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Penn Station, New York, Photographs

Creator:
Pennsylvania Railroad.  Search this
Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
Pennsylvania Station -- Geographic subdivision--(New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
3.6 Cubic feet (14 boxes)
on paper.,Silver gelatin
on glass.,Silver gelatin
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Stereographs
Date:
ca. 1903-1910.
Scope and Contents:
Glass plate negatives and stereographs relating to the construction of Penn Station and the Pennsylvania Railroad's work in New York City, including the Station foundations and the East and Hudson River tunnels.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Named for the Pennsylvania Railroad, which built the station, Penn Station is the most heavily used train station in America. Plans for the station, and for the PRR's intention to enter New York City by tunnel, were announced in 1901. It was built between 1905 and 1910. It was demolished and rebuilt in the 1960s.
Provenance:
The collection was assembled by staff of the Division of Civil and Mechanical Engineering as a reference collection. The stereographs were purchased from a dealer in 1979.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Railroad stations  Search this
Tunnels -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Stereographs -- 1900-1910
Citation:
Penn Station, New York, Photographs, ca. 1903-1910, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1048
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1048
Additional Online Media:

Miscellaneous Photographs, Negatives, Maps, and Drawings

Extent:
0.58 cu. ft. (1 tall document box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Plates (illustrations)
Maps
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1867-1993, undated
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of miscellaneous photographs, negatives, maps and drawings. The records represent a broad range of subjects and topics such as early 20th century photographs of China taken by Dr. Bailey Willis; a photograph of a portrait painting of Richard Delafield, Regent of the Smithsonian Institution, 1865-1871; exterior photographs of the National Museum of Natural History; a catalog print by artist, Duane Michals; and plates from Raphael Pumpelly's article, "Geological Researches in China, Mongolia, and Japan, During the Years 1862-1865" which was published in "Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge," vol. XV, article IV, 1867.
Topic:
Smithsonian contributions to knowledge.  Search this
Geology -- China  Search this
Geology -- Mongolia  Search this
Geology -- Japan  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Plates (illustrations)
Maps
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 06-100, , Miscellaneous Photographs, Negatives, Maps, and Drawings
Identifier:
Accession 06-100
See more items in:
Miscellaneous Photographs, Negatives, Maps, and Drawings
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa06-100

Jacob and Eleanor Reis photographs

Photographer:
Reis, Jacob A.  Search this
Creator:
Reis, Eleanor Nicely, Mrs.  Search this
Extent:
174 transparencies (dupe trans, black & white, 6 x 9 cm. )
96 negatives (photographic) (dupe negs, black & white, 8 x 11 cm. )
96 transparencies (dupe trans, black & white, 8 x 11 cm. )
24 negatives (photographic) (dupe negs, black & white, 9 x 11 cm. or smaller )
110 negatives (photographic) (black & white, 9 x 11 cm. or smaller)
129 lantern slides (silver gelatin, black & white, 6 x 9 cm. )
3 volumes (copy prints, black & white, 8 x 10 in. )
2 volumes (contact prints, black & white, 9 x 11 cm. )
174 negatives (photographic) (dupe negs, black & white, 6 x 9 cm. )
Container:
Item 129
Item 174
Item 174
Item 96
Item 96
Item 24
Item 110
Culture:
Bassa (Cameroon people)  Search this
Bassa (Liberian and Sierra Leone people)  Search this
Ntumu (African people)  Search this
Bulu (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Lantern slides
Transparencies
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Africa
Cameroon
Date:
1910-1920
Summary:
Photographs taken by Jacob Anthony Reis to document his experiences in Southern Cameroon while serving as a Presbyterian missionary from 1909 to 1945. The photographs document the life and peoples at Jacob A. Reis's mission stations, especially in and near Efulen, Cameroon, in the early 20th Century. African peoples pictured include the Bassa, Bulu and Ntumu. Structures depicted include churches, a dispensary, a fishing hut, a saw mill, school buildings such as a Baptist girls' school in Doulal and thatched roof buildings. Also included are African ritual objects collected by the mission and a photographic reproduction of a handwritten statistical list of bible readers, communicants, preachers and students.
Arrangement note:
Images indexed by negative number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jacob A. Reis, 1883-1945, Presbyterian missionary; graduated from Wooster College; attended Bloomfield Theological Seminary and ordained in 1908; joined the Presbyterian Church's mission in Cameroon in 1909; returned to the United States to complete his studies at the Western Theological Seminary in 1912; traveled back to Africa and served until his death in 1945.
Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Transparencies
Black-and-white negatives
Identifier:
EEPA.1985-004
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-eepa-1985-004

Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs

Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
11 Cubic feet (21 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Dye destruction process
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Cibachrome (TM)
Tear sheets
Color negatives
Color prints (photographs)
Dye destruction photoprints
Silver-dye bleach process
Type C color prints
Chromogenic processes
Place:
Canada -- Industry -- 1940-1980
Date:
circa 1930-2002
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes Arthur d'Arazien's professional work in industrial photography from the late 1940's through about 1981; personal creative photography and other types of professional work were retained by Mr. d'Arazien or placed elsewhere. Thus this collection is a very cohesive, unified body of work, which documents primarily American (and some Canadian) business and industry during a period of expansion a golden age of American industry. Although it represents the photographer's creative and artistic style and skill, the subject matter is appropriate to the National Museum of American History from several viewpoints the visual documentation of industry and technology, as well as advertising, public relations, and business history.

The photographs include black and white negatives and prints from the negatives, as well as color negative and transparency materials, up to 8" x 10" in size. Probably the majority of the transparencies were made in the large size. The black and white materials include pictures of d'Arazien at work some made by famous Life magazine photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt, a colleague at the Famous Photographers School. A number of Dye Transfer prints mounted on illustration board were made by master color printer Don Browning.

In addition to frequently extensive caption information on all of d'Araziens original envelopes and enclosures, many enclosures for color negatives and transparencies bear d'Arazien labels with technical information or instructions for color printing, such as filter pack designations and local printing controls. These enclosures therefore have been retained in the collection, although usually they are not of archival quality.

Of secondary significance are 62 large color prints, mostly Type C, with a few Cibachromes, which were made from the original transparencies for exhibition purposes. Most were made either by K & L laboratories, New York City (stickers on back) or Eastman Kodak professional laboratories, Rochester, N.Y., and have been wet mounted to non archival Masonite. At the time of acquisition, several had faded and/or changed color. These are available for research and exhibition purposes, but are not expected to survive as long as the original transparencies.

The collection contains Mr. d'Arazien's files of printed materials. These include reproductions which indicate how his photographs were used by clients. Included are annual reports, promotional pieces, magazine tearsheets from advertising and editorial uses, and other biographical items.

Series 1: Professional industrial photographs.

Photographs document primarily American business and industry (including some taken in Canada). Black-and-white negatives with prints from these negatives, also color negative and transparency materials. Most transparencies are 8" x 10". The photographs demonstrate the photographer's reputation as a master of dramatic lighting and the coordination of large-scale, complex industrial setups in factories, steel mills, and even outdoor settings. Also 65 color prints, mostly Type C with a few Cibachromes, made from the original transparencies for exhibition purposes, mostly wet-mounted to Masonite. Black-and-white photographs include pictures of d'Arazien at work--some by Life magazine photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt.

Series 2: D'Arazien's files of printed materials, some of which include photomechanical reproductions of his work, indicating how the photographs were used by clients; also annual reports, magazine tearsheets from advertising and editorial uses, and other promotional items, in addition to biographical materials.

2007 addendum: Transparencies, slides, prints and negatives of additional photographs by Arthur d'Arazien, including industrial subjects as well as travel, architectural, agricultural, portrait, art, still life and personal photographs. Also included are miscellaneous papers, mostly relating to d'Arazien's photographic work.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Paper Documents

Subseries 1.1: Publications and Reproductions.

Sub Series 1.2: Photographer's Labels, Envelopes, Etc.

Series 2: Photographs

Subseries 2.1: Color Phototransparencies

Subseries 2.2: Color Photonegatives and Color Photoprints

Subseries 2.3: Black and White Photonegatives and Photoprints

Subseries 2.4: Color Photoprints: Enlargements Mounted on Masonite

Material is arranged in each sub-series primarily by client names, in alphabetical order.

Series 3: Oversize prints
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur d'Arazien began his photographic career as an assistant to a famous theatrical photographer, documenting Broadway shows. A distinctive emphasis on dramatic lighting in his later work suggests the heavy influence of the theater. He did fashion and commercial photography, as well as photographing the 1939 World's Fair, for Underwood & Underwood Illustration Studios, East 44th St., New York City, in 1938 1939. He was described in a U.S. Camera Annual article as Aan architect whose interest in photography has caused him to make a profession of it.

D'Arazien taught aerial photography for the U.S. Air Corps Technical Training Command at Lowry Field, Denver, during World War II. He began his career in industrial photography with the De Laval Separator Company, New York City. His energy and creativity led to assignments which often were judged too difficult for lesser photographers. His growing reputation as an industrial photographer kept pace with the dynamic growth of the industrial and technological activities he was photographing during the 1950s through the 1980s.

Robert Vogel, former Curator of Mechanical and Civil Engineering for the National Museum of American History, wrote that d'Arazien: ...became internationally known for his dramatic color views of the American industrial scene at a time when our industry can be said to have been at the height of its powers....He was commissioned by the giants of steel, paper, chemicals, machinery, transportation, automobiles, mining, metal refining, textiles, and the other heavy (and medium) industries. ...He developed a number of special techniques for obtaining the grand, sweeping views that became his trademark, including multiple exposures to achieve dramatic lighting effects, elaborate lighting setups involving multiple flashes from several vantages employing a number of assistants intercommunicating by radio, complex arrangements with transportation lines and the various departments of the subject organization to produce the desired juxtaposition of elements in the photograph, and the like. His MO was anything but that of simply walking onto the scene and snapping the shutter; for many of his breathtaking views he appears to have been more producer and impresario than photographer.

