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Mowry Family Photographs 1909-1940

Creator:
Mowry, Eli 1880-1970  Search this
Physical description:
151 photographs black and white silver gelatin prints
Type:
Photographic prints
Collection descriptions
Postcards
Photographs
Place:
Korea
Pyongyang (Korea)
Date:
1909
1900-1950
Topic:
Missions  Search this
Christian education  Search this
Local number:
FSA A2010.04
Restrictions & Rights:
Access is by appointment only, Monday through Thursday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Please contact the Archives to make an appointment: AVRreference@si.edu
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository
See more items in:
Mowry Family Photographs 1909-1940
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_293225
Additional Online Media:

Family Photographs

Collection Creator:
Curry, John Steuart, 1897-1946  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1900-1950
Scope and Contents note:
(Includes group photograph of Curry as baby with sisters; For images of Curry painting with his step-daughter present, see JSC in Studio, Drawing, and Painting)
Collection Restrictions:
The bulk of the collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Access to undigitized portions requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The John Steuart Curry papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
John Steuart Curry and Curry family papers, 1900-1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
John Steuart Curry and Curry family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-currjohn-ref414

Loo Family Photographs

Creator:
Loo, C. T. & Co  Search this
Subject:
Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre  Search this
Physical description:
52 photographs black and white silver gelatin prints
Type:
Photographic prints
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
France, Ile-de-France, Paris
China
France
Paris (France)
Beijing (China)
Date:
1909
1900-1950
Topic:
Art  Search this
Local number:
FSA A2010.07
Restrictions & Rights:
Access is by appointment only, Monday through Thursday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Please contact the Archives to make an appointment: AVRreference@si.edu
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_293491

Photographs of Props

Collection Creator:
Peto, John Frederick, 1854-1907  Search this
Container:
Box 2 (hol), Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa early 1900s
Collection Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Collection Rights:
The John Frederick Peto and Peto family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
John Frederick Peto and Peto family papers, circa 1850-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
John Frederick Peto and Peto family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-petojohn-ref59

Lynn Turner Family Photographs

Collector:
Turner, Lynn  Search this
Photographer:
Applegate  Search this
Filson & Son  Search this
Bairstow, J. B.  Search this
Names:
Library of Congress  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 document box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Cabinet photographs
Albums
Snapshots
Tintypes
Place:
Alexandria (Va.) -- 1860-1920
Washington (D.C.) -- 1860-1920
Date:
circa 1865-1918
Summary:
This collection consists of two photograph albums and a number of individual photographs (tintypes and cabinet prints, all portraits), from the turn of the century to approximately 1918. The cabinet prints are from Pennsylvania and Ohio studios. Most of the snapshots seem to have been taken in and around Washington, D.C.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is composed of two photograph albums and a number of individual photographs. The group includes nineteenth-century material (tintypes and cabinet prints, all portraits), but most of the items are from the turn of the century to approximately 1918. Studio portraits as well as amateur snapshots are included. The cabinet prints are from Pennsylvania and Ohio studios. Most of the snapshots mounted in the two albums seem to have been taken in and around Washington, D.C., and include numerous familiar buildings and scenery. The albums are in poor condition, as number 1 is 'without a cover, and most of the pages are separated from the cover of number 2. Photographers represented include (?) Applegate, J. B. Bairstow, and Filson & Son.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by type.
Biographical / Historical:
These photographs are from the family of Ms. Evelyn (Lynn) Turner.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Evelyn or Lynn Turner, 1986, June 1.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sailors  Search this
Portraits -- 19th century  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1850-1900
Cabinet photographs
Albums
Snapshots -- 1900-1920
Tintypes
Citation:
Lynn Turner Family Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0210
See more items in:
Lynn Turner Family Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0210

Equestrians [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Title:
Acrobats [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)
Artist:
Beal, Gifford 1879-1956  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
Ca. 1933-1934
Topic:
Architecture interior--Commercial--Recreation  Search this
Performing Arts--Circus--Animal Trainer  Search this
Animal--Horse  Search this
Figure group  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0074332
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_74333

Link Belt Company Photographs

Creator:
Link Belt Company  Search this
Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Cyanotypes
Date:
1915-1967.
Summary:
The photographs relate to the Link Belt Company, a manufacturer of industrial equipment.
Scope and Contents:
Photographs, including cyanotypes, of factory and industrial equipment, especially industrial belts for sand and gravel companies and for the wood, pulp and paper industry.
Arrangement:
The photographs are arranged in chronological order by accession number, but roughly grouped in order by type of equipment: water screens and conveyors. Within those subjects, the photographs are roughly arranged by type of mill or plant (e.g., pulp and paper, quarry, glass, etc.) Photographs from the same companies are grouped together. Most photographs are captioned and some are dated.
Biographical / Historical:
: Formed in 1906, the Link Belt Company was formed from several smaller concerns, the earliest of which was involved in the manufacture of detachable chain links. As Link Belt grew, its product line grew to include numerous types of industrial equipment including chains, bearings, boiler equipment, hoppers, loaders, gears, and other products. By the 1920s, the company, based in Chicago, had plants in several cities. In the 1960s they were purchased by FMC Corporation.
Provenance:
This collection was purchased by the National Museum of American History's Division of Engineering and Industry from Xerxes Fine Books, 1990.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Quarries and quarrying  Search this
Sand and gravel industry  Search this
Papermaking  Search this
Pulp mills  Search this
Belt industry  Search this
Glass manufacture  Search this
Conveyor belts  Search this
Conveying machinery industry  Search this
Conveying machinery  Search this
Paper mills  Search this
Logging  Search this
Industrial equipment industry -- 1910-1970  Search this
Industrial equipment -- 1910-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Cyanotypes
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Link Belt Company Photographs, 1915-1967, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0997
See more items in:
Link Belt Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0997

Charles Rivers Photographs

Creator:
Rivers, Charles, 1904-1993  Search this
Names:
Chrysler Building (New York, N.Y.) -- Pictorial works  Search this
Empire State Building (New York, N.Y.) -- Construction--1929-1930  Search this
Pathe News  Search this
Bates, Ruby  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Albums
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 1920-1930
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970
Date:
1929-1963
bulk 1929-1930
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains: twenty-nine silver gelatin photoprints mounted on Fome-Core, Masonite, and cardboard, ranging in size from 5-1/2" x 9-1/4" to 10-11/16" x 13-13/16"; three 5" x 7" unmounted silver gelatin photoprints; a scrapbook which originally contained 56 silver gelatin photoprints, ranging in size from 2" x 3" to 7-1/2" x 9-1/2"; and silver gelatin film negatives (presumably acetate) for the prints. The scrapbook includes a New York Daily News clipping about Rivers: "Builds a Bridge to Students" by Anthony Burton (dated May 12, 1970 by Rivers) with a photograph showing him speaking to a crowd, Most of the photographs depict the construction of the Chrysler and Empire State Buildings--iron workers on the job and relaxing during breaks, and pictures of the buildings at various stages of completion. Other subjects are: a demonstration to prevent World War II (1935), a color photoprint of the Civil Rights March and Demonstration in Washington, D.C. (1963), and two magazine clippings from a Soviet publication, New Times, in which Rivers's prize-winning "Self Portrait" (1930) was reproduced.

