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Wings for the Eagle

Sponsor:
Vitagraph, Inc.  Search this
Warner Brothers Entertainment Inc.  Search this
Medium:
Poster, Advertising, Movie
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 26.7 x 34cm (10 1/2 x 13 3/8 in.)
Type:
ART-Posters, Original Art Quality
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1942
Credit Line:
Bequest of Melvin Buchner.
Inventory Number:
A20000533000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20000533000

Death in the Cockpit

Sponsor:
Columbia Pictures Corp.  Search this
Medium:
Poster, Advertising, Movie
Dimensions:
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 26.4 x 34cm (10 3/8 x 13 3/8 in.)
Type:
ART-Posters, Original Art Quality
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1942
Credit Line:
Bequest of Melvin Buchner.
Inventory Number:
A20000538000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20000538000

The Memphis Belle

Sponsor:
Paramount Pictures Inc.  Search this
U.S. War Department  Search this
Medium:
Poster, Advertising, Movie
Dimensions:
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 101.6 x 66 x 2.5cm (40 x 26 x 1 in.)
Type:
ART-Posters, Original Art Quality
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1944
Credit Line:
Bequest of Melvin Buchner.
Inventory Number:
A20000547000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20000547000

Wings of Steel

Manufacturer:
Continental Litho. Corp.  Search this
Sponsor:
The Vitaphone Corporation  Search this
Warner Brothers Entertainment Inc.  Search this
Distributor:
Vitagraph, Inc.  Search this
Medium:
Poster, Advertising, Movie
Dimensions:
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 100.3 x 64.8 x 2.5cm (39 1/2 in. x 25 1/2 in. x 1 in.)
Type:
ART-Posters, Original Art Quality
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
circa 1941
Credit Line:
Bequest of Melvin Buchner.
Inventory Number:
A20000549000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20000549000

Air Force

Distributor:
Vitagraph, Inc.  Search this
Sponsor:
Warner Brothers Entertainment Inc.  Search this
Medium:
Poster, Advertising, Movie
Dimensions:
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 94 x 36.8cm (37 x 14 1/2 in.)
Type:
ART-Posters, Original Art Quality
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1943
Credit Line:
Bequest of Melvin Buchner.
Inventory Number:
A20000567000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20000567000

Film poster for Turbo

Commissioned by:
20th Century Fox Film Corporation, American, founded 1935  Search this
DreamWorks Studios, American, founded 1994  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 39 15/16 × 26 15/16 in. (101.4 × 68.4 cm)
Type:
posters
Date:
2013
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Film  Search this
Hollywood (Film)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Personal Collection of Bill Ivory Larson
Object number:
2014.35.21
Restrictions & Rights:
© Dreamworks. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.35.21

Poster for Pinky

Distributed by:
20th Century Fox Film Corporation, American, founded 1935  Search this
Subject of:
Jeanne Crain, American, 1925 - 2003  Search this
Ethel Barrymore, American, 1879 - 1959  Search this
Ethel Waters, American, 1896 - 1977  Search this
William Lundigan, American, 1914 - 1975  Search this
Darryl F. Zanuck, American, 1902 - 1979  Search this
Elia Kazan, Greek American, 1909 - 2003  Search this
Printed by:
Litho Poster Corporation of America, American, 1943 - 1951  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W (image): 39 × 25 1/2 in. (99.1 × 64.8 cm)
H x W (sheet): 40 15/16 × 27 1/16 in. (104 × 68.7 cm)
Type:
posters
Place used:
United States, North and Central America
Date:
1949
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Film  Search this
Race films  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2013.118.72
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
A Cinema Apart: African American Film Memorabilia (Larry Richards Collection)
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Second Floor, 2 050
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.118.72
Additional Online Media:

Poster for Pinky

Distributed by:
20th Century Fox Film Corporation, American, founded 1935  Search this
Subject of:
Cid Ricketts Sumner, American, 1890 - 1970  Search this
Philip Dunne, American, 1908 - 1992  Search this
Dudley Nichols, American, 1895 - 1960  Search this
Elia Kazan, Greek American, 1909 - 2003  Search this
Darryl F. Zanuck, American, 1902 - 1979  Search this
Jeanne Crain, American, 1925 - 2003  Search this
Ethel Barrymore, American, 1879 - 1959  Search this
Ethel Waters, American, 1896 - 1977  Search this
William Lundigan, American, 1914 - 1975  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 29 3/4 × 39 7/8 in. (75.6 × 101.3 cm)
Type:
posters
Place used:
England, Europe
Date:
1949
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Film  Search this
Race films  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2013.118.73
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Exhibition:
Taking the Stage
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Culture/Fourth Floor, 4 054
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.118.73

