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James Lithgow Ewin Patents

Creator:
Ewin, James Lithgow (inventor)  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Articles
Correspondence
Newsletters
Notes
Patents
Press releases
Date:
1873, 1874, 1879.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection includes an English patent paper #2126 for improved vulcanizable water-proof gum, 1873, to Benjamin Joseph Barnard Mills; a U.S. patent paper #151,109 for improvement in the art of manufacturing horseshoes, 1874; and an English patent paper #1194 for improvement in street-lighting apparatus.
Provenance:
Collection donated by James Lithgow Ewin, March 13, 1894.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Vulcanization  Search this
Street-lighting apparatus  Search this
Rhythm and blues music  Search this
African American music -- 20th century  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Blues musicians  Search this
Horseshoeing  Search this
Inventions -- 1870-1880  Search this
Inventors -- 1870-1880  Search this
Popular music -- Publishing and writing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 1970-2000
Newsletters -- 20th century
Notes
Patents -- 1870-1880
Press releases
Citation:
James Lithgow Ewin Patents, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0051
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0051

William E. Woodard Patents

Author:
Woodard, William E., 1873-1942 (inventor)  Search this
Names:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1909 - 1949
Summary:
The collection consists of United States, Canadian, Mexican and other foreign patents issued to William E. Woodard from 1909 to 1949. The patents are for Woodard's developments in steam and electric locomotive design.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes United States, Canadian, Mexican, and other foreign patents issued to William E. Woodard for developments in steam and electric locomotive design.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into four series.

Series 1, United States Patents, 1909-1945

Series 2, Canadian Patents, 1909-1946

Series 3, Mexican Patents, 1922-1925

Series 4, Patents From Other Foreign Countries, 1926-1941
Biographical / Historical:
William E. Woodard (1873-1942) was directly responsible for many developments in steam locomotive design. As an inventor of locomotive equipment, he held patents on various mechanical features of steam locomotive and electric locomotive design. He worked for the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Cramp's Shipyard, the Dickson Locomotive Works, the Schenectady Locomotive Works, the American Locomotive Works (1900-1916), and, finally, the Lima Locomotive Works (1916-1942); during the same period he worked as a consultant to the Franklin Railway Supply Company. At the Lima Locomotive Works, he was vice president in charge of design until his death in 1942.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by George H. Woodard, on July 21, 1984.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Patents  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 1890-1960  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Citation:
William E. Woodard Patents, 1909-1949, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0125
See more items in:
William E. Woodard Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0125

Charles Adler, Jr. Collection

Creator:
Adler, Charles, Jr., 1899-1980 (engineer, inventor)  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet (; 15 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Patent applications
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Receipts
Place:
Baltimore (Md.) -- 20th century
Date:
1899 - 1980
Summary:
The collection contains correspondence, news clippings, photographs, patents, and printed materials documenting the inventive career of Charles Adler, Jr. Adler is best known for his development of the first traffic actuated signal light in 1928.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains biographical information about Adler and his career. Materials relating to his professional activities include newspaper clippings, photographs and other memorabilia; his published writings include articles in periodicals and newspapers. In addition, there are patent applications, royalty receipts and correspondence, as well as lengthy descriptions of various safety devices Adler invented. Many photographs are not captioned, including images of devices Adler invented, as well as images of aircraft, automobiles, and trains. There are portraits of family members, Adler, and his associates.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Biographical Material, 1899-1980

Series 2, Scrapbooks and Clippings, 1920-1989

Series 3, Correspondence, 1928-1975

Series 4, Patents and Inventions, 1929-1980

Series 5, Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1920-1930

Series 6, Publications, 1952-1980
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Adler, Jr. (1899-1980), a professional engineer and inventor was a life-long resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He began his career as an inventor at age 14, receiving a patent on an electric automotive brake. After attending Johns Hopkins University, he served briefly in the Army during World War I and worked at several jobs before being associated in 1919 with the Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad, where he developed a series of safety devices. In 1928 he developed and installed in Baltimore the first traffic actuated signal light. In 1937 he became a consultant to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, continuing to invent safety and signal devices for automobiles, trains and aircraft. He was granted over sixty United States patents. He was a licensed pilot and a member of numerous professional engineering societies. From 1953-1959, Adler served on the Maryland State Aviation Commission and he was a member of the Maryland Traffic Safety Commission from 1952 until his death in 1980.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Charles Adler, Jr.'s daughter, Mrs. Amalie Adler Ascher on September 15, 1989.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engineers -- 1920-1980  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics and state -- 20th century  Search this
Traffic signs and signals -- 1920-1980  Search this
Traffic engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patent applications
Clippings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Receipts -- 20th century
Citation:
Charles Adler, Jr. Collection, 1899-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0351
See more items in:
Charles Adler, Jr. Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0351
Additional Online Media:

James Mahaffey Cold Fusion Collection

Creator:
Mahaffey, James A.  Search this
Collector:
Medicine and Science, Division of, (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Donor:
Georgia Tech Research Institute  Search this
Names:
Georgia Institute of Technology  Search this
Fleischmann, Martin  Search this
Pons, Stanley  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Patents
Reports
Audio cassettes
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Letters (correspondence)
Laboratory notes
Abstracts
Videocassettes
Articles
Date:
1989 - 1992
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains archival materials relating to the subject of cold fusion, and experiments conducted to corroborate the supposed discovery of the phenomenon. The collection includes Mahaffey's heavily illustrated laboratory notebook, dating from the beginning of the experiment on April 8, 1989 through April 20, 1989, documenting the experiment's research plan, budget, ingredients and instruments used, the time line and Mahaffey's and his fellow scientists' observations; and a report, April 30, 1989, on the results of Georgia Tech Research Institute's experiments. These two items were donated by GTRI. Additional items, donated by Mahaffey include: letters and emails to Mahaffey, photographs and slides used in a lecture, copies of papers given and bibliographies on the subject, abstracts of accounts of cold fusion research presented at a Santa Fe workshop, audio recordings of the same conference, a patent, articles, and video recordings of press coverage.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Physicist at Georgia Tech Research Institute. He, and others at GTRI made efforts to replicate results reported by two scientists, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann, in which they asserted they'd discovered a way to achieve nuclear fusion at room temperature (so-called "cold fusion.") Despite their high hopes at the beginning of the project, Mahaffey and his team soon concluded that they were unable to achieve cold fusion.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by the Georgia Institute of Technology and James A. Mahaffey, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Nuclear reactions  Search this
Research  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Low-energy nuclear reactions  Search this
Electrochemistry  Search this
Cold fusion  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents -- 20th century
Reports -- 20th century
Audio cassettes -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Laboratory notes -- 20th century
Abstracts -- 20th century
Videocassettes -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Citation:
James Mahaffey Cold Fusion Collection, 1989-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1393
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1393

