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Exploration of a Munsee cemetery near Montague, New Jersey / by George G. Heye and George H. Pepper

Author:
Heye, George G (George Gustav) 1874-1957  Search this
Pepper, George H (George Hubbard) 1873-1924  Search this
Physical description:
78 p., xxxiv pl. (incl. fold. map~|~|~ fold. plan) : ill., fold. ill. ; 26 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
Montague (N.J.)
Date:
1915
Topic:
Antiquities  Search this
Call number:
E51 .N42Z v. 2 no. 1
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_969684

The Nacoochee mound in Georgia / by George G. Heye, F.W. Hodge, and George H. Pepper

Author:
Heye, George G (George Gustav) 1874-1957  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb 1864-1956  Search this
Pepper, George H (George Hubbard) 1873-1924  Search this
Physical description:
103 p., lviii leaves of plates : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
Georgia
Date:
1918
Topic:
Mounds  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Call number:
E98.A7 O64 1916
E98.A7 O64 1916
E51.N42Z vol. 4 no. 3
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_451245

Second and Third Ecuador Expeditions photograph collection

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Photographer:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Saville, Marshall H. (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935  Search this
Saville, Foster H. (Foster Harmon), 1874-1942  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Saville, Foster H. (Foster Harmon), 1874-1942  Search this
Saville, Marshall H. (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935  Search this
Extent:
398 negatives (photographic)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives (photographic)
Place:
Manabí (Ecuador)
Ecuador
Date:
1907-108
Summary:
Photographic negatives made by George Pepper, Marshall Saville and Foster Saville during the second and third Ecuador expeditions in 1907 and 1908. The expeditions were sponsored by George Gustav Heye and included archaeological work in the Manabi and Esmereldas provinces in Ecuador.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes negatives made in the Manabi and Esmereldas provinces of Ecuador during the second and third Ecuador Expeditions sponsored by George Gustav Heye. The photographs were shot by George Hubbard Pepper, Foster H. Saville and Marshall H. Saville. The majority of the photographs are from the Manabi Province and include images from Cerro Jaboncillo, Cerro de Hojas, Manta, La Secita and Monte Christi. The photographs from Esmereldas includes images from Isla de la Tola, La Tolita and Tonsupa. Many of the photographs document the excavation work that was conducted. This includes images of excavation sites and archaeological objects, local workers hired for the expedition as well as landscape views and street scenes in the various expedition locations in Ecuador. Additionally, many of Foster Savilles's photographs in Monte Christi and Manta show local happenings such as the procession of Fiesta de San Pablo, fishermen drawing nets and women bathing on the beach. There are several photographs that feature George Pepper and Marshall Saville in the field. The negatives were likely shot on both glass plate and nitrate. There are 75 glass plate negatives, made by George Pepper, that are still in the collection. The remainder of the negatives which were likely shot on nitrate are now on acetate film, copied during the 1960s photograph conservation project at the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
This collection includes negatives with the following catalog numbers: N00001-N00074, N00170-N00171, N00178, N00221, N00798-N01112, N01453-N01457

N00170 - N00171 ; N00178 ; N00221 are the only photographs from the Third Ecuador Expedition, the rest are from the Second.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
The Second and Third Ecuador expeditions were sponsored by George Gustav Heye and conducted during the summers of 1907 and 1908. These followed an initial archaeological investigation on the coast of Ecuador in 1906, later called the First Ecuador Expedition. Marshall H. Saville, George Hubbard Pepper and Foster H. Saville arrived in Manabi, Ecuador in the middle of June, 1907 and the expedition remained there until October. The work centered mainly around the Cerro Jaboncillo and Cerro de Hojas hills where excavations of house-sites and mounds were conducted. Following this work in Manabi, George Pepper and Foster Saville traveled to the hills south of Mone Cristi and Marshall Saville proceeded to the Esmeraldas coast with Louis W. Niendorff conducting excavations through the first of November. In 1908 Marshall Saville returned to Ecuador with George D. Hedian, revisiting sites in Manabi and making several trips into the mountainous region south of Manta as well as Bahia de Caraques. Over the course of these two trips more than 3000 archaeological items were collected and brought back to New York as part of the Heye collection, eventually becoming part of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. For more information see "The Antiquities of Manabi, Ecuador; Final Report" by Marshall H. Saville in Contributions to South American Archaeology, Volume 2, 1910.
Related Materials:
A small amount of field notes from George Pepper can be found in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records, NMAI.AC.001, (Box 189, Folder 3). Additional Pepper field notes can be found in his collection at Tulane University.
Provenance:
Sent to the Heye Museum, later the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, by George Pepper, Marshall Savillle and Foster Saville, along with other excavation materials in 1907 and 1908.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Photographs with burials, human remains or any other cultural sensitivity are restricted.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Ecuador  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Second and Third Ecuador Expeditions photograph collection, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.041
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-041

