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Abraham Robinson Aeronautical Papers

Creator:
Robinson, Abraham, 1918-1974  Search this
Names:
Cranfield University (U.K.). College of Aeronautics  Search this
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Great Britain)  Search this
Robinson, Abraham, 1918-1974  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Cubic Feet ((4 folders))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Reports
Articles
Date:
1945-1956, 1968
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of his applied mathematical aeronautical papers from his time at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, and from his time at the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. Most of the papers appear to be related to the British high speed flight research program.
Biographical / Historical:
Abraham Robinson (1918-1974), a gifted and versatile mathematician, was born in Waldenburg, Germany, and graduated from Hebrew University, Jerusalem, in 1939. That year he won a scholarship to Sorbonne where he continued his studies. World War II broke out soon after his arrival in France and Robinson escaped to England where he volunteered for the Free French Air Force. Robinson was soon released, however, and sent to the Royal Aircraft Establishment, where he become a Scientific Officer and achieved a reputation as an outstanding applied mathematician in the fields of aerodynamics and structures. After the war he received his Ph.D. from the University of London and became Deputy Head of the Department of Aerodynamics, College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. Robinson then moved to the field of pure mathematics and become a leader in the fields of mathematical logic and philosophy. He was a professor at the University of Toronto, Hebrew University, University of California, Los Angels, and Yale University. Robinson was elected posthumously to the National Academy of Sciences.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Renee Robinson, Gift, 1979, XXXX-0608, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
High-speed aeronautics  Search this
Mathematicians  Search this
Aeronautics -- Research  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Articles
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0608
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0608

James Joseph Sylvester : Jewish mathematician in a Victorian world / Karen Hunger Parshall

Author:
Parshall, Karen Hunger 1955-  Search this
Subject:
Sylvester, James Joseph 1814-1897  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 461 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
Great Britain
Date:
2006
19th century
Topic:
Mathematicians--History  Search this
Jews--History  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_790028

Donald J. Ritchie Collection

Creator:
Ritchie, Donald Jeanne, 1920-  Search this
Names:
Bendix Aviation Corp. Research Laboratory Division  Search this
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Air Force. Systems Command. Foreign Technology Division  Search this
Ritchie, Donald Jeanne, 1920-  Search this
Extent:
13.08 Cubic Feet (12 records center boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Reports
Publications
Drawings
Photographs
Clippings
Date:
1955-1976
bulk 1960-1970
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Ritchie's research files. The material consists of newspaper and magazine clippings, photos, drawings, and Soviet books detailing Russian missile and rocket development during the 1960s. The collection also includes copies of Ritchie's reports during his tenure at Bendix and manuscripts of various chapters of his book 'Rocket and Missile Systems Development in the Soviet Union.
Biographical / Historical:
Donald Jeanne Ritchie (1920- ) is a mathematician and physicist who has been active in missile guidance system design and development and in arms control and disarmament studies. He began work as a production engineer at Bell Aircraft Corp (1940-42) before joining the Design Branch of Wright Air Development Center, Wright Field, OH (1942-45), where he participated in preliminary design work on jet aircraft. Following World War II, he attended Wayne University, completing degrees in Mathematics and Physics (BS, 1949) and Applied Mathematics (MS, 1951). He spent most of the next two decades at Bendix's Research Laboratory Division (Senior Mathematician, 1949-54; Project Engineer, 1955-57; Supervisory Mathematician, 1958-65; Assistant Department Head, Surveillance, Navigation, and Guidance, 1965-67) working on missile systems. He spent several brief periods outside Bendix, at Atomic Power Development Associates (Senior Mathematician, 1954-55), Crosley Division, Avco Manufacturing Co (Supervisor, Missile Systems, 1957), and Corvy Division, Melpar Inc, Scientific Analysis Office (Branch Leader, 1957-58). He then joined the faculty of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Institute (now Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University) as Professor of Aeronautical Engineering, Director of Research, and Chairman of the Aeronautical Engineering Division (1967-?). During this time he also worked as a consultant to the United States Air Force Foreign Technical Intelligence Division and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Baron von Ritchie?, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0088, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Rockets (Ordnance) -- Soviet Union  Search this
Aeronautics, Military -- Research  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics) -- Guidance systems  Search this
Ballistic missiles  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Reports
Publications
Drawings
Photographs
Clippings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0088
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0088

