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Richard H. and Nana Pratt photographs

Photographer:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Pratt, Nana  Search this
Extent:
30 contact prints
30 negatives (nitrate)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Contact prints
Negatives
Date:
circa 1896
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs probably made by Richard Henry Pratt and his daughter Nana Pratt on a trip around the United States, circa 1896. They include images of Southwest and Northwest Coast Indians, waterways, dwellings and pueblos, a church, a totem pole, and a town in the Northwest.
Biographical/Historical note:
Richard Henry Pratt (1840-1924) was a United States Army officer and organizer of the Indian Division of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia. Pratt's theories about education of American Indians and their assimilation into American society led to the founding of the Carlisle School in 1879, where he served as superintendent until 1904.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 81I
Reproduction Note:
Contact prints made by Smithsonian Institution from original negatives, 1966.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Richard Pratt donated drawings by the Kiowa artist Wohaw to the Smithsonian Institution. The drawings are now held in National Anthropological Archives MS 30740, MS 30747, and MS 30750, and in the Graphic Arts collection of the National Museum of American History.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds photographs of Richard Pratt (BAE historical negatives) and correspondence from Pratt (MS 4558, Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers).
Photographs relating to the Carlisle Indian Industrial School held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 73-8 and Photo Lot 81-12.
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Totem poles  Search this
Indians of North America -- Dwellings  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 81I, Richard H. and Nana Pratt photographs, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.81I
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-81i

Dakota agency personnel (including Indian Police), students, and views of Agency buildings, from various Dakota agencies and Carlisle Indian School

