370000
Additional Online Media:

Eastern Division FM-1 (Grumman F4F-4) Wildcat

Manufacturer:
Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation  Search this
Materials:
Semi-monocoque all-metal.
Dimensions:
Overall: 450 x 880cm, 2612kg, 1160cm (14ft 9 3/16in. x 28ft 10 7/16in., 5758.4lb., 38ft 11/16in.)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1940
Credit Line:
Transferred from the United States Navy.
Inventory Number:
A19610122000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19610122000

Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean Expedition, 1956 : correspondence

Collection name:
Waldo L. Schmitt Papers, 1907-1978
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 107
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Correspondence
Place:
Caribbean Sea
Trinidad
Antigua
Saint Croix
Date Range:
1955-1957
Start Date:
1955
End Date:
1957
Topic:
Zoology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007231
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Waldo L. Schmitt Papers, 1907-1978
See more records associated with this person:
Schmitt, Waldo L. (Waldo Lasalle), 1887-1977
Carmichael, Leonard
Bredin, J. Bruce
Kellogg, Remington, 1892-1969
Nicholson, V. E. B.
See more records associated with this expedition:
Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean Expeditions (1956-1959)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI1571
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean Expedition, 1956 : correspondence digital asset number 1
  • View Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean Expedition, 1956 : correspondence digital asset number 2
Additional Online Media:

Double Trophy Roster Book

Culture/People:
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
High Bull (Frank High Bull), Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), ca. 1848-1876 and Sergeant Alexander Brown, Non-Indian, 1844-1884  Search this
Previous owner:
Sergeant Alexander Brown, Non-Indian, 1844-1884  Search this
High Bull (Frank High Bull), Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), ca. 1848-1876  Search this
Sergeant James H. Turpin, Non-Indian, 1846-1893  Search this
Lieutenant Homer W. Wheeler (H.W. Wheeler), Non-Indian, 1848-1930  Search this
Military Service Institution of the United States, 1878-ca. 1916  Search this
John Jay White, Non-Indian, 1860-1923  Search this
Donor:
Grace Hoffman White (Virginia Grace Hoffman/Mrs. John Jay White), Non-Indian, 1862-1937  Search this
Title:
Double Trophy Roster Book
Object Name:
Book of ledger drawings
Media/Materials:
Paper, graphite, colored pencil, commercially tanned leather
Techniques:
Bound, written, drawn
Dimensions:
12.5 x 19 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Plains; USA, Canada (inferred)
Date created:
1876
Catalog Number:
10/8725
Barcode:
108725.000
See related items:
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)
Painting/Drawing/Print
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, New York, NY
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_117473
Additional Online Media:

Rallus longirostris

Collector:
D. Roster  Search this
Preparation:
Skin: Whole
Sex:
Female
Place:
Santa Clara, California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
21 Jan 1991
Common name:
Clapper Rail
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Gruiformes, Rallidae
Published Name:
Rallus longirostris
Accession Number:
622420
Other Numbers:
Field Number : CAG 293
USNM Number:
587861
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_4373544

Rallus longirostris

Collector:
D. Roster  Search this
Sex:
Female
Place:
Santa Clara, California, United States, North America
Collection Date:
21 Jan 1991
Common name:
Clapper Rail
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Aves, Gruiformes, Rallidae
Published Name:
Rallus longirostris
Accession Number:
622420
Other Numbers:
Field Number : CAG 293
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Birds
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Birds Division
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_10917754

Cerithium (Thericium) lutosum

Collector:
R. Roster  Search this
Ocean/Sea/Gulf:
North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea  Search this
Preparation:
Dry
Place:
Tobago Island, Buccoo Reef, Dry Rocks, Trinidad and Tobago, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
Apr 1950
Common name:
Gastropods
Published Name:
Cerithium (Thericium) lutosum Menke, 1828
USNM Number:
656848
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Mollusca
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_438229

Roster [of Members Owing Dues]

Collection Creator:
Architectural League of New York  Search this
Container:
Box 47, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1940
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Architectural League of New York records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Architectural League of New York records, 1880s-1974, bulk 1927-1968. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Architectural League of New York records
Architectural League of New York records / Series 2: Committee Records / 2.5: Membership Committee
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-archleag-ref922

Roster of the League

Collection Creator:
Architectural League of New York  Search this
Container:
Box 47, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1965
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Architectural League of New York records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Architectural League of New York records, 1880s-1974, bulk 1927-1968. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Architectural League of New York records
Architectural League of New York records / Series 2: Committee Records / 2.5: Membership Committee
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-archleag-ref923

Membership Roster

Collection Creator:
Architectural League of New York  Search this
Container:
Box 45, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1956
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Architectural League of New York records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Architectural League of New York records, 1880s-1974, bulk 1927-1968. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Architectural League of New York records
Architectural League of New York records / Series 2: Committee Records / 2.5: Membership Committee
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-archleag-ref880