George Gustav Heye's New York and New Jersey Farm excavation photographs

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Former owner:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
141 glass plate negatives
142 copy negatives
Culture:
Stockbridge-Munsee  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Glass plate negatives
Copy negatives
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1914-1915
Summary:
Photographic negatives shot by George H. Pepper and George G. Heye during farm excavations in New York and New Jersey in 1914.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 141 glass plate negatives shot in 1914 and 1915 related to New Jersey and New York farm excavations led by George G. Heye and George H. Pepper. Although George Gustav Heye is listed as the photographer it is much more likely that the photographs were shot by George Hubbard Pepper.

Photographs in this collection include: Images from the excavation of a cemetery site during summer of 1914 on the Burson W. Bell Farm in Montague, NJ and Milford, Pike County, PA (N00316 - N00361); Object photography taken circa 1915 for the publication "Exploration of a Munsee Cemetery near Montague, New Jersey" by George G. Heye and George H. Pepper (N00362 – N00463). It appears that all objects in this set were excavated from Burson Bell Farm; Images of the excavation at Cleary Farm, Avon, Livingston County, New York during October 1914 (N00437-N00439); Images of the excavation at George Marsh Farm, Canandaigua, Ontario County, New York during October 1914 (N00440 - N00450); Images of the excavation at W.G Raines and H. Reichelt Farms in Wheeler Station, East Bloomfield, Ontario County, New York during October 1914 (N00451 - N00456). N34267 is a copy negative of N00357. There are also acetate copy negatives (with the same N numbers) of all the glass plate negatives made in the 1960s during a large photographic conservation project.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
In the summer of 1914, George Gustav Heye and George Hubbard Pepper took a crew to the Burson Bell Farm in Montague, New Jersey to excavate a Munsee Cemetery which contained over 60 burials. In early July, the men working the site were arrested for grave robbing on charges of violating a statute prohibiting the disturbance of human burials. Though Heye and Pepper were not there at the time, a warrant was issued for George Heye's arrest. George Heye faced trial and was convicted and fined $100 but he successfully appealed the conviction to the New Jersey Supreme court where the decision was reversed. Heye and Pepper resumed their excavations in October of 1914 in New York State at the Cleary Farm in Avon, Livingston County, the George Marsh Farm in Canandaigua, Ontario County, and the W.G Raines and H. Reichelt Farms in Wheeler Station, East Bloomfield, Ontario County.

It should be noted that since the passing of the NMAI Act in 1989, which governs the repatriation of human remains and funerary objects, as well as scared objects and cultural patrimony, many of the materials that were collected by George Heye during these 1914 excavations have now been repatriated to their source communities. Any photographic materials related to these repatriated materials are restricted.
Separated Materials:
See George Pepper's field notes from the New Jersey and New York excavations in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 190, Folders 11-12, and Box 191, Folder 1.
Provenance:
The field photographs accompanied the lots of archeological material that arrived at the Heye Museum in 1914, the object photography (N00362-N00463) was shot at the museum by staff in 1915.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Photographs with burials, human remains or any other cultural sensitivity are restricted.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New York (State)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Jersey -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); George Gustav Heye's New York and New Jersey Farm excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.047
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-047