Photographer:
Choate, John N., of Carlisle, Pennsylvania  Search this
Anderson, J. A.  Search this
Creator:
Northwestern Photographic Company  Search this
Names:
Anderson, W. W.  Search this
Berht, Stella  Search this
Black Bear, Carrie  Search this
Bordeaux ?, Martha  Search this
Calls Horse Looking  Search this
Cleveland, William Joshua, 1845-1910  Search this
Dion ?, Mose  Search this
Flood, Thomas  Search this
Four Horn, Charlotte  Search this
Galiego, Louisa  Search this
Gallagher, H. D. Col  Search this
Good Nation, Laura  Search this
Hand, Emma  Search this
High Hawk ?  Search this
Horse Looking, Irene  Search this
Iron Eagle Feather  Search this
Jackson, Sheldon  Search this
Little Bull  Search this
Low, Adelia  Search this
McChesney, Charles E.  Search this
McLaughlin, James Major  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Shields, John  Search this
Side ? Bear, Esther  Search this
Spence, L. F. Agent  Search this
Standing Bear, Victoria  Search this
Townsend, Harvey  Search this
Two Dogs, Isabella  Search this
Wells, Mark  Search this
White Bear, Rosa  Search this
White Birch, Katie  Search this
White Horse  Search this
White Thunder, Rosa  Search this
Wilson, Susan  Search this
Wright, John V. Judge  Search this
Extent:
44 mounted prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Mounted prints
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Photographs of Carlisle by J. N. Choate, three Rosebud Agency photographs by J. A. Anderson, the rest unidentified as to photographer. The photographs probably date between 1880 and 1895.
Catalog Number 4574: Letter of 3/21/58 from Richard A. Pohrt (donor): "...eleven photographs from the Indian School at Carlisle. Pa. These I am certain were all taken by J. N. Choates [Choate], a photographer who had a studio at 21 West Main St., Carlisle, Pa." (1) Carlisle Indian School "The dining hall, Indian Training School" (Original Number 45) Photographer: J. H. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (2) Carlisle Indian School "Sheldon Jackson, John Shields and Harvey Townsend, Pueblos." (Original Number 70) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (3) Carlisle Indian School "Pine Ridge Boys" (Original Number 155) (caption written by hand) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (4) Carlisle Indian School "After School; Indian Training School, Carlisle, Pa." (written by hand). (Original Number 163) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (5) Carlisle Indian School Group of students, presumably of Carlisle School. Labeled on back (by hand) as follows: "No. 1 White Horse Little Bull "No. 2 Calls Horse Looking "No. 3 Brule Iron Eagle Feather "No 4 Stella Berht "No. 5 Rosa White Thunder "No 6 Irene Horse Looking "No 7 Laura Good Nation Compliments of Capt. Pratt, E." J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?) (6) Carlisle Indian School Group of girls, presumably students at Carlisle School. Labled by hand as follows; left to right, row 1 (kneeling) Emma Hand, Rosa White Bear (dead), Isabella Two Dogs, Louisa Galiego (Pine Ridge). Row 2, (sitting) Carrie Black Bear, Susan Wilson (S sister [?]), Charlotte Four Horn, Esther Side [?] Bear. Row 3 (standing) Katie White Birch, Adelia Low, Victoria Standing Bear, Martha Bordeaux [?], Mose Dion [?]. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (7) Carlisle Indian School Group of boys, presumably students at Carlisle School. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (8) "Girl's Quarters, Carlisle Barracks" [Choate Broadside, No 78?] J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (9) "School Rooms, Carlisle Barracks." [Choate broadside, No. 80 ?].
Catalog Number 4574: (10) Carlisle Indian School "Cap't Pratt's House and Chapel." [Choate broadside, No. 82 ?] Captain Pratt near steps. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (11) Carlisle Indian School (?) "Band of Indian Boys at the Government School, Washington, D. C." ("Popular Series"). Stereoscopic view. Probably copy of Choate No. 76, erroneously labeled. [See Choate broadside, B.A.E. Catalog Number 4241.] J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa (?) (See R. A. Pohrt correspondence, 9/24/59). (12) Tribe: Dakota (Oglalla ?) "High Hawk." Resembles closely the man identified as High Hawk in Signal Corps Photograph at National Archives (No. 101549). Only slight resemblance to S. I. Negative 42,827. He must have been considerably older when the latter was taken if they are the same person. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (13) Dakota:Agency Personnel, various agencies Seated left to right: Reverend William J. Cleveland (Episcopal missionary and sometime agent at Rosebud-- See Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 5, page 20 for biography), Captain Richard Henry Pratt (Chairman), and Judge John V. Wright of Tennessee, -- the three composed the 2nd commission to the Sioux, 1888. (For account of the commission see Eastman, "Pratt, the Redman's Moses," University of Oklahoma Press, 1935). (Identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits 13-b"). No date, but because of the 3 main figures, suggests ca. 1888. Standing. left to right: , (appears third from left in S. I. Negative 43,563-- identified more clearly in original prints of same group National Archives-- N. A. Numbers 86-1, 86-2, 87), Col. H. D. Gallagher, Agent Pine Ridge (same ident. source), Major W. W. Anderson, agent at Crow Creek and Lower Brule; for a Mark Wells see Negative 3307-c, Dr C. E. McChesney, agent at Cheyenne River Agency (Number 14, in row 5.), Major James McLaughlin, Agent Standing Rock Reservation, Col. L. F. Spence, Agent Rosebud Agency (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). No date, but because of the 3 main figures, suggests ca. 1888.
Catalog Number 4574: (14) Dakota: Agency Personnel Seated: Col. L. F. Spence, Agent at Rosebud, (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563) Standing: unidentified, but compare with 4574: (28), below. (15) Dakota: Pine Ridge Agency Labeled in pencil, "Agent's Dwelling, Pine Ridge Agency, D. T." (Verified by numerous views of the Agency in the National Archives). Two Indian Policemen on porch. Water tower behind house. (16) Dakota: Pine Ridge Agency ? Distant view of Agency, almost certainly Pine Ridge (compare with original prints catalog Number 4464. "Pine Ridge Agency from the North in 1891"). Print marked in pencil, "Fort Niobrara, Nebraska Territory"-- erroneous ? Northwestern Photographic Co, Chadron, Nebraska (17) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No. 4 St Francis' Mission, Rosebud Agency, S. D., West Side." Church and school, one wing in process of being built. Print not marked. Received in package marked by donor, "J. A. Anderson." (18) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No 7. Birds-eye view of St Francis Mission. Rosebud Agency, S. D." Print not marked. Received in package marked by donor,"J. A. Anderson." (19) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No 8. Fathers and Brothers of St Francis Mission. Rosebud Agency, S. D." J. A. Anderson, Rosebud Agency, S. D. (20) Dakota: Rosebud Agency View of Rosebud Agency, and garden, from the South (if 17 above correct). Must have been taken prior to the Anderson photograph, since the new wing is not in evidence. (Identified from 17 and 18.) (21) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Nuns with large group of students in school uniforms, (St Francis Mission, Rosebud Agency ?) Little white girl in front row looks like one in 4574: (32) below, and possibly same as in 4574: (31).
Catalog Number 4574 (22) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "View at Rosebud Agency. May 8th 1892." This series of "row" houses corresponds, perhaps, to ones in J. A. Anderson's Among the Sioux, "A typical Indian Agency" (BAE temporary 77). Note "Police Station " sign. 1892. (23) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Agent's house, Rosebud Agency (identified from Negative Number 43,791-B). Standing in front, left to right: , , Col. L. F. Spence, Agent (identified from S, I, Negative 43,563 and National Archives' prints of same group), , , . (24) Boy on horse in front of agent's dwelling, Rosebud Agency. (House, and thus agency, identified from S. I. Negative 43,791-B and others). (25) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Group of Indian Police, civilian men, women, and children around flag pole in front of agent's house (identified from S. I. Negative 43,791-B), Rosebud Agency. Reverend William J. Cleveland (with whiskers and derby) in back row, 2nd to right of flagpole. (Indentified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits 13-b.") (26) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Distant view of agent's dwelling and unidentified home and/or school to the left of it. Copy in negative catalog made from another original print. See Negative Number 43,791-C.
Catalog Number 4574: (27) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Unidentified home and/or school to left of agent's dwelling (see 4574:(26) above, then 43,791-B), large group of men in front of building. Possibly Reverend William J. Cleveland, (note whiskers) on porch, 3rd from right. (28) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Agency personnel (?), including Indian police. 4th from left, front row: Col. L. F. Spence, Agent at Rosebud (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). 5th from left, front row: same as man on right in 4574: (14) (?). 2nd from left, 2nd row: same as man on left in 4574: (14) (?). 2nd from right, 2nd row: Thomas Flood, Interpreter (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). Indentification as Rosebud Agency rests primarily upon the presence of Spence. See Negative Number 45,793-B. (29) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Large building, with chapel, set in open area. Built 1885 (date on front gable). In front are 5 women (one on horse) 3 children, three men; Rev. William J. Cleveland at extreme left (identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits" 13-b). May be Saint Mary's Mission Boarding School for Sioux Boys and Girls, 12 miles from Rosebud Agency, on Antelope Creek, Dakota Territory, for the following reasons: 1. The building is a self-contained unit--including a chapel--and there are no other buildings in view. 2. The building is dated 1885. Pilling, in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 5, 1887 states that Cleveland had at that time been principal of Saint Mary's for 2 years, which fits neatly with the 1885 date. (30) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Side view of same building as in 4574: (29). Several women and children in foreground. Reverend William J. Cleveland holding horses (identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits" 13-b), and one other man. See 4574:(29) above.
Catalog Number 4574: The following photographs (4574: (31-39)), along with a group of similar photographs in the National Archives, seem to establish a consistent pattern in the location and structure of agency school facilities. In general, the schools were small frame buildings, apparently widely scattered over the agencies, each with a small frame house for the teaching couple and family. (31) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Frame school (?) building. In foreground, group of students with teachers (man and woman--and their little girl ?), and Indian police. (32) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman--and their child) in front of frame school (?) house. Also an Indian Policeman. (33) Dakota: Agency unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman) and Indian Police in front of frame school (?) house. White man on right appears to be identical with the first man on left in S. I. Negative 43,563, Sioux delegation to Washington, 1888. (34) Dakota: Agency unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman) in front of frame school (?) house. Also an Indian Policeman. (35) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame school (?) building. In foreground a group of students with teacher(s). (36) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame school (?) with group of students and teacher in the foreground. The teacher is the same as in 4574:(36), as are many of the pupils. (37) Dakota: Agency unidentified Teachers (and their child) with group of students in front of frame school building. (See 4574: (38) for identity as school.) (38) Dakota: Agency unidentified School building (and teachers' dwelling ?) with man, woman, and child (same ones as in 4574: (37) above) in front, and two Indian men at side. 2 duplicate prints.
Catalog Number 4574: (39) Dakota: Agency unidentified Teacher's dwelling-schoolhouse complex with one or two scattered cabins in the foreground. Follows what appears to be the typical pattern of small, widely scattered schools. (40) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame building. Function ? Odd door on back and man standing in doorway suggest this might be an exterior view of 4574: (41). (41) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Pine Ridge (?) or Rosebud (?) Slaughter house (?), interior view, with three men, one an Indian. One man looks like Col. H. D. Gallagher, Pine Ridge Agent. But the print was among a group of views mainly from Rosebud Agency. (42) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Large group of uniformed Indian Police on horseback in front of frame buildings. Agency might be: 1. Standing Rock ? Man front row, left looks like Red Tomahawk. 2. Pine Ridge ? But the men aren't posed in same area of agency where other PR Police pictures were taken. Also the men in this picture have more uniform uniforms than are shown in PR pictures. (See Original Prints, "temporary" Number 29, and Catalog Number 4544: (59, 60).) 3. Rosebud ? (43) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Indian Police, same uniform, same agency, same building, as 4574: (42). Also additional evidence for identifying Agency as Standing Rock: compare officers to those in BAE Negative Number 3711-e. See Negative Number 45,793. (44) Dakota Badlands scenery. "In general it seems to resemble the badlands of southwestern South Dakota not far distant from Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations."--Information from John C. Ewers, 4/5/60.
Biographical / Historical:
Pohrt states, "I believe they were taken about 1890. Some are identified and many are not, but I have reason to believe that the majority were taken on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations in South Dakota. They are of school children, Indian Police, Agency buildings, etc." See correspondence in Smithsonian Institution-Bureau of American Ethnology files.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4574
Local Note:
Filed: Original Prints: Carlisle Indian School; Dakota.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Federal-Indian relations -- Agencies  Search this
Education -- Carlisle Indian School  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4574, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4574
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4574