Poster for Claudine

Created by:
20th Century Fox Film Corporation, American, founded 1935  Search this
Subject of:
James Earl Jones, American, born 1931  Search this
Diahann Carroll, American, 1935 - 2019  Search this
Medium:
paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W: 41 x 27 1/16 in. (104.1 x 68.7 cm)
Type:
posters
Place used:
United States, North and Central America
Date:
1974
Topic:
African American  Search this
Film  Search this
Hollywood (Film)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Dow B. Ellis
Object number:
2012.152.874
Restrictions & Rights:
© Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Second Floor, 2 050
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.152.874
Additional Online Media:

Irving Block papers, 1938-1986

Creator:
Block, Irving, 1910-1986  Search this
Subject:
Whitman, Walt  Search this
Faiss, Fritz  Search this
Burkhardt, Hans Gustav  Search this
Works Progress Administration  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.  Search this
Ankrum Gallery  Search this
California State University, Northridge  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Drawings
Illustrated letters
Sketches
Sound recordings
Topic:
Animation (Cinematography)  Search this
Painters  Search this
Art teachers  Search this
Motion picture industry  Search this
Painting, Modern  Search this
Motion picture studios  Search this
Art and motion pictures  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Illustration of books  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9587
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211789
AAA_collcode_blocirvi
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Audio - Visual
Government Sponsorship of the Arts
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211789

Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection

Collector:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
American Federation of Teachers  Search this
Department of Defense, Comprehensive Review Working Group  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Community Center of Baltimore and Central Maryland  Search this
ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives  Search this
San Diego LGBT Pride  Search this
Servicemembers Legal Defense Network  Search this
Smith College  Search this
University of Connecticut  Search this
William Way Community Center  Search this
Biren, Joan E.  Search this
Bushnell, Megan  Search this
Davidson, James, Dr.  Search this
Dietrich, Joe  Search this
Exline, Gregory  Search this
Florence, Laura  Search this
Huebner, David  Search this
Jain, Shawn  Search this
Karazsia, Amy  Search this
Karazsia, William G.  Search this
Lombardi, Angela  Search this
Lynch, Patsy  Search this
Meinke, Mark  Search this
Nitz, Ryan  Search this
Reichard, Bradley  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959-  Search this
Ros, Silvia  Search this
Sabatino, Michael  Search this
Shannon, Michael A.  Search this
Sheets, Justin  Search this
Snodgrass, Adam  Search this
Voorheis, Robert  Search this
Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Other:
Larson, Gordon P., 1910-1988 -- 20th century  Search this
Names:
McWaine, Dwayne, Dr.  Search this
Extent:
59 Cubic feet (179 boxes, 20 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Passports
Postcards
Photographs
Posters
Videocassettes
Advertising
Dvds
Songbooks
Periodicals
Place:
Canada -- description and travel
Germany -- description and travel
Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Washington, D.C. -- history
Los Angeles (Calif.)
New York, New York
Date:
1915-2019, undated
bulk 1960-2019
Summary:
This collection contains a variety of periodicals, photographs, correspondence, business and advertising ephemera (corporate and non-profit, personal), organizational records and ephemera, created by, for, and in reaction to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) community.
Scope and Contents:
The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection contains periodicals, ephemera, posters, postcards, advertisements, photographs, organizational records, publications, correspondence, and other materials related to all aspects of the LGBT community and the civil rights issues pertaining thereto. The collection was created by the Archives Center to bring together materials specifically pertaining to the LGBT community. This collection contains material from communities and individuals throughout the United States. The collection is currently strongest in periodicals, newspapers and ephemera and very strong in material from California and New York. The collection continues to add new items and the researcher would be wise to take a broad view in targeting their research topics in the collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-four series.

