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Honeywell, lard manufacturing processes, 1941

Collection Source:
Mechanisms, Division of.  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Collection Creator:
Instrument Society of America  Search this
Container:
Box 48, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status unknown. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply.
Collection Citation:
Instrument Society of America Collection, 1911-1972, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Instrument Society of America Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0215-ref658

Honeywell, sausage manufacturing processes, 1941

Collection Source:
Mechanisms, Division of.  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Collection Creator:
Instrument Society of America  Search this
Container:
Box 50, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status unknown. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply.
Collection Citation:
Instrument Society of America Collection, 1911-1972, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Instrument Society of America Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0215-ref684

Company history and manufacturing processes

Collection Creator:
Jeffers, Grace  Search this
Formica Corporation.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0565-ref33

Descriptions and Photographs of Manufacturing Processes

Collection Creator:
Hart, Schaffner and Marx.  Search this
Collection Source:
Costume, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 2-3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Probable copyright and trademark restrictions.
Collection Citation:
Hart, Schaffner and Marx Records, 1901-1955, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Hart, Schaffner and Marx Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0426-ref540

Manufacturing process [Includes negatives]

Collection Creator:
Safko, Lon S.  Search this
Container:
Box 29
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1995
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Collection Citation:
Safko International, Inc. Records, 1984-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Safko International, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0911-ref529

Brompton: folding bicycle, manufacturing process; also CH interview

Type:
Exhibitions
Video
Object Name:
Video
Accession Number:
s-e-2289
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Exhibitions Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_s-e-2289

[Unlabeled jars of Noxzema on production line : black and white photoprint]

Topic:
Noxzema (brand name)
Sponsor:
Noxell Corporation.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Bunting, George L., Jr.  Search this
Brinkley, Christie  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Colonel, Sheri  Search this
Giordano, Lynn  Search this
Ford, Eileen  Search this
Hall, L. C. "Bates"  Search this
Grathwohl, Geraldine  Search this
Huebner, Dick  Search this
Harrison, Fran  Search this
Lindsay, Robert  Search this
Hunt, William D.  Search this
McIver, Karen  Search this
MacDougall, Malcolm  Search this
Noble, Stan  Search this
Nash, Helen  Search this
Noxell Corporation.  Search this
Bergin, John  Search this
O'Neill, Jennifer  Search this
Oelbaum, Carol  Search this
Pelligrino, Nick  Search this
Poris, George  Search this
Roberts, F. Stone  Search this
Tiegs, Cheryl  Search this
Troup, Peter  Search this
Weithas, Art  Search this
Witt, Norbert  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Baltimore (Md.)
Date:
circa 1950-1960
Scope and Contents:
Photographer unknown.
Local Numbers:
AC0374-0000395.tif (AC Scan)
General:
In Box 31.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Containers  Search this
Assembly-line methods  Search this
Manufacturing processes -- Maryland  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History & Documentation Project, 1959-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0374-ref1103

Making it : manufacturing techniques for product design / [Chris Lefteri]

Title:
Manufacturing techniques for product design
Author:
Lefteri, Chris  Search this
Physical description:
288 p. : col. ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Handbooks, manuals, etc
Date:
2012
Topic:
Manufacturing processes  Search this
Industrial design  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1008090

Jon and Jennifer Hanson Watch and Clock Collection

Creator:
Hanson, Jon  Search this
Hamilton Watch Company.  Search this
Extent:
11.7 Cubic feet (8 boxes including photographs and negatives)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Annual reports
Advertising
Blueprints
Price lists
Account books
Photographs
Business records
Date:
1931-1954
undated
Summary:
Photographic prints and negatives documenting the interior operations of the Hamilton Watch Company primarily in the 1930s and 1940s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 760 photographs and negatives created by the Hamilton Watch Company and documenting its employees, equipment, materials, and factory in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Many photographs depict the company's research and development efforts. There are also images of the Hamilton Watch Company's work in fuse assembly for bombs during WWII. The photographs are mainly organized by factory department or location. A number of these photographs were created by the advertising department and include identification numbers, location of the image, name of the photographer, and the identification of people in the photograph, as well as release forms for those pictured. If not located with the photographs, these items, as well as additional information, can be found in the corresponding folders. Negatives in poor condition were scanned. There are also five glass plate negatives.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1, Photographic Prints and Negatives, 1931-1954, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Hamilton Watch Company, established in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1892, was known for its manufacture of high quality wrist and pocket watches. Broadway Limited, its first series of pocket watches, was nicknamed "the watch of railroad accuracy," and Hamilton soon became associated with the railroad industry. The company also supplied wristwatches to the United States Armed Forces in the 1910s Hamilton continued its association with the military during World War II when it stopped production of watches for consumers in order to provide the armed forces with one million timepieces. The company was responsible for the Ventura, the world's first electric (battery-powered) watch, and in 1970, the world's first digital watch.