Arthur d'Arazien describes the growth of his spectacular style as an eager response to new subjects, challenges, and photographic materials:

...knowing that color was the coming thing in corporate advertising, I pursued that line. I did lots of experimenting; every assignment gave me an opportunity to try something new, such as combination day and night exposures on a single sheet of film, multiple flash bulbs to light large interiors, multiple exposures on the same film, such as...moving objects ...automobiles, trains...to build up excitement in a picture. Colored gels to change colors. I even used old fashioned flash powder to light ...steel mills, because there were no flashbulbs powerful enough to light these dark, cavernous interiors: this idea was borrowed from the Air Corps night time aerial photography with magnesium flash powder.

A skilled painter and metal sculptor as well as photographer, d'Arazien came from a family of artists. His photographs were made primarily on assignment from industrial corporations for advertising, editorial, and public relations purposes, but have been exhibited and collected as works of art in the Smithsonian Institution (Division of Photographic History), the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Cleveland Museum. His work was included in the Photography in the Fine Arts exhibitions organized by Ivan Dimitri, and he was a founding faculty member of the Famous Photographers School, Westport, Connecticut, in the early 1960's.

D'Arazien married Margaret Scott and has two sons. He had a studio in Waterside Plaza, New York, and made his home in New Canaan, Connecticut, until moving to Naples, Florida, upon his retirement in 1988. The collection was brought to the Smithsonian's attention by his son Steven, and was donated to the Archives Center before this move. In anticipation of this gift, Mr. d'Arazien spent several months inspecting his collection, eliminating duplicate and technically unsuccessful images, and captioning photographs.

Sources American Aces, U.S. Camera Annual 1939. Clipping in scrapbook no. 1, box 24, first page.

Robert M. Vogel, memorandum, undated, but written after a December 1987 visit to d'[Arazien's home. In Archives Center collection control file.

Letter to the author, 26 February 1992, in collection control file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Arthur d'Arazien, December 24, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Industry -- Photographs -- 1940-1980 -- Canada  Search this
Industry -- Photographs -- 1940-1980 -- United States  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1940-1980  Search this
Agriculture -- Photographs -- 20th century  Search this
Travel -- Photographs -- 1930-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Photographs -- Chromogenic -- 1900-2000
Dye destruction process
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Cibachrome (TM)
Tear sheets
Color negatives
Color prints (photographs)
Dye destruction photoprints
Silver-dye bleach process
Photographs -- Color prints -- 20th century
Type C color prints
Chromogenic processes
Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0314
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0314
Additional Online Media:

Bethlehem Steel Corporation Mining Photographs

Creator:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation  Search this
Extent:
19 Cubic feet (66 boxes )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Color slides
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Color negatives
Date:
1880-1993
bulk 1947-1980
Summary:
The collection consists of approximately 28,000 photographic negatives, slides, prints and other materials documenting Bethlehem Steel Corporation's iron ore mining operations. The photographs were taken by Richard "Jay" Angelo, a Bethlehem Steel Corporation photographer. The majority of the photographs depict Bethlehem's mining operations at its Cornwall and Morgantown, Pennsylvania mines. A smaller number of negatives document operations in western Pennsylvania, Kentucky, West Virginia, Michigan and Ontario. The negatives depict aerial views, blasting operations, tunneling, equipment and infrastructure, machinery, employees working, company personnel, and company-built community facilities. The collection documents the complete operations of a major, historic mining operation over four decades.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 28,000 photographic negatives, slides, prints and other materials documenting Bethlehem Steel Corporation's iron ore mining operations. The photographs were taken by Richard "Jay" Angelo, a Bethlehem Steel Corporation photographer. The majority of the photographs depict Bethlehem's mining operations at its Cornwall and Morgantown, Pennsylvania mines. A smaller number of negatives document operations in western Pennsylvania, Kentucky, West Virginia, Michigan and Ontario. The negatives depict aerial views, blasting operations, tunneling, equipment and infrastructure, machinery, employees working, company personnel, and company-built community facilities. The collection documents the complete operations of a major, historic mining operation over four decades.

Series 1, Historical Background Materials, 1923-19933, consists of typescript general histories for the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, and specifically, the Cornwall Mine, Grace Mine, and the Marmoratan Mining Company. Included are some copies of maps, newspaper articles, photographs and one letter from Charlie Neil dated 1993 containing history of the Cornwall mining operations. Other miscellaneous items include articles about concrete, a retirement brochure for Sheldon J. Shale, and bound monthly progress reports of operations for the Cornwall Division, 1923-1929. These reports detail production, ore analysis, construction of mine shafts, repairs made, and physical plant conditions.

Series 2, Logbooks, 1949-1980, consists of personal, mileage, and photograph and negative logbooks maintained by Richard R. Angelo during the course of his career as a photographer for Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Cornwall Division. The series is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Personal Logbooks, 1949-1981, Subseries 2, Mileage Logbooks, 1957-1980, and Subseries 3, Photograph and Negative Logbooks, 1947-1968. The bound notebooks are arranged chronologically and are approximately 4 1/2" x 7 1/2" or smaller.

Subseries 1, Personal Logbooks, 1949-1980, consists of Angelo's personal logbooks which begin in 1949 and chronicle his daily activities and include the amount of time spent accomplishing each stated activity. For example, from April of 1949, Angelo writes, "making negatives and printing, eight hours." Later logbooks do not contain the number of hours, but many contain the number of vacation days Angelo took.

Subseries 2, Mileage Logbooks, 1957-1980 and undated, consists of logbooks with the date, number of miles, and location where Angelo drove. In some instances, toll expenses are noted as well as total mileage calculated for a month.

Subseries 3, Negative Logbooks, 1947-1980, consists of logbooks detailing the date, negative number and a brief description for black-and-white and color negatives. For example, the March 3, 1951, entry is listed as "#1840-0, waste rock tunnel, mine number 3." In some instances Angelo notes if a photograph or negative was rejected. Later logbooks follow an alpha-numeric identification system. These logbooks should be consulted when using Series 4, Black-and-White negatives. The subseries is arranged chronologically.

Series 3, Indices, 1943-1960, consists of typescript lists detailing the negative number, date, and a brief description for the Bethlehem Report (BR), the early Pilot Plant and raw materials (CN), microphotographs (MP), and Pilot Plant (PP,) and raw materials and office plant (RM). The person who assembled these lists or applied the alpha-numeric system is unknown. These indices should be consulted when using boxes 36 to 38 in Series 4, Black-and-White Negatives.

Series 4, Black-and-White Negatives, 1941-1963, is divided into six subseries: Subseries 1, #1-#4108, 1947-1961; Subseries 2, A1 to A400, 1941-1949; Subseries 3, B1 to B9995, 1953-1963; Subseries 4, C1 to C6999, 1963 [1969?]; Subseries 5, Chronological, 1950-1955; and Subseries 6, Topical, 1941-1961. The negatives are approximately 4" x 5" and are housed in glassine envelopes. In some instances, 4" x 5" prints are filed behind the corresponding negative.

The alpha-numeric subseries of negatives is not inclusive. There are indices (see Series 3) for the negatives in boxes 36 to 38 and the logbooks (see Series 2) maintained by Richard R. Angelo. The indices provide the alpha-numeric identification number, date, and brief description for the negative. For example, negative B-528 documents the #4 mine machine shop looking west, March 12, 1954. Researchers should use the logbooks in conjunction with the negatives.

There are some negatives that document diagrams, drawings, plans, sectional views, schematics for ore pockets, mine shafts, and flow sheets for the Lebanon Concentrator and the crushing plant at the Grace Mine. Some of the negatives were used in the creation of the Bethlehem Mines Corporation, Cornwall Division, photograph album which documents progress as of December 31, 1964.

Series 5, Color Negatives, 1964-1979, consists of approximately 940 color negatives, presumably documenting a wide variety of mining activities as well as employees. There is no index to these negatives. The negatives are arranged numerically.

Series 6, Photographic Prints, 1880s-1972 and undated, consists primarily of black-and-white prints of mining equipment, views of mine interiors (including the mine vein), aerial views, buildings, and employees. The bulk of photographs document Bethlehem mines in Pennsylvania, specifically Cornwall and Grace, but there is documentation for the Marmora Mine in Ontario, Canada. Some of the prints have captions and dates. Some oversize photographs (11" x 14") documenting the Matamora Mine in Ontario, Canada, 1958, were taken by H.R. Oakman of Peterboro, Ontario. The materials are arranged alphabetically.

Series 7, Photograph Albums, 1951-1971, consists of five bound albums and some loose materials documenting the Marmora Mine in Ontario, Canada. Many of the albums were photographed by H.R. Oakman of Peterboro, Ontario. The albums contain mounted black-and-white prints that are 4" x 5" or 11" x 17." The albums are arranged chronologically.

Series 8, Slides, 1950-1980, contains 35 mm slides in both black and white and color. The slides document a range of activities and are arranged alphabetically by mine location.

Series 9, Moving Images, 1961 and undated, consists of two color 16 mm films documenting the Grace Mine in Pennsylvania.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1, Historical Background Materials, 1923-1993

Series 2, Logbooks, 1949-1980

Subseries 1, Personal Logbooks, 1949-1980

Subseries 2, Mileage Logbooks, 1957-1980 and undated

Subseries 3, Negative Logbooks, 1947-1980

Series 3, Indices, 1943-1960

Series 4, Black-and-White Negatives, 1941-1963

Subseries 1, #1-#4108, 1947-1961

Subseries 2, A1 to A400, 1941-1949

Subseries 3, B1 to B9995, 1953-1963

Subseries 4, C1 to C6999, 1963 [1969?]

