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Agrilus populi

Collector:
H. E. Burke  Search this
Preparation:
Pinned
Sex:
Male
Stage:
Adult
Type Citation:
Fisher. A Revision of the North American Species of Buprestid Beetles Belonging to the Genus Agrilus (United States National Museum Bulletin 145). 150.
Type Status:
Type
Place:
Yreka, Siskiyou, California, United States
Collection Date:
11 Jun 1912
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Arthropoda, Insecta, Coleoptera, Buprestidae
Published Name:
Agrilus populi Fisher, 1928
Other Numbers:
Inquire SerNum : 35471
USNM Type Number : 40997
See more items in:
Entomology Types
Data Source:
NMNH - Entomology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhentomology_9135208

Smith Andersen Gallery records, 1963-1980

Creator:
Smith Andersen Gallery  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Exhibition catalogs
Slides (photographs)
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8471
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210647
AAA_collcode_smitande
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210647

Adja Yunkers papers, 1939-1983

Creator:
Yunkers, Adja, 1900-1983  Search this
Subject:
Bjornstjerna, Mikael  Search this
Haley, Donna  Search this
Grossman, Morton  Search this
Wood, Denis  Search this
Olsen, Cheryl  Search this
Smith Andersen Gallery  Search this
Alice Simsar Gallery  Search this
Impressions Gallery of Photography  Search this
Type:
Works of art
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Topic:
Printmakers  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Art teachers  Search this
Painting, Abstract  Search this
Collagists  Search this
Painters  Search this
Artists' illustrated books  Search this
Prints, Abstract  Search this
Prints  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13445
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211470
AAA_collcode_yunkadja
Theme:
Diaries
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211470

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
de Hauke, César  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L.  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Arenberg  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
MM. Jacques Seligmann & fils  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Oral history interview with Suzanne La Follette, 1976 Jan. 27

Interviewee:
La Follette, Suzanne, 1893-1983  Search this
Interviewer:
Karlstrom, Paul J., 1941-  Search this
Subject:
Pach, Walter  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art publishing  Search this
Art historians  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12755
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212336
AAA_collcode_lafoll76
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212336

Oral history interview with Theodor Jung, 1965 Jan. 19

Interviewee:
Jung, Theodor, 1906-1996  Search this
Interviewer:
Doud, Richard Keith  Search this
Subject:
United States. Farm Security Administration. Historical Section  Search this
United States.Federal Emergency Relief Administration  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Documentary photography  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13179
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213576
AAA_collcode_jung65
Theme:
Photography
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213576

Yearbook (Class of 1950)

Collection Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Container:
Box 7, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection / Series 2: Military Career / 2.3: Materials Arranged by Posting / 2.3.10: Air War College (Maxwell AFB, AL), Student
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0023-ref1853
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Photograph of Yvor Winter and Janet Lewis in Palo Alto, California

Photographer:
Bowden, Harry, 1907-1965  Search this
Subject:
Lewis, Janet  Search this
Winters, Arthur Yvor  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Place:
Palo Alto, Calif.
Date:
circa 1960
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)4861
See more items in:
Harry Bowden papers, 1922-1972
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_4861

Christine J. Abel printed material concerning Helen Forbes, 1910-1940

Creator:
Abel, Christine Jeannette, 1890-1970  Search this
Subject:
Forbes, Helen  Search this
Topic:
Painters  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Mosaicists  Search this
Women artisans  Search this
Artisans  Search this
Educators  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9516
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211715
AAA_collcode_abelchri
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211715

Curators' Annual Reports

Creator::
United States National Museum  Search this
Extent:
49 cu. ft. (98 document boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Date:
1881-1964
Descriptive Entry:
The administration of the United States National Museum required curators to submit regular reports on the activities of the departments, divisions, and sections. Prior to about 1900 these reports were often made monthly and semiannually as well as annually. The reports were traditionally submitted to the Director of the National Museum to be used in preparing the published Annual Report of the United States National Museum. The individual reports, however, were not reproduced in their entirety in the published Annual Report and generally contain more information than is to be found in the published version.

Reports were stored by the Office of Correspondence and Reports (later known as the Office of Correspondence and Documents), and then by the Office of the Registrar.