N. Joseph Woodland Papers

Creator:
Woodland, N. Joseph, 1921-2012  Search this
Names:
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Articles
Transcripts
Technical drawings
Notebooks
Correspondence
Examinations (documents)
Notes
Patents
Date:
1943-2012
Summary:
The collection documents the career of N. Joseph Woodland, who, along with Bernard Silver, invented and developed the bar code.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the career of N. Joseph Woodland, who, along with Bernard Silver, invented and developed the bar code. The collection includes papers relating to Woodland's early life and education, such as exams and transcripts; papers relating to his work with IBM, including correspondence, notes and notebooks, and technical drawings; patents; photographs; awards and honors; articles.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1943-2012

Series 2: International Business machines Corporation (IBM), 1951-2006

Series 3: Node Code, 1986-2003

Series 4: Consulting, 1987-2000

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1990-2011
Biographical / Historical:
Norman Joseph Woodland (1921-2012) was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Woodland also served during World War II in the Army as a technical assistant for the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Drexel University (1947) and a Masters in Mechanical Engineering from Syracuse University (1956). He joined the Drexel University faculty as a lecturer in mechanical engineering in 1947.

In 1948, Woodland became aware of the need for supermarket inventory control through automated checkout. He conceived of the idea of using printed parallel stripes of varying widths to encode prices of items in 1949. Woodland, together with Bernard Silver (1921-1963), an electrical engineer, and fellow Drexel University faculty lecturer, defined a system to exploit the bar code invention to automatically capture item prices as well as inventory data. Woodland and Silver were issued US patent 2,612,994 for a classifying apparatus and method on October 7, 1952. Woodland and Silver sold their patent for $15,000 to Philco in 1961.

Woodland joined IBM in 1951 as a mechanical designer and later worked as a senior planner in artificial intelligence in general and expert systems. While at IBM, Woodland identified and applied existing and emerging technologies to enhance planned IBM products and systems. He worked in store systems marketing, long-range market planning, product planning, and artificial intelligence development. In 1983, he received an IBM technical sabbatical to work on expert systems and robotics at Carnegie Mellon University and to study these systems in use in Japan. A significant portion of Woodland's career focused on the bar code in general and supermarket automated check-out processes. His work laid the foundation for the creation of the universal product code (UPC symbol), for which ), for which he was an integral part of the IBM team's winning design, in his role as the person responsible for IBM's UPC symbol proposal to the grocery industry's symbol selection committee.

In 1992, Woodland won the National Medal of Technology for his invention and contribution to the commercialization of bar code technology, which improved productivity in every industrial sector and gave rise to the bar code industry. Woodland holds six patents.

Woodland married Jacqueline Woodland (née Blumberg) in 1951 and they had two daughters, Betsy Karpenkopf and Susan Woodland.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2017 by Susan Woodland, the daughter of N. Joseph Woodland.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bar coding  Search this
Numerical control  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Transcripts -- 20th century
Technical drawings -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Examinations (documents) -- 20th century
Notes -- 20th century
Patents -- 20th century
Citation:
N. Joseph Woodland Papers, 1943-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1433
See more items in:
N. Joseph Woodland Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1433
Additional Online Media:

Sherman Poppen Papers

Donor:
Poppen, Sherman, 1930-  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videocassettes
Business records
Correspondence
Scrapbooks
Advertisements
Clippings
Newsletters
Patents
Negatives
Date:
1966 - 2008
Summary:
The Sherman Poppen Papers document the snurfer, the predecessor of the snowboard that he invented in 1965. The snurfer, a sled that was ridden while standing up, originally consisted of two skis bound together. Snurfer competitions fueled the development of the snowboard as a piece of sporting equipment. This collection contains material describing the snurfer's place in snowboarding history, and the associated business and legal aspects.
Scope and Contents:
The Sherman Poppen Papers document the invention of the snurfer and its distribution. The collection is arranged into two series. The collection consists of correspondence, product literature, photographs, books, notes, a scrapbook, newsletters, newspaper and magazine articles, and VHS videocassettes documenting the snurfer. The business and legal materials, 1966-2006, contains correspondence, notes, and legal documents.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1, History, 1966-2008

Series 2, Business and Legal Materials, 1966-2006
Biographical / Historical:
Sherman Poppen (1930-2019) was born in Muskegon, Michigan. He graduated from Northwestern University in 1952 and served in the United States Navy as a supply office at sea from 1952-1956. He owned an industrial business, Lake Welding Supply Company, which sold gases and welding supplies in Muskegon, Michigan. On December 25, 1965, Poppen created the snurfer, a predecessor of the snowboard, by binding two children's skis together. His wife, Nancy, was pregnant with their third child and his two restless daughters, Wendy and Laurie, wanted to play on Christmas day. Poppen entertained them by playing outside in the snow. The girls' desire to stand up while riding on a sled and Poppen's vision of snow drifts as waves collided, and the idea for the snurfer was born. Nancy coined "snurf" by combining the words snow and surf. Neighborhood children soon began asking for snurfers of their own. Poppen decided to patent his creation (US Patent #: 3,378,274 --Surf-Type Snow Ski) and trademarked the words snurf and snurfer (US Trademark #: 1,518,101). It was also patented in Canada (Patent #: 819,596). In 1966, he licensed the product to the Brunswick Corporation and worked with them to create a board from the laminated wood used for bowling alley gutters. Brunswick manufactured the snurfer and sold it as a novelty item, not sports equipment, and it gained popularity. From 1968 through the late 1970s, snurfer racing competitions were held in Muskegon at Blockhouse Hill. In 1972, Brunswick discontinued production of the snurfer, but JEM Corporation continued manufacture until the early 1980s. By 1977, Jake Burton Carpenter, an avid competitive snurfer, began developing an improved model without a rope handle and with the addition of rigid bindings for ski boots to the board. As more resorts began allowing snowboards on their ski lifts, the popularity of the snurfer waned.