American Indians, chained and unchained : being an address before the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, at the Union League, Philadelphia, October 23, 1912, entitled "One of General Sheridan's ways with Indians and what came of it," supplemented by an address to the Society of American Indians at their annual convention, in Columbus, Ohio, October 5, 1912, on "The solution of the Indian problem" both by R. H. Pratt, Brig. Gen., U.S.A

Author:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Physical description:
24 p. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1912
1912]
Topic:
Government relations  Search this
Education  Search this
Call number:
E83.866.P92X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_345299

Wohaw drawing of tightrope walker

Creator:
Wohaw, 1855-1924  Search this
Annotator:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and watercolor, 12 x 18 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1855-1877
Scope and Contents:
The manuscript consists of one drawing of a tight rope walker. It is inscribed on the verso "Drawn by Wohaw Kiowa."It is from a set of 12 drawings donated by Captain Richard Pratt. Three of the drawings are now in the NAA (MS 30,740, 30,747, and 30,750) and 8 are now in the Graphic Arts collection of the National Museum of American History. The location of the twelfth drawing is not known.
Biographical / Historical:
Wohaw, also known as Wo-Haw, Beef, Gu hau de, and Wolf Robe, was a Kiowa born in 1855. He was accused of being a combatant in the Red River War of 1874 and 1875. On October 3, 1874, he surrendered at the Cheyenne-Arapaho Agency at Darlinton, Indian Territory. He was transferred to Ft. Sill, where he was held in the guard house. He was among the Kiowa warriors who were subsequently imprisoned at Ft. Marion in San Augustine, Florida. Following his release in 1878, Wohaw returned to the Indian Territory, arriving in Anadarko on May 1, 1878. He served in the Indian Police between 1879 and 1880 and in Troop L of the 7th U.S. Cavalry from 1891 to 1895. He was a member of the Ohomah society and is believed to have been an adherant of the Ghost Dance and Peyote religions. Wohaw died in Oklahoma in 1924. For further biographical information on Wohaw see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Moira Harris, Between Two Cultures: Kiowa Art from Fort Marion, Pogo Press, 1989.
Richard Henry Pratt had a long and varied military career, beginning as a soldier in the Civil War and participating in the Indian wars on the frontier. It was his work on the frontier that sparked Pratt's lifelong interests in the American Indian and spurred him to develop his infamous education system devoted to "civilizing" American Indian peoples. It was Pratt's Belief that the American Indian, although leading a savage and uncivilized life, was fully capable of being educated and absorbed into American society. Pratt gained support for this view when he commanded a group of seventy-two Indian prisoners at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1875. While at Fort Marion, Pratt encouraged the prisoners to draw and produce works of art, which he often collected and sold as tourist souvenirs. Some of the drawings he collected were later donated to museums around the country including the Smithsonian Institute and the Yale Library. Information on Pratt taken from http://webtext.library.yale.edu/xml2html/beinecke.PRATT.con.html. For more information about Richard Henry Pratt, see his autobiography Battlefield and Classroom; Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904, 1964, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08500300

NAA MS 30750

OPPS NEG 88-19,335

OPPS NEG 92-11256
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 30750
Provenance:
Pratt, R H Capt
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 30750, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS30750
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms30750