Subseries 5, Chronological, 1950-1955

Subseries 6, Topical, 1941-1961

Series 5, Color Negatives, 1964-1979

Series 6, Photographic Prints, 1880s-1972 and undated

Series 7, Photograph Albums, 1951-1971

Series 8, Slides, 1950-1980

Series 9, Moving Image, 1961 and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Richard "Jay" Angelo (1922-1997) was the official photographer for Bethlehem Cornwall Corporation (a subsidiary of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation) mining operations in Cornwall, Pennsylvania. The Cornwall Division operated three underground mines with concentrating and agglomerating facilities. Using a Speed Graphic camera (a portable professional camera), which used 4" x 5" film, Angelo captured between 20,000 and 30,000 negatives, mostly black-and-white, from January 1947 to January 1980. The negatives depict aerial views; each new blast in the open pit; tunneling in the underground works; installation of infrastructure such as underground bracing, head frames, railway track and agglomeration machinery; employees at work, receiving awards, or retiring; tours for corporate executives, local school teachers, and other mining executives; road and land improvements; company-built community facilities; safety program activities; installation and operation of the concentrating and agglomeration plants.

Angelo graduated from high school in 1940 and immediately began working in the mines, following in the foot steps of his father, an Italian immigrant. He joined the United States Navy in 1942 working as a radio operator aboard a communications ship. Angelo served in both the European and Pacific theaters of World War II. Angelo returned home in 1946 and worked in the mines, first in a tool room, then in the enginneering department. In 1947, he began taking photographs for the company, specializing in mining. Other photographers processed color and black-and-white negatives in the company lab and photographed the company's many plants. Angelo retired in 1980.

For over sixty years (1916-1980), Bethlehem Steel Company obtained most of its iron ore from three mines it owned and operated in eastern Pennsylvania. Two mines were located in Cornwall, about fifteen miles east of Harrisburg, and one was located in Morgantown, about twenty-five miles south of Reading. Until its closure in 1980, the Cornwall mine was the longest continuously operated mine in North America. The Cornwall Mine began in 1732 when John, Thomas, and Richard Penn deeded over 9,000 acres to Joseph Turne, who assigned it to William Allen. In 1734, Peter Grubb, a prospector for iron, paid Allen for the acreage and in 1742 built the Cornwall Furnance near the ore deposit. Other parties gained access and partnership to the ore banks through purchase or inheritance, and in 1854, Grubb and the others combined to form the Cornwall Ore Banks Company. Bethlehem Steel Company acquired ownership of the Cornwall Mines in 1916 and had complete ownership by 1921. The only exception was the Robesonia Iron Company, a small indepednent section that remained free of Bethlehem ownership until 1926, when Bethlehem acquired it and thus gained sole control of the ore desposits. The Cornwall iron ore deposit became one of the most valuable in the United States.

There were two major ore bodies in Cornwall, Pennsylvania, south of Lebanon, Pennsylvania, called Cornwall mines number 3 and number 4. Extracting the ore was done through open pit mining when deposits of useful minerals or rock were found near the surface. Open pit mining was used at Cornwall until 1953 when the open pits became too deep and economically not viable. It is estimated that over fifty-six million tons of ore were removed from mine number 3 between 1734 and 1953. By 1953, all of the available exposed ore was removed, and it was necessary for the company to begin underground mining activities. Other forms of mining included extractive methods that required tunneling into the earth, such as long wall mining. The number 4 mine was begun in 1926 as an underground operation; by 1965, twenty-two million tons of ore had been mined. In 1948, new iron ore deposits were discovered using an airborne magnetometer (an instrument used to measure the magnetic field) during an aerial survey in southeastern Pennsylvania. Bethlehem Steel acquired the land. Construction for the mine began in 1951 and ore stripping began in 1958. The new mine was called Grace Mine after Bethlehem Chairman and CEO Eugene Grace. Mining at lasted until 1977.

The Marmoratan Mine located in Hastings County, Ontario (east of Toronto) also became part of the vast Bethlehem Steel Corporation holdings. Iron mining was an important industry in the area during the nineteenth century. The village of Marmora was originally named Marmora Iron Works. Magnetic iron ore was mined as early as 1820, but a series of failures resulted in the abandonment of the mine. In 1949, the Ontario Department of Mines, in conjunction with the Geological Survey of Canada, conducted an aerial survey of the region. Bethlehem Steel geologists became interested in the area and in May, 1950, the company obtained options to purchase a 290 acre tract of property. Bethlehem would eventually acquire 1900 acres of property at Marmora. Drilling began in 1951, and the mine closed in 1979.

The scale of operations at the three mines was prodigious. Together, these mines were second only to Minnesota's famous Mesabi Range in terms of volume and quality of iron ore extracted. In addition to ore extraction, the mines were equipped with large-scale concentrating and agglomeration facilities, where the raw ore was separated into disparate minerals through the use of magnetic separators. The iron was then further concentrated into high density pellets that were easier to ship and more economical in making steel. Bethlehem erected its first concentrating facilities at Cornwall in 1916. When Bethlehem Steel acquired the Cornwall mines its long-term plan was to expand and modernize its program by adding mill equipment and providing sintering plants. Bethlehem purchased the Pennsylvania Steel Company in 1916, which included a wet mill equipped with a Grondal magnetic separator. From 1934 to 1962, the mines produced over twenty-seven million tons of iron concentrate, 450,000 tons of copper concentrate, and 1,650 tons of pyrite concentrate. The agglomeration plant at the Grace Mine alone produced three million tons of iron concentrate between 1958 and 1965.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Alexander Van Valen Papers, 1849-1850 (AC0935)

International Salt Company Records, 1888-1964 (AC1158)

Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1960 (AC0507)

Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs Collection, circa 1939-1984 (AC0314)

Frank Klepetko Michigan Mining Cyanotype Album, circa 1880 (AC1042)

Materials in Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library

Bethlehem Steel Corporation records, 1714-1982

Bethlehem Steel Corporation and Bethlehem Ship Corporation photograph collection, 1786-1966

Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Predecessor and subsidiary companies, 1860-1947

Pennsylvania State Archives

Cornwall Ore Bank Company Records, 1802-1935, 1954
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Richard Angelo, Jr., and Jeanette Angelo Laverty on July 9, 2011.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mines -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Iron and steel industry  Search this
Iron -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Color negatives
Citation:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation Mining Photographs, 1880-1993, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Michael Cuscuna.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1242
See more items in:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation Mining Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1242
Additional Online Media:

Miscellaneous Photographs, Negatives, Maps, and Drawings, 1867-1993, undated

Uniform title:
Smithsonian contributions to knowledge  Search this
Subject:
Delafield, Richard 1798-1873  Search this
Willis, Bailey 1857-1949  Search this
Michals, Duane  Search this
Pumpelly, Raphael 1837-1923  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents  Search this
Physical description:
0.58 cu. ft. (1 tall document box)
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Plates (illustrations)
Maps
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
China
Mongolia
Japan
Date:
1867
1867-1993
1867-1993, undated
Topic:
Geology  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 06-100
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_259459

Clayton M. Hall Collection of Railroad Photographs

Donor:
Hall, Clayton M.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Date:
1936-1966, undated
Summary:
A collection of black and white photographic negatives depicting railroad scenes and locomotives in the United States and Canada, taken by Clayton M. Hall of Princeton, New Jersey.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 445 (3 inches by 4 inches) photographic negatives of railroad trains taken by Clayton M. Hall of Princeton, New Jersey. The majority of these images are of steam locomotives in service at rail stations and rail yards. The collection primarily documents eastern railroad lines, especially the Baltimore and Ohio, Boston and Maine, Central of New Jersey, and the Pennsylvania, but also includes views of railroads in New Mexico and Canada. A printed guide to the negatives exists in the Archives Center's reading room along with video disc #38105 of all of the photographs in this collection. This guide has detailed information on the prints in this collection. Some envelopes contain two negatives.

Series 1, Photographic Negatives, 1936-1966, undated, is arranged numerically by negative number and then alphabetically by the name of railroad. These numbers were assigned by the National Museum of American History in 1986. There are a few exceptions when the negative number does not correspond with the usual alphabetical placement of the railroad pictured. There are two dates on the negative sleeve. Under the heading "Year" is the date of the construction of the locomotive pictured. The date listed under "Photo Description" is the date the photograph was taken by Hall. The date recorded in the finding aid data is the one listed under "Photo Description"; if no date was recorded then it is listed as "undated".The locomotives depicted range in construction date from the early 19th century to the mid-20th century. There are sometimes two negatives in a sleeve depicting the same subject but with slight differences.

Series 2, Photographic Prints, 1986, contains the later prints (3 and one-half inches by 5 inches) made directly from Hall's negatives by the Division of Work and Industry in 1986. They are arranged numerically by the negative number.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1, Photographic Negatives, 1936-1966, undated

Series 2, Photographic Prints, 1986
Biographical / Historical:
add
Related Materials:
Charles B. Chaney Railroad Photographs, circa 1900-1940 (AC1167)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, (AC0060, Series: Railroads)

Haskell and Barker Car Company Photographs, 1926-1949 (AC1183)

Thomas Norell Railroad Photographs Collection, circa 1840-1900 (AC1174)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Clayton M. Hall of Princeton, New Jersey in 1972.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad trains  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Railroad stations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Citation:
Clayton M. Hall Collection of Railroad Photographs, 1936-1966, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1168
See more items in:
Clayton M. Hall Collection of Railroad Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1168

Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks

Photographer:
Nadel, Leonard, 1916-1990  Search this
Author:
Galarza, Ernesto  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Scrapbooks
Place:
Mexico
Texas -- 20th century
Texas
California
Date:
1950-2006
bulk 1956-1960
Summary:
Photographer Leonard Nadel's supplemental material relating to and photographs of the Mexican braceros (manual laborers). They were photographed in California, Texas, and Mexico for the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic during the late 1950s and early 1960s in support of a report entitled Strangers in Our Fields by Dr. Ernesto Galarza.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into three series. Each series is arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1950-1968, contains scrapbooks of clippings of magazine articles and newspaper stories written by Nadel and others as well as magazines and newspaper articles making use of his photographs. The material is from a variety of specialty and mainstream publications and varies in subject matter. The scrapbooks are not only focused on Nadel's work for the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic but also offer a broad sampling of his work throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Material in the scrapbooks are arranged in rough chronological order. There is also a sample custom cover from one of the scrapbooks.