Most of these prints were made by Charles Rivers many years after the creation of the original negatives, probably ca.1970s 1980s. The collection is in generally good condition, except that many of the print surfaces are scratched.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Rivers created a certain amount of confusion about his origins, whether accidentally or intentionally. Born Constantinos Kapornaros[1] (or Kostandinos Kapernaros)[2] in the small town of Vahos in Mani, an isolated area in the southern Peloponnesian region of Greece, on May 20, 1904, he emigrated to the United States as a child of five or six with his parents. His school record showed that he was enrolled in 1911 at the age of seven.[3] The family lived in Maine or New Hampshire, then Massachusetts, and later other locations in New York state. It is believed that his new name was derived from the Charles River in Boston.[4] The change may have been occasioned by a need to conceal his deep involvement in left-wing political and union activities.[5] Mr. Rivers settled in New York City in 1950 and resided there until 1993.[6] He sometimes identified his birthplace as Denver, Colorado,[7] but this may have been a fabrication or simplification, based on the fact that Greek church baptismal records were kept in Denver.[8] His sons James and Ronald believe that he never became an official American citizen. Late in life, in order to visit his birthplace, he was issued a passport, based on his school records, which stated that he was born in Denver. Rivers photographed the construction of the Chrysler Building (1929) and the Empire State Building (1930) in New York City. He was inspired to take up photography by seeing the work of the influential documentary photographer Lewis Hine, whose famous images of working children helped win passage of protective child labor laws. Rivers and Hine both photographed the Empire State Building and the men building it, yet Rivers apparently was unaware until years later that his idol had been present. Employed as an iron worker, Rivers traded his pail of tools for a Zeiss Ikon[9] camera during his lunch hour or when photographic opportunities arose. While the workers depicted in some of the photographs clearly are aware of the photographer's presence, Rivers's project presumably was conducted more or less surreptitiously. It is not known for certain if the paths of Rivers and Hine ever crossed, but his son Ron considers it unlikely: Hine photographed only the Empire State Building in connection with his "Men at Work" project,[10] not the earlier Chrysler Building, and Rivers did not work on the Empire State Building for a very long period. His self-portrait on the Empire State Building, "The Bolter-Up," may have been intended as a memento during one of his last days on that job.[11]

Rivers became unemployed in the Depression and consequently became involved in national efforts to create Social Security, unemployment insurance, and housing programs. These experiences apparently encouraged his active participation in politically leftist activities, as coverage about him in Soviet publications attests. A pacifist, in 1935 he was involved in demonstrations aimed at preventing World War II, and in the 1960s he took part in anti-Vietnam demonstrations and encouraged young people to continue such resistance.

In the 1950s Rivers worked in steel fabrication, in a chemistry lab as a technician, and briefly as a legislative aide for a New York state senator.

In 1986 Rivers submitted his 1930 self-portrait, posed on the Chrysler Building, to the International Year of Peace art contest sponsored by the New Times, published in Moscow: it was awarded a prize and diploma.

Mr. Rivers died in 1993, only two weeks after moving to Arlington, Texas to enter a nursing home near his sons' homes.

1. The page on Rivers in New York University=s Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives web site (http://laborarts.org/collections/item.cfm?itemid=82) --noted 5 June 2002), claims Rivers was born in 1905 and changed his name Ato resemble those of the Mohawk Indians working on the high steel of New York City=s skyscrapers and bridges".

2. This spelling is given in an e-mail from James Rivers to Helen Plummer, Aug. 19, 2002.

3. Ibid.

4. Telephone conversation between Ron Rivers and the author, 6 June 2002. Additional information was provided by Ron Rivers in electronic mail messages, 5 June and 12 June 2002.

5. James Rivers, op. cit.

6. Telephone conversation with Ron Rivers, 6 June 2002.

7. In a biographical statement for the Amon Carter Museum of Western Art (copy supplied by Helen Plummer), Charles Rivers called Denver his birthplace. The George Eastman House photographer database also included this apparently erroneous information, probably derived from the Amon Carter statement (telephone conversation with Helen Plummer, 3 June 2002).

8. Ron Rivers, telephone conversation, 6 June 2002.

9. Identified by Charles Rivers as the camera used in the skyscraper photographs: interview by Carol Sewell, "Photographer looked at U.S. from high view," Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Dec. 27, 1986. Rivers also used a Rolleiflex, according to Ron Rivers (see note above), but the folding Zeiss Ikon camera would have been a more convenient addition to a lunchbox than the bulkier Rolleiflex. The collection negatives are not in the Rolleiflex square format, moreover.

10. See Judith Mara Gutman, Lewis W. Hine and the American social conscience. New York: Walker, 1967.

11. Ron Rivers, telephone conversation, 6 June 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden

Included Rivers's self-portrait, "The Bolter Up," in its summer 2002 exhibition, "Metropolis in the Machine Age," in the form of a new print made from a digital copy of the Archives Center's original negative. The author discussed the new print from the Rivers negative and other photographs in this exhibition in an invited gallery lecture, "The Skyscraper Photographs of Lewis Hine and Charles Rivers," Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, June 6, 2002.

Materials at Other Organizations

Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas

See Barbara McCandless and John Rohrbach, Singular moments: photographs from the Amon Carter Museum, with select entries by Helen Plummer. Reproduction of a Rivers photograph, with description and analysis, p. 30. Additional information has been generously supplied by Ms. Plummer, curatorial associate, and Barbara McCandless, curator of photography, Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, Fort Worth Texas.

Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives at New York University

Museum of the City of New York

Some of his photographs were included in the Amon Carter Museum of Western Art exhibition, "Looking at America: Documentary Photographs of the 1930s and 1940s," December 1986.
Provenance:
The collection is a gift from Mr. Charles Rivers, 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Archives Center claims copyright. Rights were conveyed to the Archives Center through a Deed of Gift signed by the donor.
Topic:
Self-portraits, American  Search this
Iron and steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Construction workers -- 1900-1950 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Structural steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Labor unions  Search this
Civil rights demonstrations -- 1960-1970  Search this
Skyscrapers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Peace movements -- 1960-1970  Search this
Peace movements -- 1930-1940  Search this
Scottsoro boys case  Search this
Fires  Search this
Scottsboro Trial, Scottsboro, Ala., 1931  Search this
Self-portraits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Albums
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1970-1990
Citation:
Charles Rivers Photographs, 1929-1963, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0360
See more items in:
Charles Rivers Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0360
Additional Online Media:

Alabama Mining Institute Photographs

Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Alabama Mining Institute  Search this
Names:
Alabama Fuel and Iron Company, Overton, Alabama  Search this
Central Iron and Coal Company, Kellerman, Albama  Search this
DeBardeleben Coal Company (Sipsey, Alabama)  Search this
Gulf States Steel Company (Sayre, Alabama)  Search this
Imperial Coal and Coke Company (Bradford, Alabama)  Search this
New Castle Coal and Coke Company (New Castle, Alabama)  Search this
Railway Fuel Company (Parrish, Alabama)  Search this
Republic Iron and Steel Company (Republic, Alabama)  Search this
Republic Iron and Steel Company (Sayreton, Albama)  Search this
Roden Coal Co. (Marvel, Alabama)  Search this
Southern Coal and Coke Company (Boothton, Alabama)  Search this
Woodward Iron Company (Woodward, Alabama)  Search this
Former owner:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Date:
undated.
Scope and Contents note:
Two volumes of photographs, plus negatives, of mining villages in Alabama, featuring company commissaries, hospitals, dining halls, boarding houses, schools, and recreational facilities. The photographs are captioned as to which facilities were for white employees and which for "colored" employees. Companies documented include the Woodward Iron Company, the Central Iron and Coal Company, DeBardeleben Coal Company, Railway Fuel Company, Southern Coal and Coke Company, Roden Coal Company, Alabama Fuel and Iron Company, Imperial Coal and Coke Company, New Castle Coal and Coke Company, Republic Iron and Steel Company, and Gulf States Steel Company.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Alabama Mining Institute is a consortium of underground and surface mining operators, dating back to the 1920s.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mining and minerals industry  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Segregation in education  Search this
Mining corporations  Search this
Dwellings -- Alabama  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Alabama Mining Institute Photographs, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1004
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1004