Poppen took up snowboarding at the age of 67. He received recognition from the snowboarding community as the grandfather of the sport and was inducted into the Snowboarding Hall of Fame in Banff, Canada in 1995 and the Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame in 2001.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Culture and the Arts holds artifacts related to this collection. See accession #: 2009.0092.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Sherman Poppen on June 22, 2009.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Toys -- 20th century  Search this
Dolls  Search this
Paper dolls  Search this
Sports  Search this
Snowboarding  Search this
Patents  Search this
Winter sports  Search this
Sporting goods industry  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Snurfer  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videocassettes
Business records -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 20th century
Business records -- 21st century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Patents -- 20th century
Negatives
Citation:
Sherman Poppen Papers, 1966-2008, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1159
See more items in:
Sherman Poppen Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1159
Additional Online Media:

Madison Cooper Papers

Creator:
Cooper, Madison, 1868-1946  Search this
Madison Cooper Company (Watertown, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Articles
Clippings
Photographs
Pamphlets
Patents
Date:
1900-1963
Summary:
Madison Cooper was an inventor and manufacturer of refrigerating systems in the early twentieth century. Cooper received several patents for his refrigeration inventions, including several refrigerating apparatuses, an air-circulating system, a process for preventing the formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces and a refrigeration train car. The collection spans 1900-1963 and includes his United States and foreign patents, his publications related to refrigeration, and a few documents and photographs related to Cooper and the Madison Cooper Company.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1, Historical background, 1900-1963, consists of biographical information about Madison Cooper. The series includes obituaries, two diagrams of optimal temperature for food storage that were produced by the Madison Cooper Company, and three photographs that show Cooper and workers in the shop and office in Watertown and the plant in Calcium.

Cooper published articles related to refrigeration and specifically to his refrigeration systems titled "Chloride of Calcium in Refrigeration," 1900, "Natural Ice Cold Storage and the Cooper Systems of Refrigeration," 1901, "Ice Refrigeration," (1902), the Madison Cooper Company publication "Cold"(1914), and "The Cooper Systems of Refrigeration," undated.

Series 2, Patents, 1900-1908, contains United States and foreign patents related to Madison Cooper.

The United States patents contain drawings and specifications of Cooper's refrigerating inventions and are arranged by patent number.

Patents include:

Refrigerating apparatus (US Patent, 11,822)

Process of preventing formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces (US Patent 644,847)

Old-storage apparatus (US Patent 659,468)

Indirect air-circulating systems of cold-storage apparatus (US Patent 677,536)

Cold-storage apparatus air circulating system (US Patent 754,749)

Refrigerator cars (US Patent 881,902)

Foreign patents are arranged alphabetically by country. Patents for the process of preventing formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces include:

Austria Process of preventing formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces (4,075)

Canada Process of preventing formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces (66,959)

Canada Improvements in indirect air circulating systems for cold storage apparatus (75,602)

Canada Improvements in refrigerating apparatus (75,636)

France Process of preventing formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces (297,158)

Germany Process of preventing formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces (117,943)

Great Britain Process of preventing formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces (2,840)

Also included are an assignment of letters patent related to the refrigerating apparatus (US Patent 11,822) shared with George A. Dole and a contract related to the patents for the process of preventing frost formation on refrigerating surfaces.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into two series.

Series 1, Historical background, 1900-1963

Series 2, Patents, 1900-1908
Biographical / Historical:
Madison Cooper was an inventor and manufacturer of refrigerating systems in the early twentieth century. Born in Leray, New York, on March 19, 1868, Cooper moved as a young man to Minneapolis, Minnesota where he entered the butter and egg shipping business. He invented a cold storage system while working in the produce business. Cooper shifted careers to focus on cold storage engineering where he planned, designed and installed refrigeration systems in over 100 plants in the United States and Canada. Cooper moved the Madison Cooper Company to Watertown, New York around 1903 and in 1909, built a plant for the manufacturing of refrigerating equipment in Calcium, New York. The advent of mechanical and electric refrigeration in the 1920s superseded Cooper's system and his company dissolved in 1936, although at least one of Cooper's systems was still in operation in 1953. Cooper died on July 8, 1946 and was remembered not only for his contributions to refrigeration, but also as a horticulturist and editor and publisher of The Flower Grower.

Cooper received several patents in the United States and abroad for his refrigeration inventions, including several refrigerating apparatuses, an air-circulating system, a process for preventing the formation of frost on refrigerating surfaces and a refrigeration train car. He focused on simple and inexpensive construction that provided economic and efficient operation. Many of his inventions involved the use of a false floor that allowed cool air to flow underneath it and a perforated ceiling that released warm air. Other patents included cold air circulation within walls to cool buildings and apartments and focused on controlling temperature, humidity and air purity.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Daniel Cooper, son of Madison Cooper, in 1963.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Horticulturists  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Pamphlets -- 20th century
Patents
Citation:
Madison Cooper papers, 1899-1963, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1054
See more items in:
Madison Cooper Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1054
Additional Online Media:

Frank J. Ryan Sports Training Collection

Creator:
Ryan, Frank J.  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Brochures
Books
Motion pictures (visual works)
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Patents
Date:
1936-1982
Scope and Contents:
Archival materials relating to Ryan's career as an athlete, a sports coach at Yale, an inventor, and an author. Includes photographs, the patent for Ryan's electro-mechanical football game, scrapbooks of newsclippings, Ryan's instructional books on sports, brochures, reprints of articles and other printed materials relating to Ryan's instructional films. Also included are instructional sports films Ryan created and marketed.
Arrangement:
Divided into 2 series: Series 1: Papers, photographs and printed materials; Series 2: Audiovisual materials.
Biographical / Historical:
Coach at Yale University, creator of sports training films and author of sports training books. He developed a unique bank/school community relations program wherein banks would donate Ryan's sports training films to local schools in exchange for publicity.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2004 by Neil Ryan (Frank Ryan's son) and Fran Ryan.
Restrictions:
UNPROCESSED COLLECTION.
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coaches (Athletics)  Search this
Coaching (Athletics)  Search this
Physical education and training  Search this
Athletics  Search this
Sports -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Brochures
Books
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Scrapbooks
Patents
Citation:
Frank J. Ryan Sports Training Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0871
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0871