Series 2: Photographs, 1956-1960, undated, contains photographs printed from his negatives of the braceros. This series also contains a complete run of 8" x 10" contact sheets from his negatives of the bracero. The negatives themselves are in this series but not available for research per donor request. There are photographs ranging in size from 8" x 10" to large format photographs (10 1/2" x 13 1/2") that are keyed to frames on the contact sheets for easy reference. Negatives are arranged chronologically and captions are keyed to the negative numbers. These images have been digitized and may be found by searching "Nadel" on the collections section of the National Museum of American History website or by contacting the Archives Center.

Series 3: Publications and Supplemental Materials, 1956-2006, undated, contains correspondence, copies of Strangers in Our Fields, the publication making use of Nadel's bracero photographs, and other publications citing Nadel's work or based on it. This series also contains correspondence and written material from Evelyn De Wolfe Nadel, wife of Leonard Nadel; material relating to Nadel's photographic archive and captions for a selection of the bracero photographs. There is a selection of assorted loose news clippings.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into three series:

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1950-1968

Series 2: Photographs, 1956-1960, undated

Series 3: Publications and Supplemental Materials, 1956-2006, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Primarily known as a freelance photographer and photojournalist, Leonard Nadel (1916-1990) was born in Harlem, New York to Austro-Hungarian immigrant parents. He attended the City College of New York. Entering the Army during World War II, he trained at the Army Signal Corps Photographic Center. During the war he served in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. After the war he returned to New York and received his master's degree in education from Teachers College, Columbia University. He moved to Los Angeles, California and studied at the Art Center College of Design.

In Los Angeles, Nadel photographed both the Pueblo del Rio and Aliso Village housing projects. He was also hired by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA) to document living conditions in the city's slums and their new post-World War II housing projects. Nadel continued his employment with HACLA until 1953, when he resigned because his HACLA colleague, Frank Wilkinson, was blacklisted by the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) and forced to resign.

Between 1953 and 1980 Nadel worked as a freelance photographer for such publications as the Los Angeles Times, Harvester News, Life, Business Week, and other major publications. His work with the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic resulted in his work documenting the bracero program. These photographs were taken by Leonard Nadel in connection with a survey of braceros done by Ernesto Galarza for the Fund for the Republic in 1956 in support of the publication, Strangers in Our Fields. During World War II, the United States and Mexico entered an agreement to alleviate the US labor shortage created by the war by importing Mexican workers. This arrangement outlasted the end of the war and by the time of Nadel's photographs nearly half a million Mexican contract workers, in the common vernacular of the time known as "drybacks," were legally imported to the United States annually working on short term labor contracts predominately in agriculture. These workers were also known as braceros, in Spanish translated as "manual laborer".

Nadel wrote of his work with the braceros, "I covered 5,000 miles during a circuit that took me from California to Mexico to Texas. It would have been easy enough just to turn over to the Fund the finished collection of photographs from the 2,000 images I took in attempting to accurately document the story of Strangers in Our Fields. But the conditions I had witnessed stirred me deeply. I felt that it was as much my responsibility to help 'sell' the picture story."

Nadel's photographs were the subject of the National Museum of American History (NMAH) exhibition, "Bittersweet Harvest: The Bracero Program, 1942-1964" in 2009-2010. Nadel's photographs are featured in NMAH's "America on the Move" exhibit. This quote from the "America on the Move" exhibition website gives the history of the photographs as well as the bracero program.

"In 1956, Leonard Nadel was hired by the Fund for the Republic, an anti-McCarthy liberal spin off of the Ford Foundation, to document the Bracero Program. In the 1990s, the Smithsonian Institution acquired the Nadel images. The collection contains 64 captioned photographic prints and 1730 original 35mm negatives (with corresponding contact sheets). The images document life in Mexico, men's experiences of crossing the border, and work and life in the US.

"The Bracero Program came into existence in 1942. Growers argued that labor shortages in the United States resulting from World War II required the recruitment of Mexican nationals. Mexico saw the program as a contribution to the war effort. Although the program began as a temporary war measure, it became a fixture of agricultural work landscape until it was finally terminated in 1964.

"Over the course of its lifetime, the Bracero Program became the largest and most significant U.S. labor guest worker program of the 20th century. In all, over 4.5 million contracts were awarded through the twenty-two years of the program. Despite the well-intentioned contracts, the program did not escape controversy. Some point out the widespread abuses of many of the contract's protective provisions and the violation of the legal rights and civil liberties of the braceros while others describe the program as an opportunity for Mexican nationals to make a living and improve the conditions of their families. Regardless of one's opinion of the program, it had a profound effect on Mexican American settlement patterns in the U.S. and numerous Latino families have ancestors who were involved in the Bracero Program."

Nadel married Los Angeles Times staff writer Evelyn De Wolfe in August 1961. She was Brazilian by birth and after their marriage she resigned from the Times and collaborated with Nadel on many projects that covered both national and international subjects. Nadel died in 1990.
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

The collections of the Los Angeles Public Library and the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research each contain photographic images made by Leonard Nadel during the time he worked for The Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA). The Photo Collection of the Los Angeles Public Library contains approximately 290 copy negatives and corresponding black-and-white copy prints made from original materials held by HACLA. The Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Photograph Collection, held at the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research, contains 225 black-and-white photographs produced by HACLA, forty-two of which were taken by Nadel.

The Getty Research Institute, Special Collections, Los Angeles, California, contain 8.75 linear feet (14 boxes) of Leonard Nadel photographs and other material relating to housing and urban redevelopment in Los Angeles, 1947-1998. The collection is described as, "Consisting primarily of photographic material by Leonard Nadel from 1947 to 1957, the collection records early efforts by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA) to promote integrated public housing for the city's growing multi-ethnic population, and also documents several areas of the city that the Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) had targeted for commercial revitalization. Nadel's black-and-white negatives, contact prints and two unpublished photographic books form the bulk of the collection, supplemented by handwritten notes and related documents."
Provenance:
The collection was purchased with funds from the Jackson Fund in 2000. All rights were transferred to the National Museum of American History in 2000-2001.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use. Photographic negatives are not available for research at the donor's request, but contact sheets of the negatives are available in the collection. Some images are restricted for publication, but may be viewed in the Archives Center's reading room.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farmers -- Mexico  Search this
Agriculture -- Research  Search this
Agriculture -- Photographs -- 20th century  Search this
Labor  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs  Search this
Documentary photography -- United States  Search this
Photographers -- 1950-1980  Search this
Bracero Program  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white photographs
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1313
See more items in:
Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1313

Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection

Creator:
Norrell, Thomas, 1899-1985  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (84 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Photograph albums
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1840-circa 1960
bulk 1870-1940
Summary:
Approximately 11,000 images collected by Thomas Norrell consisting of original photographic prints and photographic postcards, original film and glass plate negatives, and duplicate/copy photographic prints and negatives. The majority are external views of single locomotive engines of North American railroad and industrial companies. Images of international railroad company locomotives and of representative locomotives from various locomotive works and builders are also included. The collection contains a small number of subject-specific images covering such topics as train wrecks, funeral trains, experimental locomotives, miniature trains, and locomotives at the 1933 and 1939 World's Fairs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains material related primarily, but not exclusively, to early North American railroad locomotives. Photographs and negatives comprise the bulk of the material in the collection, with the number of individual images well exceeding 10,000. While the collection is particularly valuable for its images of locomotives from smaller or relatively obscure railroad lines and industrial concerns (such as mining and lumber companies), it also includes a substantial number of images from the leaders of the railroad industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (such as the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad).

Norrell's organization of the collection reflects his technical knowledge of railroad engines and his familiarity with various railroad companies. His use of Whyte notation as an organizational schema gives evidence to this. Whyte notation is broadly utilized by the railroad industry as a way to classify locomotives based on their wheel configuration. A count of leading (non-driving) wheels, middle driving wheels, and trailing wheels (non-driving) is represented by a three-digit hyphenated number. For example, a locomotive with four leading wheels, four driving wheels, and two trailing wheels would be classified as a 4-4-2. Norrell utilized this convention when subdividing railroad companies for which he had collected many images, such as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, and the Lehigh Valley Railroad, among others. Norrell subdivided portions of his collection of Pennsylvania Railroad images based on that company's distinct classification system, where letters of the alphabet corresponded to different Whyte notations.

Norrell used other criteria to help subdivide larger assemblages of single-company railroad images, and these have been maintained. In some instances, he used the company number designation found on the locomotive itself (as in the case of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad). Other times, subject designations were used to distinguish rail yards, passenger cars, and special or prominent locomotives. Because the Pennsylvania Railroad comprised such a large segment of images, Norrell organized it according to a number of subdivision types (including year, Whyte notation, and subject) rather than any single one.

The collection is arranged into three series: Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960, and Series 3, Ephemera, undated.

Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated,contains photographic negatives and is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, and Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated.

The series contains original negative images, copy negatives of other printed images, and copy negatives of printed material, such as book illustrations. The inclusive dates for the series reflect the subject of the material photographed (as in the case of copy negatives) rather than the date the negative was created.

The negatives primarily depict views of single locomotive engines from various North American and international mainline and short line railroads. Interspersed among these are views of company-owned locomotives representing such North American industries as mining (coal, iron, limestone, copper, gold, quartz, zinc), lumber (timber, pulp, paper), metallurgical production (coke, iron, steel), stone/brick production (masonry, cement, gravel), utilities (power, light, telephone), chemical production, leather production, automotive production, and food service. A number of military railroad locomotives as well as early metropolitan transit systems are also represented among the negatives. Most of the images depict steam locomotives, though some diesel engines, diesel-electric hybrid engines, passenger and freight cars, and assorted repair/service vehicles are also spread throughout.

Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated consists of polyester film negatives ranging in size from 2 1/4" x 4 1/4" to 5" x 7". Additional larger polyester film negatives are interfiled with the glass plate negatives of Subseries 2 and range in size from 5" x 7" to 8" x 10".

The negatives are physically arranged by size, then by the negative series number originally assigned to them by the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation. This numbering system generally, but not always, follows an alphabetical order by name of railroad company (North American and international) or industrial company. The majority of the film negatives are 5" x 7" or smaller, and the number series for this size of negative begins with 85-20939 and ends with 85-31126.