La Vona Gebb Drankham Collection

Creator:
Drankham, La Vona Gebb  Search this
Extent:
0.18 Cubic Feet ((1 box))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Speeches
Reports
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
bulk 1968-1983
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following items relating to La Vona Gebb Drankham's space engineering career: Nuclear Reactor-Powered Space Station Mass Properties, 1970; Solar-Powered Space Station Mass Properties, 1970; Space Shuttle Mass Properties Status Report, 1973; Space Shuttle Program: Detail Mass Properties Report (Final), Volume 1. Summary, 1971; 1972 Annual Report for North American Rockwell; Apollo 8: First Manned Lunar Flight, color, silent, 8 mm film, December 1968; Apollo 11: Man on the Moon, color, silent 8 mm film, July 1969; Jon A McBride print autographed to Drankham; and a copy of a speech given by her in 1983 entitled "Space Shuttle Benefits."
Biographical / Historical:
La Vona Gebb Drankham (1918-2011) graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles, (UCLA) in January 1940 with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Mathematics. During the 1940s Drankham worked for Douglas Aircraft Company and then was hired by North American Aviation Aerophysics Lab (later Rockwell International) in 1949, where she worked for 25 years. Drankham was a Mass Properties Engineer in Advanced Engineering, and was responsible for estimating the weight of a vehicle, the distribution of that weight and the effect that weight has on performance. For several years she was one of the weight engineers on the NASA Apollo spacecraft project. She was also a member of the Space Shuttle Design Team for Rockwell International. She retired from Rockwell in 1974. In 1970 she was awarded the Apollo Achievement Award as a member of the Apollo Team.
Provenance:
Juanita Gebb Acha, Gift, 2013
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Space stations  Search this
Mathematicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Speeches
Reports
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
La Vona Gebb Drankham Collection, Accession 2013-0059, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2013.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2013-0059

Homer Edward Newell, Jr. Speech Transcripts

Creator:
Newell, Homer Edward, 1915-1983  Search this
Names:
Newell, Homer Edward, 1915-1983  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic Feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1960-1973
Summary:
This collection consists of articles and transcripts of speeches by Newell during his tenure with NASA.
Scope and Content Note:
This collection consists of articles and transcripts of speeches by Dr. Newell from 1960 --1973 covering a broad range of space program and space science related topics.
Arrangement:
Chronological.
Biographical/Historical note:
Dr. Homer Edward Newell, Jr. (1915 --1983), mathematician and administrator, was the principal organizer of the American space program during the early years of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He attended Harvard College (AB, 1936; AMT, 1937) and the University of Wisconsin (Ph.D, 1940). He taught mathematics at the University of Maryland (1940 --1944) before joining the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as a mathematician and theoretical physicist (1944 --1947). Dr. Newell became head of the Rocket Sonde Branch of the NRL (1947 --1955) and later Acting Superintendent of the Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division (1955 --1958). During this time he coordinated the Navy's development of Project Vanguard, which placed the first American satellite in Earth orbit (1958). With the creation of NASA in 1958 Dr. Newell transferred from NRL to become Assistant Director of Space Science (1958 --1960) at NASA. He later served as Deputy Director of Space Flight Programs (1960 --1963) and Director of the Office of Space Science (1963 --1967) before being named Associate Director of NASA (1967 --1973), where he served until he retired in 1973.
Provenance:
No donor information., 1986, XXXX-0150, Unknown, gift
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Citation:
Homer E. Newell, Jr., Speech Transcripts, Acc. XXXX-0150, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0150
See more items in:
Homer Edward Newell, Jr. Speech Transcripts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0150