G. P. Herrick Collection

Creator:
Herrick, Gerard Post, 1873-1955  Search this
Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Patents
Clippings
Brochures
Correspondence
Photographs
Place:
New York
Date:
1842-1912
Scope and Contents note:
The collection documents Herrick's blast furnace and rotary steam engine business, including business correspondence, patent documents, drawings, machine operations data, and publications.
Arrangement:
One series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Gerardus Post Herrick, an attorney in New York City who turned inventor, graduated from Princeton in 1895. He improved the original design of the blast furnace, and later invented a rotary steam engine.
General Note:
Originally M&CE #51. Duplicate SIRIS record, Bib. # 234612, deleted 4/24/08.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. G. P. Herrick.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steam-engines  Search this
Rotary steam engines  Search this
Blast furnaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Brochures
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
G. P. Herrick Collection, 1842-1912, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1058
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1058

William R. Stone Microwave Oven Papers

Donor:
Hoffman, Robin  Search this
Hoffman, Robin  Search this
Creator:
Stone, William R., 1920-2006  Search this
Raytheon Company  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Graphs
Memorandums
Reports
Specifications
Patents
Articles
Notes
Photographs
Design drawings
Trade literature
Date:
1967 - 1985
Scope and Contents:
Papers documenting William R. Stone's involvement in the invention and development of the microwave for industrial and home use. The collection includes biographical information; patents, and other invention related papers; photographs; design drawings; internal company papers and memoranda; Stone's research and reports, especially on the subject of microwave safety; and trade literature relating to products for both industrial and home use.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Stone was an engineer for Raytheon. He was involved in the invention and development of microwave ovens for industrial uses, such as for ink drying, rubber vulcanization, and later for home use.
Provenance:
Robin Hoffman
Restrictions:
UNPROCESSED COLLECTION.
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Microwave heating  Search this
Microwave equipment industry  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Safety  Search this
Microwave ovens  Search this
Microwave oven industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Graphs
Memorandums -- 1950-2000
Reports
Specifications
Patents -- 20th century
Articles -- 1950-2000
Notes
Photographs -- 20th century
Design drawings -- 20th century
Trade literature
Citation:
William R. Stone Microwave Oven Papers, 1967-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1320
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1320

Robert W. Kearns Papers

Creator:
Kearns, Robert W.  Search this
Kearns, Timothy  Search this
Brown, Brian Ivan  Search this
Quan, John  Search this
Names:
Kearns and Law  Search this
Tann Company  Search this
United States. Bureau of Standards.  Search this
Extent:
8.5 Cubic feet (24 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Reports
Trade literature
Patents
Photographs
Drawings
Notebooks
Correspondence
Memorandums
Date:
1963 - 1999
Summary:
The collection documents the inventive career of physicist and engineer Robert W. Kearns. Kearns invented and patented in 1967 the windshield wiper system with intermittent operation (US 3,351,836), among other inventions. The papers include notebooks, correspondence, reports, memoranda, photographs, patents, drawings, and trade literature.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes notebooks, correspondence, reports, memoranda, photographs, patents, drawings, and trade literature. Kearns held patents related to circuitry which are integral to electronic intermittent windshield wipers. The windshield wiper documentation consists of patents, correspondence, and a set of drawings from November 16, 1967 for Tann Company. Other documentation includes Kearns's work with the engineering firm Kearns and Law (brochures, shop orders, agreements); his National Bureau of Standards work, which consists of his personnel file and notebooks detailing his highway skid resistance research; and subject files that cover a range of topics that interested Kearns, such as radar, speed control, and electric cars. At the heart of the collection are 32 invention notebooks (1963-1986) belonging to Kearns as well as engineers he worked with including John Quan, Brian Ivan Brown, and Timothy Kearns, son of Robert Kearns. Bound, paginated, and dated, the notebooks contain sketches, schematics, calculations, data, telephone numbers, and details about materials, costs, testing data, and descriptions for many of Kearns's projects. The notebooks present a comprehensive overview of his ideas and are significant to understanding his creative process and how his ideas changed or did not change over time. The majority of the notebooks are arranged in chronological order and therefore researchers can see Kearns's work unfold. Many of the notebooks are stamped with a "PO" to indicate a "protective order" followed by a number, and many of the notebooks were used during court proceedings. The protective order restricted access to notebooks which were filed with the court, or to be filed with the court at a future date.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1957-1991

Series 2: Notebooks, 1954-1994

Series 3: Patents, 1957-1985

Series 4: Kearns and Law Engineers, 1957-1962

Series 5: Kearns Engineers, 1967-1985

Series 6: National Bureau of Standards, 1967-1972

Series 7: Ford Motor Company (Engineering Technical Education Program), 1964-1966

Series 8: Windshield Wiper Materials (Kearns vs. Ford Motor Company), 1962-1993

Series 9: Subject Files, 1965-1999

Series 10: Correspondence, 1989-1999
Biographical / Historical:
Robert William Kearns was born in Gary, Indiana on March 10, 1927 to Martin W. Kearns and Mary E. Kearns. One of three children, Kearns grewup in the Detroit area, graduating from the University of Detroit, Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering (1952); Wayne State University, Masters of Science in Engineering Mechanics (1957); and Case Western Reserve University, Ph.D. in engineering (1964). Kearns also earned certificates in nuclear reactor control from Argonne National Laboratories (1958 and 1959). He was a Corporal in the United States Army, assigned to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the Strategic Services Unit (SSU); the Central Intelligence Group (CIG), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA.) from July 31, 1945 to November 29, 1946.

Prior to joining the military in 1945, Kearns worked at Mercury Engineering Company (1943-1945) in Detroit as a draftsman preparing engineering shop drawings. After the war, Kearns joined the H & A Tool and Die Company (1946-1947), also in Detroit, as a draftsman preparing engineering shop drawings for the manufacture of the individual parts for machinery and special dies. Through the University of Detroit Cooperative Program with the National Bureau of Standards, he participated in an engineer in training program (1949-1952) where he executed a variety of standardized tests on engineering materials. He held a variety of engineering positions: designer/draftsman with Peerless Design Company, Detroit (1952); junior engineer with Burroughs Corporation Research Laboratories, Philadelphia (1952-1953); and engineer with Bendix Aviation Corporation, Detroit (1953-1957) where Kearns supervised and directed of a group of engineers responsible for the design of computer components, servomechanisms, control systems and related devices. Other duties included planning, liaison with other Bendix divisions, establishing test equipment requirements, as well as technical specifications and reports. In 1957, Kearns joined the faculty of Wayne State University, Department of Engineering Mechanics, as an assistant professor (1957-1963), later becoming an associate professor (1963-1967).

