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Aplexa hypnorum

Collector:
Harry Herold  Search this
Preparation:
Dry
Place:
Spandauer Stadforst. Kuhlake beim Johannisstift [Municipal forest of Spandau. Kuhlake (cow drinking hole) near the Johanniterstift (religious institution of the Order of St. John).], Germany, Europe
Collection Date:
1 Jun 1929
Common name:
Gastropods
Published Name:
Aplexa hypnorum (Linnaeus, 1758)
USNM Number:
1454426
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Mollusca
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhinvertebratezoology_13401882

Undergraduate Program Files, 2005

Creator:
Council of American Overseas Research Centers  Search this
Subject:
Centre d'études maghrébines à Tunis  Search this
American Institute of Indian Studies  Search this
Physical description:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Type:
Newsletters
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Place:
India
Tunisia
Date:
2005
Topic:
College students  Search this
Culture--Study and teaching  Search this
Research institutes  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 07-083
Restrictions & Rights:
Restricted for 15 years, until Jan-01-2021; these records contain sensitive information and will be redacted by the Archives before use by researchers; Transferring office; 6/4/1999 memorandum, Lee to Lane; Contact reference staff for details
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_270198

The Liberator, Vol. XXVII, No. 25

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (closed): 24 13/16 × 18 3/8 in. (63 × 46.7 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
June 19, 1857
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
United States--History--1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2016.166.41.14
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.166.41.14
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The Liberator, Vol. XV, No. 20

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (closed): 24 13/16 × 17 7/8 in. (63 × 45.4 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
May 16, 1845
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
United States--History--1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2016.166.41.6
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.166.41.6
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Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
WLIB, American, founded 1941  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Vulcan Society, American, founded 1940  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Urban Coalition, American, founded 1967  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Vernon Jordan, American, born 1935  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc., American, founded 1924  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Connectional Lay Council, American, founded 1948  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Morehouse Alumni Association, American, founded 1900  Search this
Morris Brown College, American, founded 1881  Search this
Dr. Ralph Bunche, American, 1903 - 1971  Search this
Lionel Hampton, American, 1908 - 2002  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), International, founded 1844  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
Eleanor Holmes Norton, American, born 1937  Search this
Vernon Jordan, American, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 1/2 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1981
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
United States--History--1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.15
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.15
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Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
de Hauke, César  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L.  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Arenberg  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
MM. Jacques Seligmann & fils  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Surveys of Houses of Worship in Ward 8 of Washington, D.C. How religious institutions engage with and impact their communities

Author:
Orr, Joi  Search this
Winstead, wheeler  Search this
Trulear, Harold  Search this
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2011
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_144123

African American Religious Institutions Social Services Directory

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 22, Folder 22
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1999
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 8: Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1207

An Apache life-way : the economic, social, and religious institutions of the Chiricahua Indians / Morris Edward Opler

Author:
Opler, Morris Edward 1907-1996  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 500 pages : illustrations, map ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1965
1941
1965, ©1941
Topic:
Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
E99.A6 O61 1965
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_441611

Mary Riley Smith Records

Extent:
6.75 Cubic feet (design records; plans and drawings)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1986-2013
bulk 1995-2005
Summary:
The Mary Riley Smith Records document the decades-long career of Manhattan-based garden designer, writer, and lecturer Mary Riley Smith. It includes drawings, plans, planting lists, notes, correspondence, invoices, estimates, 35 mm slides, negatives, photographs, digital files on CDs, and other materials relating to many of Smith's garden design projects, dating from 1986-2013.
Scope and Contents Note:
The Mary Riley Smith Records document the decades-long career of Manhattan-based garden designer, writer, and lecturer Mary Riley Smith. It includes drawings, plans, planting lists, notes, correspondence, invoices, estimates, 35 mm slides, negatives, photographs, digital files on CDs, and other materials relating to many of Smith's garden design projects, dating from 1986-2013. The bulk of Smith's projects were private, residential gardens of all sizes in urban, suburban, and rural areas in Manhattan, Long Island, and Connecticut. One such project included in the collection is Smith's own garden that she designed for her home on Long Island, New York. Other projects Smith worked on include gardens for apartment buildings, libraries, colleges, religious institutions, and social clubs. Her public commissions include the Battery Park entrance gardens, Lincoln Square Business Improvement District, Rockefeller Center, and Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, all in Manhattan. A significant portion of the materials are textual in nature; the remainder are drawings and plans, many of which are oversized.

The client files document design decisions made between Smith and her clients. The collection records the collaborative work between Smith, landscape architects, contractors, and other individuals who helped build the gardens. These materials detail the process of planning the garden, outlining the work to be done, establishing a budget, providing estimates, and setting a schedule to complete the work. While the bulk of the materials relate to Smith's design projects, the collection also contains materials from her professional practice. These include clipping files, 35mm slides, photographs, drawings, plans, and notes from lectures and presentations given by Smith. Also included are two copies of Smith's book that was published in 1991, The Front Garden: New Approaches to Landscape Design.
Arrangement Note:
The collection is organized in series according to the type of garden as designated by Mary Riley Smith: Series 1: Urban Residential Series 2: Suburban/Rural Residential Series 3: Apartment Buildings Series 4: Clubs and Non-Profits Series 5: Business Improvement Districts Series 6: Corporations Within each garden type, the files are arranged geographically by state and city.
Biographical Note:
Garden designer Mary Riley Smith grew up in a family of gardeners and developed an affinity for gardens at an early age. After studying horticulture and garden design at the New York Botanical Garden she began her own landscape design firm, Mary Riley Smith Garden Design Inc., in the early 1990s. During her professional career Smith designed and implemented several types of gardens, though the majority were private and residential. Her projects are located in Manhattan, the greater New York area, Long Island, and Connecticut. The private gardens are found in a variety of settings including urban, suburban, and rural. In addition to private gardens, Smith designed and coordinated the installation of sidewalk, terrace, and courtyard gardens for a number of co-op buildings in Manhattan. Smith designed a number of public gardens and spaces including planting beds at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in Manhattan where she undertook design work and supervised installation for twenty years. She also worked in Manhattan on other public, corporate, college, religious institution, and social club gardens. Smith collaborated with landscape architects Donna Gutkin and Alessandra Galletti on some of her garden designs. She worked with numerous contractors and other individuals to complete her projects. Throughout her decades-long career, she designed and completed more than 80 projects.