White Buffalo Head pictographic letter to Minimic

Creator:
White Buffalo Head.  Search this
Addressee:
Minimic (Cheyenne)  Search this
Annotator:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
2 Items (leaves of drawings , graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 20 x 27 cm.)
Culture:
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Letters
Date:
ca. 1877
Scope and Contents:
From White Buffalo Head and family to his father, Minimic, then imprisoned at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. The letter, which spans two sheets of paper, is annotated with explanations provided by Richard H. Pratt. Shows White Buffalo, his father Minimic, members of Minimic's family and other Cheyennes. Also included is a map showing the North Canadian River and tributaries and neighboring trails, camps (identified by chief's name), the Cheyenne and Arapaho agency, fields identified by owners, etc. A legend, and a note, in the hand of Richard H. Pratt identifies elements of the drawing and its provenance. One leaf of paper has letterhead of Cheyenne and Arapaho, etc.
Biographical / Historical:
White Buffalo Head's father, Minimic or Eagle Head, was a Cheyenne prisoner at Fort Marion, Florida. (USNM-P Volume I, 1878, page 204).
Richard Henry Pratt (1840-1924) was a career Army officer, beginning as a soldier in the Civil War and participating in the Indian wars on the frontier. He was in charge of a group of seventy-two Indian prisoners at St. Augustine, Florida, 1875-78, and subsequently founded the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. For more information about Richard Henry Pratt, see his autobiography Battlefield and Classroom; Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904, 1964, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 30,740

NAA INV 08500000

NAA INV 08500100
Place:
United States Indian Territory Darlington.
United States Oklahoma Darlington.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Cheyenne
Ledger drawings
Letters
Citation:
Manuscript 30,740, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS30740
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms30740
Additional Online Media:

Wohaw drawing of camp scene

Creator:
Wohaw, 1855-1924  Search this
Annotator:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and watercolor, 12 x 18 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1855-1877
Scope and Contents:
The manuscript consists of one drawing of a Kiowa camp with painted tipis. It is inscribed on the verso "Drawn by Wohaw Kiowa." It is from a set of 12 drawings donated by Captain Richard Pratt. Three of the drawings are now in the NAA (MS 30,740, 30,747, and 30,750) and 8 are now in the Graphic Arts collection of the National Museum of American History. The location of the twelfth drawing is not known.
Biographical / Historical:
Wohaw, also known as Wo-Haw, Beef, Gu hau de, and Wolf Robe, was a Kiowa born in 1855. He was accused of being a combatant in the Red River War of 1874 and 1875. On October 3, 1874, he surrendered at the Cheyenne-Arapaho Agency at Darlinton, Indian Territory. He was transferred to Ft. Sill, where he was held in the guard house. He was among the Kiowa warriors who were subsequently imprisoned at Ft. Marion in San Augustine, Florida. Following his release in 1878, Wohaw returned to the Indian Territory, arriving in Anadarko on May 1, 1878. He served in the Indian Police between 1879 and 1880 and in Troop L of the 7th U.S. Cavalry from 1891 to 1895. He was a member of the Ohomah society and is believed to have been an adherant of the Ghost Dance and Peyote religions. Wohaw died in Oklahoma in 1924. For further biographical information on Wohaw see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Moira Harris, Between Two Cultures: Kiowa Art from Fort Marion, Pogo Press, 1989.
Richard Henry Pratt had a long and varied military career, beginning as a soldier in the Civil War and participating in the Indian wars on the frontier. It was his work on the frontier that sparked Pratt's lifelong interests in the American Indian and spurred him to develop his infamous education system devoted to "civilizing" American Indian peoples. It was Pratt's Belief that the American Indian, although leading a savage and uncivilized life, was fully capable of being educated and absorbed into American society. Pratt gained support for this view when he commanded a group of seventy-two Indian prisoners at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1875. While at Fort Marion, Pratt encouraged the prisoners to draw and produce works of art, which he often collected and sold as tourist souvenirs. Some of the drawings he collected were later donated to museums around the country including the Smithsonian Institute and the Yale Library. Information on Pratt taken from http://webtext.library.yale.edu/xml2html/beinecke.PRATT.con.html. For more information about Richard Henry Pratt, see his autobiography Battlefield and Classroom; Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904, 1964, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
OPPS NEG 92-11407

NAA INV 08500200

NAA MS 30747
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 30747
Provenance:
Pratt, R H Capt
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 30747, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS30747
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms30747

MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers

Creator:
La Flesche, Francis, 1857-1932  Search this
Fletcher, Alice C. (Alice Cunningham), 1838-1923  Search this
Correspondent:
La Flesche family  Search this
Aldrich, Charles F.  Search this
Alexander, Hartley B.  Search this
Allen, James T.  Search this
Andrews, Gleorge L.  Search this
Armstrong, S.C.  Search this
Ashley, Robert H.  Search this
Atkins, John D.C.  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Bowditch, Charles P. (Charles Pickering), 1842-1921  Search this
Brinton, Daniel G. (Daniel Garrison), 1837-1899  Search this
Brown, George LeRoy  Search this
Burlin, Natalie Curtis, 1875-1921  Search this
Cadman, Charles Wakefield, 1881-1946  Search this
Copley, John T.  Search this
Dall, William Healey, 1845-1927  Search this
Dawes, E.S.  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Dixon, Roland Burrage, 1875-1934  Search this
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Dunbar, John Brown, 1841-1914  Search this
Ellinwood, F.F.  Search this
Farabee, William Curtis, 1865-1925  Search this
Farley, Caryl E.  Search this
Farley, Rosalie La Flesche  Search this
Farwell, Arthur  Search this
Fellowes, R.S.  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Fillmore, John Comfort, 1843-1898  Search this
Fillmore, L.H.  Search this
Fillmore, Thomas Hill  Search this
Freire-Marreco, Barbara W. (Barbara Whitchurch), 1879-1967  Search this
Gay, E. Jane  Search this
Griffith, Elmer C.  Search this
Guthrie, William Norman  Search this
Hale, Horatio, 1817-1896  Search this
Hall, C.C.  Search this
Hall, Charles Lemon, 1847-1940  Search this
Hearst, Phoebe Apperson, 1842-1919  Search this
Heth, H.  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Jackson, Sheldon  Search this
Johnston, Catherine M.  Search this
Kincaid, William  Search this
La Flesche, Joseph  Search this
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 1859-1928  Search this
MacCurdy, George Grant, 1863-1947  Search this
Mason, Otis T., 1838-1908  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
McBeth, Kate C., 1832-1915  Search this
McBeth, Sue L., -1893  Search this
McCown, S.M.  Search this
McGee, W J, 1853-1912  Search this
McGuire, Joseph D. (Joseph Deakins), 1842-1916  Search this
Mead, Frances K.  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Merrick, Fannie  Search this
Merrick, Jessie  Search this
Moon, Karl  Search this
Moore, Homer  Search this
Morgan, Caroline S.  Search this
Morgan, John T.  Search this
Murie, James R.  Search this
Myers, John L.  Search this
Nuttal, Maria Magdalena  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Petter, W.H.  Search this
Pettigrew, Frederick W., 1850-1901  Search this
Picotte, Susan La Flesche  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Price, Hiram  Search this
Proctor, Edna Dean, 1829-1923  Search this
Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915  Search this
Quinn, Daniel  Search this
Robertson, Alice M.  Search this
Rogers, Emily F.  Search this
Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917  Search this
Seymour, Thomas Day  Search this
Spofford, Ainsworth Rand, 1825-1908  Search this
St. Cyr, Julia  Search this
Starr, Frederick  Search this
Stuart, James  Search this
Talbot, Emily  Search this
Teller, W.J.  Search this
Thaw, William  Search this
Tozzer, Alfred M. (Alfred Marston), 1877-1954  Search this
Wallaschek, Richard  Search this
Westcott, Edith  Search this
Wilkinson, G.W.  Search this
Wilkinson, Hattie M.  Search this
Willoughby, Charles Clark  Search this
Names:
Carr, Lucien, 1829-1915  Search this
Radin, Paul, 1883-1959  Search this
Extent:
19 Linear feet (50 boxes)
Culture:
Arapaho Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Ponca Indians  Search this
Quechua  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Creek Indians  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Cherokee, Eastern  Search this
Hopi  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Hitchiti  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Caddo Indians  Search this
Cherokee Indians  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Oto Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Juaneño Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1873-1939
Summary:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.

The papers have been divided into three general categories: the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, the papers of Francis La Flesche, and the ethnographic research of Fletcher and La Flesche. The first two categories represent personal and professional materials of Fletcher and La Flesche. The third section holds the majority of the ethnographic material in the collection.

Of primary concern are Fletcher and La Flesche's ethnological investigations conducted among the Plains Indians, particularly the Omaha and Osage. Fletcher's Pawnee field research and her allotment work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs among the Omaha, Nez Perce, and Winnebago are represented in the collection. A substantial portion of the ethnographic material reflects Fletcher and La Flesche's studies of Native American music. Much of the correspondence in the papers of Fletcher and La Flesche is rich with information about the situation of Omaha peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Also included in the collection are documents related to Fletcher's work with the Archaeological Institute of America and the School for American Archaeology. Additionally, substantial amounts of Fletcher's early anthropological and historical research are found among her correspondence, lectures, anthropological notes, and early field diaries. La Flesche's literary efforts are also generously represented.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into the following 3 series: 1) Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers, 1873-1925; 2) Francis La Flesche papers, 1881-1930; 3) Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, 1877-1939.

Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers is divided into the following 10 subseries: 1.1) Incoming correspondence, 1874-1923 (bulk 1882-1923); 1.2) Outgoing correspondence, 1873-1921; 1.3) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1925; 1.4) Correspondence between Fletcher and La Flesche, 1895-1922; 1.5) Publications, 1882-1920; 1.6) Organizational records, 1904-1921; 1.7) General anthropological notes, undated; 1.8) Lectures, circa 1878-1910; 1.9) Diaries, 1881-1922; 1.10) Biography and memorabilia, 1878-1925.

Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers is divided into the following 6 subseries: 2.11) General correspondence, 1890-1929; 2.12) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1930; 2.13) Publications, 1900-1927; 2.14) Literary efforts, undated; 2.15) Personal diaries, 1883-1924; 2.16) Biography and memorabilia, 1886-1930.

Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche is divided into the following 12 subseries: 3.17) Alaska, 1886-1887; 3.18) Earth lodges, 1882, 1898-1899; 3.19) Music, 1888-1918; 3.20) Nez Perce, 1889-1909; 3.21) Omaha, 1882-1922; 3.22) Osage, 1896-1939; 3.23) Pawnee, 1897-1910; 3.24) Pipes, undated; 3.25) Sioux, 1877-1896; 3.26) Other tribes, 1882-1922; 3.27) Publications collected, 1884-1905, undated; 3.28) Photographs, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923) was an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Francis La Flesche (1856-1923) was an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher

1838 March 15 -- Born in Havana, Cuba

1873-1876 -- Secretary, American Association for Advancement of Women

1879 -- Informal student of anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1881 -- Field trip to Omaha and Rosebud Agencies

1882 -- Assistant in ethnology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1882 -- Helped secure land in severalty to Omaha Indians

1882-1883 -- Begins collaboration with Francis La Flesche on the Peabody Museum's collection of Omaha and Sioux artifacts

1883-1884 -- Special Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Omaha Agency

1886 -- Bureau of Education investigation of Alaskan native education

1887-1888 -- Special Disbursing Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Winnebago Agency

1889-1892 -- Special Agent for allotment, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Nez Perce Agency

1890-1899 -- President, Women's Anthropological Society of America

1891-1923 -- Mary Copley Thaw Fellow, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1892-1893 -- Department of Interior consultant, World's Columbian Exposition

1896 -- Vice-President, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1897 -- Collaborator, Bureau of American Ethnology

1899-1916 -- Editorial board, American Anthropologist

1900 -- Published Indian Story and Song from North America

1901-1902 -- Advisory committee, Anthropology Department, University of California at Berkeley

1903 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington

1904 -- Published The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony with James Murie