Membership Roster Corrections

Collection Creator:
Architectural League of New York  Search this
Container:
Box 45, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1954-1955
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Architectural League of New York records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Architectural League of New York records, 1880s-1974, bulk 1927-1968. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Architectural League of New York records
Architectural League of New York records / Series 2: Committee Records / 2.5: Membership Committee
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-archleag-ref881

Ellen Lanyon papers

Creator:
Lanyon, Ellen  Search this
Names:
Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art -- Faculty  Search this
Landfall Press  Search this
Ox-Bow Summer School of Painting  Search this
Chicago, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Golub, Leon, 1922-2004  Search this
Grooms, Red  Search this
Hunt, Richard, 1935-  Search this
Kozloff, Joyce  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Nilsson, Gladys, 1940-  Search this
Petlin, Irving, 1934-  Search this
Plunkett, Ed (1922-)  Search this
Rockburne, Dorothea  Search this
Schapiro, Miriam, 1923-2015  Search this
Spector, Buzz  Search this
Stevens, May  Search this
Stuart, Michelle, 1933-  Search this
Extent:
62.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Electronic records (digital records)
Sketches
Interviews
Collages
Paintings
Sound recordings
Prints
Video recordings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Transcriptions
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
circa 1880-2014
bulk 1926-2013
Summary:
The papers of artist Ellen Lanyon measure 62.6 linear feet and date from circa 1880-2014, bulk 1926-2013. Biographical material; correspondence; interviews; writings; journals; project files; teaching files; exhibition files; personal business records; printed and broadcast material; scrapbooks; photographic material; artwork; sketchbooks; as well as sound and video recordings and electronic records, provide a comprehensive view of Lanyon's career and of art circles in Chicago and New York. Correspondence with artists and friends make up a significant portion of the collection. Project and exhibition files reflect her professional and artistic career. Thousands of slides and photographs document her life and artwork over seven decades, and over seventy sketchbooks are filled with student sketches, portraits of friends and family, and preliminary drawings.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Ellen Lanyon measure 62.6 linear feet and date from circa 1880-2014, bulk 1926-2013. Biographical material; correspondence; interviews; writings; journals; project files; teaching files; exhibition files; personal business records; printed and broadcast material; scrapbooks; photographic material; artwork; sketchbooks; as well as sound and video recordings and electronic records, provide a comprehensive view of Lanyon's career and of art circles in Chicago and New York.

Biographical material documents Lanyon's major life events and includes calendars; addresses and contacts; life documents; awards; diplomas and school records; resumes; horoscope readings and natal chart; residence documents; personal memorabilia; family papers and memorabilia; and items relating to Lanyon's memorial.

Correspondence, both personal and professional, consists of letters, postcards, holiday and greeting cards exchanged with family, friends, artists, collectors, publishers, print shops, museums, galleries, and cultural and educational institutions. Notable correspondents include Judy Chicago, Leon Golub, Red Grooms, Richard Hunt, Joyce Kozloff, Lucy Lippard, Gladys Nilsson, Irving Petlin, Edward Plunkett, Dorothea Rockburne, Miriam Schapiro, Buzz Spector, May Stevens, and Michelle Stuart.

Fourteen interviews are with Ellen Lanyon conducted by various interviewers on behalf of a number of organizations and consist of transcripts, sound recordings, and video recordings.

Writings include general writings, lectures, presentations, and thirty-seven notebooks by Lanyon. A few writings by others about Lanyon and several sound recordings of lectures by other artists are also found here.

Twenty-five journals intermittently record Lanyon's reflections on her day-to-day life including her work, obligations, and relationships.

Project files include professional activities and files documenting projects and commissions. Files may contain project proposals, correspondence, printed material, applications, contracts, research notes, invoices, receipts, notebooks, sketches, plans, organizational records, and photographic material. Three multi-year projects are extensively documented, including theMiami Metamorphosis mural, Riverwalk Gateway mural, and Hiawatha Rail Line mural.

Teaching files consist of correspondence, memoranda, course descriptions and proposals, rosters, administrative documents, and printed material from a number of institutions, including Cooper Union, where Lanyon taught from the 1970s to her retirement in 1993.

Exhibition files include files for individual exhibitions, exhibitions by women artists, and chronological files. Files may contain correspondence, inventories, consignment records, layout plans, printed material, and photographic material.

Personal business, inventory, and estate records document the financial and administrative history of Lanyon's career and artworks.

Printed material, broadcast material, and published video recordings document Lanyon's career, art movements in Chicago and New York, and the women's movement in art. Files may contain books, booklets, broadsides, radio and television broadcasts, brochures, exhibition announcements and catalogs, lecture announcements, news and magazine clippings, newspapers and newsletters, periodicals, press releases, programs, video recordings, source material, and posters.

Eight scrapbooks contain predominantly clippings and exhibition material documenting Lanyon's career.

Photographic material consists of thousands of prints, slides, transparencies, and negatives of Lanyon, family, friends, artists, places, and artwork.