In addition to her work as a landscape designer, Smith has also written and lectured on the subject. Her book, The Front Garden: New Approaches to Landscape Design, was published in 1991. She has written articles for various periodicals including Garden Design, Countryside, BBG Garden Record, and Long Island Monthly. Smith has taught and lectured on the subject of garden design to various gardening and horticultural groups at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum and New York Botanical Garden. Smith's garden designs, including her own, have been featured in Traditional Home, Better Homes and Gardens, House Beautiful, The New Yorker, and Garden Design.
Provenance:
Mary Riley Smith donated her collection of garden design records to the Archives of American Gardens in 2014.
Restrictions:
Access to original materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Mary Riley Smith Records
Identifier:
AAG.MRS
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-mrs

Judith Weinshall Liberman papers

Creator:
Liberman, Judith Weinshall  Search this
Extent:
8.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Interviews
Video recordings
Date:
circa 1940-2003
Summary:
The papers of artist Judith Weinshall Liberman measure 8.6 linear feet and date from circa 1940-2003. The papers consist of biographical material regarding Liberman's family and art history; images, ephemera, and correspondence related to Liberman's artwork, exhibitions, and creative process, especially related to her Holocaust Wall Hangings series; sound and video recordings of interviews, lectures, pannel discussions, and show openings; papers related to her career as a writer; and some papers related to her academic career.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Judith Weinshall Liberman measure 8.6 linear feet and date from circa 1940-2003. The papers consist of biographical material regarding Liberman's family and art history; images, ephemera, and correspondence related to Liberman's artwork, exhibitions, and creative process, especially related to her Holocaust Wall Hangings series; sound and video recordings of interviews, lectures, panel discussions, and show openings; papers related to her career as a writer; and some papers related to her academic career.

The bulk of the collection was in labeled binders upon donation; the contents of these binders were kept intact. The binders were created by Judith Liberman circa 2003, and each consists of introductions to the material as well as a rough table of contents. The binders cover a variety of topics including biographical and geneological histories; records of Liberman's donated material; papers related to Liberman's major series of works and exhibitions; and photographs and slides of Liberman's work. This collection also includes videocassette and audiocassette tapes containing lectures, interviews, pannel discusions, and show openings.

In addition to Liberman's career as an artist, material related to Liberman's education as a lawyer as well as her life-long interest in writing fiction and non-fiction is found in this collection. Academic papers consist of ephemera, transcripts, correspondence, and resumes; and material related to Liberman's writing includes drafts, published copies, interviews, and reviews. Most notable are a published copy of her children's book The Bird's Last Song, with related interviews, and an edited manuscript of Miriam's Diary.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 5 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1940-2003 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, 9-10)

Series 2: Writings, circa 1947-2003 (14 folders; Box 2)

Series 3: Art Projects, 1987-2003 (4.5 linear feet; Boxes 2-6, 9)

Series 4: Printed Material, circa 1972-2003 (8 folders; Boxes 7, 9)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1960-2003 (1.0 linear foot; Boxes 7-8)
Biographical / Historical:
Judith Weinshall Liberman (1929- ) is a painter, ceramicist, and illustrator in Boston, Massachusetts.

Born in Haifa, Israel (then Palenstine), Judith Weinshall Liberman came to the United States after completing high school in Haifa. She earned four American degrees, including a J.D. degree from the University Chicago Law School and an LL.M. from the University of Michigan Law School. After settling in the Boston area in 1956, she studied art at the Art Institute of Boston, School of the Museum of Fine Arts, DeCordova Museum School, and the Massachusetts College of Art. She also received an M.F.A. degree in Art Education from Boston University School for the Arts.

Liberman explored a variety of materials and techniques throughout her career including oil and acrylic paint, block printing, transfer printing, sewing, embroidery, and ceramics. Her major series of work, Holocaust Wall Hangings, Holocaust Paintings, and Self Portraits of Holocaust Artist--recieved critical acclaim as she exhibited her work in solo and group exhibitions in the United States and Israel. She eventually donated a majority of her artwork to private, public, and religious institutions.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Judith Weinshall Liberman in 2003.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Ceramicists -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Illustrators--Massachusetts--Boston  Search this
Topic:
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945), in art  Search this
Jewish artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Video recordings
Citation:
Judith Weinshall Liberman papers, circa 1940-2003. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.libejudi
See more items in:
Judith Weinshall Liberman papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-libejudi

Sidney Simon papers

Creator:
Simon, Sidney, 1917-1997  Search this
Names:
Budd (Firm : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Century Association (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Colby College  Search this
Graham Gallery  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. School -- Faculty  Search this
United States. Army. Corps of Engineers  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier, 1898-1993  Search this
Gotfryd, Bernard  Search this
Hélion, Jacqueline  Search this
Jencks, Penelope  Search this
Kelly, Ellsworth, 1923- -- Photographs  Search this
King, William, 1925-2015  Search this
Meredith, Burgess, 1907-1997  Search this
Motherwell, Robert -- Photographs  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988 -- Photographs  Search this
Pousette-Dart, Richard, 1916-1992  Search this
Watson, Forbes, 1880-1960  Search this
Extent:
8 Linear feet
2.21 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Interviews
Illustrated letters
Diaries
Date:
circa 1917-2002
bulk 1940-1997
Summary:
The papers of sculptor, painter, and educator Sidney Simon measure 8.0 linear feet and 2.21 GB and date from circa 1917-2002, with the bulk of the papers dating from 1940-1997. The collection documents Simon's career through biographical material, correspondence, writings and notes, subject files, sketches, sketchbooks, printed and digital material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of sculptor, painter, and educator Sidney Simon measure 8.0 linear feet and 2.21 GB and date from circa 1917-2002, with the bulk of the papers dating from 1940-1997. The collection documents Simon's career through biographical material, correspondence, writings and notes, subject files, sketches, sketchbooks, printed and digital material, and photographs.

Biographical material chronicles Simon's academic training and professional activities through curriculum vitae, biographical accounts, and awards. Included are letters and memoranda, many from Forbes Watson pertaining to Simon's service as a combat artist in World War II. Also found is a transcript of an interview with Simon recounting his experiences in the Southwest Pacific. Simon's personal correspondence with colleagues, friends, and family includes scattered letters from Jacqueline Helion, Penelope Jencks, William King, Burgess Meredith, among others. Many letters are illustrated by Sidney Simon and others. General correspondence includes letters from artists, galleries, museums, public and religious institutions primarily relating to Simon's exhibitions and commissioned projects. Among the correspondents are Castle Hill, Truro Center for the Arts, Colby College, André Emmerich, Eric Makler Gallery, Xavier Gonzalez, Graham Gallery, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Interspersed among the files are letters of a personal nature. Other correspondence relates to Simon's faculty positions and his activities in professional organizations, e.g., Century Association, National Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture.