Includes reports submitted to the Director of the United States National Museum by curators and administrators.
Topic:
Museums -- Administration  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 158, United States National Museum, Curators' Annual Reports
Identifier:
Record Unit 158
See more items in:
Curators' Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0158
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  • View Curators' Annual Reports digital asset number 4
Additional Online Media:

3EP Ltd. records

Creator:
3EP Ltd. (Palo Alto, Calif.)  Search this
Names:
Anderson, Mary Margaret  Search this
Arnoldi, Charles, 1946-  Search this
Bengston, Billy Al  Search this
Cook, Gordon  Search this
Falkenstein, Claire, 1908-1997  Search this
Fay, Joe, 1950-  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Gilhooly, David  Search this
Goldyne, Joseph R.  Search this
Jefferson, Jack, 1921-2000  Search this
Kirkeby, Paula  Search this
Lobdell, Frank, 1921-  Search this
Moses, Ed, 1926-  Search this
Olivera, Nathan  Search this
Phillips, Jay, 1954-1987  Search this
Phillips, Matt  Search this
Sugarman, George, 1912-1999  Search this
Zirker, Joseph  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
1970-1984
bulk 1979-1984
Summary:
The records of California fine arts print publisher 3EP Ltd. founded by Moo (Mary Margaret) Anderson, Joseph Goldyne, and Paula Kirkeby measure 4.3 linear feet and date from 1970 to 1984. The records include scattered administrative files; artists' files that include correspondence, lists, price lists, and miscellany; printed materials, photographs, including two dismantled photo albums and negatives; and numerous fine arts prints by various contemporary artists, including Gordon Cook, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, David Gilhooly, Joseph Goldyne, Jack Jefferson, Frank Lobdell, Fred Martin, Ed Moses, Nathan Oliveira, Jay Phillips, Matt Phillips, and Joseph Zirker.
Scope and Contents:
The records of California fine arts print publisher 3EP Ltd. founded by Moo (Mary Margaret) Anderson, Joseph Goldyne, and Paula Kirkeby measure 4.3 linear feet and date from 1970 to 1984. The records include scattered administrative files; artists' files that include correspondence, lists, price lists, and miscellany; printed materials, photographs, including two dismantled photo albums and negatives; and numerous fine arts prints by various contemporary artists, including Gordon Cook, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, David Gilhooly, Joseph Goldyne, Jack Jefferson, Frank Lobdell, Fred Martin, Ed Moses, Nathan Oliveira, Jay Phillips, Matt Phillips, and Joseph Zirker.

Administrative records consist of chronological correspondence, subscriber lists and forms, price lists, exhibition lists, and other miscellaneous records. Business/administrative correspondence is mostly between the 3EP Ltd. founders and various museums, galleries, and collectors, with a few letters to artists. Artists' files include resumes, correspondence, catalogs, clippings, photographs and slides. Artists include Chuck Arnoldi, Billy Al Bengston, Gordon Cook, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, Jack Jefferson, Frank Lobdell, Ed Moses, George Sugarman, and Joseph Zirker, among many others.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 5 series.

Series 1: Administrative Records, 1978-1984 (0.2 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Artists Files, 1970-1984 (1.8 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 3: Printed Material, 1981-1984 (0.1 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 4: Artwork, 1979-1984 (1.9 linear feet; OV 4-22)

Series 5: Photographic Material, 1981-1983 (0.3 linear feet; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
3EP Ltd. was founded by Moo (Mary Margaret) Anderson, Joseph Goldyne, and Paula Kirkeby in 1978 in Palo Alto, California. The print publisher worked with over 20 artists to produce fine art prints and monotypes and operated until 1984.