Nickerson and Collins Refrigeration Photographs

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Nickerson and Collins Co.  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Date:
1888-1928
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of refrigeration equipment manufactured by Nickerson and Collins. Companies represented include: American Butt Copany, Hygiene Ice Company, Hygenic Ice and Cold Storage Company, Boston Terminal Refrigerating Company, Dixie Ice and Cold Storage Company, National Poultry and Egg Company, Alpine Ice Company, Standard Ice Manufctauring Company, Bryn Mawr Ice Manufacturing Company, Toyo Ice Factory, Aomori Fish Freezer and Storage Plant, Crescent Creamery Company, Keystone Cold Storage Company, Chicago Artificial Ice Company, City Ice Company, American Ice Company, Brunswick Ice Manufacturing Company, Texas Ice Company, The Citizens Ice Company, Independent Ice and Refrigerating Company, Mountain Ice Company, Charleston Ice House Carolina Service Company, Dianond Ice and Coal Company, Moon Lake Ice Company, Evansville Ice and Storage Company, Colonial Cold Storage Company, Gorrie Ice Manufacturing, Ice Publicity Association, and the Williams-Beers Ice.
Arrangement:
the collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Manufacturer of refrigeration and ice making machinery, Chicago, Illinois.
Provenance:
Collected for the Division of Civil and Mechanical Engineering (now called the Division of Work and Industry). Date unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1850-1900
Citation:
Nickerson and Collins Refrigeration Photographs, 1888-1928, and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1044
See more items in:
Nickerson and Collins Refrigeration Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1044
Additional Online Media:

Morris Steggerda photographs of Maya Indians

Creator:
Steggerda, Morris, 1900-1950 (collector and probable photographer)  Search this
Names:
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Department of Genetics  Search this
Extent:
70 prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Mayas  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
prints
Date:
1931
Scope and Contents note:
Anthropometric portraits of Maya Indians in the vicinity of Chichen Itza, probably made for Steggerda's Carnegie Institution publication 434, Anthropometry of Adult Maya Indians: A Study of Their Physical and Physiological Characteristics, 1932.
Biographical/Historical note:
Morris Steggerda (1900-1950) was a physical anthropologist and authority on Mayan culture. He received his BA from Hope College in Michigan (1922) and his MA (1923) and PhD (1928) from the University of Illinois Department of Zoology. While still in his PhD program, he met Charles Davenport of the Department of Genetics at Carnegie Institution of Washington, with whom he studied the indigenous people of the British West Indies and published Race-Crossing in Jamaica (1929). Steggerda became an assistant professor at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts, (1928-1930) before joining the research staff of the Carnegie Institution Department of Genetics based in Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York. During his fourteen-year career with the Institution, Steggerda did research in Yucatan, Mexico, and wrote two reports that were published by the Carnegie Institution in 1932 and 1941. In 1944, he was appointed professor of Anthropology at Hartford Seminary Foundation (Connecticut), a position which he kept until his death. Steggerda was a founding member of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 1930 (later serving on its Executive Committee and as its vice president) and a councilmember for the American Anthropological Association.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 3319
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Steggerda photographs held in the National Anthropological Archives in the Bureau of American Ethnology-Smithsonian Institution Illustrations.
Correspondence from Steggerda held in the National Anthropological Archives in the Handbook of South American Indians Records, Bureau of American Ethnology General correspondence, John Lawrence Angel Papers, Ales Hrdlicka Papers, and MS 4846.
The Otis Historical Archives, National Museum of Health and Medicine holds the Steggerda Collection of anthropometric records.
Contained in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 3319, Morris Steggerda photographs of Maya Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.3319
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-3319

Drawings Against War and Fascism [drawing] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Walkowitz, Abraham 1878-1965  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Figure--Full length  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Fascism  Search this
Allegory--Civic--War  Search this
State of Being--Emotion--Sorrow  Search this
State of Being--Evil--Imprisonment  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0010581
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_10581

Drawings Against War and Fascism [drawing] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Walkowitz, Abraham 1878-1965  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Figure--Full length  Search this
State of Being--Emotion--Sorrow  Search this
State of Being--Evil--Imprisonment  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Fascism  Search this
Allegory--Civic--War  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0010582
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_10582

Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs

Creator:
Pullman Palace Car Co.  Search this
Donor:
Pullman-Standard  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Pullman, George M., 1831-1897  Search this
Extent:
128.5 Cubic feet (145 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Glass plate negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1882-1955
Summary:
Collection consists of approximately 13,500 images (original photographs, copy prints, and film and glass plate negatives) for freight, passenger, private, and street and rapid transit cars manufactured by the Pullman Palace Car Company. The collection contains primarily early railroad Americana, including interior and exterior views of private and business cars as well as passenger and street cars. The collection is an important part of the historical record of the railroad car-building industry as well as the history of architecture and interior design.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 13,500 images (original photographs, copy prints, and film and glass plate negatives) for freight, passenger, private, and street and rapid transit cars manufactured by the Pullman Palace Car Company. The collection contains primarily interior and exterior views of private and business cars as well as passenger and street cars. The collection is an important part of the historical record of the railroad car-building industry as well as the history of architecture and interior design. Historians, designers, railroad enthusiasts, model railroad hobbyists, scholars, and others will find this collection useful.

The glass plate negatives in this collection were produced using the wet collodion process, which was introduced to the United States in 1855 and used into the 1880s. The plates were coated with chemicals, sensitized, exposed and developed, all while the plate was wet. Later, Pullman photographers used the dry collodion process. This process involved using glass plates with a photographic emulsion of silver halides suspended in gelatin. This process had shorter exposure times.

George Pullman assembled a variety of photographers to document his company's work. The photography was primarily used as a record of work, especially for the Operating Department and Manufacturing Department at Pullman, as well as for prospective corporate customers.

Before establishing an in-plant photographic department in 1888, Pullman relied on local photographers. Some of the photographers included John Jex Bardwell, Wylie Dennison, Henry R. Koopman, J. W. Taylor, Thomas S. Johnson, Wylie Dennison, John P. Van Vorst, Clayton Ford Smith, Joseph McAllister, Melvin C. Horn, Ernie Stutkus, and Donald J. O'Barski. Many of the photographers signed the glass plates using their initials. For example, John P. Van Vorst signed his J.P.V.V.

Photography of Pullman activities began in the Detroit Shops (property of the Detroit Car & Manufacturing Co. which was purchased by Pullman in 1873 and operated as the Detroit Shops of Pullman) in the 1870s and expanded to include photographing the town of Pullman, steel car construction, shop accidents, workers, panoramic views, and in some instances, for company publications. In-plant photography was started with Wylie Dennison in 1888. Dennison was the first full-time Pullman photographer, and he created the Pullman Photographic Department. Dennison instituted the practice of recording each photograph, noting the negative number, description of the car, the type of view (typically one interior view and one exterior view) and lot number. All of Dennison's photography was done outside in the daylight.

The negative numbers assigned to the glass plates were identified with a "lot" number. The lot number identified the production order, and in later years, the plan number was added, designating the layout of the car. Photographing one car out of each new lot was the intital practice, but over-time, the Photographic Department began taking six or more views of the interior and exterior as well as end views.