Writings and notes include Simon's 1943 diary entries recording his activities in the Army Corps of Engineers, draft versions of writings and lectures, and notes. Included are digital audio recordings of Simon's lectures at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. Subject files provide documentation on Simon's commissioned projects, select exhibitions and competitions, as well as his faculty positions and memberships in several arts organizations. Printed material consists of clippings, invitations, announcements, newsletters, and programs. Exhibition catalogs are of Simon's solo and group shows at galleries, museums, and art organizations from 1959-1966. Photographs are of Simon by Budd Brothers, Richard Pousette-Dart, and Bernard Gotfryd. There are a number of photographs of the artist in his studio and outdoors as well as of Simon's family and friends, including group photographs with Ellsworth Kelly, André Emmerich, Robert Motherwell, and Louise Nevelson. Also found are three personal and family albums and twenty-one photograph albums of Simon's paintings and sculptures.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1940-1998 (Boxes 1, 9; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1936-2002 (Boxes 1-2; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1943, circa 1960-1997 (Box 2; 0.4 linear feet, ER01-ER03; 2.21 GB)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1940-1941, 1951-1997 (Boxes 2-4, 9; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Sketches, 1937-1942 (Box 4; 1 folder)

Series 6: Sketchbooks, 1939-1995 (Boxes 4-5, 9; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, circa 1933, 1942-1998 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1978-1995 (Box 5; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1917-1997 (Boxes 5-11; 3.0 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Sidney Simon (1917-1997) was a sculptor, painter, and educator who worked primarily in New York City and Truro, Massachusetts. Simon was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. At the age of 14, he won a place as a special student at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. He received a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1934 and from the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1936. Simon also studied at the Barnes Foundation from 1937-1940. Simon received professional recognition early in his career; he was awarded the Prix de Rome Collaborative Prize in 1939 and the Edwin Austin Abbey Fellowship in mural painting in 1945.

In 1941, Simon enlisted in the U.S. Army and served in the Army Corps of Engineers. Assigned to MacArthur's headquarters as an official war artist for the Southwest Pacific Theater, Simon was chosen to paint the signing of the peace treaty between the U.S. and Japan aboard the U.S.S. Missouri. He was discharged from the army with a Bronze Star and five presidential citations. In 1945, along with Bill Cummings and Henry Varnum Poor, Simon co-founded the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, where he later served as a director and a member of the Board of Governors. By the mid-1950s, Simon's interest shifted from painting to sculpture, creating works in wood, clay, and other media. Over the years, Simon collaborated with architects on a number of public and private commissions, including the doorway for the Downstate Medical Center, the Jewish Chapel at West Point, a playground sculpture for Prospect Park, and the totemic column for the Temple Beth Abraham. In addition to serving on the faculty at Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Simon also taught at the Art Students League, Brooklyn Museum, and Parsons School of Design. An active champion of artists' rights, Simon established the New York Artists Equity Association. He participated in solo and group shows at the Graham Gallery, Provincetown Art Association and Museum, and the Sculptors Guild, among other venues.

In 1997, Sidney Simon died at the age of 80 in Truro, Massachusetts. Simon was divorced from Joan Crowell in 1964. He is survived by his wife, Renee Adriance Simon and five children from his first and second marriages.
Related Materials:
The Archives has two oral history interviews with Sidney Simon conducted by Paul Cummings in October 17-November 8, 1973 and the Karl E. Fortress taped interviews with artists, [1963-1985].
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds materials lent for microfilming (reel D210) including biographical material, correspondence, sketchbooks, scrapbooks, and photographs of Sidney Simon. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Sidney Simon lent the Archives of American Art material for microfilming in 1965. Rene Simon, Simon's widow, donated the Sidney Simon papers in 2009.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Sidney Simon papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
War artists  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Personal narratives  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- Pacific Area  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Artists' studios -- New York (State) -- New York -- Photographs  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Interviews
Illustrated letters
Diaries
Citation:
Sidney Simon papers, circa 1917-2002, bulk 1940-1997. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.simosidn
See more items in:
Sidney Simon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-simosidn

Lilian Swann Saarinen papers

Creator:
Saarinen, Lilian Swann, 1912-1995  Search this
Names:
Cambridge Art Center  Search this
Cranbrook Academy of Art -- Faculty  Search this
G Place Gallery (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Knoll Associates, inc.  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -- Faculty  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Otava Publishing Company  Search this
Reynal & Hitchcock  Search this
Armitage, Merle, 1893-1975  Search this
Crosby, Caresse, 1892-  Search this
Eames, Charles  Search this
Eames, Ray  Search this
Koch, Carl  Search this
Kreis, Henry, 1899-1963  Search this
Milles, Carl, 1875-1955  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, László, 1895-1946  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl, 1905-  Search this
Saarinen, Eero, 1910-1961  Search this
Saarinen, Eliel, 1873-1950  Search this
Saarinen, Loja  Search this
Venturi, Robert  Search this
Weese, Harry, 1915-1998  Search this
Extent:
9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Diaries
Illustrations
Sketches
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
circa 1909-1977
Summary:
The papers of Cambridge sculptor and illustrator, Lilian Swann Saarinen, measure nine linear feet and date from circa 1909 to 1977. The collection documents Saarinen's career through correspondence with artists, architects, publishers, and gallery owners; writings and notes, including manuscripts and illustrations for children's books and publications; project and teaching files; financial records; artwork, including numerous project sketches; and photos of Saarinen and her artwork. Saarinen's personal life is also documented through diaries and correspondence with friends and family members, including Eero Saarinen, to whom she was married from 1939-1953.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Cambridge sculptor and illustrator, Lilian Swann Saarinen, measure nine linear feet and date from circa 1909 to 1977. The collection documents Saarinen's career through correspondence with artists, architects, publishers, and gallery owners; writings and notes, including manuscripts and illustrations for children's books and publications; project and teaching files; financial records; artwork, including numerous project sketches; and photos of Saarinen and her artwork. Saarinen's personal life is also documented through diaries and correspondence with friends and family members, including Eero Saarinen, to whom she was married from 1939-1953.