A small number of artworks include a self-portrait Lanyon carved in wood, a childhood painting, a photo collage, sketches, and one folder of assignments for an art course. Artworks by others are a hand colored photograph album by Marcia Palazzolo and prints distributed by Landfall Press.

Seventy-one sketchbooks are filled with student sketches, portraits of friends and family, and preliminary drawings done in pencil, watercolor, and colored pencil.

The content of the sound and video recordings, and electronic records in the last series remains unidentified and existing labeling is insufficient for further description.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as fifteen series

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1880-2014, bulk 1926-2013 (5.3 linear feet; Box 1-6, 62)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1936-2013 (14.3 linear feet; Box 6-20)

Series 3: Interviews, circa 1975-2012 (0.7 linear feet; Box 20-21)

Series 4: Writings, Lectures, and Notebooks, circa 1947-2013 (3.2 linear feet; Box 21-24)

Series 5: Journals, 1967-2013 (1 linear foot; Box 24-25)

Series 6: Project Files, 1952-2014 (5.8 linear feet; Box 25-31, 62, OV 66)

Series 7: Teaching Files, 1953-2010 (0.9 linear feet; Box 31)

Series 8: Exhibition Files, circa 1944-2013 (2.7 linear feet; Box 32-34, 63)

Series 9: Personal Business, Inventory, and Estate Records, circa 1950-2014 (3 linear feet; Box 34-37)

Series 10: Printed and Broadcast Material, and Published Video Recordings, 1937-2013 (13.3 linear feet; Box 37-49, 63, OV 67-77)

Series 11: Scrapbooks, 1946-2013 (0.6 linear feet; Box 49-50)

Series 12: Photographic Material, circa 1920-2013 (7.7 linear feet; Box 50-57, 63)

Series 13: Artwork, circa 1938-1979 (0.2 linear feet; Box 58, 63)

Series 14: Sketchbooks, circa 1940-2010 (3.4 linear feet; Box 58-60, 64, 65)

Series 15: Unidentified Sound and Video Recordings, and Electronic Records, circa 1974-2013 (0.5 linear feet; Box 60-61)
Biographical / Historical:
Ellen Lanyon (1926-2013) was an American painter and printmaker working in Chicago and New York. She was born in Chicago, Illinois to Howard and Ellen (Nellie) Lanyon. Lanyon received her BFA from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1948 and married classmate and artist Roland Ginzel that same year. In 1950, she received her MFA from the University of Iowa. As part of her post graduate work, Lanyon studied at the Courtauld Institute, University of London on a Fulbright Fellowship.

In the late 1940s, Lanyon began exhibiting her work and was featured in several Chicago and Vicinity Annual shows as well as the Momentum exhibitions. Influenced by surrealism, magic realism, and the work of the Chicago Imagists and the Hairy Who, Lanyon's subjects range from portraits of friends and family, to objects from her collection of curios, to flora and fauna. She produced paintings, drawings, print editions, artist's books, and some ceramics. In addition to her own artwork, Lanyon took on numerous commissions including the Riverwalk Gateway murals in Chicago, the Hiawatha Transit murals in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and a variety of illustration work.

Lanyon was active in many professional organizations and women's organizations including the College Art Association (CAA) and the Women's Caucus for Art. She organized panels at CAA, contributed writings and editing to journals, including Heresies, and served on a variety of panels and juries. Lanyon was also on the Board of the Ox-Bow Summer School of Painting, which she attended in her youth. Over the course of her career, she taught at many colleges and universities, including Cooper Union, where she was Associate Professor.

Throughout her career, Lanyon participated in exhibitions around the country, including a retrospective of her work at the National Museum for Women in the Arts in 1999. She was also the recipient of many awards and grants including the Logan Price and a National Endowment for the Arts grant.

Lanyon and Ginzel had two children, Andrew and Lisa Ginzel.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Ellen Lanyon conducted by James Crawford in 1975.
Provenance:
A majority of the collection was donated in 2015 by Andrew Ginszel, Ellen Lanyon's son and executor. Lanyon also donated material in 1990. Portions of the collection were lent for microfilming from 1977-1981 by Lanyon and subsequently donated.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Ellen Lanyon papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Printmakers -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Feminism and the arts  Search this
Art -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Art -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Feminism and art  Search this
Muralists -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Genre/Form:
Electronic records (digital records)
Sketches
Interviews
Collages
Paintings
Sound recordings
Prints
Video recordings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Transcriptions
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Ellen Lanyon papers, circa 1880-2014, bulk 1926-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lanyelle
See more items in:
Ellen Lanyon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lanyelle
Additional Online Media:

Rosters

Collection Creator:
Lanyon, Ellen  Search this
Container:
Box 31, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1977-1993
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Ellen Lanyon papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Ellen Lanyon papers, circa 1880-2014, bulk 1926-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ellen Lanyon papers
Ellen Lanyon papers / Series 7: Teaching Files / Cooper Union
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lanyelle-ref678

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