Haywood, North Carolina Mound excavation photographs

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Source:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Former owner:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
21 glass plate negatives
21 copy negatives
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Glass plate negatives
Copy negatives
Date:
1915
Summary:
Photographic negatives from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation expedition conducted by George Heye and George Pepper in Haywood, County, North Carolina in the Spring/Summer of 1915. Mounds on the James and Richard Plott farms near Canton were excavated as well as a mound on the property of T.D. Singleton in Bethel.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 21 glass plate negatives shot at excavations of mounds on the property of James Plott near Canton, North Carolina and T. D. Singleton in Bethel, North Carolina. George Gustav Heye is listed as the photographer but it is much more likely that George Hubbard Pepper shot the photographs. Most of the photographs are landscape shots of the James Plott mound as well as images of the trenches dug by the excavation crew. There are a small amount of photographs taken at the mound on the property of T.D. Singleton. Grave photographs have been restricted. There are also acetate copy negatives (with the same N numbers) of all the glass plate negatives made in the 1960s during a large photographic conservation project.
N00457-N00477
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number
Biographical / Historical:
In the spring of 1915 George Gustav Heye and George Hubbard pepper traveled to Haywood County, North Carolina to excavate mounds for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. The first two mounds were located on the farms of James and Richard Plott, two miles Southwest of Canton, North Carolina. The mound on the farm of James Plott was dubbed the "Heye Expedition Mound" and was more extensively excavated. The expedition continued on to the property of T.D. Singleton in Bethel, North Carolina to excavate a small circular mound. Heye and Pepper also collected a number of surface artifacts including steatite ornaments and pipes during this excavation.

For more information about this excavation see "Certain Mounds in Haywood County, North Carolina" in Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, Volume V, No. 3, by George G. Heye, 1919.
Separated Materials:
See George Pepper's field notes from Haywood, North Carolina, 1915 in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 191, Folder 2-3. All archaeological materials from this excavation can be found in NMAI's archaeology collections.
Provenance:
Field photographs created by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1915.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Photographs with graves have been restricted.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
North Carolina  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- North Carolina  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Haywood, North Carolina Mound Excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.048
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-048

Portrait of Thea Heye

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Thea Heye posed in doorway of an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11593
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref513

Frederick Webb Hodge and Charles Turbyfill excavating

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
View of Frederick W. Hodge and Charles O. Turbyfill excavating in a trench at Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11596
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref516

Portrait of George Pepper

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of George H. Pepper posed in doorway of elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11598
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref518

Portrait of George Heye

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of George Gustav Heye posed in the doorway of an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11602
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref522

Summer house at Nacoochee Mound

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor view of an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11605
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref525