Series 1: Periodicals, 1937-2018

Series 2: Agencies, Associations, and Organizations, 1984-2018, undated

Series 3: Community Life and Subject Files, 1915-2018, undated

Subseries 3.1: Photographs and Slides, 1915-1980, undated

Subseries 3.2: Ephemera and Buttons, 1969-2018, undated

Subseries 3.3: Posters and Prints, 1972-2018, undated

Subseries 3.4: Subject Files, 1958-2018, undated

Subseries 3.5: Pride, 1976-2018, undated

Subseries 3.6: HIV and AIDS, 1987-2017, undated

Series 4: Advertising, Business, and Publications, 1970-2018, undated

Subseries 4.1: Advertising, 1970-2018, undated

Subseries 4.2: Business, 1998-2017, undated

Subseries 4.3: Television, Theater, and Motion Pictures, 1978-2018, undated

Subseries 4.4: Bar ephemera and advertisement, 1979-2018, undated

Subseries 4.5: Publications, 1976-2018, undated

Series 5: Biren, Joan E. (JEB), 195-2018, undated

Subseries 5.1: Xerographic Copies of Photoprints, 1971-1995, undated.

Subseries 5.2: Posters and Oversize Advertisement, 1973-2018, undated

Series 6: Dietrich, Joseph A., 1992-2010

Series 7: Mattachine Society Records, 1942-1996, undated

Subseries 7.1: Correspondence, 1952-1991, undated

Subseries 7.2: Board of Directors Minutes, 1954-1974, undated

Subseries 7.3: Organizational Information, 1942-1993, undated

Subseries 7.4: Councils, Chapters, and Committees, 1953-1965, undated

Subseries 7.5: Conventions, 1953-1960, undated

Subseries 7.6: Publications, 1944-1996, undated

Series 8: Rainbow History Community Pioneers, 2003-2012, undated

Series 9: Strub, Sean O., addendum, 1987-2011, undated

Series 10: Gay and Lesbian Community Center of Baltimore (GLCCB, 1990-2014, undated

Series 11: Ros, Silvia, 2009-2011

Series 12: Huebner, David, 2009-2014

Series 13: St. George, Philip, 1945-1955, undated

Series 14: Will & Grace, 1995-2006

Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York, 1910-2014, undated

Subseries 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides, 1985-2010, undated

Subseries 15.2: Heritage of Pride (HOP), 1984-2014, undated

Subseries 15.3: Barna, Joseph T., 1910-2013, undated,

Series 16: Becker, John M., 1999-2014, undated

Series 17: Rohrbaugh, Richard, 1972-1986, undated

Series 18: Guest, Michael E., 2001-2009

Series 19: The Fosters, 2013

Series 20: Pride at Work, 1990-2015

Series 21: Sabatino, Michael and Voorheis, Robert, 1980-2016, undated

Subseries 21.1: Archilla, Gustavo A. and Lokkins, Elmer T., 1916-2014, undated

Series 22: Gay Officers Action League (GOAL), 1982-2016, undated

Series 23: Brown, Adele "Del" and Herizon's Bar, 1985-1991, undated

Subseries 1: Changing Herizons, and Herizons Newsletter, 1983-1991

Series 24: Universal Felloship Metropolitan Community Churches (UFMCC), 1957-2019, undated
Historical Note:
While the quest for equal rights has been pursued by generations, it is generally acknowledged that the modern day Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) civil rights movement began in New York City in June 1969 with the Stonewall Riots. Prior to this time a number of activists, individuals, and organizations such as The Mattachine Society, Daughters of Bilitis and others, fought to bring recognition of LGBT civil rights to the forefront of American society. While the movement was primarily, and most visually, centered in New York City and San Francisco, periodicals, guide books, and ephemeral material interconnected the larger LGBT community throughout the United States. The increased visibility of the LGBT movement inspired groups at odds with that new found visibility and call to action. The challenge to what was termed "traditional" values encouraged counter-LGBT groups to define and solidfy their constituency as well. This collection comprises material that is generated by individuals and organizations that have been on both sides of the question.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Michio and Aveline Kushi Macro-Biotics Collection (AC0619)

The Shamrock Bar: Photographs and Interviews (AC0857)

John-Manuel Andriote Victory Deferred Collection (AC1128)

Archives Center Wedding Documentation Collection (AC1131 )

Division of Science, Medicine, and Society HIV/AIDS Reference Collection (AC1134)

John-Manuel Andriote Hot Stuff: A Brief History of Disco Collection (AC1184)

Joan E. Biren (JEB) Queer Film Museum Collection (AC1216)

World AIDS Institute (WAI) Collection (AC1266)

Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) Records (AC1282)

Helping Persons with AIDS (HPA) Records (AC1283)

DC Cowboys Dance Company Records (AC1312)

Bil Browning and Jerame Davis Papers (AC1334)

David Hadley Rockwell New York Disco Ephemera Collection (AC1342)

Leonard P. Hirsch Federal Globe Records (AC1357)

Corbett Reynolds Papers (AC1390)

Mark Segal Papers (AC1422)

The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection (AC1428)

Academy of Washington Records (AC1458)

Matthew Shepard Papers (AC1463)

The Division of Political History holds artifacts related to gay activist Franklin Kameny and a variety of political buttons. They also hold LGBT related artifacts from Joan E. Biren (JEB).

The Division of Medical and Science holds objects donated from Dr. Renee Richards, Sean O. Strub, and Leonard Hirsch.

The Division of Entertainment and the Arts holds objects donated by The Fosters and Will & Grace.
Provenance:
This collection was assembled by the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian, beginning in 2004.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Women's music  Search this
Transgender people -- Identity  Search this
Sexual orientation  Search this
Political activists  Search this
Lesbianism  Search this
Lesbian and gay experience  Search this
Gay activists  Search this
Homosexuality  Search this
HIV and AIDS  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Bisexuality  Search this
Bars (Drinking establishments)  Search this
Gay Pride  Search this
Genre/Form:
Passports
Postcards
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Posters
Videocassettes
Advertising
DVDs
Photographs -- 20th century
Songbooks
Periodicals
Citation:
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1146
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1146
Additional Online Media:

Groucho Marx Collection

Artist:
Benton, Thomas Hart, 1889-1975  Search this
Collector:
Marx, Groucho (Julius Henry), 1890-1977 (comedian)  Search this
Names:
Four Nightingales  Search this
Marx Brothers  Search this
Paramount Pictures  Search this
RKO Pictures (studio)  Search this
Three Nightingales  Search this
United Artists  Search this
Warner Brothers  Search this
Marx, Chico  Search this
Marx, Harpo  Search this
Palmer, Minnie  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (39 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Personal papers
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Photographic prints
Scrapbooks
Sheet music
Correspondence
Place:
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Date:
1911-1978
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Correspondence, 1932-1977 is arranged alphabetically by correspondent. In 1965, Marx gave the Library of Congress a portion of his correspondence with well-known personages. The majority of the correspondence in this collection dates from the post World War II era (Marx's early correspondence is located at the Library of Congress.) This series includes correspondence from well-known persons, fans, admirers and friends. There is an extensive amount of correspondence with the screenwriter Nunnally Johnson. The series includes letters concerning public relations, Walt Disney caricatures of the Marx Brothers, The Grouchophile permission letters, unidentified correspondence and one letter from Chico Marx to Gummo Marx.

Series 2: Publications, Manuscripts and Print Articles by Marx, 1930-1958, undated is arranged chronologically with circa and undated material placed before the book manuscripts. This series contains written material by Groucho Marx excepting scripts and sketches. The series includes articles written by Marx for national magazines, various speeches and manuscripts for three of Marx's books.

Series 3: Scripts and Sketches, 1939-1959, undated, is arranged alphabetically with television scripts and sketches placed before full-length movie and theatre scripts. This series contains television, motion picture and theatre scripts and sketches, monologues, and related written material pertaining to works starring or featuring Marx. It also contains scripts for the one theatrical play written by Marx, A Time for Elizabeth.

Series 4: Scrapbooks, 1923-1978 is arranged chronologically and contains sixteen scrapbooks spanning Marx's career from his first Broadway success, I'll Say She Is to the year after his death. Of particular interest are the early scrapbooks for the Marx Brothers career, a scrapbook spanning the years 1934-1958 complied by Marx himself for his daughter Melinda, a photographic scrapbook compiled by the staff of Life magazine documenting a 1963 magazine layout of Marx and his then wife Eden Hartford Marx. There is also a scrapbook devoted to Chico Marx's brief career as a bandleader in the mid-late 1940s.

Series 5: Music,circa 1930-1975, undated is arranged alphabetically and includes original music manuscripts written by Marx and songs for Marx's shows and motion pictures and unidentified manuscripts perhaps written by Marx, his friends, his daughter Melinda or her music teacher. It also includes commercially produced sheet music purchased by Marx, copies of songs featured in Marx's motion pictures, music from "Minnie's Boys the theatrical production based on the Marx Brothers and their mother, an autographed copy of "Stay Down Here Where You Belong" by Irving Berlin, songs written by Marx published commercially, and Marx's copy of a collection of songs by Gilbert and Sullivan.