Harry W. and Mary Margaret Anderson, respectively known as Hunk and Moo, are avid art collectors with one of the largest private art collections of 20th Century American Art. Moo has a special interest in works of art on paper and prints. Moo and Paula Kirkeby, director of Smith Anderson Gallery in Palo Alto, along with San Francisco artist Joseph Goldyne formed 3EP Ltd. In addition to sales, the mission of 3EP Ltd. was to encourage experimentation with the monoprint. Anderson and Kirkeby commissioned a custom-built Takach-Garfield press for their facilities and invited artists to work with the monotype technique and printmaking, techniques that were initially unfamiliar to many of the artists who worked with 3EP Ltd. Artists invited to work at 3EP include Gordon Cook, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, David Gilhooly, Frank Lobdell, Ed Moses, Nathan Oliviera, Jay and Matt Phillips, and many others. 3EP Ltd. closed in 1984.
Related Materials:
The de Young Museum has a collection of 3EP Ltd. prints which are part of the Anderson Graphic Arts Collection.
Provenance:
The 3EP Ltd. records were donated in 1984 by Moo (Mary Margaret) Anderson and Paula Kirkeby. Plates received with the donation were returned to the donors.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility.
Rights:
The 3EP Ltd. records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art publishing -- California -- Palo Alto  Search this
Intaglio printing  Search this
Graphic arts  Search this
Prints -- 20th century  Search this
Printmakers -- California  Search this
Genre/Form:
Prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Citation:
3EP Ltd. records, 1970-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.3epltd
See more items in:
3EP Ltd. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-3epltd

Administrative Records

Collection Creator:
3EP Ltd. (Palo Alto, Calif.)  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet (Box 1)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1978-1984
Scope and Contents:
Administrative records consist of chronological correspondence, subscriber lists and agreement forms, price lists, letterhead samples, exhibition lists, miscellaneous notes, and other business material. The correspondence is mostly between the 3EP Ltd. founders and various museums, galleries, and collectors on the subject of prints and billing, along with a few letters to artists.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility.
Collection Rights:
The 3EP Ltd. records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
3EP Ltd. records, 1970-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.3epltd, Series 1
See more items in:
3EP Ltd. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-3epltd-ref14

Artists Files

Collection Creator:
3EP Ltd. (Palo Alto, Calif.)  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Linear feet (Box 1-2)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970-1984
Scope and Contents:
Artists' files include resumes, correspondence, exhibition announcements, catalogs, invoices, curatorial sheets with information on artwork, clippings, photographs, and slides of artwork. Notable artists include Chuck Arnoldi, Billy Al Bengston, Gordon Cook, Laddie John Dill, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, David Gilhooly, Joseph Goldyne, Russel T. Gordon, Jules Heller, Tom Holland, Jack Jefferson, Frank Lobdell, Fred Martin, Ed Moses, Nathan Oliviera, Jay Phillips, Matt Phillips, Miklos Pogany, Inez Storer, Joseph Zirker, and others.
Arrangement:
This series is arranged alphabetically.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility.
Collection Rights:
The 3EP Ltd. records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
3EP Ltd. records, 1970-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.3epltd, Series 2
See more items in:
3EP Ltd. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-3epltd-ref37

Printed Material

Collection Creator:
3EP Ltd. (Palo Alto, Calif.)  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Linear feet (Box 3)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1981-1984
Scope and Contents:
Printed material consists of a few exhibition announcements, catalogs, and clippings.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility.
Collection Rights:
The 3EP Ltd. records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
3EP Ltd. records, 1970-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.3epltd, Series 4
See more items in:
3EP Ltd. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-3epltd-ref63

Artwork

Collection Creator:
3EP Ltd. (Palo Alto, Calif.)  Search this
Extent:
1.9 Linear feet (OV 4-22)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1979-1984
Scope and Contents:
Artwork includes numerous fine arts prints by 14 artists. Several of the folders include curatorial sheets with information about the prints, such as the medium, title, and date of individual prints.
Arrangement:
The artwork is arranged alphabetically by artist's surname.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility.
Collection Rights:
The 3EP Ltd. records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
3EP Ltd. records, 1970-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.3epltd, Series 4
See more items in:
3EP Ltd. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-3epltd-ref69