George Hubbard Pepper photograph collection

Creator:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1292 negatives (photographic)
23 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Santa Ana Pueblo  Search this
Puve Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Indians  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Santa Clara Pueblo  Search this
Zia Pueblo  Search this
Picuris (N.M.)  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Sandia Pueblo (N.M.)  Search this
Pojoaque pueblo (N.M.)  Search this
Nambe Pueblo  Search this
Piegan Indians  Search this
Aztecs  Search this
San Ildefonso (N.M.)  Search this
Tesuque Pueblo  Search this
Laguna (N.M.)  Search this
Acoma (N.M.)  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Tarasco Indians  Search this
San Juan Pueblo  Search this
San Carlos Apache Tribe  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
San Felipe Pueblo (N.M.)  Search this
Isleta Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
New Mexico
Texas
Zuni (N.M.)
New York
Montana
Arizona
Basin
Illinois
Mexico
Southwest
Guatemala
Ecuador
Utah
Plains
Date:
1895-1918
Summary:
George Hubbard Pepper specialized in the study of cultures of the American Southwest and Ecuador. Tribes which he studied are Acoma, Aztec, Blackfeet, Cochiti, Hopi, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Nambe, Navajo, Picuris, Pojuaque, Puye, San Carlos Apache, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Sandia, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Taos, Tarascan, Tesuque, Ute, Zia, and Zuni. Photographs in the collection are of an excavation in Tottenville, New York, 1895; Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Cañon, New Mexico: Hyde Expedition, 1896-1900; and expeditions to the occupied Pueblos of the Southwest, 1904; Mexico, 1904, 1906; Guatemala; and Ecuador, 1907. There are also photos which complement a study Pepper did of the technique of Navajo weaving, and miscellaneous scenic and personal photos.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
George Hubbard Pepper was born on February 2, 1873 in Tottenville, Staten Island, New York. As a young boy he exhibited a strong interest in archaeology and after his graduating from high school followed encouragement from Prof. Fredric W. Putnam to study at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University, where Pepper stayed from 1895-96. In 1896 he was appointed assistant curator of the Department of the Southwest in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. From 1896 to 1900, Pepper was a member of the Hyde Exploring Expedition, which conducted excavations at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. In 1904, he conducted an ethnological survey of the occupied pueblos of the Southwest and at the same time continued his study of the weaving techniques of the Navajo. Pepper also participated in excavations in the yacatas of the Tierra Caliente of Michoacan in Mexico sponsored by George Gustav Heye, and in 1907 he went with Marshall Saville on an expedition to the Province of Manabi in Ecuador, also for Heye. In 1909 Pepper was appointed assistant curator in the Department of American Archaeology at the University Museum of Philadelphia, but after only a year there he joined the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in New York City, where he stayed until his death. In 1914 he excavated a Munsee cemetery of the historic period near Montague, New Jersey and in the following year he went on the exploration of the Nacoochee mound in the old Cherokee region in Georgia. In 1918 he joined the Hawikku explorations of the Hendricks-Hodge Expedition in New Mexico. Pepper died on May 13, 1924, in New York City. George H. Pepper was a co-founder of the American Anthropological Association, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Ethnological Society of New York, a member of the American Folklore Society, and a corresponding member of the Academia Nacional de Historia of Ecuador. A complete bibliography of his works can be found in Indian Notes, v. 1, no. 3, July 1924, pp. 108-110. The George Hubbard Pepper Papers are in the Latin American Library, Tulane University Library, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Provenance:
According to Frederick Dockstader, director of MAI from 1960 to 1975, in a letter dated March 26, 1968, the collection was given to MAI by Pepper. However, the 1965 Annual Report (p. 26) states that the Photographic Department acquired through the donation of Mrs. Jeannette Cameron approximately 500 new negatives pertaining to field work done by her father from 1900-1910; and the 1966 Annual Report (p. 9) states that many papers of Dr. George H. Pepper were acquired through the courtesy of his daughter, Mrs. Jeanette Cameron.
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.034
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-034

Portrait of George Heye and Frederick Webb Hodge

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of George Gustav Heye and Frederick Webb Hodge relaxing in an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11594
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref514

Portrait of George and Thea Heye

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
1 copy negative
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of George and Thea Heye seated at a table in an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11599
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref519

Portrait of George Pepper and George Heye

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
1 copy negative
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of George H. Pepper and George Gustav Heye posed next to an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11600
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref520

Portrait of Frederick Hodge, George Heye and George Pepper

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Frederick W. Hodge, George Gustav Heye, and George H. Pepper seated relaxing in an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11601
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref521

Portrait of George Heye

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
1 copy negative
Container:
Photo-folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of George Gustav Heye posed next to an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of Nacoochee Mound in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11603
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref523

George Heye at Nacoochee Mound

Collection Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
1 copy negative
Container:
Photo-folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
1915
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor view of George Gustav Heye posed at the excavations at Nacoochee Mound, with an elaborately decorated wooden summer house on top of mound in background in Georgia.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007, Item P11604
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-007-ref524