Kearns also established two independent businesses, the engineering firms of Kearns and Law (1963-1976) and Computer Central (1965-1976). Founded with partner Kenneth J. Law, an electrical engineer, Kearns and Law provided industry with consultation, research, design, and development services in the fields of computers, automatic controls and instrumentation. Computer Central manufactured a series of control components such as the Linear Range Comparator, Sign or Equality Binary Comparator, Identity Comparator, Dual Brush V-Scan Encoder Electronics, Gray Code to Binary Code Encoder Electronics, and Digital Difference to Analog Converters. Kearns served as Detroit's Commissioner of Buildings and Safety Engineering (1967-1971), where he acted as an administrator, overseeing professional engineering activities such as building inspections. Kearns moved to Gaithersburg, Maryland in 1971 to become principal investigator for the highway skid resistance program at the National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (1971-1976).

In 1967, Kearns invented and patented an electronic windshield wiper system with intermittent operation (US 3,351,836). Previous wiper systems were controlled by vacuum tubes. He installed his device on his 1962 Ford Galaxy and met with Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Corporation in 1963 with the goal of manufacturing his idea and being a supplier to the auto industry. Kearns tried to commercialize the wiper through the Tann Corporation. In 1969, Kearns's intermittent windshield wiper was installed on Ford cars without his knowledge. He ultimately filed suit against Ford for patent infringement in 1978 (representing himself as Kearns Associates), seeking $141 million in damages (a figure eventually raised to $325 million). Kearns's purpose in pursuing litigation was not a cash award. Rather, he wanted the rightful ownership. In all, he filed lawsuits against 26 car manufacturers and other companies concerning the same patent (US 3,351,836). In July 1990, a federal jury ruled that Ford had unintentionally infringed on Kearns's patent and awarded him $10.2 million. In June 1992, Kearns was awarded $11 million from Chrysler. Kearns held over 30 patents, with the majority relating to windshield wipers.

Kearns died in 2005. He married Phyllis Hall (1932-2013) in 1953, divorcing in 1989. The couple had six children: Dennis Kearns (b.1954); Timothy Kearns (b.1956); Patrick Kearns (b.1958); Kathleen Corsetty (b. 1961); Maureen Kearns (b. 1964); and Bob Kearns (b. 1967).
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Estate of Robert W. Kearns, through Dennis Kearns and Maureen Kearns, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some health-related materials in Series 6: National Bureau of Standards are restricted until 2055.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Inventors  Search this
Topic:
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Windshield wipers  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports -- 20th century
Trade literature -- 20th century
Patents -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Drawings -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Memorandums -- 20th century
Citation:
Robert W. Kearns Papers, 1963-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1406
See more items in:
Robert W. Kearns Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1406

Marion O'Brien Donovan Papers

Creator:
Dodd, Sharon Donovan  Search this
Donovan, Christine  Search this
Donovan, James F. Jr., Dr.  Search this
Donovan, Marion O'Brien, 1917-1998 (woman inventor)  Search this
Rabinow, Jacob, 1910-  Search this
Walters, Barbara  Search this
Names:
Keko Corporation.  Search this
Saks Fifth Avenue.  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (17 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videotapes
Sketches
Publications
Publicity photographs
Photographs
Advertising mail
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Birth certificates
Correspondence
Color prints (photographs)
Dye diffusion transfer prints
Marriage certificates
Patent drawings
Date:
1949-1999
Summary:
Correspondence, patents, photographs, newspaper clippings, and subject files about various inventors and ideas. Collection documents women inventors, American culture, 1950s-1970s, and products designed for women and the home. Donovan's papers offer a near complete invention record, including both successes and failures, as well as patent and trademark correspondence.
Scope and Contents:
The Donovan papers offer a near complete invention record, including both successes and failures, and include correspondence, photographs, patents, newspaper clippings, and subject files about various inventions and ideas. This collection documents direct marketing techniques for products designed especially for women and the home. It may be useful for researchers interested in women inventors and entrepreneurs, American culture from the 1950s through the 1970s, and advertising history.

Series 1: Personal Papers and Biographical Materials, 1917-1999

Subseries 1.1: Biographical Materials, 1917-1999 includes newspaper clippings, biographical materials, and memorabilia relating to Marion Donovan's early life, family, and social activities. Note: Original clippings have been photocopied, and researcher copies are available.

Subseries 1.2: Magazine Publications, 1953-1999 includes original magazines which featured articles on Marion Donovan.

Series 2: The Boater, 1949-1995

Includes United States and foreign patents, notes, clippings, correspondence, photos, press releases and scrapbooks that document the invention of the Boater diaper cover.

Series 3: Other Ideas and Inventions, 1941-1993

Subseries 3.1: Marion Donovan's Subject Files, 1941-1995 are arranged chronologically and contain advertisements, articles, correspondence, sketches, notes, United States and foreign patents, photo materials, press releases, publications, and some artifacts documenting her ideas and inventions.

Subseries 3.2: Barbara Walters' Television Special, Not For Women Only, [1975] features an episode highlighting "Inventors and Invention," with a panel that includes Marion Donovan, Jacob Rabinow, and Henry Kloss, demonstrating their inventions.

Series 4: Dentaloop, 1979-1996

Subseries 4.1: Manufacturing Files, 1979-1996 contains files relating to the manufacture and packaging of DentaLoop, and includes photo materials, correspondence with various manufacturers including Johnson & Johnson, clippings, craft materials, and reports.

Subseries 4.2: Patents and Patent History, 1985-1996 contains files kept by Marion Donovan documenting the patent history of her and others' dental inventions.

Subseries 4.3: Marketing Files, 1989-1995 includes a substantial mailing list compiled over the years by Marion Donovan Associates, various order forms, advertising drafts, press releases, correspondence with Procter & Gamble, photo materials, personalized questionnaire responses, and a "How-To" videotape demonstration.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 4 series.

Series 1: Personal Papers and Biographical Material, 1999

Series 2: The Boater, 1949-1999

Series 3: Other Ideas and Inventions, 1941-1993

Series 4: DentaLoop, 1979-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Twentieth-century inventor, Marion O'Brien Donovan (1917-1998), made a career of designing solutions to everyday, domestic problems. Her career is framed by her invention in 1949 of the "Boater," a diaper cover made of surplus parachute nylon, and her invention in 1993 of DentaLoop, individual precut circles of two-ply dental floss. As an inventor and entrepreneur, Donovan created products that addressed problems in personal health, beauty, and household needs.