Film negatives larger than 5" x 7" are separated and interfiled with the glass plate negatives of Subseries 2. As such, the negative series number range for these larger film negatives is not always consecutive. The first series number range begins at 82-4189 and ends at 82-4429. The second range begins at 82-13786 and ends at 82-13795. A printed, item-level index of the negatives containing an alphabetical list of railroad and industrial company names and associated negative numbers is available for consultation in the Archives Center.

The envelope enclosures for all negatives generally include the name of the railroad or industrial company, the engine/locomotive number, the engine/locomotive builder, the Whyte classification (wheel arrangement), the year of the engine/locomotive's construction, a brief description of the image, the size of the negative, and the negative series number.

Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, consists of glass plate negatives ranging in size from 5" x 7" to 10" x 12". Three broken glass plate negatives have been re-housed and are stored separately. Otherwise the plates are arranged by size, then by original negative series number as assigned by the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation. This number range is not always consecutive because the glass plate negatives are interfiled with the larger film negatives of Subseries 1. A printed, item-level index of the negatives containing an alphabetical list of railroad and industrial company names and associated negative numbers is available for consultation in the Archives Center.

The 8" x 10" glass plate negative number series begins with 82-4168 and ends with 82-4424.

The 5" x 7" glass plate negatives contain series numbers 82-13783 to 82-13785.

The 12" x 10" glass plate negatives contain series numbers 82-4430 to 82-4452.

The envelope enclosures for the negatives generally include the name of the railroad or industrial company, the engine/locomotive builder, the Whyte classification (wheel arrangement), in some cases a brief description of the image, and the negative series number.

Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960,consists of visual material, including photographic postcards, illustrated postcards, photographic prints (made through a variety of photographic processes), and a photograph album. It contains five subseries: Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies; Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies; Subseries 3, Railroad Builders; Subseries 4, Subjects; and Subseries 5, Duplicate Images.

Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960 includes photographic and illustrated postcards and photographic prints of North American railroad companies, industrial railroads, and urban transit companies. The images range in size from 2 1/4" x 4 1/4" to 8" x 10," with the majority being silver gelatin prints. Occasional albumen prints, cyanotype prints, and salted paper prints are found in the collection. The majority of the images are views of single locomotive engines, though some images of railroad stations, roundhouses, rail yards, and passenger cars are interspersed throughout. While the majority of the photographs are 4" x 6" or smaller, there are prints larger than 4" x 6" which are arranged alphabetically by railroad or industrial company name. In some cases multiple larger images from railroad companies with names close to each other alphabetically are filed together in a single folder and identified with the first common letters of the company names.

Norrell's original alphabetical organization by railroad or industrial company name has been preserved. In some instances where a substantial number of images for a particular railroad company exist, Norrell subidivided the images either by Whyte notation (wheel arrangement) or by subject. This usually follows either an alphabetical or numerical organization, but not in every case. In many instances, hand-written notes and postage appear on the reverse of the photographic postcards. Addresses and salutations indicate that many of the postcards were not sent to Thomas Norrell directly, but were acquired by him at a later date.

Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960, includes photographs, illustrated postcards, and a photograph album depicting international railroads and railroad locomotives. Of particular interest is the photograph album compiled by Thomas Norrell containing sixty individual photographs of steam locomotive engines from eighteen assorted British, continental European, and South American railroad companies. The images are all approximately 14" x 10," and each corresponds to an identification chart mounted in the front of the album indicating the railroad company, engine number, Whyte notation (wheel arrangement), and special notes about each engine.

Subseries 3, Railroad Builders, circa 1850-1960 consists photographic prints and photographic postcards containing images of locomotives separated by builder. Norrell's original alphabetical arrangement of the images by locomotive works or manufacturing company name has been preserved.

Subseries 4, Subjects, 1804-1940, contains photographic prints and photographic postcards organized by subject. The images are arranged chronologically by date of the subject of the images. Of particular interest are Norrell's photographs of locomotives at the 1933-1934 Chicago and 1939-1940 New York World's Fairs.

Subseries 5, Duplicate Images, circa 1850-1960, contains duplicate photographic prints and duplicate copy prints created from the either the photographs in Series 2 or from the film and glass plate negatives from Series 1. The duplicate images, including photographic postcards and photographic prints, are subdivided by first letter of the name of the railroad or industrial company. The duplicate copy prints created from the negatives are arranged numerically by a negative number recorded on the negative itself.

Series 3, Ephemera, undated,consists of an unidentified and undated piece of railroad track.

References

Staufer, Alvin F. Pennsy Power III 1847-1968. Medina, OH: Alvin F. Staufer, 1993.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in three series.

Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 3, Railroad Builders, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 4, Subjects, 1804-1940

Subseries 5, Duplicate Images, circa 1850-1960

Series 3, Ephemera, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Norrell was born in West Ham (Essex County) England on November 11, 1899. He emigrated to the United States as a young man and became a naturalized citizen in 1911. He took an apprenticeship at the Baldwin Locomotive Works around 1920. Although the Baldwin works benefited from a boom in the export of steam locomotives meant to replenish foreign rail systems impacted by use during the First World War, the upswing was short-lived. Business at Baldwin slowed considerably in the 1920s as diesel engines began replacing steam locomotives. Recognizing that opportunities for advancement within Baldwin were scarce, Norrell moved out of railroad work completely and into the paper box industry. He married his wife Wilhelmina in 1929, and they resided in Cranston, Rhode Island and later Silver Spring, Maryland.

Despite his shift away from railroads as a vocation, Norrell maintained a life-long interest in trains and was a collector of photographic and print material related to locomotive engines, train cars, and industrial railroads. He contributed a number of articles to various railroad periodicals and was generous in providing images from his collection to other authors for reproduction in their publications. Norrell also influenced and supported a number of prominent railroad historians, including John H. White Jr., curator of the Division of Transportation in the Smithsonian National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History). It was through White's efforts that Norrell's collection became part of the Smithsonian Institution.

In 1942 Norrell gained some degree of notoriety for having rediscovered the famed Brady Civil War negatives in the vault of the Phelps Publishing Company in Springfield, Massachusetts while searching for an unrelated daguerreotype of an early Massachusetts locomotive. The locomotive had been identified from a wood-engraving made by an artist for a Phelps subsidiary publication, and Norrell secured permission to search the Phelps Company's vault for the image. During his search, Norrell stumbled upon and recognized the famed Civil War collection from earlier printed publications of the images. He brought the collection to the attention of the National Archives, which deferred to the Library of Congress. The storage fees for the images had been unpaid for many years by their owner, and the Phelps Company, interested only in recovering compensation for the use of the space, seized the images and sold them at cost to the Library of Congress in 1944.

Norrell later lived in Fredericksburg, Virginia, close to his daughter Elise Mann. He died there on February 1, 1985.

References

Bell, Kurt R. "On the Shoulders of a Giant: A Profile of John H. White, Jr.," Railroad History, 204 (Spring-Summer 2011): 6-23.

Hodge, Robert, comp. An Index to the Death Notices in the Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia), 1981-1991. Fredericksburg, VA: Robert A. Hodge (1992).

Norrell, Thomas. "The Norris Construction Record," Railroad and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, 150 (1983): 57-XX.

Norrell, Thomas. "Uriah Wells, Locomotive Builder of Petersburg," Railroad and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, 124 (1969): 40-XX.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930: Population Schedule. Massachusetts Enumeration District 9-169, Supervisor's District 10, Sheet 4-1, 1930.

Vanderbilt, Paul, comp. Guide to the Special Collections of Prints and Photographs in the Library of Congress. Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, 1955.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Baldwin Locomotive Works Collection (Engine Registers and Order Books), 1833-1956, (AC0157)

Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings, 1870-1890, (AC0353)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, 1880s-1990, (AC0523)

Materials Held by the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry

Three images from the collection, including an 1848 daguerreotype image of the locomotive "Tioga", an 1855 daguerreotype image of a locomotive on the Niagara Falls, and a circa 1870 daguerreotype image of a Rome, Watertown, and Ogdensburgh locomotive.

Materials Held by Other Institutions

Thomas Norrell photographic album, and other views of rail transportation in Canada and the United States, circa 1920-1979, R5500-27-4-E, Andrew Audubon Merrilees fonds. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation (now known as the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry) by Thomas Norrell on April 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270. The collection is stored off-site with the exception of the negatives. Some glass plate negatives are broken and may require special handling care.
Rights:
Copyright status unknown, though most images are in the public domain.
Topic:
Railroad companies -- Europe  Search this
Railroad companies -- Africa  Search this
Railroad companies -- North America  Search this
Railroad companies -- South America  Search this
Railroad accidents  Search this
Mine railroads  Search this
Locomotive builders  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Ephemera
Citation:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Collection, XXXX-XXXX, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1174
See more items in:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1174
Additional Online Media:

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client

Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
87 Boxes
The subseries consists of black and white silver gelatin negatives.
Note:
Cold Storage
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Color separation negatives
Matrices, color separation
Studio portraits
Dye transfer process
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1929-1989
Summary:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). Subseries 4.6 consists of black and white silver gelatin negatives. An overview to the entire Scurlock collection is available here: Scurlock Studio Records
Scope and Contents note:
The negatives document the orders of the clients of the Scurlock Studio. The majority of the negatives are of portrait sittings but there are also negatives depicting children, couples, and groups.
Arrangement note:
The arrangement of the negatives is unclear; the arrangement will be in alphabetical order before it will start completely over again.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.6 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Segregation  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color separation negatives
Matrices, color separation
Studio portraits
Dye transfer process
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.06
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-06
Additional Online Media:

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.5: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by job number

Creator:
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Names:
Howard University. -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
320 Boxes
Note:
Cold Storage
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Matrices, color separation
Photographs
Dye transfer process
Color separation negatives
Studio portraits
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
1928-1994
Scope and Contents:
The materials document the orders placed by the clients of the Scurlock Studio. The photographs primarily depict individual portrait sittings but there are also portraits of children, groups, and other subjects.
Arrangement note:
The negatives are arranged by job number.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.5 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American photographers  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Matrices, color separation
Photographs -- 20th century
Dye transfer process
Color separation negatives
Studio portraits
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.05
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.5: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by job number
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-05
Additional Online Media:

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.3: Black and white negatives in freezer storage arranged by client

Creator:
Custom Craft  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
320 Boxes
The subseries includes black and white silver gelatin negatives.
Note:
Freezer storage
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Matrices, color separation
Photographs
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Dye transfer process
Place:
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Date:
1932-1959
Scope and Contents note:
The majority of materials are portrait sittings of individuals but there are also formal portraits of couples, families, groups, and organizations.
Arrangement note:
The negatives are arranged alphabetically by the client's last name.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.3 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Segregation  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Matrices, color separation
Photographs -- 20th century
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Dye transfer process
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.03
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.3: Black and white negatives in freezer storage arranged by client
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-03
Additional Online Media:

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.9: Black and white negatives for publication

Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
2 Boxes
The subseries consists of black and white silver gelatin negatives.
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Matrices, color separation
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Dye transfer process
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1948-1949
Summary:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). Subseries 4.9 consists of negatives used for publication. An overview to the entire Scurlock collection is available here: Scurlock Studio Records
Scope and Contents:
The materials document negatives used for publication.
Arrangement:
The negatives appear to be arranged by ascending page numbers in a publication.
Biographical / Historical:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.9 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Segregation  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Matrices, color separation
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Dye transfer process
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.09
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.9: Black and white negatives for publication
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-09

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.2: Black and white negatives in freezers arranged by job number

Creator:
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
320 Boxes
The materials in the subseries are black and white silver gelatin negatives.
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Studio portraits
Photographs
Dye transfer process
Color separation negatives
Matrices, color separation
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Date:
1931-1971
Scope and Contents note:
The vast majority of the negatives are individual portrait sittings but there are some family and group portraits. The box numbers in the finding aid are the old freezer box numbers and are not reflective of the physical number of boxes; when the negatives were rehoused, the physical number of boxes were reduced and the old freezer box numbers were retained in combination on boxes. The beginning and end of a freezer box is demarcated by blue dividers inside the new boxes.
Arrangement note:
The negatives are arranged by job number and document the orders placed by clients at the Scurlock Studio.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.2 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Studio portraits
Photographs -- 20th century
Dye transfer process
Color separation negatives
Matrices, color separation
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.02
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.2: Black and white negatives in freezers arranged by job number
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-02
Additional Online Media:

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.4: Black and white negatives in freezer storage arranged by subject

Creator:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
320 Boxes
The subseries consists of black and white silver gelatin negatives..
Note:
Freezer storage
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Matrices, color separation
Dye transfer process
Color separation negatives
Studio portraits
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1900-1994
Scope and Contents note:
The materials document negatives that could not be connected to a specific client. The subjects include art, buildings, and unidentified individuals.
Arrangement note:
The negatives are arranged by subject but are not in alphabetical order.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.4 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Matrices, color separation
Dye transfer process
Color separation negatives
Studio portraits
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.04
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.4: Black and white negatives in freezer storage arranged by subject
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-04
Additional Online Media:

Frederick M. Bayer photographs from the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia survey of Ifalik Atoll

Creator:
United States. Navy  Search this
Bayer, Frederick M.  Search this
Names:
Tracey, Joshua I. (Joshua Irving), 1915-  Search this
Extent:
159 Photographic Prints (silver gelatin)
122 negatives (acetate)
0.58 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic Prints
negatives
Aerial Photographs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1940-2000
Place:
Caroline Islands -- Social life and customs
Ifalik Atoll (Micronesia)
Date:
1953
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 122 photographs of people and marine life made by Bayer while on the SIM survey of Ifalik Atoll in 1953, as well as 68 aerial photographs of the Atoll. The aerial photographs are stamped on verso as official Navy photographs. Bayer's marine life photographs include underwater images of coral, fish, crustaceans, and other invertebrates. Photographs of Ifalik Atoll inhabitants include images of the Atoll's chiefs, as well as a gathering to welcome for visitors from Woleai, and women performing a dance for the Woleai visitors. Several images show the Fan Nap, or public assembly house, and outrigger canoes. SIM team members, including ocean geologist Joshua I. Tracey, and their local assistants, are shown surveying the area and collecting specimens. Included is Bayer's photograph log, which lists the date the photograph was made, its subject, sometimes the time of day, and the camera settings used.
Arrangement note:
The collection is organized into 2 series: 1) The people and marine life on Ifalik Atoll, 2) Aerial photographs of Ifalik Atoll.

Bayer's photographs are numbered according to Bayer's numbering schema, which is [film roll number.item number]. The aerial photographs are numbered according to the Naval photographer's numbering schema.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frederick M. Bayer (1921-2007) was a research zoologist who specialized in the study of Octocorillia (soft corals). He worked at the Smithsonian Institution from 1947-1961 and 1975-1996, and taught at the School of Marine Science at the University of Miami in the interim years. The Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History hired Bayer as a curator in 1947 and immediately sent him to survey marine fauna at the Bikini Atoll. In 1950 the Office of Naval Research sponsored the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia (SIM), a program administered through the Pacific Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Bayer was a member of the SIM team that surveyed the Ifalik Atoll in 1953. [1]

[1] Bayer, Frederick M. Atoll Research Bulletin no. 494, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: 2001.
Geographical Note:
Ifalik Atoll is comprised of several small islets: Falarik, Falalap, Ella, and Elangalap. The atoll forms part of the Caroline Islands archipelago in Yap County of Micronesia.
Related Materials Note:
The Joshua Irving Tracey Jr. papers, accession no. 02-021, in the Smithsonian Institution Archives contains materials relating to the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia, including field notes and photographs from the 1953 survey of Ifalik Atoll.

The Smithsonian Institution Archives also holds records pertaining to Bayer's work as a curator in the National Museum of Natural History.
Separated Materials Note:
The 8 artifacts purchased by Bayer while on Ifalik Atoll form accession no. 2028523 in the Department of Anthropology's ethnology collections at the National Museum of Natural History. The accession includes a conch shell used for signaling, grass skirts, fishhooks, and baskets.
Provenance:
Frederick M. Bayer donated the photographs, along with a collection of artifacts from Ifalik Atoll to the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, in 2003. The photographs were transferred to the archives in 2008.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Crustacea  Search this
Alcyonaria  Search this
Genre/Form:
Aerial Photographs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1940-2000
Citation:
Photo Lot 2008-20, Frederick M. Bayer photographs from the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia survey of Ifalik Atoll, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2008-20
See more items in:
Frederick M. Bayer photographs from the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia survey of Ifalik Atoll
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2008-20

Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials

Creator:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Donor:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation  Search this
Extent:
23 Cubic feet (99 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Photograph albums
Date:
1885-1940s
Summary:
The collection documents the building, operation and daily life of coal mining communities in Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio between 1911 and 1946. The collection is a valuable for the study of mining technology and the social conditions of the time period and regions.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists mostly of photographs depicting Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company mines and mining towns in Maryland, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Subjects include worker housing, schools for miners' children, gardens, churches, recreational facilities, health services, company stores, safety, mining machinery, construction of mines and related structures, and the interiors of mines.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1904-1933

Series 2: Photographs, 1885-1940s

Subseries 2.1: Photograph Albums, 1885-1932

Subseries 2.2: West Virginia Division, 19091-1917

Subseries 2.3: Glass Plate and Film Negatives, 1911-1940s

Subseries 2.4: Numbered Photographs, 1911-1930

Subseries 2.5: Miscellaneous, 1913, 1916
Historical Note:
The Consolidation Coal Company was started in 1864 to mine bituminous coal deposits in Maryland's Cumberland region. it expanded by acquiring other mine companies as well as rail and other transportation companies. It went into receivership in 1932. The Pittsburgh Coal Company, founded in 1900, took over the firm in 1945 and formed the Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.

The Consolidation Coal Company (Maryland)

The Consolidation Coal Company was incorporated in Maryland on March 8, 1860, for the purpose of effecting a merger of a number of coal operators mining the Georges Creek basin in Allegany County, Maryland. Because of the Civil War, during which Confederate armies frequently blocked the region's only outlet to market, the company was not actually organized until April 19, 1864. Starting life as the dominant operator in this small but significant coal field, "Consol" rose to become the nation's top producer of bituminous coal.

The Georges Creek or Cumberland Coal Field, occupying part of the triangle of western Maryland, contained a high-quality, low-volatile bituminous steam coal which was also, thanks to the Potomac River, the coal of this type most accessible to Eastern markets. Coal had been mined in the region beginning in the 1700s, and the first coal company, the Maryland Mining Company, had been incorporated in 1828. However, large-scale development could not occur until the mid-1840s, after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Cumberland and provided reliable transportation. This also coincided with the development of ocean steam navigation and a rapid growth in the number of railroad locomotives and stationary steam engines. Cumberland coal was ideal for ship bunkering, and much of the output was shipped to New York Harbor. Naturally, New York capitalists and manufacturers played a leading role in developing the field. Lewis Howell's Maryland and New York Iron and Coal Company rolled the first solid U.S. railroad rail at its Mount Savage mill in 1844. The Consolidation Coal merger was put together by New Yorkers such as William H. Aspinwall, Erastus Corning, the Delanos and Roosevelts, and the Boston financier John Murray Forbes, who already had substantial investments in the region.

Upon its formation, the Consolidation Coal Company acquired the properties of the Ocean Steam Coal Company, the Frostburg Coal Company, and the Mount Savage Iron Company totaling about 11,000 acres. The last named company brought with it control of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad, which connected the mines to the Baltimore & Ohio and later the Pennsylvania and Western Maryland railroads. In 1870, Consol absorbed the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company of 1840, the next largest operator in the field, and gained an additional 7,000 acres. Further purchases from the Delano interests gave it over 80 percent of the entire Cumberland Field.