Biographical material consists of resumes and biographical sketches, as well as a 1951 blueprint for the Eero Saarinen and Associates Office Building in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Correspondence documents Saarinen's personal and professional life through letters to and from Eero Saarinen and other family members, including six letters from Loja Saarinen; correspondence with artists and architects, including Merle Armitage, Charles and Ray Eames, Carl Koch, Henry Kreis, Carl Milles, Laszlo and Sibyl Moholy-Nagy, Robert Venturi, and Harry Weese; and friends and colleagues at the Cranbrook Academy of Art and Knoll Associates. Also documented is Saarinen's business relationship with Midtown Galleries and Caresse Crosby, and publishers and publications including Child Life, Interiors, Otava Publishing Company, and Reynal & Hitchcock, Inc.

Writings and Notes document Saarinen's work on several children's publications, including Picture Book Zoo (1935) and Who Am I? (1946), through correspondence, notes, manuscript drafts, and extensive sketches. This series also includes Saarinen's ideas for other publications and incorporates some early writings and notes, as well as typescripts of her reminiscences about Eliel Saarinen, the Saarinen family, and the Cranbrook Academy of Art.

Diaries consist of bound diary volumes, loose-leaf journal entries, and heavily annotated engagement calendars, documenting Saarinen's personal life, artistic aspirations, and career development from the 1930s-1970s. This material provides a deeply personal view of the emotional landscape of Saarinen's life, her struggles to balance her identity as a working artist with the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker, and the complex, and often competing, relationships within the renowned architectural family into which she married.

Project files document Saarinen's work on book cover designs, federal and post office commissions in Bloomfield, Indiana, Carlisle, Kentucky, and Evanston, Illinois, reliefs for the Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois, and other important commissions including the Harbor National Bank Clock in Boston, Massachusetts, the KLM Airlines installation at JFK Airport, the Fountain of Noah sculpture at the Northland Center in Detroit, Michigan, and the interior of Toffenetti's restaurant in Chicago, Illinois. Also documented is her role in designs for the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, with Eero Saarinen.

Teaching files document Saarinen's "Language of Clay Course" which she taught at Cambridge Art Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Financial records document exhibition and sales expenses for two exhibitions, including her show at G Place Gallery in 1944.

Printed material consists of clippings about Saarinen and her family, exhibition announcements and catalogs for herself and others, and reference files from the 1930s-1940s, primarily comprising clippings of animals.

Additional printed material documenting Saarinen's career can be found in one of two scrapbooks found in the collection. An additional scrapbook consists of clippings relating primarily to Saarinen's parents.

Artwork comprises extensive sketches, particularly animal and figure sketches, in graphite, crayon, ink, pastel, and watercolor. The sketches demonstrate in particular Saarinen's developing interest in and skill with animal portraiture from her childhood to the 1960s.

Photographs are primarily of artwork and Saarinen's 1944 exhibition at G Place Gallery. Also found are one negative of Saarinen, probably with Eero Saarinen, and a group photo including Lilian, Eero, and Eliel Saarinen with the model for the Detroit Civic Center, circa 1940s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1930s-1960s (3 folders; Box 1, OV 12)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1920-1974 (1.9 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, 8, OV 12)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1920s-1973 (1.3 linear feet, Boxes 2-3, 8, OVs 13-16)

Series 4: Diaries, 1930-1973 (1.4 linear feet, Boxes 3-5, 8)

Series 5: Project Files, 1931-1966 (1.7 linear feet, Boxes 5-6, 8, OVs 17-19)

Series 6: Teaching Files, 1966-1970 (3 folders, Box 6)

Series 7: Financial Records, 1940s-1970s (2 folders, Box 6)

Series 8: Printed Material, circa 1930s-1970s (0.2 linear feet, Box 6)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, circa 1909-1974 (2 folders; Boxes 6, 9)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1920s-circa 1960s (1.7 linear feet, Boxes 6-7, 9-10, OVs 20-27)

Series 11: Photographs, circa 1940s, 1977 (0.5 linear feet, Boxes 7, 11, OV 27)
Biographical / Historical:
Cambridge artist and sculptor, Lilian Swann Saarinen (1912-1995), studied at the Art Students League with Alexander Archipenko in 1928, and later with Albert Stewart and Heninz Warneke from 1934-1936, before moving to Michigan where she studied with Carl Milles at the Cranbrook Academy of Art from 1936-1940. Saarinen was an accomplished skier and a member of the 1936 US Olympic ski team.

At Cranbrook, Swann met architect Eero Saarinen, whom she married in 1939. She subsequently worked with Saarinen's design group on a variety of projects, including the Westward Expansion Memorial, which later became known as the "Gateway Arch" in St. Louis. Lilian and Eero had a son, Eric, and a daughter, Susie, before divorcing in 1953.

Saarinen, who had developed an affinity for drawing animals in childhood, specialized in animal portraits in a variety of sculptural media. In 1939, she exhibited her sculpture Night, which depicted Bagheera the panther from Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book, at the World's Fair. The sculpture was placed in the Boston Public Garden in 1986. In the 1930s and 1940s Saarinen was commissioned to work on a variety of architectural projects, including reliefs for post offices in Bloomfield, Indiana, Carlisle, Kentucky, and Evanston, Illinois, and the Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois. She also executed commissions for the Harbor National Bank in Boston, KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) at JFK Airport, the Northland shopping Center in Detroit Michigan, and Toffenetti's Restaurant in Chicago.

Saarinen was a contributing author and illustrator for a variety of publications, including Child Life, Interiors and Portfolio: An Intercontinental Quarterly. In 1935 she illustrated Picture Book Zoo for the Bronx Zoo and in 1946 Reynal & Hitchcock, Inc. published Who Am I?, a children's book which Saarinen wrote and illustrated.

Saarinen taught ceramic sculpture to soldiers for the Red Cross Arts and Skills Unit rehabilitation program in 1945, served on the Visiting Committee to the Museum School at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, from 1959-1964, where she taught ceramics, and later taught a course entitled "The Language of Clay" at the Cambridge Art Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. One of Saarinen's private students at Cambridge was her cousin, Edie Sedgwick.