Marshall Saville photograph collection

Creator:
Saville, Marshall H. (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Saville, Foster H. (Foster Harmon), 1874-1942  Search this
Extent:
526 negatives (photographic) (526 glass plate negatives, black and white)
51 Photographic Prints (black and white)
2 lantern slides (black and white, color)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic Prints
Lantern slides
Place:
Honduras -- archeology
Sigsig (Ecuador : Canton)
Jamaica -- archeology
Costa Rica -- archeology
East Hampton (N.Y.)
Cuba -- archeology
Belize
Mexico -- archeology
Guatemala
Colombia
Panama -- archeology
Date:
1901-1922
bulk 1907-1918
Summary:
Photographs and glass plate negatives documenting the various archaeological expeditions of all three Savilles. The bulk of the images concern the activities headed by Marshall Saville (and assisted by Foster and Randolph) in both South and Central America. Included to a lesser degree are the explorations of Foster in North America and Randolph in the Caribbean, South and Central America. Images document archaeological digs, their settings, the peoples encountered, as well as the objects found. The dates of the images found in this collection and taken by the various Savilles during their numerous expeditions are as follows (the photographer(s) attributed to photographs taken during a specific expedition is/are listed in parentheses following the country of the specific expedition) : 1891: Honduras (Marshall), 1900-1902: Mexico (Marshall), 1907: Cuba (Marshall), 1907: Ecuador (Marshall, Foster, Randolph), 1915: Honduras (Marshall), 1915: Cuba, Jamaica, Belize, Honduras, Guatemala (Randolph), 1914-1916: Ecuador, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Jamaica (Marshall, Foster, Randolph), 1918: Pantigo site, Easthampton, Long Island, New York (Foster), 1922: Photographic portrait of Marshall
Arrangement note:
negatives: organized in boxes; arranged numerically by image number

prints: organized in folders; arranged numerically by image number
Biographical/Historical note:
American archaeologist Marshall H. Saville (1867-1935), after having studied anthropology at Harvard, began his work in Mesoamerica and Central America under the auspice of the Peabody and its director and his mentor, Frederic W. Putnam, who acted concurrently as the director of the American Museum of Natural History. He became the first curator of the Mexican and Central American Archaeology at the American Museum of Natural History. He started conducting archaeological excavations and fieldwork in Mitla, Xoxocotlán, Monte Albán (Oaxaca); Xochicalco, (Morelos) in Mexico from 1897 to 1904, excavating at sites such as Xoxocotlán in the Mexican state of Oaxaca and at the San Lorenzo Olmec site. He made substantive contributions to the knowledge regarding Aztec, Maya and Olmec cultures. In 1903, Saville joined the faculty at Columbia University for which he worked until his retirement in 1932. With the patronage and participation of George G. Heye, he headed various digs in Ecuador starting in 1907, focusing particularly on cultures in the Manabi and Sigsig provinces. Among those accompanying him in this investigation in Ecuador were George G. Pepper of the Museum of the American Indian in New York, his brother Foster H. Saville (1874-1942), whose personal work concentrated on the North American Woodlands cultures of Long Island (Pantigo) and the Northeast Coast (Connecticut and Rhode Island). His son Randolph M.(H.?) Saville also accompanied them. From 1915-1918, Marshall (and Randolph) explored and excavated in Central America (Panama, Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala), Cuba and in South America (Ecuador, Colombia). Both Marshall (1918-1932) and Foster Saville were eventually employed as MAI staff.
Restrictions:
Researchers must contact the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection
Topic:
Archaeology -- Ecuador  Search this
Woodland Indians  Search this
Manta Indians  Search this
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.037
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-037

Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs

Creator:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Source:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Names:
Nacoochee Mound Expedition, 1915  Search this
Coffin, Edwin F. (Edwin Francis), b. 1883  Search this
Heye, Thea  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Turbyfill, Charles Orr, 1888-1966  Search this
Former owner:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
13 Photographic prints (silver gelatin)
120 glass plate negatives
125 copy negatives (acetate)
Culture:
Mississippian Tradition (archaeological culture)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Glass plate negatives
Copy negatives
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Nacoochee Valley (Ga.)
Date:
1915
Summary:
The photographs in this collection document the excavation of the Nacoochee Mound, located along the banks of the upper Chattahoochee River in the mountains of northeast Georgia, in the summer of 1915. The excavation was a joint project between the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation and the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Scope and Contents:
The Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs consists of glass plate negatives, photographic prints and copy negatives related to the joint effort of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology to excavate the mound in the summer of 1915. The photographic materials primarily depict the mound photographed from various directions before and during excavation, but also objects and antiquities exhumed from the mound and members of the field team posed singly and as a group on the mound site, including George G. Heye and his wife Thea Heye. Any photographs that include images of burials or human remains have been restricted. Other MAI staff photographed include Frederick Webb Hodge, Charles Turbyfill and Edwin Coffin. George Gustav Heye is listed as the photographer but it is much more likely that George Hubbard Pepper or another one of the MAI staff shot the photographs.