1904 -- Member, ethnology section, Louisiana Purchase Exposition

1905 -- President, American Folk-lore Society

1908-1913 -- Chair, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology

1911 -- Honorary Vice-President, Section H, British Association for Advancement of Science

1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Francis La Flesche

1913 -- Chair Emeritus, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology

1915 -- Published Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports

1923 April 6 -- Died in Washington, D.C.

Chronology of the Life of Francis La Flesche

1857 December 25 -- Born on Omaha Reservation near Macy, Nebraska

1879 -- Lecture tour, Ponca chief Standing Bear

1881 -- Interpreter, Senate Committee on Indian Affairs

1881-1910 -- Clerk, Bureau of Indian Affairs

1891 -- Informally adopted as Fletcher's son

1892 -- LL.B., National University Law School

1893 -- LL.M., National University Law School

1900 -- Published The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School

1906-1908 -- Marriage to Rosa Bourassa

1910-1929 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology

1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Alice Fletcher

1921 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part One

1922 -- Member, National Academy of Sciences

1922-1923 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington

1925 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Two

1926 -- Honorary Doctor of Letters, University of Nebraska

1928 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Three

1932 -- Published Dictionary of the Osage Language

1932 September 5 -- Died in Thurston County, Nebraska

1939 -- Posthumous publication of War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians
Related Materials:
Additional material related to the professional work of Fletcher and La Flesche in the National Anthropological Archives may be found among the correspondence of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) and the records of the Anthropological Society of Washington.

Sound recordings made by Fletcher and La Flesche can be found at the Library of Congress. The National Archives Records Administration hold the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), including those relating to allotments in severalty for the Nez Perce by Alice Fletcher. The Nebraska Historical Society has diaries, letters and clippings regarding the La Flesche family, including correspondence of Francis La Flesche and Fletcher. The Radcliffe College Archives holds a manuscript account of Alice Fletcher's four summers with the Nez Perce (1889-1892). Correspondence between Fletcher and F. W. Putnam is also located at the Peabody Museum Archives of Harvard University.
Separated Materials:
Ethnographic photographs from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in Photo Lot 24.

Glass plate negatives from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in the BAE glass negatives collection (Negative Numbers 4439-4515).
Provenance:
The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche have been received from an undocumented number of sources. Portions of Fletcher's ethnographic papers were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. David Pearlman in memory of her husband in 1959.
Restrictions:
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.

Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pipes -- American Indian  Search this
Earth houses  Search this
Music -- American Indian  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4558
See more items in:
MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4558
Additional Online Media:

"Indians at Fort Marion"

Creator:
The Florida Club of St. Augustine, Florida  Search this
Subject:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Physical description:
1 7 x 3.5 in. stereograph
Culture:
American Indian Fort Marion (Florida)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1875
Local number:
NAA INV 09854000
See more items in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier circa 1860-1935
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_88425
Additional Online Media:

"Indians at Fort Marion"

Creator:
The Florida Club of St. Augustine, Florida  Search this
Subject:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Physical description:
1 7 x 3.5 in. stereograph
Culture:
American Indian Fort Marion (Florida)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1875
Local number:
NAA INV 09854500
See more items in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier circa 1860-1935
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_88430
Additional Online Media:

Battlefield and classroom : four decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904 / by Richard Henry Pratt ; edited and with an introduction by Robert M. Utley ; foreword by David Wallace Adams

Title:
Battlefield & classroom
Author:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Utley, Robert M. 1929-  Search this
Subject:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
United States Army Military life  Search this
Physical description:
xxvii, 358 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2003
1964
C2003
1866-1895
Topic:
Wars  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_729141

Captain Pratt and Indian boys posed in front of building, Fort Marion, Florida Mar or Apr 1878

Creator:
ANONYMOUS  Search this
Subject:
Little Chief  Search this
Shave Head  Search this
Nick  Search this
Buzzard  Search this
Koba 1848-1880  Search this
Tounkeuh  Search this
Ohettoint  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Tsadeltah  Search this
Matches  Search this
Buffalo Scout  Search this
Tsaitkopeta  Search this
Soaring Eagle  Search this
White Bear Hopi  Search this
Bear's Heart  Search this
Zonekeuh  Search this
Roman Nose, Henry Caruthers 1855-1917  Search this
Tichkematse 1857-1932  Search this
White Man  Search this
Cohoe  Search this
Making Medicine 1844-1931  Search this
Zotom  Search this
Physical description:
1 3x4 in photograph
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1878
Mar or Apr 1878
Topic:
Fort Marion  Search this
Local number:
OPPS NEG 54546
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_97162

"Indians at Fort Marion"

Creator:
The Florida Club of St. Augustine, Florida  Search this
Subject:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Physical description:
1 7 x 4 in. stereograph
Culture:
American Indian Fort Marion (Florida)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1875
Local number:
NAA INV 09853800
See more items in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier circa 1860-1935
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_88423

"Indians at Fort Marion"

Creator:
The Florida Club of St. Augustine, Florida  Search this
Subject:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Physical description:
1 7 x 3.5 in. stereograph
Culture:
American Indian Fort Marion (Florida)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1875
Local number:
NAA INV 09854200
See more items in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier circa 1860-1935
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_88428

Indian prisoners at Fort Marion

Creator:
The Florida Club of St. Augustine, Florida  Search this
Subject:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Physical description:
1 7 x 4 in. stereograph
Culture:
American Indian Fort Marion (Florida)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1875
Local number:
NAA INV 09955700
See more items in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier circa 1860-1935
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_89497

Delegation to Washington, October 14, 1888 under James McLaughlin, photographed on the steps of the Capitol Oct 14 1888