Soon after its hated rival, the Pennsylvania Railroad, gained access to the Cumberland Coal Field, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad began purchasing large blocks of Consolidation Coal stock to protect its traffic base in 1875, eventually gaining a 52 percent interest. A B&O slate of directors was elected in February 1877, with Charles F. Mayer of Baltimore as president, and the company offices were moved from New York to Baltimore.

Until the turn of the century, Consolidation Coal's mining operations were confined to the small soft coal region of western Maryland. The company purchased the 12,000 acre Millholland coal tract near Morgantown, W.Va. in 1902 and acquired controlling interests in the Fairmont Coal Company of West Virginia and the Somerset Coal Company of Pennsylvania the following year. These acquisitions boosted Consolidation's annual production more than six-fold in only three years. The company purchased the 25,000 acre Stony Creek tract in Somerset County, Pa., in 1904. The Fairmont Coal Company purchase included a joint interest in the North Western Fuel Company, which owned and operated docks and coal distribution facilities in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

In 1906, the Interstate Commerce Commission held a formal investigation of rail ownership of coal companies, which resulted in the passage of the Hepburn Act and its "Commodities Clause," which prohibited railroads from dealing in the commodities they hauled. In anticipation of the new regulations, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad sold its entire holdings of Consolidation stock to a Baltimore syndicate headed by Consol president Clarence W. Watson, J. H. Wheelwright and H. Crawford on April 26, 1906. At the time of the B&O's divestiture, the aggregate annual output of Consolidation's mines totaled more than 10 million tons and the company controlled more than 200,000 acres. The John D. Rockefeller interests began purchasing Consol securities in 1915, eventually securing a controlling interest. The company's offices were returned to New York City in May 1921.

After the B&O divestiture, Consol began expanding into the Southern Appalachian coal fields, which were just being opened by railroads on a large scale. The mines in this region yielded a low volatile coal that provided an ideal fuel source for stationary steam engines, ships, and locomotives. Of equal importance, operators in the remote mountains had been able to resist unionization and thus achieve lower operating costs, while all of Consol's previous holdings had been in the so-called "Central Competitive Field" to the north, which had been unionized in the 1890s. Consolidation Coal purchased 30,000 acres in the Millers Creek Field of Eastern Kentucky in 1909 and 100,000 acres in the Elkhorn Field the next year. In February 1922, Consol secured a long term lease and option on the Carter Coal Company, whose 37,000 acres straddled the borders of Virginia, West Virginia and Kentucky. In 1925, Consol became the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal, excluding the captive mines of the steel companies.

During the Great Depression, Consolidation Coal experienced serious financial difficulties and was forced into receivership on June 2, 1932. The Rockefellers liquidated their holdings at a loss, and the Carter Coal Company was returned to the Carter heirs in 1933. Consol was reorganized and reincorporated in Delaware as the Consolidation Coal Company, Inc. on November 1, 1935, and was able to retain its position as one of the nation's top coal producers. Eventually, stock control passed into the hands of the M.A. Hanna Company group of Cleveland, dealers in coal and iron ore. Although production reached record levels during the Second World War, management feared a recurrence of the collapse that had followed World War I. It also faced the prospect of increased competition from oil and natural gas and the loss of traditional markets such as home heating and locomotive fuel. As a result Consol opened negotiations with another large producer, the Pittsburgh Coal Company, which was the dominant operator in the Pittsburgh District.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company

The Pittsburgh Coal Company was a product of the great industrial merger movement of the late 1890s. In 1899, two large mergers were effected in the Pittsburgh District.

The Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on October 1, 1899 to merge the properties of over 90 small firms operating mines along the Monongahela River south of Pittsburgh. Some of these operations dated to the early 1800s, and all of them shipped coal down the Ohio-Mississippi River system by barge from close to the mine mouth, or later by the railroads built along the river banks. The combination controlled 40,000 acres of coal land, 100 steam towboats, 4,000 barges, and facilities for handling coal at Cincinnati, Louisville, Vicksburg, Memphis, Baton Rouge and New Orleans.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company was incorporated in New Jersey as a holding company on September 1, 1899 and acquired the properties of over 80 operators located in the areas back from the river on both sides of the Monongahela south of Pittsburgh. The combination was engineered by some of the most prominent Pittsburgh industrialists, including Andrew W. Mellon, Henry W. Oliver, and Henry Clay Frick. It controlled over 80,000 acres and six collector railroads, the longest of which was the Montour Railroad. Most of its output was shipped by rail, with a large share being transferred to ships on the Great Lakes for distribution throughout the industrial Midwest. The company owned coal docks and yards at Chicago, Cleveland, Duluth, West Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Ashtabula, Fairport and Thornburg. Subsequently, the company expanded in southwestern Pennsylvania and the Hocking Valley of Ohio through the lease of the Shaw Coal Company in 1901 and the purchase of the Midland Coal Company in 1903. Most of the properties were vested in a separate Pittsburgh Coal Company, an operating company incorporated in Pennsylvania.

Unlike the Consolidation Coal Company, which had grown by gradual accretion, the Pittsburgh Coal Company had been created in a single stroke. As with many mergers of the period, its capitalization probably contained a high percentage of "water" in anticipation of profits from future growth. Unfortunately, the years after the merger saw explosive growth in the coal fields of Southern Appalachia instead. Although farther from major consuming centers, they enjoyed several advantages. The coal itself was superior, low-volatile with higher BTU content and altogether cleaner than the high-volatile coals of Ohio and the Pittsburgh District. As already noted, the southern mines were also non-union. With the inroads of Southern Appalachian coal, the Pittsburgh Coal Company continuously lost ground in the crucial Lake and western markets from 1900 to 1915. The company's capitalization proved unwieldy in the unsettled economic conditions following the Panic of 1907. A reorganization plan was devised under which a new Pittsburgh Coal Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on January 12, 1916 by merging the old Pittsburgh Coal Company of Pennsylvania and the Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company. The old holding company was then liquidated and the stock of the new operating company distributed to its stockholders. Dissension between the common and preferred stockholders delayed consummation of the plan until July 16, 1917.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company, which had all its operations in the Central Competitive Field, had a much more difficult time than Consolidation in breaking the 1923 Jacksonville Agreement with the United Mine Workers in 1925-1927 and reverting to non-union status. The three-year struggle ended the company's ability to pay dividends. Pittsburgh Coal survived the Depression without receivership but with ever-increasing arrearages on its preferred stock. By the end of World War II, its managers were just as eager as those at Consol to attempt greater economies through merger. The Pittsburgh Coal Company and the Consolidation Coal Company merged on November 23, 1945, with exchange ratios of 65 to 35 percent. Pittsburgh Coal Company, the surviving partner, changed its name to the Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.

The Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company

After the merger, the M.A. Hanna Company interests of Cleveland became the dominant factor in Pitt-Consol's affairs. Hanna had transferred its pre-merger Consol stock to its subsidiary Bessemer Coal & Coke Corporation in 1943. This led to a restructuring whereby Pitt-Consol acquired Hanna's share of the North Western-Hanna Fuel Company in April 1946 and the Hanna coal properties in eastern Ohio on June 16, 1946 These included large reserves of strippable coal that accounted for about 20 percent of the state's production. Pitt-Consol later acquired Hanna's holdings of coal land in Harrison, Belmont and Jefferson Counties, Ohio, on December 30, 1949. It purchased the New York Central Railroad's 51 percent interest in the Jefferson Coal Company, giving it full control, in 1952 and merged it into the Hanna Coal Company Division.

Pitt-Consol sold its last major railroads, the Montour Railroad and the Youngstown & Southern Railway to the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad on December 31, 1946. The Northwestern Coal Railway had been sold to the Great Northern system, and the Cumberland & Pennsylvania Railroad had been sold to the Western Maryland Railway in May 1944.

In addition, a new Research and Development Division was created to fund projects aimed at developing more efficient production methods, new outlets for coal consumption, coal-based synthetic fuels and chemical byproducts. A new coal gasification plant opened at Library, Pa., in November 1948, and the company began the manufacture of a smokeless fuel briquette under the trademark "Disco" at Imperial, Pa., in 1949. An experimental coal slurry pipeline was built in Ohio in 1952.

During the 1950s and early 1960s, Pitt-Consol made many changes in its coal holdings, selling high-cost or less desirable properties, diversifying its reserves across many different coal fields, rationalizing property lines to permit large mechanized underground or strip mines and forming joint ventures with steel companies to secure guaranteed customers. Pitt-Consol acquired the Jamison Coal and Coke Company in 1954 and the Pocahontas Fuel Company, Incorporated, a large producer of low-volatile Southern Appalachian coal, in 1956. In the latter year, it sold its Elkhorn Field properties to the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. As Pittsburgh District operations became less central, the corporate name was changed back to Consolidation Coal Company in April 1958.

The Consolidation Coal Company, CONOCO and CONSOL Energy, Inc.:

Consol continued to expand into the early 1960s. On April 30, 1962, it absorbed the Truax-Traer Coal Company of Illinois. Truax-Traer also mined lignite in North Dakota, a low-grade but low-sulfur coal that was taking a greater share of the power generation market as environmental laws placed greater restrictions on high-sulfur coal from the Central Competitive Field. The following year Consol acquired the Crozer Coal and Land Company and the Page Coal and Coke Company, owners of additional reserves of low-volatile, low-sulfur steam coal in southern West Virginia.

In 1966, just two years after the company marked its centennial, Consolidation Coal was acquired by the Continental Oil Company (Conoco). This was part of a general trend whereby U.S. oil companies extended their reach by acquiring coal reserves and large coal producers. In turn, Conoco was acquired by E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company in 1981. This purchase was motivated by DuPont's desire to obtain better control of chemical feedstocks in an era of high oil prices. Consolidation Coal was not a major factor in the Conoco acquisition and did not really fit into DuPont's strategy, especially after coal and oil prices declined. As a result, it was quickly sold off when DuPont was restructured a decade later. In 1991, a new holding company CONSOL Engery, Inc. was incorporated as a joint venture of DuPont Energy Company and the German energy conglomerate Rheinisch-Westfalisches Elektrizitatswerk A.G., through its wholly owned subsidiaries Rheinbraun A.G. and Rheinbraun U.S.A. GmbH. Consolidation Coal Company became a wholly-owned subsidiary of CONSOL Energy, Inc. DuPont eventually sold most of its half interest, so that by 1998, Rheinbraun affiliates owned 94% of CONSOL Energy stock, while DuPont Energy retained only 6%. CONSOL Energy purchased the entire stock of the Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal Company on September 22, 1998. CONSOL Energy stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "CNX" in 1999, with an initial public offering of more than 20 million shares.