Series 6: Publicity, ca. 1911-1977 contains theatre programs, motion picture reviews, newspaper clippings both foreign and domestic, record album covers, a book cover and one poster of the Marx Brothers. There are items related specifically to Chico Marx. This series is arranged chronologically.

Series 7: Artwork and Photographs, 1911-1976, undatedis arranged according to subject matter and includes artwork, features cartoons and caricatures of the Marx Brothers by various artists including the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer art department and Hirschfield, sketches of the Marx Brothers by Sheila Smith, Peggy Jacobs, Bridget Crowe and Mark E. Williams (all probably fans of the Marx Brothers), various candid photographs, publicity photographs and studio portraits of Marx, his brothers, his immediate family, correspondence and related images and photographic negatives and transparencies.

Series 8: Personal and Family Documents, 1925-1975, undated contains documents relating to Marx's personal life and his brothers Chico Marx, Harpo Marx, and his daughter Melinda. Of particular interest is Marx's copy of the transcript of his divorce deposition from Eden Hartford Marx, two proclamations from the City of Los Angeles and a portfolio cover made for him by his daughter Melinda. This series is arranged chronologically.

Series 9: Audiovisual, 1929-1970 includes home movies of Groucho, brothers Harpo and Chico, and Groucho's wife and children as well as film and kinescope copies of television programs featureing Groucho as the star or guest.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 9 series.

Series 1: Correspondence,1932-1977

Series 2: Publications, Manuscripts, and Print Articles by Groucho Marx, 1930-1958, undated

Series 3: Scripts and Sketches, 1939-1959, undated

Series 4: Scrapbooks, 1923-1978

Series 5: Music, circa 1930-1975, undated

Subseries 5.1: Original Music Manuscrpts

Subseries 5.2: Commercially Produced Sheet Music and Collections

Series 6: Publicity, circa 1911-1977

Series 7: Artwork and Photographs, 1911-1976, undated

Subseries 7.1: Artwork

Subseries 7.2: Photographs

Subseries 7.3: Photographic Negatives and Transparencies

Series 8: Personal and Family Documents, 1925-1978, undated

Series 9: Audiovisual

Subseries 9.1: Moving Images

Subseries 9.2: Sound Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
One of 20th century America's most enduring comics and cultural icons was Groucho Marx. Julius Henry Marx, better known as Groucho, was born in New York City on October 2, 1890. He was the third of five sons born to Minna and Samuel Marx. Minna's brother, Al Shean, was a part of the well-known vaudeville team, Gallagher and Shean.

The Marx family consisted of five boys: Leonard (Chico), Arthur (Harpo), Julius (Groucho), Milton (Gummo) and Herbert (Zeppo). The family lived in the Yorkville section of New York City. Groucho had a high soprano singing voice and his first job was singing in the choir of an Episcopal church. He joined Gus Hall and his vaudeville troupe when he was eleven. Groucho attended P.S. 86 but never went beyond the 7th grade. Minna organized the Three Nightingales with Groucho, Gummo and a girl singer. The girl was eventually replaced by a boy tenor and Harpo joined the troupe. The name of the group was changed to The Four Nightingales. Minnie acted as the group's manager. The group became known as the Marx Brothers with everyone except Gummo taking part in the act. The family moved to Chicago ca. 1904 where their grandfather lived.

The brothers toured the South and Midwest performing a vaudeville skit called, "Fun in Hiskule". It is noted that the comedy act began in Nacogdoches, Texas. The Marx Brothers first big success came in 1919 with their vaudeville act entitled "Home Again". In 1920, they were booked into the Palace Theatre in New York City and played there for thirteen months. They were later banished from the circuit due to a contract violation - they had accepted employment without Albee's permission. Groucho married Ruth Johnson on February 4th, 1920 and divorced her in July 1942. They had one daughter, Miriam and one son, Arthur born in 1921.