Marion O'Brien was born into a family of inventors on October 15, 1917, in South Bend, Indiana. Marion's father, Miles O'Brien, with his identical twin brother John, developed an industrial lathe for manufacturing gun barrels and founded the South Bend Lathe Works in 1906. After her mother died when she was seven, Marion spent a majority of her time at her father's factory, even inventing a "tooth powder" while in elementary school. She graduated with a B.A. in English from Rosemont College in 1939, and worked briefly for both Harper's Bazaar and Vogue. In 1942, she married James F. Donovan and moved to Westport, Connecticut.

A Connecticut housewife and mother of two in 1946, Donovan was unsatisfied with the options available to her to keep her babies dry. To her, cloth diapers "served more as a wick than a sponge," and rubber pants assured a nasty case of diaper rash. Looking for a way to hold the dampness in without keeping air out, she experimented by clipping a panel from her shower curtain, sewing a moisture-proof diaper cover, and replacing safety pins with snaps. Three years later, she introduced the "Boater." Donovan's attempts to sell her idea to leading manufacturers failed, but her product became an instant sensation and commercial success when she began selling the Boater at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1949. In 1951, Donovan sold both her company, Donovan Enterprises, and her diaper patents to children's clothing manufacturer Keko Corporation, for one million dollars.

Marion Donovan's interest in design and invention manifested itself in a Master's degree in architecture which she received from Yale University in 1958, at age forty-one. According to her obituary, she was one of three women in her graduating class. In the decades that followed, Donovan would go on to invent "The Ledger Check," a combined check and record-keeping book; "The Big Hang-Up," a garment hanger and closet organizer; and "The Zippity-Do," an elasticized zipper pull.

Marion Donovan was involved in every aspect of product development, serving as creator, designer, manufacturer, and marketer. Often, designing the product also meant designing the machinery that could construct the product to her unique specifications. While working on the development of DentaLoop, for example, she and second husband, John Butler, traveled to a factory in Germany to explore floss-producing machinery ideas. Donovan also went to great lengths to market her floss product. Between the years 1991 and 1995, in collaboration with daughter Christine, she launched her largest promotional campaign, marketing DentaLoop directly to hundreds of dental professionals and pharmacists all over the country. Always envisioning improvements, she continued to correspond with companies specializing in oral hygiene products until her husband suffered a stroke, and she focused her attentions on caring for him. Following his death in July, Marion O'Brien Donovan Butler died four months later on November 4, 1998.
Related Materials:
Artifacts were donated to the National Museum of American History in March of 2000. The "Boater" diaper cover (1949), a key chain bracelet, and "The Zippity-Do" (1970) were donated to the American Costume Collection of Social History Collection. "DentaLoop" (1993) materials were donated to the Science, Medicine, and Society Division.
Provenance:
Ms. Donovan's daughters, Christine Donovan and Sharon Donovan Dodd, and son, Dr. James F. Donovan, Jr., donated the collection to the Archives Center, March 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Women in technology  Search this
Women in marketing  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Women architects  Search this
Trademarks  Search this
advertising  Search this
Diapers  Search this
Dental hygiene -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1970-1980
Sketches
Publications
Publicity photographs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Advertising mail
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Birth certificates
Correspondence -- 20th century
Color prints (photographs)
Dye diffusion transfer prints
Marriage certificates
Patent drawings -- 20th century
Citation:
Marion O'Brien Donovan Papers, 1949-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0721
See more items in:
Marion O'Brien Donovan Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0721
Additional Online Media:

Royce L. Beers Papers

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Beers, Royce. L., 1888-  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Technical reports
Business records
Awards
Articles
Patents
Blueprints
Notebooks
Drawings
Date:
ca. 1900-1969.
Summary:
Collection documents stokers and fuel burners and includes patents, awards, articles, notebooks, graphs, drawings, tables, and company publications.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of the personal papers of Royce L. Beers, mostly as they relate to his work in mechanical engineering. It includes trade literature, publications, articles, company records and price lists, patents, correspondence, technical reports, tables, graphs, calculations, drawings and sketches, blueprints, research notebooks, field notes, photographs and prints. Also included are personal and biographical material, such as portraits and documents related to an awards banquet.

The Beers papers contain several items that are of general interest: copies of the Ringlemann scale, a photograph of the Panama Canal Zone, reference to Nestle's Milk Products Company, and an article written by Orville Wright. There are even some unexpected materials, such as a write-up of Mrs. Beers' hospital diet.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Personal Materials, circa 1900-1969

Series 2, Trade Literature, 1919-1947

Series 3, Publications, 1921-1948; undated

Series 4, Reports, 1917-1946; undated

Series 5, Blueprints, Drawings, Graphs and Tables, 1914-1949; undated

Series 6, Engineering Research Notebooks, 1913-1945

Series 7, Photographs and Prints, undated

Series 8, Miscellaneous Materials, undated
Biographical/Historical note:
Mechanical engineer.
Provenance:
Found in the collection of the Division of the History of Technology.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Stokers, Mechanical  Search this
Power (Mechanics)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Technical reports
Business records -- 20th century
Awards
Articles -- 20th century
Patents
Blueprints
Notebooks -- 1900-1950
Drawings -- 20th century
Citation:
Royce L. Beers Papers, 1900-1969, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0880
See more items in:
Royce L. Beers Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0880

Martin J. Weber Graphic Arts Collection

Donor:
Weber, Carl  Search this
Creator:
Weber, Martin J., 1905-2007  Search this
Extent:
0.75 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Annual reports
Patents
Correspondence
Design drawings
Business records
Contracts
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
1931-1980
Summary:
This collection features business documents, legal papers, and examples of prints from Martin J. Weber, who pioneered the "Weber Process."
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the Weber Process for printing that made images on paper appear more three dimensional, as well as the photomechanical apparatus Weber developed to implement it . The collection contains patent documents, contracts and business papers, correspondence, design drawings, advertisements for the Weber Process and for his studio, and a paper he delivered to the American Photo Engravers Association. It also contains numerous samples of Weber's work, including magazines covers and advertisements, annual reports from companies featuring images enhanced by Weber, brochures, and other printed material.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1: Articles, 1931-1971

Series 2: Awards, 1931-1971

Series 3: Business Documents, 1931-1971

Series 4: Correspondence, 1931-1971

Series 5: Legal Documents, 1931-1971

Series 6: Prints, 1931-1980

Series 7: Weber Process Documents, 1931-1971

Series 8: Photographs, 1931-1971

Series 9: Large Prints, 1931-1971
Biographical / Historical:
Martin J. Weber was born in 1905 and worked as a graphic artist, inventor and typographer in the commercial art industry into his eighties. He died in 2007 at the age of 102.