CONSOL Energy produced more than 74 million tons of coal in 1999, accounting for approximately 7% of domestic production. The company currently operates 22 mining complexes, primarily east of the Mississippi River.

Source

Historical note from the Consolidation Coal Company Records, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Archives Center holds a number of collections that document coal.

Coal and Gas Trust Investigation Collection (AC1049)

Hammond Coal Company Records (AC1003)

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records (AC0071)

Lehigh Valley Coal Company Records (AC1106)

Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records (AC0282)

Materials in Other Organizations

Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

CONSOL Energy, Inc. Mine Maps and Records Collection, 1857-2002

AIS.1991.16

The CONSOL Energy Inc. collection contains coal mine maps, related documents and topographical information, as well as surface maps and detailed information on mine accidents. Additionally, there are technical drawings, outside notes on multiple mines, traverse and survey books, information on companies and railroads with which CONSOL conducted business, and a variety of non-print materials including photographs, negatives and aperture cards. Digital reproductions of selected material are available online.

CONSOL Energy Inc. West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Mine Maps and Records Collection, 1880-1994

AIS.2004.22

The CONSOL Energy Inc. West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Mine Maps and Records Collection contains coal mine maps as well as surface maps and detailed information on mine accidents in West Virginia and Eastern Ohio. Additionally, there are technical drawings, related documents, traverse and survey books, publications and photographs.

Consolidation Coal Company Records, 1854-1971, bulk 1864-1964

AIS.2011.03

The Consolidation Coal Company (Consol) was created by the merger of several small operators mining the Georges Creek coal basin in Allegany County, Maryland. The company expanded rapidly in the early twentieth century through the purchase of substantial tracts in the coal fields of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky as well as docks and distribution facilities in the Great Lakes region. By 1927, Consol was the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal. Following a merger with the Pittsburgh Coal Company in 1945, the company pursued a policy of acquiring companies which afforded opportunities for greater diversification while selling off unprofitable lines. In addition, a new research and development division was created to fund projects aimed at developing more efficient production methods and new outlets for coal consumption. The records of the Consolidation Coal Company and its affiliated companies are arranged in seven series. Minute books and contract files provide the most comprehensive documentation in this collection.
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of American History in 1987 by Bethlehem Steel Corporation.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.

Special arrangements required to view original glass plate and film negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mining corporations  Search this
Mining -- West Virginia  Search this
Mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mining -- Maryland  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Mining -- Kentucky  Search this
Mines -- West Virginia  Search this
Mines -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mines -- Maryland  Search this
Mines -- Kentucky  Search this
Mining and minerals industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1007
See more items in:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1007
Additional Online Media:

Reception for Roy R. Neuberger Collection Exhibition

Creator:
Unknown  Search this
Subject:
Scott, David W. 1916-  Search this
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Public Affairs  Search this
Physical description:
35mm;
Type:
Black-and-white negatives
Date:
1968
August 14, 1968
Local number:
SIA Acc. 11-008 [OPA-1310]
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Contact SIA Reference Staff for further information (email photos@si.edu)
Public Domain
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_372310

National Photographic Society Records

Topic:
The Finder (newsletter)
Creator:
Revenue Camera Club  Search this
National Photographic Society  Search this
Donor:
Schroeder, Barbara  Search this
Names:
Greater Washington Council of Camera Clubs  Search this
Photographic History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Photographic Society of America  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Photographs
Newsletters
Clippings
Minutes
Date:
1942-1986
Summary:
Collection documents the National Photographic Society, an amateur camera club in Washington, D.C.
Scope and Contents:
The Executive Records, 1944-1978, consist of copies and drafts of the constitution, by-laws, correspondence, and the Board of Trustee Meeting Minutes. The Treasurer Records, 1956-1973, include bank account information that deals with authorization to open an organizational bank account, correspondence about monies collected and expenses incurred and the treasurer's annual reports that document receipts, disbursements, and special activities. The Membership Records, 1945-1984, contain directories (with mailing addresses and telephone numbers), officer information detailing which members served as trustees and/or on what committee. The club had several committees—slide, projector, portrait, special activities, publicity, finance, reception, dinner, membership, salon, audit, print, nominating, program, library and by-laws. The membership applications were maintained on 3" x 5 and 5" x 8" index cards. The annual awards information contains certificates awarded to Barbara Schroeder for a variety of honors, but the majority of documentation deals primarily with annual awards given for color slides. The Henry B. Shaw Memorial Trophy was a specific award and honor that was presented to the NPS member who made the greatest contribution to the well being of NPS. The award was named for Henry B. Shaw, former president of NPS.

The club published a monthly bulletin titled The Finder, 1942-1986, which was distributed to club members and photographic dealers. The Finder was a one-page newsletter from 1942 to April 1945, but in May of 1945 enlarged to four pages, in some instances with inserts. The Photographs and Negatives, 1959-1960, provide documentation of the club's annual banquet and presentation of awards in 1959 and a holiday outing to Petersburg, West Virginia. The photographs and negatives are approximately 4" x 5". The Salons, 1944-1959, includes schedules and other printed materials about salons that club members participated in or attended in the Washington, D.C. area. Camera Clubs, 1949-1967, documents the Greater Washington Council of Camera Clubs, an organization with which NPS was affiliated, and the Metropolitan Camera Club Council, Inc. of New York, New York. The newspaper clippings, 1948-1955, contain information on two columns, "Camera Angles," a weekly written by Alexander J. Wedderburn, Curator of Photography at the Smithsonian Institution and the "Monthly Print Clinic" featuring a photograph with narrative description.
Includes documents concerning the National Photographic Society's affiliations with the Greater Washington Council of Camera Clubs and the Photographic Society of America.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series

Series 1: Executive Records

Series 2: Treasurer Records

Series 3: Membership Records

Series 4: The Finder Newsletter

Series 5: Photographs and Negatives

Series 6: Salons

Series 7: Camera Clubs

Series 8: Newspaper Clippings
Biographical / Historical:
The Revenue Camera Club was organized in Washington, D.C. on March 14, 1938. It changed its name to The National Photographic Society (NPS) on April 1, 1943. It became affiliated with the Greater Washington Council of Camera Clubs and the Photographic Society of America. The NPS was incorporated in 1944 with a constitution and by-laws as a "non-profit organization under the provisions of Chapter 5 of the Code of the District of Columbia for the promotion of art and science of photography in all its various branches, through individual memberships, associated camera clubs and other photographic organizations, research and the dissemination of photographic knowledge and the promotion of photographic salons and exhibitions." The management of the society was vested in a board of trustees that was made up of nine members. The club held meetings in each other's homes, church basements or at the Mt. Pleasant or Georgia Avenue libraries where they showed member's prints and eventually held meetings at the Arts Club of Washington. The club dissolved in 1986.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Ms. Barbara Schroeder, February 12, 1999.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Clubs -- Photography -- 1940-1990 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Exhibitions -- 1940-1990 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Camera clubs -- 1940-1990 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1940-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-2000
Newsletters -- 20th century
Clippings -- 1940-1990 -- Washington (D.C.)
Minutes
Citation:
National Photographic Society Records, 1942-1986, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0681
See more items in:
National Photographic Society Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0681

Smothers Brothers Collection

Names:
Paulsen, Pat  Search this
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Biography files
Clippings
Color slides
Contact sheets
Contracts
Itineraries
Legal records
Letters (correspondence)
Photograph albums
Photographs
Color prints (photographs)
Programs
Press releases
Scrapbooks
Scripts (documents)
Date:
1937-2003
bulk 1960-1990
Summary:
The collection documents the lives and careers of the Smothers Brothers, with emphasis on their television variety show, The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the lives and careers of the Smothers Brothers, with emphasis on their television variety show, The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. The collection includes very large numbers of photographs, slides, contact prints and negatives. These include a few childhood photographs of the brothers and their family, performance photographs, their talent agency's publicity shots, candid photographs of the act on tour, album cover shots, and behind-the-scenes photographs of the show and its guest stars. The comedian Pat Paulsen appears in many of the photographs. The photographs of the show's guests are mostly contact sheets and include no captions. Other types of materials in the collection include publicity materials including press releases, programs, biographical information, and clippings; fan mail, some from famous persons (many of these are photocopies) such as Lucille Ball, Jack Paar, and others; business records including contracts, tour itineraries, talent agency correspondence, memos, correspondence with CBS regarding content of the shows and relating to editing, objections, etc.; a file of letters received from viewers, some complimentary, some critical, after the show aired a feature lampooning gun owners; a file of letters criticizing the show for having Pete Seeger as a guest; a file of letters from members of Congress; one script; several scrapbooks, mostly containing clippings; one photograph album; and a large file of legal and other papers relating to the lawsuit against CBS.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
The Smothers Brothers were a folksinging duo who toured and made occasional appearances on television variety shows during the 1960s. Starting in 1967, the brothers had their own show, The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. The show often contained controversial content and often featured appearances by controversial guest performers. The show was cancelled in 1969 by the network, over conflicts regarding the network's rights to edit or censor the programs in advance. The brothers sued the network successfully but the show was not reinstated. They continued to make occasional television appearances, tour and record, retiring in 2010.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark.
Topic:
Comedy  Search this
Folk singers  Search this
Television personalities  Search this
Television  Search this
Variety shows (Television programs) -- Production and direction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Biography files
Clippings -- 20th century
Color slides -- 20th century
Contact sheets
Contracts
Itineraries
Legal records
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 20th century
Color prints (photographs) -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Programs
Press releases
Scrapbooks
Scripts (documents)
Photographs -- 20th century -- Color prints
Citation:
Smothers Brothers Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1437
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1437
Additional Online Media:

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