Photographic Material

Collection Creator:
3EP Ltd. (Palo Alto, Calif.)  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Linear feet (Box 3)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1981-1983
Scope and Contents:
Photographic material includes 2 dismantled photograph albums that depict the delivery of the custom-built printing press to 3EP Ltd. facilities, and portraits of various artists, such as Sam Francis, Jules Heller, and Joseph Zirker, at work on prints alongside master printers employed by the print publisher. There are also negatives of the photos in the albums, and one folder of an exhibition of 3EP Ltd. prints at a gallery.
Arrangement:
The photograph albums were dismantled prior to their arrival at the archives, and the order of the photographs was preserved in the folders during preliminary arrangement by a previous archivist.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility.
Collection Rights:
The 3EP Ltd. records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
3EP Ltd. records, 1970-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.3epltd, Series 5
See more items in:
3EP Ltd. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-3epltd-ref72

Palo Alto Art Center [Folder]

Additional name:
Palo Alto Cultural Center  Search this
Contents:
Folder(s) may include exhibition announcements, newspaper and/or magazine clippings, press releases, brochures, reviews, invitations, illustrations, resumes, artist's statements, exhibition catalogs.
Place:
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Topic:
Art Organizations  Search this
Location:
Art & Artist files at the Smithsonian American Art Museum/ National Portrait Gallery Library
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILAF_97790

Smith Anderson Gallery [Folder]

Contents:
Folder(s) may include exhibition announcements, newspaper and/or magazine clippings, press releases, brochures, reviews, invitations, illustrations, resumes, artist's statements, exhibition catalogs.
Place:
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Topic:
Art Organizations  Search this
Location:
Art & Artist files at the Smithsonian American Art Museum/ National Portrait Gallery Library
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILAF_97791

An enduring heritage : historic buildings of the San Francisco Peninsula / Dorothy F. Regnery ; photos. by Jack E. Boucher ; sponsored by the Junior League of Palo Alto, inc., in cooperation with the Historic American Buildings Survey of the National Park Service

Author:
Regnery, Dorothy F  Search this
Junior League of Palo Alto (Calif.)  Search this
Historic American Buildings Survey  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 124 pages : illustrations ; 30 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
California
San Francisco Peninsula
San Francisco Peninsula (Calif.)
Date:
1976
Topic:
Historic buildings  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1102826

John Clifford Shaw Papers

Topic:
JOHNNIAC computer
JOSS (Electronic computer system)
Creator:
Shaw, J. Clifford (John Clifford), 1922-1991  Search this
Names:
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)  Search this
Association for Computing Machinery.  Search this
Dartmouth College  Search this
Digital Equipment Corporation  Search this
IBM (International Business Machines)  Search this
Massachusetts General Hospital  Search this
UCRL (University of California Radiation Lab)  Search this
Extent:
20.5 Cubic feet (59 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Technical reports
Diagrams
Notes
Memorandums
Place:
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Santa Monica (Calif.) -- 1950-1980
Cambridge (Mass.)
Date:
1933-1993
bulk 1950-1971
Summary:
The John Clifford Shaw papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.
Scope and Contents:
The John Clifford Shaw Papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memoranda, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.

Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971, documents Shaw's most significant work. The subseries are arranged by specific projects and illustrate his pioneering work on programming languages, interactive time-sharing systems, heuristic problem solving, logic programming, stored programs, and artificial intelligence. This work included his role in the development of the JOHNNIAC computer and programs such as the Logic Theorist (LT), General Problem Solver (GPS), and the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS).

The materials include technical reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, coding sequences, and system tests. In addition, there are reports documenting the collaborative nature of the NSS team's work on human problem solving, computer simulation of human thinking, and complex information processing. The subject files in Series 1 document the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) role in the JOSS research and other work done by Shaw.

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986, is arranged into three subseries containing technical reports that document other computer related research being conducted at RAND during Shaw's tenure. These materials are not directly related to his work, including reports documenting defense related research. The series contains memoranda and correspondence illustrating the internal workings and daily operations at RAND from 1950 to 1971 and various sets of annual reports, progress reports, and newsletters from 1960 to 1971. In addition, there are historical materials commemorating RAND anniversaries, profiles of the company, and indexes to RAND publications and abstracts.

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973, consists of printed matter that documents developments at other institutions and companies engaged in artificial intelligence and programming research. The printed matter includes reports, manuals, brochures, and reprints of articles about research by other institutions, companies, and individuals. Also, there are materials from trips, conferences and seminars attended by Shaw.