Saarinen died in Cohasset, Massachusetts, in 1995 at the age of 83.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reels 1152 and 1192) including a scrapbook containing clippings, copies of letters and telegrams received, and reproductions of Saarinen's work. There is a copy of Saarinen's book, "Who Am I?", and three albums containing photographs of Saarinen, photographs and reproductions of her work, a list of exhibitions, quotes about her, and writings by her about sculpture. Lent material was returned to the lender and is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Lilian Swann Saarinen donated the collection in 1975. She lent additional materials for microfilming in 1976.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Lilian Swann Saarinen papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws
Occupation:
Sculptors -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge  Search this
Topic:
Women artists -- Massachusetts  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Illustrated books, Children's  Search this
Gateway Arch (Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Illustrators -- Massachusetts  Search this
Art commissions  Search this
Art, Municipal  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Diaries
Illustrations
Sketches
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Lilian Swann Saarinen papers, circa 1909-1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.saarlili
See more items in:
Lilian Swann Saarinen papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-saarlili
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Additional Online Media:

Series 8: 2017 Images

Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Adams Morgan (Washington, D.C.)
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Scope and Contents:
This series include portraits from various communities. There are portraits of Wanda Henderson of Wanda's on Seventh Hair Salon near Howard University in Washington, DC. Her hair salon has been a fixture in the Shaw neighborhood for over thirty years. Other portraits include parishioners at the Shrine of the Sacred Heart Catholic Church on Easter Sunday. Also included, are portraits of worshippers at Masjid Muhammad mosque in DC. In addition, there are photographs of Walter Pierce Cemetery Commemoration, a recognition of a historic African American and Quaker burial ground located underneath Walter Pierce Park in the Adams Morgan neighborhood of Washington, DC.

Additionally, this series contains demolition shots of old homes on Martin Luther King, Jr. Ave., SE, and houses along Maple View Place SE. A housing protest organized by the National Alliance of Human and Urban Development Tenants, EmpowerDC, National Coalition for the Homeless, We Are Family DC, Positive Force DC, People's Budget Campaign, and the Coalition for Human Needs are present in this group, as well as various public spaces documented for the museum's "A Right to the City" exhibition. Also documented also is an annual Good Friday procession hosted by Sacred Heart Catholic Church.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Religious institutions  Search this
Catholic Church  Search this
Mosques  Search this
Urban Development  Search this
Urban renewal  Search this
Portraits, Family  Search this
Hairdressing  Search this
Demolition  Search this
Religious observances on public property  Search this
Collection Citation:
Community Documentation Photographs, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.CDC.1, Series 8
See more items in:
Community Documentation Photographs
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-cdc-1-ref8
Additional Online Media:

Records of the Field Offices for the State of Kentucky, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
133 Reels
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Reels
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
This collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 133 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1904. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Kentucky headquarters for the Assistant Commissioner and his staff officers and the subordinate field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters sent and received, monthly reports, registers of complaints, labor contracts, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and bounty payments.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, letters and orders received, registers of freedmen court cases, special orders and circulars issued, registers of claimants, registers of complaints, marriage certificates, and monthly reports forwarded to the Assistant Commissioner. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general orders and circulars received. The unbound records also contain monthly reports; labor contracts; marriage certificates, and records relating to claims.

Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers of that period. In Series 4.6, for example, the volume of contracts for the Columbus field office also contains a register of marriages. Some other examples of additional series within volumes can be found in records of Series 4.18, 4.20, and 4.29. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the Table of Contents to make full use of these documents.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1904.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self-sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states. For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN KENTUCKY

ORGANIZATION

From July 1865 until June 1866, Maj. Gen. C. B. Fisk served as Assistant Commissioner for both Kentucky and Tennessee. Fisk appointed Bvt. Brig. Gen. John Ely to serve as chief superintendent for the Bureau at Kentucky (from March to June 1866). Ely established his headquarters at Louisville, Kentucky, and divided his operations into five subdistricts: Lexington, Louisville, Northwestern, Southern, and Central. Records relating to Kentucky created prior to Ely's tenure may be included among the files of the Assistant Commissioner for Tennessee.

In June 1866, Maj. Gen. Jeff C. Davis was appointed as the first Assistant Commissioner for Kentucky. Superintendents (or subassistant commissioners) employed under Davis were generally responsible for from 3 to 11 counties, and agents (civilian and military) from 1 to 3 counties. Agents received their orders directly from superintendents, and all superintendents were required to submit monthly reports of their activities to the Assistant Commissioner. Brig. Gen. Sidney Burbank succeeded Davis in March 1867 and was replaced by Maj. Benjamin Runkle, who served from January 1869 to May 1869 as Assistant Commissioner and superintendent of education. In August 1870, when superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, Runkle served as claims agent for Kentucky until July 1871. H. H. Ray succeeded Runkle as claims agent, and served in this capacity until December 1871. P. J. Overley became the claims agent in January 1872 and remained in this position until the Bureau's operations in Kentucky were discontinued in April. The major subordinate field offices for the Bureau at Kentucky included those with headquarters at Bowling Green, Lebanon, Lexington, Louisville, and Paducah. For a list of known Kentucky subordinate field office personnel and their dates of service, see the Appendix.

ACTIVITIES

While the Freedmen's Bureau did not begin full operations in Kentucky until June 1866, its activities in the state generally resembled those conducted in other Southern states. The Bureau supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, assisted freedmen in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen legalize marriages, and worked with black soldiers and their heirs in processing claims relating to military service.

The regulation of written labor agreements between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Freedmen's Bureau. In a circular issued on July 24, 1865 (Circular Number 2), Assistant Commissioner Fisk told his subordinates that for both Kentucky and Tennessee freedmen must be free to choose their own employers and that wages were to be based on supply and demand rather than a fixed rate. Bureau officials were to negotiate and approve labor contracts and enforce violations by either party. Compulsory unpaid labor was strictly prohibited. In some areas of Kentucky, planters refused to enter into written agreements with freedmen, and freedmen themselves were reluctant to enter into annual agreements for fear of being reduced to slavery. However, with strong reservations, Bureau officers negotiated monthly agreements for them but encouraged freedmen to sign annual contracts that offered yearlong employment. Wages for monthly contracts ranged from $8 to $10 a month for adult male field hands, well below the state's average wage of $15 a month for men. However by the summer of 1866, with the Bureau's insistence, adult laborers in the tobacco region of the state received $25 per month and laborers in the farm belt areas earned $12 per month. In some Kentucky counties, freedmen received a third of the crops rather than wages. However, because of the shortage of laborers in the state, freedmen were able to demand higher wages, and thus over time the sharecropping system became less attractive.1