C.L. Stong Papers

Author:
Stong, C.L., 1902-1975 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Collector:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
12.6 Cubic feet (38 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1952-1976
Scope and Contents:
These papers are the files of the editor of "The Amateur Scientist" section of the Scientific American from 1952 to 1976. They are arranged chronologically by date of article. The feature was started in 1952 as an expansion of "The Amateur Astronomer" section of the periodical. The papers include files of Stong's predecessor and files for articles prepared but not published before his death. The files contain correspondence with authors and readers, original illustrations, and reprints of articles.
Arrangement:
Divided into 69 series, including: (1) Aerodynamics; (2) Analogue; (3) Antibubbles; (4) Antitwister; (5) Archeology; (6) Astronomical Instruments other than telescopes & photographs; (7) Birds; (8) Cavendish; (9) Clocks; (10) Collagen; (11) Color; (12) Cooling; (13) Coriolis; (14) Crystals; (15) Differentials; (16) Electrical Discharge; (17) Electrochemistry; (18) Electronics; (19) Electrostatics; (20) Experiments; (21) Fish; (22) Gibberellins; (23) Glass; (24) Gravitation; (25) Hall effect; (26) Hekeshaw; (27) Hilsch; (28) Holograms; (29) Hydrophone; (39) Interferometer; (31) Isotension; (32) Laser; (33) Liesegang; (34) Liquids; (35) Magnetics; (36) Mathematical Machines; (37) Mead; (38) Meteorology; (39) Micron; (40) Microscopy; etc.
Biographical / Historical:
C. L. Stong (1902 1975), an electrical engineer with the Western Electric Company from 1926 to 1962, became editor of "The Amateur Scientist" feature of the Scientific American in 1957 and held that position until his death.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mildred Stong, 1976.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ornithologists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Paleontologists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Mathematicians -- 1950-1980  Search this
Meteorologists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Mineralogists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Musicians -- 1950-2000  Search this
Astronomers -- 1950-1980  Search this
Biologists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Botanists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Ichthyologists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Photographers -- 1950-1980  Search this
Publishing, scientific  Search this
Electrical engineers -- 1950-1980  Search this
Aerodynamics -- 1950-1980  Search this
Science -- 1950-1980  Search this
Zoologists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Archeologists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Physicists -- 1950-1980  Search this
Citation:
C. L. Stong Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0012
See more items in:
C.L. Stong Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0012
Additional Online Media:

The Reception of Refugee Mathematicians Paper

Collection Creator:
Reingold, Nathan,1927-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7470, Reingold, Nathan,1927-, Nathan Reingold Papers
See more items in:
Nathan Reingold Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7470-refd1e1782

Reception of Refugee Mathematicians, 1930s (4 folders)

Collection Creator:
Reingold, Nathan,1927-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7470, Reingold, Nathan,1927-, Nathan Reingold Papers
See more items in:
Nathan Reingold Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7470-refd1e1788

James Henry Coffin Papers

Topic:
Winds of the Northern Hemisphere
Winds of the Globe
Creator::
Coffin, James H. (James Henry), 1806-1873  Search this
Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1848-1884
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
These papers consist of correspondence concerning temperature, wind, and weather reports of the Hudson Bay region, 1848; resolutions of condolence to Coffin's son, Seldon J. Coffin, from students and alumni of Lafayette College after Coffin's death, 1873; newspaper articles; an illustration of James H. Coffin; and the original manuscript of Winds of the Northern Hemisphere. Additional correspondence of James Henry Coffin exists elsewhere in the Smithsonian Institution Archives, especially in the Joseph Henry Collection, Record Unit 7001, and Meteorological Project Records, Record Unit 60.
Historical Note:
James Henry Coffin (1806-1873) was a mathematician and meteorologist who specialized in the study of wind velocity. Coffin graduated from Amherst College in 1828 and taught at various schools and colleges. Coffin began his meteorological studies in 1838. While at Williams College, 1840-1843, he installed an apparatus on Mount Greylock, New York, for automatically recording the direction and the velocity of the wind. From 1846 until his death, Coffin held a chair of mathematics and natural philosophy at Lafayette College. In 1846, he began his collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution in meteorology. Two of Coffin's studies, Winds of the Northern Hemisphere and Winds of the Globe were published by the Institution in 1853 and 1875, respectively.
Topic:
Meteorology  Search this
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7060, James Henry Coffin Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7060
See more items in:
James Henry Coffin Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7060