In 1923, they toured with the show, "I'll Say She Is", a collection of vaudeville routines that Groucho had written in collaboration. The show ran on Broadway for thirty-eight weeks. On December 8, 1925, the brothers (using their nicknames professionally for the first time) opened on Broadway in "The Cocoanuts". The play was written expressly for them by George S. Kaufman and Morris Ryskind with music by Irving Berlin. The brothers made a silent film circa 1924 called "Humor Risk" but it was never released. "Animal Crackers" opened on October 23, 1928. It was in this show that Groucho created one of his most famous characters, Captain Spaulding, the African explorer. Groucho was by this time paired with Margaret Dumont, stooge and foil, whom Groucho claimed never, really understood the Marx Brothers comedy.

On the strength of their success in "The Cocoanuts", they were signed to a film contract. In 1929, they made the film version of "The Cocoanuts" while performing "Animal Crackers" on the stage. Their mother, Minna Marx died the same year. The following year they starred in the film version of "Animal Crackers". Both films were made in New York City. In 1931, Groucho moved to Hollywood where The Marx Brothers made thirteen films. The brothers signed with Paramount Pictures and made "Monkey Business" (1931), "Horsefeathers" (1932) and "Duck Soup" (1933) while at the studio. In 1933, Zeppo left the troupe and Samuel Marx died.

In February 1934, Groucho and Chico teamed up in a radio program called, "Flywheel, Shyster and Flywheel", about characters who were comic lawyers. In March 1934, they replaced Ethel Waters on a weekly radio series sponsored by the American Oil Company. In 1935, the brothers starred in "A Night at the Opera" for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, a film produced by Irving Thalberg and a sequel, "A Day at the Races" (1937). In addition to working for MGM, the brothers starred in "Room Service" (1938) for the RKO studio.

The brothers discontinued the act in September 1941 but reunited for the film "A Night in Casablanca" (1946) and "Love Happy" (1949). Groucho found work as a solo artist making films for RKO, Warner Brothers and Paramount. In March 1943, the Pabst Blue Ribbon Brewery sponsored a half-hour variety show on CBS starring Groucho. Groucho married his second wife, Catherine "Kay" Gorcey in July 1945, they had one daughter Melinda. They divorced in 1951. Groucho continued to guest on many radio shows and continued to be at his peak when ad-libbing. John Guedel created "You Bet Your Life" for Groucho in October 1947. The show aired over the ABC radio network. It moved to CBS and in 1950 it was purchased by NBC and ran on television until 1961. The show ran for a total of four years on radio and eleven years on television. Groucho won radio's Peabody Award as best comedian on radio in 1948; an Emmy award in 1951; and the Motion Picture Daily Annual TV poll from 1951-1954.

Groucho was also musical. He played the guitar, but never as part of his shows. He was also an author and a playwright. He wrote the stage play, "A Time for Elizabeth", in 1948 with Norman Krasna. The play ran for eight days on Broadway but had longer runs in summer stock. In July 1954, Groucho married his third and final wife Eden Hartford. They divorced in December of 1969. In 1967, Simon and Schuster published excerpts from letters Groucho had donated to the Library of Congress in 1965. The book was entitled The Groucho Letters. Groucho authored other books, Groucho and Me (1959) his autobiography, The Secret Word is Groucho (1976) with Hector Arce and The Grouchophile (1976).

Groucho retired in 1961 but in 1972 with the help Erin Fleming, his companion and manager since 1969, he toured in a solo act. The show entitled, "An Evening with Groucho" played Carnegie Hall in New York City in May 1972. Groucho was made a Commander of the French Order of Arts and Letters at the Cannes Film Festival in 1972. In 1974, Groucho received an honorary Academy Award (Oscar) for the contribution of the Marx Brothers to the art of film. Marx died on August 19th, 1977.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Julius H. (Groucho) Marx, through the Estate of Groucho Marx, August 5, 1987.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Reference copies of audiovisual materials must be used.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Comedians -- 1920-1970  Search this
Entertainment  Search this
Radio comedies  Search this
Comedy  Search this
Theater  Search this
Radio programs  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Television programs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Personal papers
Photographs -- 20th century
Motion pictures (visual works)
Photographic prints
Scrapbooks
Sheet music
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Groucho Marx Collection, 1911-1978, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0269
See more items in:
Groucho Marx Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0269
Additional Online Media:

The Supremes

Title:
Diana Ross (with Mary Wilson and Florence Ballard)
Artist:
Joseph Eula, 16 Jan 1925 - 27 Oct 2004  Search this
Sitter:
Mary Wilson, born 6 Mar 1944  Search this
Diana Ross, born 26 Mar 1944  Search this
Florence Ballard, 30 Jun 1943 - 22 Feb 1976  Search this
Medium:
Color photolithographic poster
Dimensions:
Sheet: 96.5 x 63.5 cm (38 x 25")
Type:
Print
Date:
1965
Topic:
Poster  Search this
Mary Wilson: Female  Search this
Mary Wilson: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Popular  Search this
Diana Ross: Female  Search this
Diana Ross: Visual Arts\Designer\Fashion Designer  Search this
Diana Ross: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Diana Ross: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Pop  Search this
Florence Ballard: Female  Search this
Florence Ballard: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Popular  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Jack Rennert
Object number:
NPG.2007.164
Restrictions & Rights:
© Estate of Joe Eula
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
20th Century Americans: 1960-2000
On View:
NPG, South Gallery 342
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2007.164

Photographic History Collection: Early Cinema: Mutoscopes

Object Name:
Mutoscope Collection
Date made:
1894-1980
Subject:
Motion Pictures  Search this
Entertainment, Film  Search this
ID Number:
COLL.PHOTOS.000019
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1339198
Additional Online Media:

"The Tramp and the Girl" Mutoscope Movie Poster

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 49 cm x 26.035 cm; 19 9/32 in x 10 1/4 in
Object Name:
poster
Object Type:
posters
Date made:
ca 1927
Subject:
Entertainment, Film  Search this
Motion Pictures  Search this
ID Number:
2008.0095.002
Catalog number:
2008.0095.002
Accession number:
2008.0095
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Mutoscope Collection
Photo History Collection
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1327347

"Biddy the Irish Wash Woman" Mutoscope Movie Poster

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 19 1/2 in x 13 19/32 in; 49.53 cm x 34.50006 cm
Object Name:
poster
Object Type:
posters
Date made:
ca 1920s
Subject:
Entertainment, Film  Search this
Motion Pictures  Search this
Irish American  Search this
ID Number:
2008.0095.008
Accession number:
2008.0095
Catalog number:
2008.0095.008
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Mutoscope Collection
Popular Entertainment
Photo History Collection
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1328365

"The Stage at Coyote Holes" Mutoscope Movie Poster

Depicted:
Wales, Wally  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 21 3/4 in x 14 in; 55.245 cm x 35.56 cm
Object Name:
poster
Object Type:
posters
Date made:
ca 1928
Subject:
Entertainment, Film  Search this
Motion Pictures  Search this
West  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
ID Number:
2008.0095.009
Accession number:
2008.0095
Catalog number:
2008.0095.009
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Mutoscope Collection
Popular Entertainment
Photo History Collection
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1328366

"Mother's Angel Child" Mutoscope Movie Poster

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 22 in x 14 in; 55.88 cm x 35.56 cm
Object Name:
poster
Object Type:
posters
Date made:
ca 1928
Subject:
Motion Pictures  Search this
Entertainment, Film  Search this
ID Number:
2008.0095.001
Accession number:
2008.0095
Catalog number:
2008.0095.001
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Mutoscope Collection
Popular Entertainment
Photo History Collection
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1336054

Strip of 35mm Film

Maker:
Edison  Search this
Physical Description:
gelatin (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 6 1/2 in x 35 mm; 16.51 cm x 1 3/8 in
Object Name:
film
Date made:
ca 1900
Subject:
Motion Pictures  Search this
Entertainment, Film  Search this
Sailing Ships  Search this
ID Number:
2008.0095.084
Accession number:
2008.0095
Catalog number:
2008.0095.084
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Popular Entertainment
Photo History Collection
Early Cinema Film Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1339151

Paper memorabilia related to William S. Hart

Measurements:
overall, piece 1: 10 1/8 in x 7 3/8 in; 25.7175 cm x 18.7325 cm
overall, piece 2: 6 in x 4 1/2 in; 15.24 cm x 11.43 cm
overall. piece 3: 3 1/2 in x 2 1/8 in; 8.89 cm x 5.3975 cm
Object Name:
memorabilia
Memorabilia
Object Type:
memorabilia
Date made:
20th century
Subject:
Motion Pictures  Search this
West  Search this
Entertainment, Film  Search this
ID Number:
2007.0211.42
Accession number:
2007.0211
Catalog number:
2007.0211.42
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Movie Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1335864

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