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990, comprises Shaw's work after he left RAND in 1971. It consists of reports and reprints from companies and institutions for which Shaw worked or from those he saw as potential clients. Of particular interest are the research notes, on note cards and 8.5" x 11" paper that illuminate Shaw's ideas and thoughts regarding artificial intelligence and programming languages during this period.

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993, consists of printed matter regarding Shaw's life and accomplishments. It contains resumes, list of publications and lectures, salary history, and the outline for a book on JOSS. Material on Shaw's personal life includes information about his family, personal correspondence with Herbert Simon, Allen Newell and his wife, Marian, Chuck Baker, Edward Feigenbaum, and correspondence from authors requesting information or comment on future publications. Additionally, there are reprints and clippings that reveal Shaw's personal interests in political issues such as the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, the making of the hydrogen bomb, and Star Wars Defense Technology.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into five series.

Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971

Subseries 1.1: JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968

Subseries 1.2: Logic Therorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963

Subseries 1.3: General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967

Subseries 1.4: Chess Program, 1954-1973

Subseries 1.5: Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.), 1953-1972

Subseries 1.6: Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977

Subseries 1.7: JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977

Subseries 1.8: Subject Files, 1954-1971

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986

Subseries 2.1: Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972

Subseries 2.2: Reports and Papers—General, 1949-1971

Subseries 2.3: RAND Material, 1948-1988

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993
Biographical / Historical:
John Clifford Shaw (1922-1991) was born in Southern California. Shaw went to Fullerton High School, the same high school as Richard Nixon. Shaw's English teacher was Nixon's high school debate team coach. Shaw attended Fullerton Junior College from 1939 until February 1943. At the same time, he worked as a timekeeper at the Douglas Aircraft Company, where he was responsible for time-card calculations and reports. He served in the Army Air Force for three years during World War II as a navigation instructor and then aircraft navigator in the 4th Emergency Rescue Squadron in Iwo Jima, Japan. Shaw returned to California in 1947 and began working for the Beneficial Standard Life Insurance Company as an assistant to the actuary, compiling actuarial calculations of premium rates, reserve liabilities, and annual reports. Shaw and his wife Marian had four children: Doug (b. 1948), David (b. 1950), Donna (b. 1952), and John (b. 1962). By 1948, Shaw received his Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from UCLA and in 1950 joined the newly formed RAND Corporation as a mathematician.

The RAND Corporation evolved during the years after World War II amidst the escalating Cold War. Project RAND was originally carried out under a contract with the Douglas Aircraft Company. RAND was incorporated in May 1948. RAND, a California nonprofit corporation, was one of the earliest Cold War "think tanks" that functioned as an interdisciplinary research and development facility; it received large sums of money from the Air Force and Atomic Energy Commission. Throughout the 1950s, other agencies such as the Department of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solicited scientific and foreign policy research from RAND. During Shaw's tenure (1950-1971), money flowed into RAND and enabled many scientists and researchers, including Shaw and his colleagues in the Math and Numerical Analysis Department, to explore new avenues of discovery.

Shaw's early work at RAND involved administrative matters, such as improving the processes of company management through automation of the computation and calculation techniques. This work included collaboration with Allen Newell on a radar simulator. In the mid-1950s, Newell and Shaw, and later Dr. Herbert Simon of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, formed the team known by the mid-1950s in the artificial intelligence field as NSS (Newell, Shaw, and Simon). The NSS team broke much ground in the field of artificial intelligence, programming languages, computer simulation of human problem solving, and man-machine communication. The radar simulator project involved studying how humans made decisions and whether one could design a program that could simulate human decision-making. While Newell and Simon concentrated on the human behavior aspect, Shaw focused on creating a programming language that would implement Simon and Newell's concepts.

When Shaw began working in 1950, RAND was using six IBM 604 calculators to satisfy its scientific computing needs. In the early 1950s, RAND decided that it needed more computational power to accomplish projects for the Air Force and decided to build a Princeton-type computer named JOHNNIAC, after computer designer John von Neumann. The Princeton Class computer was considered state-of-the-art and was running at RAND by the first half of 1953. William Gunning was the project leader and Shaw worked on the selection of the instruction set and the design of the operator's console. The JOHNNIAC became the basis for Shaw's work on conversational time-sharing in the 1960s.