Intorno ad alcune opere di Leonardo Pisano, matematico del secolo decimoterzo / notizie raccolte de Baldassarre Boncompagni ..

Author:
Boncompagni, Baldassarre 1821-1894  Search this
Donor:
Burndy Library DSI  Search this
Subject:
Fibonacci, Leonardo ca. 1170-ca. 1240  Search this
Physical description:
VIII, 409, [3] p., [1] leaf of plates : facsims. ; 25 cm
Type:
Early works to 1800
Date:
1854
Topic:
Mathematics  Search this
Mathematicians--Bibliography  Search this
Call number:
QA29.F5B6X 1854
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_273155

Men of mathematics, by E.T. Bell

Author:
Bell, Eric Temple 1883-1960  Search this
Physical description:
xxi, 592 p., 1 l. front., ports., diagrs. 25 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1937
Topic:
Mathematicians  Search this
Mathematics--History  Search this
Call number:
QA28.B4X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_255068

Dr. Karl Nickel Horten Interviews

Creator:
Nickel, Karl, Dr., 1924-2009  Search this
Names:
Horten, Reimar, 1915-1993  Search this
Horten, Walter, 1912-1988  Search this
Extent:
0.08 Cubic feet (1 container.)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Audiocassettes
Date:
2005
Summary:
This collection consists of an five days of interview by Russell Lee with Dr. Karl Nickel, and his wife, Guinilde, who was the sister of Reimar and Walter Horten.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of an interview by Russell Lee with Dr. Karl Nickel, and his wife, Guinilde, who was the sister of Reimar and Walter Horten. The collection consists of five days of interviews [conducted October 4-8, 2005], recorded on eight cassette tapes, as well as Lee's handwritten notes for each tape. The interview discussed the Hortens and their swept-wing aircraft designs, and was used in Lee's 2011 book, Only the Wing: Reimar Horten's Epic Quest to Stabilize and Control the All-wing Aircraft .
Arrangement:
Chronological order.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Karl Nickel (1924-2009), best known for his work with interval mathematics computations, began his academic career with work on the solution of aerodynamic problems and boundary layer theory. During the 1940s, Nickel worked for Reimer and Walter Horten, the designers and builders of swept-wing aircraft, as a mathematician. Nickel also sampled the prone layout of the Horten III-f, which he flew in 1944. After World War II, Nickel received his Diploma in Mathematics from Gottingen University in 1948 and his Doctor of Mathematics from the Universities of Tubingen and Stuttgart in 1949. From 1951-1955 Nickel was employed in aircraft design in Argentina. In the mid-1950s, Nickel returned to Germany where he served as a professor of applied mathematics at the University of Karlsruhe and the University of Freiburg.
Provenance:
Russell Lee, Gift, 2018, NASM.2018.0058
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Horten III-f  Search this
Airplanes -- Wings, Swept-back  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Citation:
Dr. Karl Nickel Horten Interviews, NASM.2018.0058, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2018.0058
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2018-0058