The Bureau worked to protect the rights and legal status of freedmen, which, despite the ending of slavery by the 13th Amendment, were still endangered by the persistence of the old slave codes. On May 30, 1865, Commissioner Howard issued Circular Number 5, authorizing Assistant Commissioners to establish courts in states where the old codes existed and the right of blacks to testify against whites was prohibited. Gen. Fisk subsequently announced to the citizens of Kentucky that freedmen courts would operate in the state as long as freedmen weren't given the same rights as whites. By 1867, as a result of several Federal court rulings, Bureau courts ceased to operate in Kentucky. When state courts denied black testimony, the agency, under provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, took cases involving freedmen to the U. S. District Court of Kentucky. In instances where freedmen lacked resources to pursue their cases in Federal court, the Bureau provided transportation for witnesses and other forms of assistance. Despite the Bureau's efforts to safeguard rights and secure justice for freedmen in Kentucky, admitting the testimony of blacks against whites still remained an issue in 1869 when Bureau Assistant Commissioners and their subordinates were withdrawn from the states. However, in January 1872, with a change in public opinion and pressure from the courts, the Kentucky State Legislature amended state law and allowed blacks to testify.

When Gen. John Ely began his duties as chief superintendent for Kentucky under Gen. Fisk's supervision, there were 30 freedmen schools and more than 2,000 students. The schools were organized and maintained by black churches, with black clergy as instructors. Freedmen schools faced widespread violence and white opposition, and in many cases, teachers and students were forced to abandon efforts to maintain school buildings. Ely and his subordinate assisted freedmen in reopening schools that had been forced to close.2 Under Maj. Gen. Jeff C. Davis, who replaced Ely in the summer of 1866, the number of freedmen schools increased to 54, with some 67 teachers and more than 3,200 students. Excluding the schools established at Lexington and Covington under the auspices of the Cincinnati Branch of the Western Freedmen's Aid Society and the Cincinnati Branch of the American Missionary Association, the freedmen schools were taught by black teachers who were supported by subscriptions from parents and black religious institutions. The Bureau, however, rented the building for the school at Lexington. Under Brig. Gen. Sidney Burbank, who succeeded Davis in March 1867, the number of freedmen schools increased to 96, accommodating about 5,000 students aged 6 – 18. By September 1868, in spite of continued violence and opposition, the Bureau had provided support for 135 day schools and 1 night school, serving more than 6,000 students.3

On February 14, 1866, the Kentucky State Legislature passed an act legalizing marriages freedmen had entered into during slavery and authorizing black ministers to solemnize such marriages. Nearly 2 weeks later, on February 26, 1866, Assistant Commissioner Fisk issued Circular Number 5, in accordance with the Kentucky law, directing those freedmen who sought to solemnize a marriage to the county clerk for a marriage license. If the county clerk refused to issue a license, Bureau officials in the subdistricts were authorized to solemnize marriages and issue marriage certificates. Local Bureau officers were required to maintain a register of freedmen marriages and forward a report of such marriages to the Assistant Commissioner at the end of each month. Subordinate Bureau officers were also told to notify persons living as man and wife who had not legalized their marriage, to report to the Bureau to take the necessary steps to do so. Persons who failed to comply were guilty of a misdemeanor and were to be punished by a fine and imprisonment.4 This publication reproduces marriage licenses, certificates, and registers of marriages for the Kentucky subdistricts at Augusta, Bowling Green, Columbus, Cynthiana, Owensboro, Paducah, Mt. Sterling, and Winchester. A single freedmen marriage license and a marriage certificate from Kentucky, filed in the Bureau's headquarters records, has been reproduced on roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M1875, Marriage Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Washington Headquarters of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1861–1869.

In addition to assisting freedmen in solemnizing slave marriages and efforts to sustain the black family, the Bureau helped discharged soldiers, sailors, marines, and their heirs in claims for back pay, bounty payments, and pensions. In accordance with a law passed by Congress on March 29, 1867 (15 Stat. 26), making the Bureau the sole agent for payment of claims relating to black veterans, Bureau disbursing officers assisted freedmen in the preparation and settlement of military claims. In November 1866, in spite of the difficulties in locating veterans who fled the state for fear of violence, Assistant Commissioner Davis reported that he had forwarded more than 260 black soldiers' claims for back pay and bounty payments to Commissioner Howard's office in Washington, DC. In the following year, Assistant Commissioner Burbank reported that his office had assisted nearly 500 veterans with military claims, and in the fall of 1868, for the year ending October 10, 1868, that more than 1,100 received bounty payments through his office.5

ENDNOTES

1 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, p. 48. See also Victor B. Howard, Black Liberation in Kentucky: Emancipation and Freedom, 1862–1884 (Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1983), pp. 96 – 97.

2 See report of Maj. J. C. Davis, August 23, 1866, "Synopses of Letters and Reports Relating to Conditions of Freedmen and Bureau Activities in the States, January 1866–March 1869," Vol. 135, Records of the Commissioner, Record Group 105, NARA, pp. 294 – 395.

3 Ross A. Webb, "The Past Is Never Dead, It's Not Even Past: Benjamin P. Runkle and the Freedmen's Bureau in Kentucky, 1866–1870," The Register of Kentucky Historical Society Vol. 84, No. 4 (Autumn 1986), pp. 348 – 350.

4 See Victor B. Howard, Black Liberation in Kentucky, pp. 121 – 125.

5 Senate Ex. Doc. No. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, p. 67; See also Annual Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, Kentucky, 1867 and 1868, Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Record Group 105, NARA.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Kentucky:
This list provides the names and dates of service of chief medical officers and known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices in Kentucky. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment-related records.

LOUISVILLE

July 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Chief Medical Officer F. S. Town

Mar.–Nov. 1867 -- Chief Medical Officer W. R. De Witt, Jr.

Nov. 1867–June 1869 -- Chief Medical Officer R. A. Bell

BOWLING GREEN

July 1866–July 1867 -- Chief Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Johnson

July–Dec. 1867 -- Chief Subassistant Commissioner Joseph C. Rodriguez

Jan.–Feb. 1868 -- Chief Subassistant Commissioner Louis A. Reynolds

Feb.–June 1868 -- Chief Subassistant Commissioner A. Benson Brown

BOWLING GREEN

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner R. W. Thing (Superintendent)

Sept. 1866–July 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner Joseph C. Rodriguez (Subassistant Comm.)