Lot numbers include:

Lots 1 - 500 (Pullman Car Works - Chicago)

Lots 1 - 500 (Detroit Car Works)

Lots 500 plus (can be freight and passenger mixed)

Lots 1000 to 4999 (Pullman passenger equipment)

Lots 5000 to 5999 (Pullman freight equipment)

Lots 5000 + Haskell and Barker (Pullman overlap)

Lots 6000 to 7000+ (Pullman and P-S passenger)

Lots 8000 to 9999 (Pullman freight equipment)

Lots 10000+ (Pullman freight equipment)

Series 1, Original prints, circa 1880-1949, are arranged numerically by Pullman numbers. The original prints begin with number 7343 and end with number 33091. The photographs document Pullman cars, including freight, passenger, private, and street railway/rapid transit. Many of the images depict interior views of the cars, and there are some views of porters and passengers. There is some documentation of the workmen constructing the cars. The prints are primarily 8" by 10" black-and-white and were originally bound into books and backed on linen. The prints were unbound at some time. Many of the original prints bear an embossed stamp "Built by Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation Chicago." Some photographs are sepia-tone and there are no negatives for these prints.

Series 2, Copy prints, 1885-1955, consists of prints made from the glass plate negatives by the Smithsonian photographic services office. The copy prints were originally stored in loose binders but were re-housed into folders and arranged numerically according to the original Pullman Company number. The number is typically found in the lower right corner of the image. The copy prints are black-and-white and are either 5" x 7" or 8" x 10".

Series 3, Film negatives, 1917-1955, consists of film negatives (4" x 5" and 8" x 10") that are arranged numerically by Pullman numbers. In some instances, information on the enclosure includes the type of car (e.g. sleeper, freight), the name of the car if applicable, name of railroad company, geographical information, and date(s). In some instances, "repro," or "broken glass" are recorded. For negatives that did not conform to the Pullman numbering system, the container list provides additional information. For example, Haskell and Barker Car Company (Haskell and Barker merged with the Pullman Company in 1922) machine shop views, or Pullman cars in St. Paul, Minnesota are recorded in the collection inventory listing.

Series 4, Glass plate negatives, [circa 1882-1948], is divided into two subseries, Subseries 1, 6" x 8" negatives and Subseries 2, 8" x 10" negatives. The series consists of approximately 13,500 glass plate negatives arranged by Pullman Company negative number. The negatives document primarily Pullman cars, including freight, passenger, private and street railway/rapid transit. Many of the images depict interior and exterior views of the cars and some views of porters and passengers. The interior views include details such as seating, window treatments, lighting fixtures, bathroom fixtures, wood paneling, marquetry work, fabrics, floor treatments, and other furnishings. There is some documentation of the construction of the cars by workmen in the factory.

The negative numbers and lot numbers are etched on the glass plates. Overall the series is in good condition, although there are some broken plates which have been separated. The negatives are not inclusive and some plates are missing, or there are two copies. If plates are missing or additional copies exist, this is noted in the collection inventory. In some instances, plates are labeled 3937 and then 3937-A. This numbering distinguished two different views/angles of the same car.

Many of the envelope enclosures contain the negative number, sometimes preceed by the letter "P" (e.g. P9597), lot number (L4700), and in some instances, text describing the negative. Text typically includes the type of car (sleeper, freight), the name of the car if applicable, name of railroad company, geographical information, and date(s). If a copy print was created from the negative plate, the enclosure is stamped "printed." However, this practice was not consistent. Plates that were not printed are occasionally noted, but not with any consistency.

The 6" by 8" glass plates numbered 82-4130 to 82-4167, represent numbers assigned by the Office of Photographic Services, Smithsonian Institution. Previously labeled "Pullman" on the enclosures, the plates primarily document engines and passenger cars for the New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, 1870-1890 and undated. The plates do not have Pullman negative numbers etched in the lower left or right corners and it is unclear if these plates belong to this collection.

Series 5, Indices, 1990 and undated include bound, typescript indices to the Pullman negatives. Created by the National Museum of American History, Division of Transportation (now known as the Division of Work and Industry), the indices include listings by railroad, private cars, freight cars, street cars and rapid transit, and Pullman negatives. The indices provide the name of the railroad/railway (e.g. Chicago & Alton), type of car (e.g. coal car or box car), number, lot, remarks (e.g. baggage area), year, type of view (e.g. exterior or interior) and frame number (for the laser disc).

One index is a supplemental guide listing sepia tone prints for which no negative exists in our collection. The indices for the negative listings on laser discs one and two are available. However, the actual lasers discs are missing.

References

Horn, Don. "The Pullman Photographers," Railroad Heritage, No. 7, 2003, pp. 5-13.

Arnold, Rus. "This Negative File was a Sleeper." Technical Photography. May 1970, pp. 21-XX.

Pullman State Historic Site, http://www.pullman-museum.org/theCompany/timeline.html (last accessed April 18, 2011)
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1, Original prints, 1904-1949

Series 2, Copy prints, 1885-1955

Series 3, Film negatives, undated

Series 4, Glass plate negatives, circa 1882-1948

Series 5, Indices, 1990 and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Recognizing a market for luxurious rail travel, George M. Pullman, who had earlier experimented with sleeping car construction and was wealthy from the provisioning and transporting of Colorado miners in the early 1860s, incorporated the Pullman's Palace Car Company in 1867. By the 1870s his operations were already national and included the operation of sleeping cars under contract with the nation's railroads, the manufacture of cars at the Detroit Works, and the creation of subsidiary firms serving Great Britain and Europe. In the three decades before the turn of the century, the prosperous company grew enormously and included a much heralded model company town adjacent to the new car works at Pullman, Illinois. Acclaim turned to condemnation following the nationwide strike that originated at the Pullman Car Works in 1894. Pullman died in 1897, two years before his company absorbed its last major competitor, the Wagner Palace Car Company, which had been financed by the Vanderbilts.

The Pullman's Palace Car Company entered the twentieth century with a new name, the Pullman Company, and a new president, Robert Todd Lincoln. An extremely profitable virtual monopoly, the Pullman Company began replacing its wood cars with safer all steel bodied models (heavyweights) in its newly segregated manufacturing department and at the same time (1906) came under the regulation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. From 1918 to 1920, the United States Railroad Administration, citing the war emergency, assumed control of the operating arm of the firm, renamed the Pullman Car Lines for the duration of federal control.

The Pullman Company reached its peak during the 1920s, manufacturing new heavyweight cars at a rapid pace. Seeking to expand its freight car production, Pullman merged with the Haskell and Barker Car Company in 1922. Edward F. Carry and his Haskell and Barker associates assumed the presidency and other executive positions in the enlarged Pullman Company. More reorganization took place in 1924, when the Pullman Company Manufacturing Department became a distinct firm, the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation, and in 1927, when a parent or holding company, Pullman Incorporated, was created to oversee the two subsidiary firms. In 1929, following Carry's death, President David A. Crawford engineered the merger of the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation with the Standard Steel Car Company, forming the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company.

During the first three decades of the twentieth century Pullman sought to impede the unionization of its workers by offering new benefits, including a pension plan in 1914, a death benefit plan in 1922, and a plan of group insurance in 1929. F. L. Simmons' Industrial Relations Department, created in 1920, also directed the formation of company-sponsored occupationally-based unions under the plan of employee representation. A. Philip Randolph's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and other unions would not successfully organize company workers until the New Deal Railway Labor Act of 1934 forbade corporate interference in union matters. The Depression marked the end of Pullman prosperity. Both the number of car orders and sleeping car passengers declined precipitously. The firm laid off car plant and service workers, reduced fares, and introduced such innovations as the single occupancy section in an effort to fill its cars. During this decade the firm built fewer new cars, but it added air conditioning to its existing heavyweights and remodeled many into compartment sleepers.