Weber invented and patented the Weber Process in 1942, which utilized a photomechanical apparatus that altered images and text photographically to give pattern, texture, and shadow. Also known as Posterization, the process gave two-dimensional surfaces the "illusion of being reproduced in three dimensions" by printing multiple layers offset from one another. Weber helped to define the look of mid-twentieth century American advertising art, offering a "low-cost way of simulating multiple color reproduction." The process revolutionized lithography, screen printing, and standard printing, and later influenced computer typography.

Sources

Heller, Steven. "Martin Weber in the Third Dimension." Design Observer. June 19, 2007. Accessed August 03, 2016. http://designobserver.com/article.php?id=5657.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Martin J. Weber's son, Carl Weber, 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Printing  Search this
Printing machinery and supplies  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Graphic arts  Search this
Graphic artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Annual reports -- 20th century
Patents
Correspondence -- 20th century
Design drawings
Business records
Contracts
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
Martin J. Weber Graphic Arts Collection, 1931-1971, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1209
See more items in:
Martin J. Weber Graphic Arts Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1209

Bernis B. Brown Collection

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Brown, Bernis B., 1888-1960  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
8.5 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Notebooks
Patents
Books
Clippings
Catalogs
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Magazines (periodicals)
Newsletters
Date:
1878-1960
Scope and Contents note:
The collection documents the history of farm machinery in America, especially steam-powered machines. The papers include Brown's correspondence with individuals and institutions regarding his research and his collection, notes and notebooks, reference books and history books on farm machines, clippings and articles, newsletters on farming subjects, catalogs of farming equipment, subject files, photographs, magazines, and a manuscript for a history Brown compiled on early American farm power.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Brown was a dealer, salesmen and repairman of farm equipment, especially steam powered engines.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Division of Work and Industry,,National Museum of American History, 12th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20560.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steam-engines  Search this
Tractors  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Notebooks
Patents
Books
Clippings
Catalogs
Correspondence -- 20th century
Manuscripts -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Citation:
Bernis B. Brown Collection, 1878-1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1047
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1047

C. Willard Geer Scrapbooks

Creator:
Geer, C. Willard, 1902-1975 ((physicist))  Search this
Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
University of Southern California.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Diagrams
Patents
Notebooks
Legal documents
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1944-1962
Scope and Contents:
Two notebooks (scrapbooks) of clippings, correspondence, original United States patents, briefs on hearings of patent interference suits, drawings of color television tubes, photographs of Geer and his model of the receiving tube, licensing agreement proposal on the sale of patent rights to the (Bob) Hope Enterprises, and biographical information.
Biographical / Historical:
Assistant Professor of Physics, University of Southern California, 1943-1968. In 1944, he was granted the basic patent in color television for his tri-color television device which enabled the practical production of color images by television receiving apparatus. He held fourteen additional patents on the television.
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts in the Division of Work and Industry (electricity collections).
Provenance:
Transferred from the Division of Electricity, 3/30/84.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Color television  Search this
Physicists  Search this
Tri-color television device  Search this
Television  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Diagrams
Patents -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 1950-2000
Legal documents
Photographs -- 1940-1970
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
C. Willard Geer Papers, 1944-1962, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0096
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0096

Kern Dental Equipment Collection

Creator:
Kern, George Robert, 1894-1962 (cabinet maker, machinist)  Search this
Kern, George Robert, Jr., 1919-1987  Search this
Source:
Medical History, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Names:
Densco, Inc.  Search this
Fairfax Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Hazleton Laboratories.  Search this
Kern Laboratory Equipment Company.  Search this
Hazelton, L. W.  Search this
Henninger, R. G.  Search this
Former owner:
Medical History, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Drawings
Patents
Blueprints
Advertisements
Date:
1936-1970
Summary:
Blueprints, drawings, patent applications, patents, product photographs, correspondence, bills and receipts, advertising, and published articles related to the Kerns' products. The bulk of the material, 1949-1958, is from George Kern's files. It primarily relates to the development and marketing of the Dentagraph and high speed dental drills before the formation of the Fairfax Manufacturing Company in 1957.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes blueprints and drawings, patent applications, patents, product photographs, correspondence, bills and receipts, advertising, and published articles related to the Kern's products. The bulk of the material, dating from 1949 to 1958, is from George Kern's files. It primarily relates to the development and marketing of the Dentagraph and high speed dental drills before the formation of the Fairfax Manufacturing Company in 1957. Most of the FMC material document's Kern's role as a stockholder. However, a large portion of the blueprints and drawings were created by his son or other FMC employees. Several of the patents are George Kern, Jr.'s, and there are copies of other people's patents that relate to the Kerns' patents or inventing activities. The collection has been arranged in chronological order within five series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1952-1959

Series 2: Product Files, 1945-1968

Series 3: Marketing Records, 1936-1962

Series 4: Client Files, 1949-1958

Series 5: Competitor Files, 1957
Biographical / Historical:
George Robert Kern was born in 1894 and died in 1962. He was an Arlington, Va., area cabinet maker and machinist who went on to invent several pieces of dental equipment that helped revolutionize the field of dentistry in the early 1950s he was joined in these endeavors by his son, George Kern, Jr.

The elder George Kern began working with dental equipment according to his promotional material because of his own experience with poor fitting dentures. As a machinist accustomed to tight tolerances, he knew it must be possible to make dentures fit better. The result of his work was the Dentagraph and his first patent, granted in 1950. In 1948 a company, Kern laboratory, was incorporated to manufacture the Dentagraph and license the "Dentagraph Tech nic." He also sold dental laboratory benches and dental molding materials under the name Kern Laboratory Equipment Company. Kern's Dentagraph was used by the National Standards Laboratory to test denture materials and the laboratory further improved the device. Apparently Kern received the rights to produce and market this improved tool.