July–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner James A. Shepley (Subassistant Commissioner)

BRANDENBURG

Sept. 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner York A. Woodward (Superintendent)

May–June 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner James A. Bolton (Subassistant Commissioner)

BURKSVILLE

Oct. 1866–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner George W. Kingsbury

COLUMBUS

Mar.–Apr. 1866 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner Lt. James F. Bolton (Superintendent, Paducah)

Apr. 1866–Mar. 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner Lt. James F. Bolton (Superintendent)

Mar.–Apr. 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner Lt. James F. Bolton (Subassistant)

Apr.–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner Capt. Emerson H. Liscum (Subassistant)

COVINGTON

Jan. 1866–July 1868 -- Superintendent John L. Graham

DANVILLE

Jan.–May 1866 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner William Goodloe (Superintendent)

June 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner W. R. Roume (Superintendent)

Apr.–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner W. R. Roume (Subassistant)

Aug.–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner A. Benson Brown (Subassistant)

Dec. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner Martin Norton (Subassistant)

Feb.–June 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner H. G. Thomas (Chief Subassistant)

GREENSBURG

Oct. 1866–Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent and Chief Agent George Duff (Superintendent)

Mar. 1867–Feb. 1868 -- Superintendent and Chief Agent P. S. Reeves (Chief Agent)

HENDERSON

Feb.–May 1868 -- Chief Subassistant Commissioner James McCleery

May 1868 -- Chief Subassistant Commissioner V. H. Echorn

June–July 1868 -- Chief Subassistant Commissioner A. Benson Brown

HENDERSON

Jan.–Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent and Subassistant F. F. Cheaney (Superintendent)

Apr.–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Wells Bailey (Subassistant)

Jan.–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant V. H. Echorn (Subassistant)

LEXINGTON

Feb.–Mar. 1866 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant John Ely (Chief)

Apr.–June 1866 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant James H. Rice (Chief Superintendent)

June 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant R. E. Johnson (Chief Superintendent)

Aug.–Oct. 1866 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant James H. Rice (Acting Chief Superintendent)

Oct. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant R. E. Johnson (Acting Chief Superintendent)

Apr. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant R. E. Johnson (Chief Subassistant)

LEXINGTON

June 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant James H. Rice (Superintendent)

Apr.–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant James H. Rice (Subassistant)

June–July 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant W. R. Montmolin (Acting Subassistant)

July–Oct. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Patrick H. Flood (Subassistant)

LOUISVILLE

July–Aug. 1865 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner S. A. Porter (Superintendent)

Aug.–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner H. A. McCaleb (Superintendent)

Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner E. D. Kennedy (Acting Superintendent)

Mar.–Apr. 1866 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner Walter Babcock (Superintendent)

Apr. 1866 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner A. Benson Brown (Superintendent)

Apr. 1866–June 1866 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner C. H. Frederick (Superintendent)

June 1866 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner A. Benson Brown (Acting Superintendent)

July 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner C. H. Frederick (Superintendent)

July 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner A. Benson Brown (Assistant Superintendent)

Apr.–July 1867 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner R. W. Roberts (Subassistant)

July 1867–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner J. Catlin (Subassistant)

July–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Subassistant Commissioner J. Catlin (Chief Subassistant)

PADUCAH

Apr.–Dec. 1866 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant Commissioner John H. Donovan (Chief Superintendent)

Aug. 1866 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant Commissioner John F. Smith (Acting Chief Superintendent)

Dec. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant Commissioner W. James Kay (Chief Superintendent)

Apr.–June 1867 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant Commissioner W. James Kay (Chief Subassistant)

June 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant Commissioner W. James Kay (Chief Subassistant)

Apr.–July 1868 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant Commissioner P. T. Swaine (Chief Subassistant)

July–Dec. 1868 -- Chief Superintendent and Chief Subassistant Commissioner A. Benson Brown (Chief Subassistant)

PADUCAH (McCracken County)

Aug. 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Superintendent, Chief Agent, and Subassistant Commissioner A. M. York (Superintendent)

Apr.–Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent, Chief Agent, and Subassistant Commissioner John F. Smith (Superintendent)

Dec. 1866–Jan. 1867 -- Superintendent, Chief Agent, and Subassistant Commissioner Jas. Drysdale (Superintendent)

Feb.–Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent, Chief Agent, and Subassistant Commissioner C. D. Smith (Superintendent)

Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent, Chief Agent, and Subassistant Commissioner C. D. Smith (Chief Agent)

Apr.–May 1867 -- Superintendent, Chief Agent, and Subassistant Commissioner C. D. Smith (Subassistant)

May–Nov. 1867 -- Superintendent, Chief Agent, and Subassistant Commissioner C. D. Smith (Chief Agent)

May–July 1868 -- Superintendent, Chief Agent, and Subassistant Commissioner R. S. Egelston (Subassistant)

PARIS

Mar. 1866 -- Agent Joseph A. Hilduth

Mar.–May 1866 -- Agent Thomas I. Elliott

June–July 1866 -- Agent R. W. Hutchraft

RUSSELLVILLE

Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner H. A. Hunter

Apr.–June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner M. E. Billings

SMITHLAND

Mar. 1866–Jan. 1867 -- Agent J. Bone Thompson

Mar.–June 1867 -- Agent Solomon Littlefield

WINCHESTER

Feb. and Sept. 1866 -- Superintendent H. C. Howard

Feb.–June and Sept. 1866 -- Superintendent George W. Gist

Apr. 1866 -- Superintendent R. C. Nicholas
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1904
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Kentucky, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1904
Additional Online Media:

Journal of a tour in Iceland in the summer of 1809 / by William Jackson Hooker

Title:
Recollections of a tour in Iceland in 1809
Hooker on Iceland DSI
Author:
Hooker, William Jackson Sir 1785-1865  Search this
Publisher:
Miller, William 1769-1844  Search this
Printer:
Keymer, J.  Search this
Bookbinder:
Carpenter, C. Allan Jr. DSI  Search this
Former owner:
Dawson, John DSI  Search this
Malden Public Library (Mass.) DSI  Search this
Publishers:
Vernor, Hood and Sharpe  Search this
Physical description:
[4], lxii, 496, [8] pages, [4] leaves of plates (2 folded) : illustrations, plan ; 23 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
Iceland
Date:
1811
Topic:
Botany  Search this
Volcanoes  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Call number:
DL312 .H78 1811
DL312.H78 1811
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_134780