In 1940, just as orders for lightweight cars were increasing and sleeping car traffic was growing, the United States Department of Justice filed an anti-trust complaint against Pullman Incorporated in the U. S. District Court at Philadelphia (Civil Action No. 994). The government sought to separate the company's sleeping car operations from its manufacturing activities. In 1944 the court concurred, ordering Pullman Incorporated to divest itself of either the Pullman Company (operating) or the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company (manufacturing). After three years of negotiations, the Pullman Company was sold to a consortium of fifty-seven railroads for around forty million dollars. Carroll R. Harding was named president of this new Pullman Company. The new Pullman Company started out optimistically in 1947 with good passenger traffic figures, but the years following brought steady and marked decline. Regularly scheduled lines were cancelled; all shops except St. Louis and Chicago were closed; employees were furloughed, and major railroad owners such as the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroad totally or partially withdrew from service. On January 1, 1969, at the age of 102, the Pullman Company ceased operation, though it maintained a small central office staff to wind up affairs and handle an equal pay-for-equal-work lawsuit (Denver Case) that continued in the courts until 1981.

John H. White (1933-), historian and curator, collected the Pullman photographs in 1969. White was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, and graduated with a bachelors of arts in history from Miami University Ohio in 1958. Shortly after receiving his degree, He joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution as Assistant Curator of the Division of Transportation, Department of Science and Technology, Museum of History and Technology. White later became Associate Curator of the Division, 1961-1966, Curator, 1967-1985, and Senior Historian, 1986-1989. White specialized in land transportation, particularly the history of railroads.

White worked closely with Arthur Detmers Dubin (1923-) to acquire the Pullman photographs for the museum. Dubin was an avid train enthusiast and collector, and he frequently used the Pullman "archives" for his own research on railroads. Dubin was born in Chicago, Illinois and began his architectural education at the University of Michigan in 1941 but his education was interrupted by World War II, and he served with distinction in the United States Army until 1946. After completing his studies in 1949, Dubin joined his father's and uncle's architectural firm, Dubin and Dubin, as a second--eneration architect. The leadership of the firm soon passed to Arthur and his brother, Martin David, and in 1965 they were joined by John Black and in 1966 by John Moutoussamy. Arthur's life--ong interest in trains and transportation and their implications for architecture is evident in transit stations commissions and service on transportation--elated advisory boards (Dubin was a member of the Illinois Railroad Commission), as well as in his writings and personal collections.

In July, 1966, Dubin contacted then Vice President of Public Relations at Pullman-Standard E. Preston Calvert about the history and future of the photographic negative plates. Dubin appealed to Calvert to preserve these materials. Dubin and White were also in contact by correspondence and in June, 1967, White contacted Calvert also, stating that the Chicago Historical Society or Illinois State Historical Society should be offered the plates as a first option. Failing a local Illinois repository accepting the materials, White indicated that the Smithsonian would accept the negatives.

During the spring of 1968, White, working with Dubin and Nora Wilson, editor of the company's publications, coordinated a visit by White to Chicago to examine the photographic negatives at the Pullman Car Works factory in south Chicago. In April 1968, White examined the vast collection of glass plate negatives (approximately 20,000). From April, 1968 to August, 1969, Pullman-Standard and the Smithsonian negotiated acquisition details, including shipping and related costs. In August, 1969, White returned to complete the task of sorting the glass plates, discarding broken plates, and weeding repetitive views. He selected approximately 13,500 glass plates. Views of Pullman towns were donated to the Chicago Historical Society. Dubin appraised the photographic plates and film negatives, presumably on behalf of Pullman-Standard, and estimated the plates to be worth between $54,000 and $67,500 dollars.

References

Historical note courtesy Martha T. Briggs and Cynthia H. Peters, Guide to Pullman Company Archives, The Newberry Library, Chicago, 1995.

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago Area Architects Oral History Project http://www.artic.edu/aic/resources/resource/734?search_id=1 (last accessed on February 23, 2011)

John H. White papers, 1959-1989, Record Unit 007384, Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C.

Telephone conversation of Alison Oswald, archivist, with John H. White, April 14, 2011.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Pullman Palace Car Company Materials, 1867-1979 (AC0181)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, 1880s-1990 (AC0523)

Materials in Other Organizations

•Art Institute of Chicago

•Bombardier Corporation

•California State Railroad Museum

•Chicago History Museum

•Arthur Dubin Collection at Lake Forest College

•Illinois Railway Museum

•Indiana University Northwest's Calumet Regional Archives

Pullman-Standard Railroad Car Manufacturing Company Personnel Records—Personnel Record Series CRA 314 This index of employee names was created from the original personnel cards housed at Indiana University Northwest's Calumet Regional Archives from the Indiana locations. Although the records are not complete from the Michigan City plant for the entire period from 1912 to the 1970's, there may be information that will assist researchers with finding key details of a family member. The Hammond Pullman plant was merged with the Haskell Barker Company of Michigan City in 1922.

•Newberry Library, Chicago

The Pullman Company archives at the Newberry Library consists of 2,500 cubic feet of records from the Pullman Company and Pullman heirs. The collection is comprised of business archives of the Pullman Palace Car Company from 1867 and includes records of the entire firm up to the 1924 split into operating (sleeping car operation, service, and repair) and manufacturing companies. From 1924 to 1981 the records chronicle the activities of the operating company only.

•Pennsylvania State Archives

•Pullman State Historic Site

•Pullman Technology (Harvey, Illinois)

•Smithsonian Institution Archives

•South Suburban Genealogical & Historical Society (South Holland, Illinois)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Pullman-Standard Company, through Nora Wilson, editor of employee publications for the Department of Public Relations and Advertising, on October 8, 1969.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view original glass plate and film negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270. Unrestricted access to photographic prints and other portions of the collection.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Freight cars  Search this
Railroads -- Dining-car service  Search this
Roomette car  Search this
Hospital cars  Search this
Dining cars  Search this
Hotel car  Search this
Sleeping cars (Railroads)  Search this
Local transit  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass plate negatives
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1890-1900
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1175
See more items in:
Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1175
Additional Online Media:

Hazen Collection of Band Photographs and Ephemera

Creator:
Hazen, Margaret Hindle  Search this
Hazen, Robert M.  Search this
Extent:
13.5 Cubic feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Programs
Posters
Stereographs
Sheet music
Picture postcards
Postcards
Pillows
Photographs
Textile fabrics
Ephemera
Cabinet photographs
Cartes-de-visite
Cabinet prints
Ambrotypes
Advertisements
Newspapers
Date:
circa 1818-1931
Scope and Contents note:
Large collection of photographs, picture postcards, printed ephemera, and music related to the brass band movement in the United States: includes 8 ambrotypes, 36 tintypes, 59 stereographs, 66 cabinet prints, 90 cartes-de-visite, 150 large photoprints, and 874 picture postcards; also posters, concert programs, instrument manufacturers' advertisemements and ephemera, periodicals, sheet music, etc.
Arrangement:
3 series: (1) photographs; (2) ephemera; and (3) resources in American band history. Series 1 has 7 sub-series: (1) ambrotypes; (2) tintypes; (3) stereographs; (4) cabinet prints; (5) cartes-de-visite; (6) large mounted photoprints; and (7) postcards. Series 2 has 7 sub-series: (1) company ephemera; (2) band ephemera; (3) music; (4) periodicals; (5) oversized paper ephemera; (6) artifacts (3-dimensional); and (7) folio-size broadsides. Geographical arrangement within postcard and stereograph sub-series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Dr. and Mrs. Robert M. Hazen formed this collection in conjunction with their research on the American brass band movement.
Provenance:
Collection purchased from Dr. Robert Hazen, May 23, 1985 (1988.3028).
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Musicians -- 1900-1950  Search this
Music ensembles -- Photographs  Search this
Musicians -- 1830-1880  Search this
Musical instruments -- Photographs  Search this
Brass bands -- Photographs  Search this
Bandstands  Search this
Bands (Music) -- Photographs  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Programs -- Concerts
Posters
Stereographs
Sheet music -- Manuscripts -- 19th century
Picture postcards
Postcards
Pillows -- Photographs
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Textile fabrics -- Photographs on
Ephemera
Cabinet photographs
Cartes-de-visite
Cabinet prints
Ambrotypes
Advertisements
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Newspapers
Citation:
Hazen Collection of Band Photographs and Ephemera, ca. 1818-1931, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0253
See more items in:
Hazen Collection of Band Photographs and Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0253
Additional Online Media:

Niagara Falls Power Company Photographs

Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Niagara Falls Power Company  Search this
Names:
Tonawanda Power Company  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (14 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Business records
Photographs
Place:
Tonawanda (NY)
Niagara Falls (N.Y. and Ont.)
Date:
1899 - 1919
Summary:
The collection consists of bound photograph albums and loose photographs documenting the construction of the Adams Power Station (hydroelectric plant) and allied structures of the Niagara Falls Power Company, 1899-1919.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of bound photograph albums and loose photographs documenting the construction of the Adams Generating Station #2 (hydroelectric plant) and allied structures of the Niagara Falls Power Company, 1899-1919. The images depict generators, wheel pits, governors, plant interiors, river views, transmission lines, turbines, and unidentified people.

The albums are arranged numericaly from one to thirty. Albums 13, 19 and 20 are missing. Each photograph has a number, date, and caption located in the lower left of the image. Typescript indices are included at the beginning of each album and the full index is linked to this finding aid.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photograph Albums, 1899-1919

Series 2: Photographs by Subject, 1899-1908
Biographical / Historical:
In 1853, the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power & Manufacturing Company was chartered. The company purchased the water rights and began construction of a canal (1860-1861) and was the first company to generate hydroelectric power from Niagara Falls.

The Niagara Falls Power Company was founded on September 19, 1889 after being re-organized and renamed from it's predecessor company, the Niagara River Hydraulic Tunnel, Power and Sewer Company. Edward Dean Adams, a New York financier became president of the company. Adams created a subsidiary company, the Cataract Construction Corporation to build a power tunnel before deciding on a method of power distribution. Adams also secured the help of financiers, J.P. Morgan, John Astor, and William Vanderbilt.

In 1893, alternating electrical current (AC) was selected as the standard to used and the Cataract Construction Company began using AC for power generation and transmission. From 1892 to 1894, the Niagara Falls Power Company built two powerhouses, Powerhouse #1 (1892-1894) and Powerhouse #2 (1901-1903). In 1895, the Niagara Falls Power Company began placing contracts with the Westinghouse Company for long distance electric transmission development and implementation.

In 1927, by resolution of the board of directors of the Niagara Falls Power Company, the power-houses and sub-stations were renamed in appreciation of the men who pioneered the power industry and developed it. Niagara Power Stations Number One and Two were renamed the Edward Dean Adams Statuon. Also known as the Adams Power Station. The Adams Power Station built in 1895 was not the first hydro power station at Niagara, but it was one of the largest hydroelectric power generators of it's time and it was the first large scale application of AC power in North America. General Electric and Westinghouse collaborated on the project. Engineers Thomas Evershed, George Forbes, Benjamin G. Lamme, Oliver Shallenberger, Nikola Tesla, William Stanley, Dr. Louis Bell, and Charles P. Steinmetz contributed.

Sources

http://www.edisontechcenter.org/Niagara.htm (last accessed on May 3, 2016)

Adams, Edward Dean. Niagara Power History of the Niagara Falls Power Company, 1886-1918, Volumes I-II. Niagara Falls, N.Y., printed for the Niagara Falls Power Co., 1927
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now Division of Work and Industry) by the Niagara-Mohawk Power Corporation, through E.B. Strowger, System Project Engineer in 1965.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Water-wheels  Search this
Power stations  Search this
Water-power  Search this
Power generation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Business records -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1900-1920
Photographs -- 19th century
Business records -- 1850-1900
Citation:
Niagara Falls Power Company Records, 1899-1919, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0949
See more items in:
Niagara Falls Power Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0949

Photographs of Princess Atalie Unkalunt collection

Source:
C.H. Nash Museum at Chucalissa  Search this
Creator:
Hall, Dale, Mrs.  Search this
Former owner:
C.H. Nash Museum at Chucalissa  Search this
Names:
Curtis, Charles, 1860-1936  Search this
Thorpe, Jim, 1887-1953  Search this
Unkalunt, Princess Atalie, 1895-1954  Search this
Extent:
75 Photographic Prints
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic Prints
Studio portraits
Photographic prints
Date:
1900-1950
Summary:
The photographs of Princess Atalie Unkalunt collection includes 75 photographic prints and postcards of Princess Atalie Unkalunt (Oklahoma Cherokee) taken by various photographers throughout her life and career. Princess Atalie Unkalunt, nee Iva J. Rider, (1895 – 1954) was a Cherokee opera singer, artist, author, and community activist.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of the collection contains photographic prints and postcards of Princess Atalie Unkalunt (Oklahoma Cherokee) taken by various photographers throughout her life and career. Many of the photographs are undated but it is likely that most were taken between 1920 and 1950.

Included in the collection are studio portraits of Princess Atalie, both headshots and full length shots. In many of the studio shots Princess Atalie is wearing a beaded headband, or a full headdress, a hide dress and moccasins and is frequently posed with additional props. However there are a number of studio portraits where she is wearing non-native dress, often wearing a hat and stole. Princess Atalie was also photographed at the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, circa 1920, modeling hide dresses and moccasins from the collection (see related materials note). There are also photographs of Princess Atalie posed with groups or individuals she met throughout her career. This includes photographs with Jim Thorpe (Sac and Fox), famed Olympian and athlete; Charles Curtis (Kaw), Vice President to Herbert Hoover; the Girl Scouts of East Orange, Oklahoma; as well as several groups of unidentified children.

Of note are several postcards from Princess Atalie (signed Iva) written to her sisters from her time in the Business Women's Unit of the Y.M.C.A during WWI. There are also photographs that include a note to Atalie's sister Mary as well as a portrait of Mary that had previously been mis-identified as Atalie. In addition to photographs of Princess Atalie, there are portraits of other opera performers who were contemporaries of Princess Atalie. These include portraits of Chief Yowlachie (Yakama), a bass singer and soloist with the Seneca Orchestra; and Yma Sumac, a Peruvian-American soprano.

Known photographers and photo studios include—Albert R. Dupont, Jack Gordon, Del Ankers, Bryant E. Sherman, Albert Green Heath, Pierson Studio, Strand Studio, Chdnoff Studio, Underwood and Underwood Co., Watton Studio (Oklahoma City), Apeda Studio, Sands Studio and Roege Photo.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number P23844-P23911.
Biographical / Historical:
Princess Atalie Unkalunt, nee Iva J. Rider, (1895 – 1954) was a Cherokee opera singer, artist, author, and community activist. Also known as Sunshine Rider, Atalie was born in Stilwell, Oklahoma to Thomas L. Rider (Domgeske Unkalunt), a Cherokee state senator and chairman of Indian affairs, and Josephine Pace Rider. As a child attending Indian schools, Atalie saw the need for a cultural missionary to educate the world about Native people and their place in history. She developed a gift for song at a young age and after finishing her high school studies spent time in California where she gained experience in film and then moved to Boston to begin vocal studies. After the U.S. entered World War I, Atalie joined the Business Women's Unit of the Y.M.C.A. secretly advancing her age several years in order to meet the age requirements. She served 18 months overseas working as an entertainer and secretary. Upon her return to the United States, she settled in New York City to continue her vocal studies and quickly became an acclaimed opera singer. She sang at concert venues around the country and performed at the White House.