Glass negatives include N00478-N00597. The copy negatives (acetate) have the same N #'s as the glass plate negatives and also include N34266, N36690-N36693, which are copies of the photographic prints. These copy negatives were made by the Museum of the American Indian sometime in the 1960s as part of a large photograph conservation project. Silver gelatin prints include P11593-P11605.
Arrangement note:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Between May and October of 1915, the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology collaborated to excavate the Nacoochee Mound, located in the Nacooche Valley along the upper Chattahoochee River in northeast Georgia. One of the earliest scientific excavations of its kind in the state of Georgia, the Nacoochee Mound excavation was headed by Frederick Webb Hodge and George Hubbard Pepper and found evidence of at least two mound stages with a total of seventy-five human burials, some of them intrusive from a later time. George Heye, Hodge, and Pepper's co-authored paper, "The Nacoochee Mound in Georgia," appeared in vol. 4, no. 3 of Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.

Although there is also evidence for previous occupation, archaeological evidence at the Nacoochee Mound site and the nearby Eastwood site suggests that these two mound sites probably served as local, primarily administrative, centers during the Middle Lamar Period (approximately late fifteenth to early sixteenth centuries). (particularly Eastwood) The village around Nacoochee Mound has not been excavated but is possibly the site of Nacoochee or Chota, two Cherokee villages documented by Colonel George Chicken's 1715 expedition. These two towns continued to appear on maps until the mid-eighteenth century but were abandoned shortly thereafter.
Separated Materials:
See George Pepper's field notes from the Nacoochee Mound, 1915 in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 191, Folder 4-8. All archaeological materials from this excavation can be found in NMAI's archaeology collections.
Provenance:
The negatives are field photographs created by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1915. It is still not clear when or how the photographic prints came to the Museum of the American Indian, though they were cataloged sometime around 1935.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Georgia -- Nacoochee Valley (Ga.)  Search this
Mounds -- Georgia -- Nacoochee Valley (Ga.)  Search this
Antiquities -- Georgia -- Nacoochee Valley (Ga.)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Georgia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Georgia -- Nacoochee Valley (Ga.) -- Antiqiuties  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.007
See more items in:
Nacoochee Mound excavation photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-007
Additional Online Media:

Hendricks-Hodge Hawikku Expedition photograph collection

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Source:
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Coffin, Edwin F. (Edwin Francis), b. 1883  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Nusbaum, Jesse L. (Jesse Logan)  Search this
Cadzow, Donald A., 1894-1960  Search this
Schindler, Victor  Search this
Names:
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923).  Search this
Hendricks, Harmon Washington, 1846-1928  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Heye, Thea  Search this
Former owner:
Cadzow, Donald A., 1894-1960  Search this
Coffin, Edwin F. (Edwin Francis), b. 1883  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Nusbaum, Jesse L. (Jesse Logan)  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Schindler, Victor  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Extent:
1122 negatives (photographic)
250 Photographic prints
4.25 Linear feet
Culture:
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
American Indians -- Southwest  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Place:
Hawikuh (N. M.)
Date:
1917-1923
Summary:
This collection includes negatives and prints created between 1917 and 1923 during the Hendricks-Hodge Hawikku (Hawikuh) archaeological expedition on the A:shiwi (Zuni) Reservation in New Mexico. The expedition which was sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, was one of the most extensive archaeological projects conducted at the time. Photographs in this collection were shot by Alanson B. Skinner, Frederick Webb Hodge, Edwin Francis Coffin, George Hubbard Pepper, Jesse L. Nusbaum, Donald Cadzow, and Victor Schindler. Many of the photographs in this collection have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Scope and Contents:
The photographs in this collection were shot between 1917 and 1923 by various archaeologists and ethnographers involved in the Hawikku excavations. This includes Alanson B. Skinner, Frederick Webb Hodge, Edwin Francis Coffin, George Hubbard Pepper, Jesse L. Nusbaum, Donald Cadzow, and Victor Schindler. Many of the photographs in this collection have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.