During the early 1950s, the dynamic of the innovative process was at work as Shaw and Newell in California, and Simon in Pittsburgh, were theorizing about human decision making, programming languages, and how computers could be manipulated to process information more productively. Air Force funding enabled Shaw and his colleague's considerable intellectual and academic freedom to explore various hypotheses. In the mid-1950s, NSS began forming the theoretical basis for what they called Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.). C.I.P was the basis for the three main computer programs developed by NSS: the Chess Program, Logic Theorist (LT), and the General Problem Solver (GPS). By 1954, Shaw's focus was on utilizing the power of the JOHNNIAC to develop a viable language that could simulate human behavior.

In early 1954, Newell left RAND for Pittsburgh to work with Simon; Shaw remained at RAND. The NSS team focused on creating programs that would enable a machine to exhibit intelligent behavior and "think" like a human. Chess and the Logic Theorist (LT) were the first programs that evolved from their work. Shaw dealt with the programming aspects, as Simon devoted his time to human thinking processes for chess, logic, and problem solving. Newell, who was still employed by RAND, was the middle man who worked both in programming and human behavior. He flew back to California every couple of months in 1954 and 1955 to confer with Shaw. Because of language limitations, the chess program was temporarily put aside as NSS decided to finish the LT. Known as IPL (Information Processing Language), the language developed by Shaw was one of the first list processing languages. Through experimentation with assemblers, compilers, and interpreters, Shaw developed list processing sequences that allowed the computer to arrange and store data more effectively. The effectiveness stemmed from links that formed the lists. From a storage point of view, lists were inefficient. Shaw translated Simon and Newell's ideas into IPL. The IPL interpreter was able to compile and translate higher level language statements into machine language. The interpreters process the statements and carry out the indicated operations without generating machine code which must then be executed. Although not specifically programmed so, one of LT's innovative characteristics was that it proved mathematical theorems from Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica, including a proof from Theorem 2.85 that the authors had missed. This was the most fascinating aspect of the program because LT was not programmed to find alternative proofs.

The NSS team's work on the LT was completed by the end of 1955, and it perfected the program language in the winter and spring of 1956. LT was one of the earliest programs to investigate the use of heuristics in problem solving. It was capable of discovering and working out proofs for theorems in symbolic logic. In the summer of 1956, NSS presented the LT program to the artificial intelligence community at the Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference. Relatively unknown at the time, NSS excited the conference with the LT and the possibilities it opened in the study of programming languages and artificial intelligence.

The NSS team continued to focus on developing artificial intelligence. By 1957, NSS had constructed the General Problem Solver (GPS) program that attempted to demonstrate various human thinking processes in a variety of environments. At RAND and Carnegie Tech, studies were conducted that had human subjects think aloud in hopes of identifying human problem solving techniques and simulating them in GPS. NSS codified some human problem solving techniques such as means-end analysis, planning, and trial and error. Through the end of the 1950s, NSS produced improved versions of the IPL language and studied heuristic methods of decision making.

By 1960, when the JOHNNIAC was of insufficient computing power to support the level of computation needed, and IPL had been reprogrammed for the IBM 7090, List Processing (LISP), a high-level programming language had overtaken IPL as the language of choice for Artificial Intelligence research. Shaw's interests had shifted towards attempting to simplify the use of computers for all types of computer users. Simon and Newell continued to study how they could simulate human cognitive processes on a computer. Until this point, a user would have to be adequately trained in programming or need assistance from a programmer to use a computer like JOHNNIAC. Shaw was interested in programming the JOHNNIAC so RAND staff could utilize the computer for small as well as large scientific computations. The JOHNNIAC was available for experimental research projects because RAND owned a newer IBM 7090 (acquired in 1960) which handled the bulk of RAND's production computing load. Although JOHNNIAC was no longer state-of-the-art by this time, its major appeal was its reliability and capability for experimentation.