Creator:
ANONYMOUS  Search this
Standing Elk Cheyenne  Search this
Subject:
Stevick, G. L  Search this
Tappen, S. F Col  Search this
Gardner, R. S Col  Search this
Belt, R. V  Search this
Wright, John V Hon  Search this
Cleveland, William J Reverend  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Oberly, John H Hon  Search this
Church, L. K Gov  Search this
Rice, Edmond Hon  Search this
Ugly Wild Horse  Search this
Bad Wild Horse  Search this
Sung-Wa-To-Gla Si-Ca  Search this
Pretty Eagle  Search this
Good Eagle  Search this
Wan-Bli Wa-Ste  Search this
He Dog  Search this
Sun-Ka Blo-Ka  Search this
Good Voice  Search this
Ho Wa-Ste  Search this
Quick Bear  Search this
Ma-To O-Han-Ke  Search this
Black Wolf  Search this
Sun-K To-Ke-Ca Wak-Pa-Iya  Search this
Swift Bear  Search this
Ma-To Luza-Han  Search this
Ring Thunder  Search this
Wa-Kin-Yan Can-Gle-Ska  Search this
Two Strikes  Search this
Grey Eagle Tail  Search this
Wandli Sinte Hota  Search this
Sky Bull  Search this
Ta-Tan-Ka Ma-Hpi-Ya  Search this
Red Fish  Search this
Ho-Gan Luta  Search this
Yellow Hair  Search this
Hin-Zi  Search this
Eagle Horse  Search this
Wan-Bli Sun-Ka  Search this
Flood, Thomas  Search this
Spencer, L. F Col  Search this
Sitting Bull Hunkpapa Dakota  Search this
Ta-Tan-Ka-Iyo-Tan-Ke  Search this
Two Bears, Stephen  Search this
Ma-To Non-Pa  Search this
Bear's Rib  Search this
Ma-To Cu-Wi  Search this
Thunder Hawk  Search this
Ce-Tan Wa-Kin-Yan  Search this
High Eagle  Search this
Wan-Bli Wan-Kan-Tuya  Search this
Big Head  Search this
Na-Su-La Tan-Ka  Search this
Pa Tan-Ka  Search this
Mad Bear  Search this
Brave Bear  Search this
Ma-To O-Hi-Ti-Ka  Search this
Grey Eagle Dakota  Search this
Wan-Bli Ho Ta  Search this
Hairy Chin  Search this
I-Ku Hin-La  Search this
Walking Eagle  Search this
Wan-Bli Ma-Ni  Search this
High Bear  Search this
Ma-To Wan-Kan-Tu-Ya  Search this
Fire Heart  Search this
Can-Te Pe-Ta  Search this
Grass, John Chief  Search this
Pe-Ji  Search this
Si-Yo Wi-Ki  Search this
Gall Dakota  Search this
Pi-Zi  Search this
Primeau, Louis  Search this
McLaughlin, James Major  Search this
Dog Back  Search this
Sun-Ka Tapetu  Search this
Standing Soldier 1st Lieut  Search this
A-Ki-Ci-Ta Na-Jin  Search this
Yellow Bear  Search this
Little Hawk  Search this
Ce-Tan Ci-Ka-La  Search this
Little Wound  Search this
Ta-Opi Ci-Ka-La  Search this
Little Chief  Search this
Pretty Lance  Search this
Good Lance  Search this
Wa-Hin-Kpe Wa-Ste  Search this
Fast Thunder  Search this
Wa-Kin-Yan Lu-Za-Han  Search this
No Flesh  Search this
Co-Ni-Ca Wa-Ni-Ca  Search this
American Horse 1840-1908  Search this
Wa-Si-Cun Ta-Shum-Ke  Search this
Sword, George Capt  Search this
Plenty Bears  Search this
Ma-To O-Ta  Search this
Rowland, Benjamin  Search this
Wells, Philip F  Search this
Gallagher, H. D Col  Search this
White Ghost  Search this
Drifting Goose  Search this
Bowed Head Dakota  Search this
Little Bear  Search this
Mato Cikala  Search this
Spotted Elk  Search this
Big Foot Dakota  Search this
Crow Eagle  Search this
Kan-Gi Wan-Bli  Search this
White Swan  Search this
Ma-Ga-Ska  Search this
Charger  Search this
Wa-A-Na-Tan  Search this
Spotted Eagle  Search this
Wan-Bli- Gle-Ska  Search this
Swift Bird  Search this
Zi-Tka-La Lu-Za-Han  Search this
Little No Heart  Search this
Can-Te Wa-Ni-Ca Ci-Ka-La  Search this
Narcelle, Narcisse  Search this
Larabee, William  Search this
Larvie, William  Search this
McChesney, C. E Dr  Search this
Wells, Mark  Search this
Carpenter, William  Search this
Fire Thunder Dakota  Search this
Medicine Bull Dakota  Search this
Bull Head Dakota  Search this
Wizi  Search this
Anderson, W. W Maj  Search this
Recontre, Alec  Search this
Campbell, Joe  Search this
Physical description:
1 8x10 in photograph
Culture:
Dakota Indians  Search this
Dakota Upper Yanktonai  Search this
Dakota Lower Yanktonai  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Dakota Brule  Search this
Dakota Hunkpapa  Search this
Blackfoot Dakota  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Sihasapa Indians  Search this
Brulé Indians  Search this
Hunkpapa Indians  Search this
Yanktonai Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1888
Oct 14 1888
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 10000522
OPPS NEG 3351 C
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_92324

Delegation to Washington, October 14, 1888 under James McLaughlin, photographed on the steps of the Capitol Oct 14 1888