Theodore von Karman Collection Microfiche

Creator:
Von Kármán, Theodore, 1881-1963  Search this
Names:
Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics, Inc.  Search this
United States. Air Force  Search this
United States. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics  Search this
Von Kármán, Theodore, 1881-1963  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic Feet ((10 shoeboxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Microfiche
Date:
1871-1963
Scope and Contents:
This collection covers von Karman's life, but the core of the collection is records relating to: his career in Germany after World War I; materials pertaining to his assocation with such organizations as the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics, the National Advisory Committee on Aviation, the United States Air Force, and the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; and personal and scientific correspondence with colleagues and students from around the world.
Biographical / Historical:
Theodore von Karman (1881-1963) was an accomplished physicist, aerodynamicist, applied mathematician, and science advisor. Born in Hungary, von Karman received a degree in mechanical engineering from The Royal Joseph Technical University, and a doctor's degree from The University of Gottingen. In 1930, von Karman was appointed as professor of aeronautics, director of the Daniel Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the Califonia Institute of Technology, and director of the Daniel Guggenheim Airship Institute at Akron Ohio. He was a founding member of the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences and was the recipient of many awards, including the U.S. Medal of Merit and the first U.S. National Medal of Science.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
California Institute of Technology, unknown, 1980, XXXX-0537, California Institute of Technology
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access, restrictions on permission to publish.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- Research  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Mathematics  Search this
Physics  Search this
Aerodynamics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Microfiche
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0537
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0537

A general history of mathematics : from the earliest times to the middle of the eighteenth century / translated from the French of John [sic] Bossut ... ; to which is affixed a chronological table of the most eminent mathematicians

Author:
Bossut, Charles 1730-1814  Search this
Bonnycastle, John 1750?-1821  Search this
Former owner:
Cator, Joseph DSI  Search this
Cator, Bertie Peter DSI  Search this
Donor:
Burndy Library DSI  Search this
Physical description:
xxvi, 540, [4] p. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1803
Topic:
Mathematics--History  Search this
Astronomy--History  Search this
Call number:
QA21.B75X E1803
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_273169

Joseph Schillinger Phonograph Record Collection

Creator:
Schillinger, Joseph, 1895-1943  Search this
Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Names:
Cowell, Henry, 1897-1965  Search this
Theremin, Leon  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Phonograph records
78 rpm records
Audiotapes
Date:
1940-1941
Summary:
Joseph Schillinger (1895-1943), composer and musical theorist, worked extensively with the Rhythmicon. The Rhythmicon, constructed in 1931, is the earliest electronic rhythm machine. The collection consists of recordings of the Rhythmicon.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of nine transcription recordings of the Rhythmicon on 78 rpm phonographic records made by Joseph Schillinger in 1940 and 1941; two 1/4 inch master reel to reel tapes of disc recordings created by Radio Smithsonian in fall, 1985; and one research cassette tape of disc recordings created by Radio Smithsonian in fall, 1985.

A digital reference copy is available in the Smithsonian Institutions Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into one series. Box 1 contains of the original audio discs and Box 2 contains the open-reel master tapes, a cassette reference tape, and photocopies of the labels.
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Schillinger (1895-1943), composer and musical theorist, worked extensively with the Rhythmicon. The Rhythmicon, developed in 1931 by Leon Theremin at the request of composer Henry Cowell, is the earliest electronic rhythm machine.

Schillinger was born on August 31, 1895, in Kharkov, Ukraine. After beginning a successful musical career in the Soviet Union, he immigrated to the United States in 1928 and settled in New York City. He taught at New York University, the Teachers College of Columbia University and the New School for Social Research. A trained mathematician, Schillinger developed his own system of composition based on mathematics.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by Mrs. Joseph Schillinger (Frances) and transferred to the Archives Center from the Division of Musical Instruments (Division of Culture and the Arts) in June 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Digital reference copies available in the Smithsonian Institution Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Musical instruments  Search this
Rhythmicon  Search this
Genre/Form:
Phonograph records
78 rpm records
Audiotapes
Citation:
Joseph Schillinger Phonograph Record Collection, 1940-1941, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0162
See more items in:
Joseph Schillinger Phonograph Record Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0162

Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project Records

Creator:
Princeton University. Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project  Search this
Names:
Computers, Information and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
von Neumann, John  Search this
Extent:
0.7 Cubic feet (3 boxes )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Journals (accounts)
Drawings
Reports
Place:
Princeton (N. J.)
New Jersey
Date:
1950-1957.
Summary:
Collection documents the Electronic Computer Project, 1950-1957 at the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the project was to build a computer that would be a general-purpose postwar tool for various branches of scientific research.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes published reports of the staff of the Electronic Computer Project, monthly progress reports, and reports by individual staff members (sometimes in draft form) on particular problems or pieces of equipment. Numerous drawings of computer components are also included, together with 10 glass photo slides in color of equipment and two slides of personnel (unidentified). A special "computer issue" of Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers (published October, 1953) contains 41 papers on technical aspects of computers.
Biographical / Historical:
This material was generated by participants in the IAS Computer Project, 1950-1957. The Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, NJ has long been a center of scholarly work in many disciplines of science by noted researchers (e.g. Albert Einstein). The computer project was initiated there in 1946 by John Von Neumann, a mathematician who had been working on ballistics computations during World War II. He used the first version of the Princeton computer to calculate the results of the thermonuclear reaction of the first H bomb in 1950. In the late 1950s, after Von Neumann's death, the project was terminated. A brief summary of the project and Von Neumann's contribution is found in Chapter 5 of Who Got Einstein's Office? by Edward Regis (Addison Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1987.)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Leon D. Harmon, March 23, 1982.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computer programming  Search this
Computer science  Search this
Genre/Form:
Journals (accounts)
Drawings -- 1950-1960
Reports
Citation:
Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project Records, 1950-1957, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0401
See more items in:
Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0401

Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Project Drawings

Creator:
Bigelow, Elizabeth Merkelson  Search this
Bigelow, Julian  Search this
Princeton University. Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (3 boxes, 1 folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Reports
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
1949-1961.
Summary:
Correspondence, personal notes, articles, drawings, photographs, and published reports documenting the IAS Electronic Computer Project.
Scope and Contents note:
Collection consists of correspondence, personal notes, articles, drawings, and published reports documenting the Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Project, 1949-1956. The bulk of the documentation dates from 1949 to 1954. The Office of Naval Research contracted with IAS to study and document the operation and engineering improvements on the electronic computer at IAS from July 1, 1952 to June 30, 1953. An earlier report by IAS on a study contracted for by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps is also included. This study ended July 1, 1952 and the published report is in two volumes. Many of the drawings are in pencil and have no date, but there is one near complete set of blueprints for the Electronic Computer (drawings #1298 to #1072). Drawings range in size from 17" x 22" to 27" x 36". There is one folder of undated, black and white photographs that appear to document certain aspects of the Electronic Computer. The collection is arranged into five series: Series 1: Correspondence, Series 2: Chapter Drafts, Series 3: Notes and Drawings, Series 4: Photographs; and Series 5: Articles and Reports.
Arrangement:
Divided into 5 series: 1) Correspondence; 2) Chapter Drafts; 3) Notes and Drawings; 4) Photographs; 5) Articles and Reports.
Historical:
The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey is an independent, private institution dedicated to the encouragement, support, and patronage of learning through fundamental research and definitive scholarship across a wide range of fields. IAS was founded in 1930 by Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld as a center for intellectual inquiry. During its existence, the institute has had in residence many of the most highly regarded thinkers of the twentieth century. Julian Bigelow joined the staff of IAS in April 1946 and worked on the Electronic Computer Project. The Electronic Computer Project was initiated in 1946 by John von Neumann, a mathematician who had been working on ballistics computations during World War II. Von Neumann used the first version of the Princeton computer to calculate the results of the thermonuclear reaction of the first H-bomb in 1950. The project was terminated following von Neumannn's death in 1957.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Computer Oral History Collection, 1969-1973, 1977 (NMAH.AC.0196)

Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project Records, 1950-1957 (NMAH.AC.0401)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Elizabeth Merkelson Bigelow and Julian H Bigelow on June 20, 2002.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Computer science  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Reports
Photographs -- 20th century
Drawings -- 20th century
Citation:
Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Drawings, 1949-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0815
See more items in:
Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Project Drawings
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0815

Folder 35 Mathematicians, Third International Congress of, Heidelberg, Germany, 1903-1904

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Secretary  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 45, Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Secretary, Records
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0045-refd1e1617

Folder 36 Mathematicians, Fourth International Congress of, Rome, Italy, 1907-1908

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Secretary  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 45, Smithsonian Institution, Office of the Secretary, Records
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0045-refd1e1624

Robert Ledley Papers

Creator:
Ledley, Robert S.  Search this
National Biomedical Research Foundation. Georgetown University  Search this
Names:
Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial Scanner  Search this
Computer-Assisted Tomography Scanner  Search this
National Biomedical Research Foundation. Georgetown University  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuals
Patents
Photographs
Design drawings
Correspondence
Articles
Diagrams
Slides (photographs)
Notes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Albums
Date:
1972-1990
Summary:
The Robert Ledley Papers document the development of the first whole-body diagnostic imaging system, the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner by Ledley in 1973. Also included is material relating to Ledley's company, Digital Science Information Corporation (DISCO), as well as the public and medical communities' reactions to the scanner.
Scope and Contents:
The Robert Ledley Papers document the development of the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner, Ledley's company Digital Science Information Corporation (DISCO), as well as the public and medical communities' reactions to the scanner. The collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1, ACTA Scanner I Schematics, 1973-1975; Series 2, ACTA Scanner I [Computer and Electronics], 1973; and Series 3, ACTA Scanner Tomograph Mechanics, 1973-1974 document the development and design of the ACTA scanner through drawings, notes, memoranda, and product information. More detailed information about these materials is located in the control file. All oversize drawings have been moved to flat storage for preservation concerns.

Series 4, ACTA Scanner Operating Instructions, 1975, is the operating manual created for the scanner used in Ledley's Georgetown lab.

Series 5, ACTA Articles, Clippings, and Press Releases, 1973-1979, is comprised of the aforementioned materials relating to the ACTA Scanner. Newspaper clippings illuminate the public's perception of the scanner, and scientific pieces highlight the medical community's reaction. Ledley's published articles on the scanner and related topics are included.

Series 6, Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) material, 1973-1981, documents Ledley's career and his company. A biographical sketch, list of articles, textbooks, and patents highlight Ledley's achievements. Invoices, receipts, contracts, and correspondence illuminate the financial situation at DISCO and the relationship between the company and Pfizer.

Series 7, Computer manuals, 1972-1975, documents the computer systems and software that were used with the ACTA Scanner.

Series 8, Photographic material, 1973-1978, includes an album of photographs depicting the ACTA Scanner and images of the scans it created. This album was disassembled due to preservation concerns. This series also includes a collection of slides featuring the scanner and related equipment in use and images of the scans it created. A detailed description of each photograph and slide is included in the control file.

Series 9, ACTA Scanner film, [1974?], is a 16mm narrated film describing the creation of the scanner, its components, the way they work, the scanner in use, and images of the scans produced.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1, ACTA Scanner I Schematics, 1973-1975

Series 2, ACTA Scanner I [Computer and Electronics], 1973

Series 3, ACTA Scanner Tomograph Mechanics, 1973-1974

Series 4, ACTA Scanner Operating Instructions, 1975

Series 5, ACTA Articles, Clippings, and Press Releases, 1973-1979

Series 6, Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) material, 1973-1981, undated

Series 7, Computer manuals, 1972-1975

Series 8, Photographic material 1973-1978

Subseries 1, Photographs, 19731978

Subseries 2, Slides, 1974

Series 9, ACTA Scanner film [1974?]
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Steven Ledley was born in Flushing Meadows, New York in 1926. He received a D.D.S. degree from New York University College in 1948. While attending dental school, he simultaneously studied at Columbia University; he earned a M.A. in Theoretical Physics in 1949. He volunteered for the army and was sent to the U.S. Army Medical Field Service School in Fort Sam Houston, Texas.1 After completing his service, Ledley held a wide variety of research and academic positions in physics, electrical engineering, and medicine.