Her desire to be a cultural missionary never wavered and she became a lecturer for the New York Board of Education where she spoke to audiences about Native American customs and songs. She broadcasted a radio program to countries in Europe singing both classical arias as well as Native songs. She founded the Society of the First Sons and Daughters of America Foundation whose mission was to recognize and promote the contributions of Native people and give them opportunities to promote their talents in the arts. In addition to her vocal talents, she was a skilled painter and designer and in 1942, she wrote and illustrated the book "The Earth Speaks", a collection of tales adapted from Cherokee legends. In the late 1940s, Atalie moved to Washington D.C. where she spent her time digging through government archival records in order to research claims due the Cherokee Indians from the United States government. Atalie passed away in 1954.
Related Materials:
Three photographs in the collection include images of objects currently in the NMAI collection. These include Princess Atalie wearing a Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce) hide dress (NMAI 029996), a Ute beaded hide dress (NMAI 050958) and Ute mocassins (NMAI 006986) and Ethyl E. Schellbach wearing a Niuam (Comanche) beaded hide dress (NMAI 021803) and Niuam (Comanche) legging moccasins (NMAI 021132).
Provenance:
Donated by Mrs. Dale Hall to the C.H. Nash Museum (Chucalissa) in 1967. Donated by the C.H. Nash Museum (Chucalissa) to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1978. It is unclear how Mrs. Hall came into the posesssion of the photographs though it is possible she was a friend of the family or a distant relative.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Opera  Search this
Genre/Form:
Studio portraits
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Photographs of Princess Atalie Unkalunt collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.117
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-117

Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway Photographs

Collector:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Donor:
Rehor, John A.  Search this
Rehor, John A.  Search this
Creator:
Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Ohio
West Virginia
Date:
1925-1942.
Scope and Contents:
Over nine hundred official company photographs documenting the history of the railroad. Subjects include trains, locomotives and cars; employees and employee gatherings and events; structures such as stations, track, bridges, crossings, towers, coaling stations.
Arrangement:
Divided into 2 series: Series 1, Negatives and Series 2, Prints.
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in 1871, the Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway was built to haul coal from southeastern Ohio mines to the Lake Erie ports of Huron and Toledo. After World War II, WLE had several owners, the Nickel Plate, then the Norfolk & Western,and later, the Norfolk & Western and Southern (NS) merged. The WLE was dissolved in 1989 but was revived in 1990 by new investors.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering in 1981 by John A. Roher.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Rolling-stock  Search this
Railroad stations -- United States  Search this
Railroad tracks  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroads -- Employees  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway Photographs, 1905-1942, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1075
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1075

Jack Robrecht Collection of Firefighting Photographs

Collector:
Robrecht, Jack  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (6 boxes, 1 oversized folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Postcards
Photographs
Date:
1852 - 1983
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains primarily photographs and postcards relating to firefighting. Many of the photographs are of firefighting vehicles and apparatus, both horse-drawn and gasoline-powered. The cities of Philadelphia and Baltimore are especially well documented, though other cities are represented, including Hamilton, Ohio; Camden, New Jersey; Dallas, Texas; Baltimore, Maryland; Portland, Maine; New Orleans, Louisiana; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Newburyport, Massachusetts; and Flemington, New Jersey.

Series 1, Photographs, consists primarily of black-and-white and color, both original and copy prints, illustrations, and postcards depicting images of fire engines, firefighters, fireboats, fire stations, and firemen and fire equipment in parades. The photographs are arranged in numerical order (for example, JR-2) as assigned by Jack Robrecht, who assembled the materials. The other number system included the designation "V 408." This alpha-numeric number was applied by the Cigna Museum which held the materials prior to their donation to the National Museum of American History. Many of the images are heavily annotated by Robrecht, providing specific details about a fire engine, geographic location, and date. There are some membership cards, envelopes, and a Christmas card depicting images of fire equipment. Two inventories for the photographs are available. The inventories provide an object/photograph number, artist/photographer, title/caption, genre/classification, date and dimensions.

Series 2, Research Files, 1852-1983, consists almost exclusively of handwritten and typescript photocopies of fire-related documentation assembled by Robrecht. Included are sheet music, lists of statistics for fire alarms, inventories of equipment in parades, newspaper clippings, and an ink sketch of a fire ladder.

Series 3, Publications, [1859?]-1975, consists of original and photocopies of various fire-related publications. The only non fire-related publication is The Grace Log, a publication of Grace Line.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1, Photographs, 1880-1972

Series 2, Research Files, 1852-1983

Series 3, Publications, [1859?]-1975
Biographical / Historical:
Jack Robrecht (1916?-1993) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He graduated from St. Joseph's Prep and attended the University of Pennsylvania. Robrecht worked for thirty-one years at the chemical testing laboratory of Atlantic Refinery. He retired in 1978. Robrecht always wanted to be a firefighter, but missed qualifying due to the age limit. Undeterred, Robrecht spent much of his life from 1941-1993 as a volunteer historian for the Philadelphia Fire Department. He was also a collector, author, and photographer of fire-related materials.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Musuem of American History

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Fires and firefighting (series), circa 1821-1955. (AC0060)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Fires and firefighting: stereographs, ca. 1875-1888. (AC0060)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Inventions: stereographs, 1880s. (AC0060)

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, [Fire-fighters working water pump: Active no. 1810. photonegative] 1926. (AC0143)

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, [Fire fighters in action.] 2031 photonegative. (AC0143)

Frank Seymour Firefighting Ephemera Collection (AC1232)

Materials at the Division of Home and Community Life, National Museum of American History

The Division of Home and Community Life holds fire-related artifacts. See Accession numbers 2005.0233; 2005.0279; 2006.0247; 2007.0160; and 2007.0174.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by CIGNA through Roxanne Korostowski, Director, Relocation Services on August 19, 2005.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fire stations  Search this
Fire engines  Search this
Firefighters  Search this
Fire departments -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Fire departments -- Maryland  Search this
Fire extinction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Jack Robrecht Collection of Firefighting Photographs, 1852-1983, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1231
See more items in:
Jack Robrecht Collection of Firefighting Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1231
Additional Online Media:

James Cunningham, Son and Company Photographs

Creator:
James Cunningham, Son and Company (Rochester, New York)  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
Rochester (N.Y.)
Date:
1908-1964
bulk 1908-1929
Summary:
The collection consists of glass plate negatives and photographic prints of the glass plate negatives depicting horse-drawn hearses (funeral wagons), carriages, and ambulances and motorized vehicles produced by James Cunningham, Son and Company from approximately 1908 to 1929. The majority of the glass plates and photographic prints depict horse-drawn hearses, but there are some motorized vehicles.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of glass plate negatives and photographic prints of the glass plate negatives depicting horse-drawn hearses (funeral wagons), carriages, and ambulances and motorized vehicles produced by James Cunningham, Son and Company from approximately 1908 to 1929. The majority of the glass plates and photographic prints depict horse-drawn hearses, but there are some motorized vehicles.