Creator:
ANONYMOUS  Search this
Standing Elk Cheyenne  Search this
Subject:
Stevick, G. L  Search this
Tappen, S. F Col  Search this
Gardner, R. S Col  Search this
Belt, R. V  Search this
Wright, John V Hon  Search this
Cleveland, William J Reverend  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Oberly, John H Hon  Search this
Church, L. K Gov  Search this
Rice, Edmond Hon  Search this
Ugly Wild Horse  Search this
Bad Wild Horse  Search this
Sung-Wa-To-Gla Si-Ca  Search this
Pretty Eagle  Search this
Good Eagle  Search this
Wan-Bli Wa-Ste  Search this
He Dog  Search this
Sun-Ka Blo-Ka  Search this
Good Voice  Search this
Ho Wa-Ste  Search this
Quick Bear  Search this
Ma-To O-Han-Ke  Search this
Black Wolf  Search this
Sun-K To-Ke-Ca Wak-Pa-Iya  Search this
Swift Bear  Search this
Ma-To Luza-Han  Search this
Ring Thunder  Search this
Wa-Kin-Yan Can-Gle-Ska  Search this
Two Strikes  Search this
Grey Eagle Tail  Search this
Wandli Sinte Hota  Search this
Sky Bull  Search this
Ta-Tan-Ka Ma-Hpi-Ya  Search this
Red Fish  Search this
Ho-Gan Luta  Search this
Yellow Hair  Search this
Hin-Zi  Search this
Eagle Horse  Search this
Wan-Bli Sun-Ka  Search this
Flood, Thomas  Search this
Spencer, L. F Col  Search this
Sitting Bull Hunkpapa Dakota  Search this
Ta-Tan-Ka-Iyo-Tan-Ke  Search this
Two Bears, Stephen  Search this
Ma-To Non-Pa  Search this
Bear's Rib  Search this
Ma-To Cu-Wi  Search this
Thunder Hawk  Search this
Ce-Tan Wa-Kin-Yan  Search this
High Eagle  Search this
Wan-Bli Wan-Kan-Tuya  Search this
Big Head  Search this
Na-Su-La Tan-Ka  Search this
Pa Tan-Ka  Search this
Mad Bear  Search this
Brave Bear  Search this
Ma-To O-Hi-Ti-Ka  Search this
Grey Eagle Dakota  Search this
Wan-Bli Ho Ta  Search this
Hairy Chin  Search this
I-Ku Hin-La  Search this
Walking Eagle  Search this
Wan-Bli Ma-Ni  Search this
High Bear  Search this
Ma-To Wan-Kan-Tu-Ya  Search this
Fire Heart  Search this
Can-Te Pe-Ta  Search this
Grass, John Chief  Search this
Pe-Ji  Search this
Si-Yo Wi-Ki  Search this
Gall Dakota  Search this
Pi-Zi  Search this
Primeau, Louis  Search this
McLaughlin, James Major  Search this
Dog Back  Search this
Sun-Ka Tapetu  Search this
Standing Soldier 1st Lieut  Search this
A-Ki-Ci-Ta Na-Jin  Search this
Yellow Bear  Search this
Little Hawk  Search this
Ce-Tan Ci-Ka-La  Search this
Little Wound  Search this
Ta-Opi Ci-Ka-La  Search this
Little Chief  Search this
Pretty Lance  Search this
Good Lance  Search this
Wa-Hin-Kpe Wa-Ste  Search this
Fast Thunder  Search this
Wa-Kin-Yan Lu-Za-Han  Search this
No Flesh  Search this
Co-Ni-Ca Wa-Ni-Ca  Search this
American Horse 1840-1908  Search this
Wa-Si-Cun Ta-Shum-Ke  Search this
Sword, George Capt  Search this
Ma-To O-Ta  Search this
Plenty Bears  Search this
Rowland, Benjamin  Search this
Wells, Philip F  Search this
Gallagher, H. D Col  Search this
White Ghost  Search this
Drifting Goose  Search this
Bowed Head Dakota  Search this
Little Bear  Search this
Mato Cikala  Search this
Spotted Elk  Search this
Big Foot Dakota  Search this
Crow Eagle  Search this
Kan-Gi Wan-Bli  Search this
White Swan  Search this
Ma-Ga-Ska  Search this
Charger  Search this
Wa-A-Na-Tan  Search this
Spotted Eagle  Search this
Wan-Bli- Gle-Ska  Search this
Swift Bird  Search this
Zi-Tka-La Lu-Za-Han  Search this
Little No Heart  Search this
Can-Te Wa-Ni-Ca Ci-Ka-La  Search this
Narcelle, Narcisse  Search this
Larabee, William  Search this
Larvie, William  Search this
McChesney, C. E Dr  Search this
Wells, Mark  Search this
Carpenter, William  Search this
Fire Thunder Dakota  Search this
Medicine Bull Dakota  Search this
Bull Head Dakota  Search this
Wizi  Search this
Anderson, W. W Maj  Search this
Recontre, Alec  Search this
Campbell, Joe  Search this
Physical description:
1 8x10 in photograph
Culture:
Dakota Indians  Search this
Dakota Upper Yanktonai  Search this
Dakota Lower Yanktonai  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Dakota Brule  Search this
Dakota Hunkpapa  Search this
Blackfoot Dakota  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Sihasapa Indians  Search this
Brulé Indians  Search this
Hunkpapa Indians  Search this
Yanktonai Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1888
Oct 14 1888
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation  Search this
Local number:
NAA INV 10000525
OPPS NEG 43563
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_92327

The Indian Industrial School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania : its origins, purposes, progress, and the difficulties surmounted / by R.H. Pratt ..

Author:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Utley, Robert M. 1929-  Search this
Subject:
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.) History  Search this
Physical description:
56 p. : ill. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1979
1908
Topic:
Education--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_620947

Why most of our Indians are dependent and non-citizen / address by Brig. Gen. R.H. Pratt

Author:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Physical description:
5 p. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1915
1915?]
Topic:
Government relations  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_502707

Indian industrial school, Carlisle, Pa

Author:
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924 Education of Indians  Search this
Subject:
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Physical description:
64 p. illus. 14 x 21 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1895
1895]
Topic:
Education  Search this
Call number:
E97.6.C2 U58 1895
E97.6.C2U58 1895
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_213758

Pratt, the red man's Moses, by Elaine Goodale Eastman

Author:
Eastman, Elaine Goodale 1863-1953  Search this
Subject:
Pratt, Richard Henry 1840-1924  Search this
Physical description:
285, [1] p. front. (port.) plates. 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1935
Topic:
Indians of North America, Civilization of  Search this
Education  Search this
Call number:
E97.P915X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_263055

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