Ledley was a physicist within the External Control Group of the Electronic Computer Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards from 1953-1954. He was an operations research analyst within the Strategic Division of the Operations Research Office at Johns Hopkins University from 1954-1956. Ledley went on to become an associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at The George Washington University from 1956-1960 while also serving as a consultant mathematician at the National Bureau of Standards Data Processing Systems Division, 1957-1960. At this time, Ledley also worked part time at the National Research Council's National Academy of Sciences from 1957-1961. Ledley became the president of the National Biomedical Research Foundation in 1960, a position he still holds today. He was an instructor of pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine from 1960-1963. He returned to The George Washington University's Department of Electrical Engineering in 1968 where he was a professor until 1970. He then became a professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the Georgetown University School of Medicine in 1970. In 1974, Ledley also became a professor in the Radiology Department at the Georgetown University Medical Center. In 1975, he became the director of the Medical Computing and Biophysics Division at Georgetown University Medical Center.

In 1972, the British company Electric and Musical Industries Limited (EMI) released a medical imaging machine for use on smaller areas of the body that were positioned under a water tank. In 1973, Ledley developed the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner (US Patent #3,922,552). This machine was a whole-body diagnostic medical imaging system. He was awarded a grant from the National Institutes of Health for an engineering equipment project, but the money was never received due to budget cuts. Ledley looked elsewhere for funding. He consulted with Georgetown staff and discovered a neurosurgeon had asked to buy a head scanning machine from EMI. Ledley did not think the images in EMI's brochure appeared clear, and he offered to create a similar machine for half the price. Georgetown agreed to fund this project for $250,000. Ledley secured the services of a machinist at a local machine shop, an electronic engineer, and a programmer/mathematician to assist in the project.2 The ACTA Scanner debuted in February, 1974 and did not require the use of a water tank.

Following the creation of the ACTA Scanner, Ledley organized Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) in order to manufacture the system. DISCO began producing scanners as orders were received. Due to financial constraints, DISCO was forced to request $100,000 upon receipt of the order, $100,000 when the scanner was halfway completed, and the final $100,000 payment upon delivery3. In 1975, Pfizer purchased the rights to manufacture the ACTA Scanner from DISCO for $1.5 million.

Ledley is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He has earned numerous awards and honors for his work. In 1997, he received the National Medal of Technology from President William Jefferson Clinton for his pioneering work on the whole-body CT diagnostic X-ray scanner. He also founded the Pattern Recognition Society and Computerized Tomography Society.

Sources

1 Ash, J., D. Sittig, and R. Ledley. "The Story Behind the Development of the First Whole-body Computerized Tomography Scanner as Told by Robert S. Ledley." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2006 Sep-Oct (2006), 465-469, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1561796. (accessed June 24, 2009).

2 Ibid.

3 Ibid.
Separated Materials:
An ACTA Scanner and numerous accessories were donated to the Museum in 1984.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Robert S. Ledley on September 18, 1984.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Biology  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Digital Information Science Corporation  Search this
Diagnostic imaging  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Medical technology  Search this
Medical radiology  Search this
Whole body imaging  Search this
Tomography  Search this
Radiology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuals -- 1970-1990
Patents
Photographs
Design drawings
Correspondence -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Diagrams
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Notes
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Albums
Citation:
Robert Ledley Papers, 1972-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1135
See more items in:
Robert Ledley Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1135
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