In the early 1950s he began working on high speed dental drills. He developed both a water turbine drill and an air turbine drill. The water turbine drill was manufactured by Bowen Company of Maryland under the trademarked name Turbo Jet. In 1957 the company acquired the rights to this tool and its trademark.

Kern and his son improved on the water turbine drill, and in 1957 formed Fairfax Manufacturing Company (FMC) to produce an air turbine drill and the improved water turbine drill. The senior Kern was a participating stockliolder, receiving stock in return for rights to his inventions. George Kern, Jr., L. W. Hazleton (President of Hazleton Laboratories, a biological (research and development company), and R. G. Henninger (General Manager of Hazleton Laboratories) were the company officers. The stockholders included dentists who also tested the companies new products. Densco, Inc., a Colorado dental equipment company, marketed Kern's products from around 1954, and in 1957 the company began to market Fairfax Manufacturing Company's products.

George R. Kern, Jr., was born in 1919. He left public school in the tenth but took courses in industrial electricity and industrial engineering. He worked for worked the National Bureau of Standards for two years building and installing laboratory equipment. In 1951 he began working at Hazelton Laboratories as Superintendent of Maintenance. He patented several pieces of

Dental equipment and specialized parts for dental equipment. He died in 1987.
Related Materials:
The Division of Medicine and Science has several examples of the Kerns' dental equipment, including a Dentagraph and a number of hand pieces.
Provenance:
Collection donated by John Kern, 1992, December 22.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Usage or copyright restrictions in effect. Contact the repository for details.
Occupation:
Cabinetmakers -- 1930-1970  Search this
Inventors -- 1930-1970  Search this
Machinists -- 1930-1970  Search this
Topic:
Dental instruments and apparatus -- 1930-1970  Search this
Dental technology -- 1930-1970  Search this
Dentistry -- 1930-1970  Search this
Dentures -- 1930-1970  Search this
Inventions -- 1920-2000 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Drawings -- 1930-1970
Patents -- 20th century
Blueprints -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Kern Dental Equipment Collection, 1936-1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0479
See more items in:
Kern Dental Equipment Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0479

George Eli Whitney Papers

Author:
Whitney, George Eli, 1862-1963 (engineer)  Search this
Collector:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Locomobile Company  Search this
Bacon, John H.  Search this
Cooledge, Nathaniel Henry  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Patents
Photographs
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1898-1957
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence includes about 3 dozen handwritten letters to John H. Bacon from Whitney. Bacon apparently undertook the task of collecting documentation of Whitney's career in the 1950s. Another 30 letters involve former associates of Whitney's, particularly Nathaniel Henry Cooledge (known as "Oliver") who was associated with Whitney as his trusted foreman and assistant for 50 years. Also included are agreements, contracts and patents concerning Whitney's inventions as well as newsclippings, photoprints, etc. A lengthy questionnaire prepared by John H. Bacon was filled out by Whitney in 1955 giving information on his major inventions and projects as well as his personal life.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Whitney (1862 1963) was an engineer and inventor who developed many applications of steam power, including bicycles, cars and boats in the late 1800s. The Locomobile Company, of which Whitney was chief engineer, produced several thousand steam cars around the turn of the century. During WWI, Whitney designed the compound steam engine which powered about 300 U.S. Navy anti submarine ships. Whitney was the recipient of about 150 patents on his inventions, a number of which he sold rights to.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Edward Bacon, October 31, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors -- 1890-1960  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Correspondence -- 1880-1950
Clippings -- 1890-1960
Citation:
George Eli Whitney Papers, 1898-1957, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0463
See more items in:
George Eli Whitney Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0463

William G. Elliott Spectra-Span Records

Creator:
SpectraMetrics (Burlington, Massachusetts)  Search this
Elliott Laboratories (Andover, Massachusetts)  Search this
Elliott, William G., 1932-2014  Search this
Donor:
Elliott, Mark  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business records
Black-and-white photographs
Financial records
Correspondence
Lantern slides
Laboratory notebooks
Patents
Manuals
Reports
Printed materials
Writings
Date:
circa 1958-1988
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Elliott's work in developing the SpectraSpan Spectrometer and related technologies including the use of echelle gratings and argon plasmas with the spectrometer. It also documents his companies, SpectraMetrics, and Elliott Laboratories. The collection contains correspondence; photographs, including lantern slides; business and financial records; writings; laboratory notes; internal company reports; user's manuals; patents and patent-related papers; and publications and printed materials.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
William G. Elliott was an engineer who, in 1966, founded SpectraMetrics, which developed and marketed the SpectraSpan echelle spectrometer. He later sold SpectraMetrics, and founded Elliott Laboratories in 1972.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mark Elliott.
Restrictions:
UNPROCESSED COLLECTION.
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Spectrum analysis  Search this
Spectroscope  Search this
Spectrophotometry  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Spectrometer  Search this
Argon plasmas  Search this
Echelle gratings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white photographs -- 1950-2000
Financial records -- 1050-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Lantern slides
Laboratory notebooks -- 1950-2000
Patents -- 1950-2000
Manuals -- 1950-2000
Reports -- 1950-2000
Printed materials -- 1950-2000
Writings -- 1950-2000
Citation:
William G. Elliott Spctra-Span Records, ca. 1958-1988, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1361
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1361

Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of the State of Maryland Collection

Collector:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI (National Museum of American History)  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI (National Museum of American History)  Search this
Author:
Maryland. Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of the State  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Maps
Clippings
Patents
Pamphlets
Prescriptions
Paintings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Notebooks
Correspondence
Certificates
Papers
Diplomas
Place:
Maryland
Date:
ca. 1740-1965.
Scope and Contents:
18th, 19th, and 20th century material deposited with the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of the State of Maryland, chiefly relating to the practice of medicine in the state. Includes correspondence, papers, certificates, diplomas, patents, maps, notebooks, clippings, prescriptions, pamphlets, photocopies of documents, scrapbooks, photographs, and paintings.
Arrangement:
Divided into four series: (1) Correspondence, (2) Biographical, (3) Photographs, (4) Certificates.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Physicians  Search this
Medicine -- Societies, etc.  Search this
Surgeons  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Clippings
Patents
Pamphlets
Prescriptions
Paintings
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Notebooks
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Certificates
Papers
Diplomas
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of the State of Maryland Collection, ca. 1740-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0114
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0114

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