Shinto : discovery of the divine in Japanese art / Sinéad Vilbar and Kevin Gray Carr ; with contributions by Talia J. Andrei [and 9 others]

Title:
Discovery of the divine in Japanese art
Author:
Vilbar, Sinéad  Search this
Carr, Kevin Gray 1974-  Search this
Iwata, Shigeki  Search this
Taniguchi, Kōsei 1972-  Search this
Shimizu, Ken  Search this
Contributor:
Andrei, Talia J.  Search this
Translator:
Wakabayashi, Judy  Search this
Host institution:
Cleveland Museum of Art  Search this
Physical description:
xix, 292 pages : color illustrations, map, photographs ; 27 x 31 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Exhibition catalogs
Essays
Illustrated works
Place:
Japan
Date:
2019
Topic:
Shinto art  Search this
Shinto art objects  Search this
Shinto and art  Search this
Art, Japanese  Search this
Call number:
N8194.A3 V55 2019
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1109360

Thrivent Financial Collection

Donor:
Thrivent Financial for Lutherans  Search this
Creator:
Lutheran Brotherhood  Search this
Aid Association for Lutherans  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1902 - 2014
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes early founding documents of Thrivent's predecessors, Aid Association for Lutherans and Lutheran Brotherhood, including articles of incorporation, by-laws, etc.; magazines published by both organizations; magazines published by Thrivent; ballots; song books (for AAL or LB gatherings); placemats; contracts; photographs; brochures, including recruitment brochures; SUMMARY.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Faith-based philanthropic organization.
Provenance:
Thrivent Financial.,Gift.,2017,ACNMAH 1418; Nonacc. No. 2017.3032.
Restrictions:
UNPROCESSED COLLECTION.
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Religious institutions  Search this
Fund raising  Search this
Charities  Search this
Citation:
Thrivent Financial Collection, 1902-2014, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1418
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1418

Otto Gerdau Collection

Creator:
Gerdau, Otto  Search this
Orr, Craig  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1876-1900
Summary:
The collection documents the ivory importing firm of Heinrich Adolf Meyer, of Hamburg, Germany.
Scope and Contents:
Documents relating to the ivory importing firm of Heinrich Adolf Meyer, of Hamburg, Germany. It contains a booklet on "Ivory" published by the firm in 1889, a photographic album on ivory published around the same time, one black and white photograph showing the largest and thickest tusks on record, two photographs showing the firms factory, a photostatic copy of the firm's 1876 US Centennial Exhibition catalog, and photostatic copies of notices of the awards it won at the Exhibition. Also included are photoprints from the photographic album and two copies of photoprints showing the company's exhibit at the Centennial. There is also one letter in the collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Otto Gerdau was the New York agent for the German firm of Heinrich Adolf Meyer. The firm was co-founded in Hamburg, Germany, in 1818 by Heinrich Adolf Meyer and his father Heinrich Christian Meyer. The firm specialized in the import and export of ivory and its various substitutes, in both raw and finished form. the company's first factory was built in 1836; a new, larger factory was built in 1864. After his father's death in 1848, Heinrich Adolf Meyer ran the company alone. Meyer was a prominent man in Hamburg. he received a Ph.d from the University of Kiel in 1865 and was elected to the German Reichstag in 1877. It was through his influence that the Hamburg Aquarium was built.

Gerdau was a native of Hamburg, Germany. After emigrating to the United States, he founded the Otto Gerdau Company in New York in 1872. As the American agent for Heinrich Adolf Meyer, Gerdau imported ivory from germany. Following otto's death in 1920, his two sons, Carl and Allan, ran the company. Allan gradually assumed more responsibility for running the company's import lines which included rattan, mother of pearl, rugs from India, and marble furniture from Italy, in addition to ivory. After Allan died in 1986, the company was left in trust to three New York religious institutions who were to benefit from the company's profits. In 1989 the company was sold to a Florida industrialist and there is no longer any involvement in the company by the Gerdau Family.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Joan Rogers, January 1, 1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Contact repository for details.
Topic:
Ivory  Search this
Ivory industry  Search this
Citation:
Otto Gerdau Collection, 1876-1900, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0363
See more items in:
Otto Gerdau Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0363
Additional Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Simon, Sidney, 1917-1997  Search this
Extent:
1.2 Linear feet (Boxes 1-2)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1936-2002
Scope and Contents note:
Correspondence consists of letters, telegrams, faxes, postcards, and greeting cards. Included are letters of a personal nature between Simon and his artist friends and colleagues; correspondents discuss family matters, daily activities, and work projects. There are copies of Simon's outgoing letters and drafts of writings. Included are single letters from Fritz Bultman (1 postcard), Jacqueline Helion, Penelope Jencks, William King, Burgess Meredith, and Judith Shahn.

General correspondence, for the most part is with galleries, museums, public and religious institutions relating to scheduling of exhibitions, commissioned projects, and sales of artwork. Other letters document Simon's active involvement in a number of professional organizations, such as the Architectural League of New York, Century Association, the National Academy of Design, the New York Chapter of Artists Equity Association, and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. Found are records of Simon's teaching positions at Amherst College, the Hopkins Center, Dartmouth College, and the New School. Among the correspondents are Castle Hill, Truro Center for the Arts, Colby College, André Emmerich, Eric Makler Gallery, Xavier Gonzalez, Graham Gallery, Ruth Millerick, Museum of Modern Art, Anne Poor, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. There are single letters from Sigmund Abeles, Benny Andrews, Varujan Boghosian, Helen Frankenthaler (1 postcard), Bernard Gotfryd, Walker Hancock, Milton Hebald, William King, Burgess Meredith, Paul Resika, Hughie Lee-Smith, among others. Found are illustrated letters by Simon and others, including a handmade Christmas card from William Zorach.
Arrangement note:
Correspondence, for the most part, is arranged in alphabetical order and filed chronologically thereafter. Correspondence is arranged as two subseries.

2.1. Personal Correspondence, 1936-1943, 1966-1997

2.2. General Correspondence, 1941, 1950-2002
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Sidney Simon papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Sidney Simon papers, circa 1917-2002, bulk 1940-1997. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.simosidn, Series 2
See more items in:
Sidney Simon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-simosidn-ref85

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