These factors were the impetus for the initiation of the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS) project in November 1960. JOSS was intended to be an easy to use, on-line, time sharing system. The JOSS research, conducted under the Information Processor Project, was formalized in 1959 as part of the RAND Computer Science Department and was heavily funded by the Air Force. The innovative character of JOSS was in the ease of use for the non-programmer, its remote access capabilities, the establishment of an interactive environment between user and computer, and the capability for RAND scientists and engineers to use the computer without an intermediary programmer. It was hoped that the JOSS project would bridge the communication gap between man and machine. JOSS's user language achieved this goal. It featured a small set of English verbs and algebraic symbols which did not need a programmer as intermediary between user and computer. During 1961-1962, Shaw selected the character set that would be used to write JOSS programs, its syntax, and grammar. The conversational environment included a Model B IBM Electric Typewriter. Tom Ellis and Mal Davis directed the hardware configurations and Ike Hehama, Allen Newell, and Keith Uncapher participated in the project discussions with Shaw.

The very limited JOSS experiments on the JOHNNIAC began in May 1963, with five consoles, one connected to the JOHNNIAC and four others located in the offices of various RAND staff. By June, a schedule of operations was in place and by January 1964, JOSS was fully implemented. The use of JOSS by RAND staff was higher than expected as users taught other users how to run the system. However, Shaw and the other designers worried that JOHNNIAC's hardware placed limitations on speed and storage which might taint the evaluation of JOSS. In July 1964, a second version of JOSS was proposed on a more powerful computer. C.L. Baker was named project head, and Shaw focused on developing the programming language for JOSS II.

After accepting numerous bids to replace JOHNNIAC, a contract was signed with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) promising the installation of a PDP-6 computer and thirty consoles at RAND. The installation was completed by October 31, 1965. At the Fall Joint Computer Conference in Las Vegas in December 1965, the first demonstration of remote use of JOSS II was given. JOHNNIAC was retired on February 18, 1966, with Willis Ware delivering a eulogy and Shaw loading a final JOSS I program. By the end of 1966, JOSS II was available to users 24 hours a day, seven days a week on the new PDP-6/JOSS computer, which had thirty times the speed and five times the storage capacity as the JOHNNIAC version. In April 1967, the maintenance and improvement of JOSS II was transferred from the development group to a small staff under G.W. Armending. In 1971, at age 49, Shaw left the RAND Corporation.

In 1971, Shaw took a one-year appointment as a Research Associate in the Information Science Department at the California Institute of Technology. In 1972, he began working as a consultant which he continued for the rest of his professional career. Much of his work in the 1970s and 1980s consisted of formulating new ideas on operations research, video games, man-machine interfaces, interactive computer systems, time-sharing, information architecture design, and artificial intelligence. During the 1980s, Shaw also became more involved in church-related activities.

Shaw's work on creating the Information Processing Language in the 1950s and the JOSS program in the 1960s were the two major contributions he made to the fields of programming and artificial intelligence. His IPL-I programming language is one of the earliest examples of list processing languages now in widespread use. The JOSS program was one of the first easy-to use, remotely accessible, interactive programs that allowed non-programmers to utilize the power of a computer.
Related Materials:
Material in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Computer Oral History Collection, AC0196

Material in Other Institutions

Charles Babbage Institute

L.A. County Museum

For RAND reports see www.RAND.org
Provenance:
The collection was donated by John Clifford Shaw's eldest son, Doug Shaw, March 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mathematicians  Search this
Computer programmers  Search this
Computers -- military applications  Search this
Decision making -- Mathematical models  Search this
System analysts  Search this
Online data processing  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980 -- United States  Search this
Computational linguistics  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980 -- Soviet Union  Search this
Mathematical models  Search this
Programming languages (electronic computers) -- 1950-70  Search this
Iph (Computer Program Language)  Search this
List processing (Electronic computers)  Search this
Job Control Language (Computer program language)  Search this
GPS (General Problem Solver)  Search this
Problem solving -- Data processing  Search this
Logic machines  Search this
Time-sharing computer systems  Search this
Heuristic programming  Search this
Logic programming  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Technical reports -- 1950-1980
Diagrams
Notes -- 1950-1980
Memorandums -- 1950-1980
Citation:
John Clifford Shaw papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0580
See more items in:
John Clifford Shaw Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0580
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