There are approximately 335 glass plate negatives and the same number of photographic prints. It is unknown who created the photographic prints, but some of the glass plates were originally held at the Free Library of Philadelphia.

The glass plates are in three sizes: 5" x 7" 8" x 10" and 11" x 14". The glass plates and the photographic prints are arranged by an alpha-numeric system that was presumably developed by the company. In some instances, J.L. Hill is identified as a photographer.

In some instances, the model number, style and date are provided. Most images are side views, although there are some rear and interior views. Some glass plates are unidentified or missing. Some of the descriptions include lamp number information. Many carriages had mounted lamps or lanterns that were oil or battery powered. if a carriage was built for a specific person or company, such as W. H. Graham Company, this information is listed.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Glass Plates, A1 to A55, 1908-1929 and undated

Series 2, Glass Plates, B1 to B159, [1913?] and undated

Series 3, Glass Plates, C1 to C50, undated

Series 4, Glass Plates, D1 to D64, undated

Series 5, Glass Plates, E1 to E8, undated

Series 6, Photographic Prints, undated

Series 7: Background Materials, 1930s-1964
Biographical / Historical:
James Cunningham (1815-1886) was born in County Down, Ireland to Arthur and Ann Cunningham. He came to the United States in 1833 from Canada seeking work in the New York City area, where he had an uncle practicing architecture. In Canada, Cunningham had worked in woodwork design in a carpenter's shop east of Toronto in Cobourg, Ontario. Cunningham returned to Canada via Rochester, New York. While in Rochester, he was introduced to George Hanford and J.H. Whitbeck, entrepreneurs who set up the first coach-making shop in Rochester in 1834.

From 1834 to 1838 Cunningham worked as an apprentice and journeyman for George Hanford and J.H. Whitbeck. He formed a partnership with two of his fellow-workers, James Kerr and Blanchard Dean. Together they bought out Hanford and Whitbeck and made cutters, known as one-horse open sleighs and buggies. In 1842 Kerr and Blanchard resigned, and James Cunningham assumed full responsibility.

Cunningham married Bridget Jennings in 1838, and they had three children: Augustine, Joseph, and Margaretta. Cunningham's son, Joseph (1842?-1914) joined his father in the company and as a result, the company reorganized in 1866 as James Cunningham and Son. Joseph Cunningham became a full partner in 1868. Rufus Dryer (1846-1937) became a partner in 1875 when he married Margaretta Cunningham in the same year. There were branch offices with display rooms in Louisville, Nashville, Memphis, New Orleans, Chicago, Des Moines, Kansas City, Topeka, Denver, and San Francisco. In 1876, Cunningham carriages and a hearse won prizes at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.

In 1882, the firm was incorporated as James Cunningham, Son and Company. It was the largest industrial enterprise in Rochester, New York, both in its plant area and in capital. The firm continued to make carriages until 1915. Joseph Cunningham and Rufus Dryer retired in 1909, and the company, which had become a partnership, was reincorporated. Augustine Cunningham, son of Joseph Cunningham, was president, James Dryer (son of Rufus Dryer) vice-president, and Francis Cunningham (son of Joseph Cunningham) was secretary and general manager.

In 1908 the company began automobile production, not for the popular market, but for the type of customer that bought its carriages. The company did not mass-produce their automobiles. Intially, it made only automobile bodies and assembled the rest of the car from engines, transmissions, axles, and radiators made by proprietary companies. By 1910 it produced the entire automobile. In 1916 Cunningham produced a V-8 engine, and the Cunningham car became outstanding for its clean, classic lines. It was the first car to not have running-boards, using instead steps of brass-framed aluminum.

In the late 1920s Cunningham entered the aviation business and created a subsidiary, the Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corporation. The primary aim of the corporation was to build an airplane that would combine stability with speed. The first Cunningham-Hall plane designed with these requirements was a modified biplane: the lower wing was considerably larger than the upper and slotted, so that a current of air could be made to flow between its surfaces. This enabled the plane to land at low speeds. It was first tested in the small town of LeRoy, New York. Cunningham-Hall continued to make aircraft until 1938. Its X-14324, produced in 1934, was a low-wing monoplane made entirely of metal. The company also produced primary trainers, a six-place cabin plane, other passenger and cargo craft, and experimental planes for the Army and Navy. By the early 1930s the company had ceased to produce automobiles and funeral carriages/hearses.

Over the years Cunningham made a wide variety of products. During World War II, Cunningham found a temporary role in defense production. Prior to the war the compaay had produced a variety of odd products: safety belts for aircraft, diving helmets, even belt buckles for Boy Scout uniforms. During the Civil War the company made carriages for the Union armies, and the First World War, ambulances and automotive windlasses for observation balloons. More significant had been its experience of producing armored and tracked vehicles. In March 1928, Cunningham's first tank was tested at Aberdeen, Maryland. Equipped with a revolving turret and armed with a 37 millimeter cannon and a .30 caliber machine gun, it traveled twenty miles an hour, faster than any tank produced up to that time. In 1933, Cunningham developed a tank track, with light-weight rubber-block treads that allowed for even greater speeds. Cunningham also developed experimental half-tracks, cargo carriers, armored cars, and a weapons carrier for a 75 millimeter Howitzer.

In 1940 James Dryer retired. The corporation was dissolved in 1941 and replaced by a partnership, with Augustine and Francis Cunningham as co-partners. After World War II, the firm produced small farm and garden machines such as sickle-bar mowers, tractors, and rotary tillers. Cunningham also designed and produced a complete line of plumbing fixtures for house trailers in a constant effort to retool and redefine itself in the post-war years.

By 1952, the firm met Andrew W. Vincent, an electrical engineer with Stromberg-Carlson in Rochester. Vincent devoted himself to perfecting a small dial telephone system. The heart of this system was the crossbar switch. The company acquired Vincent's initial designs and patent applications and hired him as a consultant. The company restricted its production to creating prototypes of switching devices. The Cunningham crossbar was versatile. It had the ability to switch electrical information from low-level DC signals to 100 megacycles, reliably and at high speeds.

In 1968, Peter F. Cunningham, then president of the company, sold controlling interest to the Gleason Works, a Rochester-based manufacturer of machine tools. Under Gleason Works, the company was renamed Cunningham Corporation. In 1977, all Cunningham-related activities ended.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

National Museum of American History, Division of Work & Industry

1929 Cunningham touring car. See accession #:310671.

National Air and Space Museum Archives

Cunningham-Hall Collection, 1917-1940 (bulk 1928-1930)

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Trade Literature Collection

Trade catalogs from James Cunningham Son & Company (See SILNMAHTL_12462)

Materials in Other Organizations

Long Island Museum of American Art, History and Carriages

Includes drawings, a trade catalog, a cart, and a buggy from James Cunningham and Sons.

Detroit Public Library

Papers of the James Cunningham Company, 1902-1964 (bulk 1909-1946)

Includes notebooks of G. Carson Baker, chief designer and David Fergusson, chief engineer, patent applications, correspondence, drawings and blueprints related to Fergusson's work, parts and instruction books for early automobiles (including electric automobiles), photographs of Cunningham factories, military vehicles and motor trucks.

Rochester Museum and Science Center, Libraries and Collections Department

Local Business History vertical files hold items related to James Cunningham, Son and Company as well as books.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1973 by the Cunningham Company to the National Museum of American History, Division of Transportation.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Horse-drawn vehicles  Search this
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Automobile industry and trade  Search this
Carriage industry  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Carriage and wagon making  Search this
Ambulances  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1900-1950
Citation:
James Cunningham, Son and Company Photonegatives, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1193
See more items in:
James Cunningham, Son and Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1193

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