Photographs from 1917 were shot by Alanson B. Skinner and Frederick Webb Hodge and include images with Zuni workmen as well as many images of burials (restricted). Photographs from 1918 were shot Edwin Francis Coffin and George Hubbard Pepper. Pepper's photographs include images of Kyusita (Cayusetsa) a Zuni potter, at work. Photographs from 1919 were shot by Jesse Nusbaum and Frederick Webb Hodge and include images of room sites, burials (restricted) and Camp Harmon. There are also images of George and Thea Heye, Harmon Hendricks and Joseph Keppler at the site.

Photographs from 1921 and 1923 were shot by Edwin Coffin and include Portraits of A:shiwi (Zuni) community members, kiva sites and room sites. There are also photographs from Donald Cadzow from 1923. Cadzow was assigned to accompany and assist Owen Cattell during the 1923 filming of events and ceremonies at Zuni (see NMAI. AC.001.001, Museum of the American Indian Ethnographic Film Collection). These include images of pottery making, skin dressing, as well as ceremonial photographs (restricted). Victor Schindler also shot images of the Rain Dance and of Owen Cattell filming at this time.

In addition to on site photographs, there are also object images included in this collection. There are also a small amount of photographs from Kechipauan that are included in this collection, separate from the Louis C.G. Clarke Kechipauan Expedition photographs (NMAI.AC.001.044).

Many of the negatives are glass plate, though the majority were also copied onto acetate "safety film" in the 1960's during a photo conservation project. Any original nitrate negatives were destroyed by the museum.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
The Hendricks-Hodge Hawikku (Hawkuh) Expedition was one of the most extensive archaeological projects ever conducted in the Southwest. With major funding from Harmon W. Hendricks, Frederick Webb Hodge began the field work in 1917 while still with the Bureau of American Ethnology. The first season was jointly sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and the Smithsonian Institution. Hodge joined the staff of the MAI in 1918 and subsequent fieldwork during the summers of 1918-1921 was sponsored by this institution. The last field season, during the summer of 1923, was jointly sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian and Louis C.G. Clarke, then director of the University Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology, Cambridge University. Major excavations were carried out at two sites of early historic villages near the modern Pueblo of Zuni, New Mexico: Hawikku (also Hawikuh) and Kechiba:wa (also Kechipawan, Kechipaun, or Kechipauan).

During the work at Hawikku, Hodge supervised a staff which included Jesse L. Nusbaum, Edwin F. Coffin, Samuel K. Lothrop, George Hubbard Pepper, Alanson Buck Skinner, Donald A. Cadzow, and Louis C. G. Clarke. In addition, at least 39 A:shiwi (Zuni) men participated in this excavation of their ancestral villages. Hodge's archaeological techniques encompassed stratigraphic excavation; the systematic recording of rooms, features, artifacts in field notebooks; in situ photographs; and ethnographic analogy. These techniques resulted in the recovery and documentation of thousands of artifacts of diverse types including ceramics, wood, bone, textiles, shell, lithics, and architectural elements from about 370 rooms, 1000 burials, and the large mission church and its associated friary. Hodge published several articles and one book related to the site on specialized topics such as bonework, turquoise, and the history of Hawikku. The only descriptive publication of the excavations, The Excavation of Hawikuh by Frederick Webb Hodge, Report of the Hendricks-hodge Expedition, 19
Related Materials:
See associated materials in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001).

See: Hendricks-Hodge Archaeological Expedition papers. #9170. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.

See: "The Excavation of Hawikuh by Frederick Webb Hodge: Report of the Hendricks-Hodge Expedition, 1917-1923," by Watson Smith, Richard Woodbury and Nathatlie Woodbury. Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, Volume XX, 1966
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were sent back to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation by the various photographers over the course of the field work, 1917-1923.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Photographs with burials, human remains or any other cultural sensitivity are restricted.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Mexico -- Photographs  Search this
New Mexico  Search this
Archeology -- Hawikuh -- New Mexico  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Hendricks-Hodge Hawikku Expedition photograph collection (NMAI.AC.001.042), Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.042
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-042

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