In 1969, Hamilton closed its factory in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, signaling the end of its American manufacturing operations. All production moved to the facilities of the Buren Watch Company in Switzerland, a company that Hamilton had acquired three years before. The Hamilton brand is currently owned by the Swatch Group and carries two product lines, American Classic and Khaki.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

E. Howard Clock Company Records (AC0776)

Seth Thomas Clock Company Records (AC0627)

James Arthur Clock and Watch Collection (AC0130)

National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records (AC0547)

Harold Lyons Atomic Clocks Collection (AC0701)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Jon Hanson in 2008.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Assembly-line methods  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Industries  Search this
Fuses  Search this
Factories -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Manufacturing processes  Search this
Horology  Search this
Bombs  Search this
Clocks and watches  Search this
Chronometers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Annual reports
Advertising
Blueprints
Price lists
Account books -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Business records
Citation:
Hamilton Watch Company Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1122
See more items in:
Jon and Jennifer Hanson Watch and Clock Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1122
Additional Online Media:

Martin Aircraft Company Photograph Collection

Creator:
Glenn L. Martin Company  Search this
Names:
Glenn L. Martin Company  Search this
Martin, Glenn L., 1886-1955  Search this
Extent:
119.9 Cubic Feet ((110 records center boxes))
114.4 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Manuals
Date:
1932-1972
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 84 cubic feet of negatives and 22 cubic feet of photographs chronicling the history of the Martin Company, including the following subjects: aircraft plants; historical themes; people; aircraft programs: historic, US Army, US Navy, civilian export; experimental or projected designs; research and development programs; structures and materials; manufacturing processes; space tools; nuclear power programs; missile programs; and space programs. The collection also contains photograph log books which have information about the images.
Biographical / Historical:
The Martin Company was founded by aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin during World War I. Martin was mainly a producer of military airplanes for the US Army, Air Force, and Navy. Martin has also built several commercial types, including the model M130 Clipper, with which Pan American Airways opened transpacific commercial air service. Since the 1950s, Martin has been active in the development and production of a wide variety of rocket, missile and space programs, including lifting-body vehicles. Martin was also a pioneer in nuclear power units for remote sites.
General:
This collection also contains 26 photo logs and tech manuals.
NASMrev
Provenance:
Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems, 1989, 1989-0141, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Martin Model 130 Clipper  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Manuals
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0141
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0141

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tools

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
4.81 Cubic feet (consisting of 10 boxes, 1 folder, 4 oversize folders, 2 map case folders, 1 flat box (partial), plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertising fliers
Exhibition catalogs
Sales records
Manuals
Annual reports
Print advertising
Blotters (writing equipment)
Publications
Business records
Business cards
Sales letters
Letterheads
Legal records
Photographs
Catalogs
Commercial catalogs
Catalogues
Printed materials
Receipts
Advertising cards
Mail order catalogs
Illustrations
Technical reports
Trade cards
Legal documents
Printed material
Trade catalogs
Periodicals
Technical manuals
Patents
Commercial correspondence
Invoices
Advertising
Sales catalogs
Advertising mail
Advertisements
Ephemera
Reports
Business ephemera
Trade literature
Manufacturers' catalogs
Business letters
Instructional materials
Printed ephemera
Correspondence
Date:
1834-1965
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Covers a variety of tools, hand tools, and machinery including cutters, dies, measurement tools, rules, lathes, crimping devices, clamps, drills, and related precision tools.

Materials represent a sampling of merchant and services transactions, but there are no full business records for any single entity. This category has a large volume of catalogues present and a few examples of industry reports and technical documentation.

With the industries and trades represented in this category, there is significant overlap with Hardware, Instruments, and Mensuration.
Arrangement:
Tools is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Tools is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Machine-tools  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Tool makers  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Pipe  Search this
Manufacturing processes  Search this
Hardware stores -- 1870-1880  Search this
Machine-tool industry  Search this
Woodworking machinery -- 1830-1960  Search this
Light machinery  Search this
Tools  Search this
Hardware stores -- 1860-1870 -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Machinery  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising fliers
Exhibition catalogs
Sales records
Manuals
Annual reports
Print advertising
Blotters (writing equipment)
Publications -- Business
Business records
Business cards
Sales letters
Letterheads
Legal records
Photographs
Catalogs
Commercial catalogs
Catalogues
Printed materials
Receipts
Advertising cards
Mail order catalogs
Illustrations
Technical reports
Trade cards
Legal documents
Printed material
Trade catalogs
Periodicals
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Patents
Commercial correspondence
Invoices
Advertising
Sales catalogs
Publications
Advertising mail
Advertisements
Ephemera
Reports
Business ephemera
Trade literature
Manufacturers' catalogs
Business letters
Instructional materials
Printed ephemera
Correspondence
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tools, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Tools
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tools
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-tools
Additional Online Media:

Photographs of William Henry Holmes at Piney Branch Quarry

Names:
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Extent:
3 copy prints
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Copy prints
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Antiquities
Date:
circa 1889-1894
Scope and Contents note:
Images of William Henry Holmes and others, probably archeologists, at the paleoindian Piney Branch Quarry site in Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Henry Holmes (1846-1933) was an artist, geologist, and archeologist who spent most of his career with the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, United States Geological Survey, Bureau of American Ethnology, and Department of Anthropology of the Smithsonian. From 1894-1897, he was the head of anthropology at the Field Columbian Museum (Field Museum of Natural History) and on the staff of the University of Chicago. Holmes later served as head curator for the US National Museum Department of Anthropology from 1897-1902 and head of the BAE from 1902-1909.

From 1889 to 1894, shortly after his appointment to the Bureau of American Ethnology, William Henry Holmes conducted excavations of the quartzite and steatite quarries in the Rock Creek Valley. Based on these investigations, Holmes found a series of rejected blade forms, proving that they represented early stages of a manufacturing process and not an earlier native presence in North America.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 86-12
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Reports and photographs relating to the Piney Branch Quarry site can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4695 and Photo Lot 4.
Correspondence by Holmes can be found throughout the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7206, the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and the records of the Department of Anthropology.
Manuscripts and notes by Holmes can be found throughout the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4698, MS 2125, MS 7112, and MS 7570.
The William Henry Holmes Papers, 1870-1931 (SIA RU007084), are held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 86-12, Photographs of William Henry Holmes at Piney Branch Quarry, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.86-12
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-86-12

New United Motor Manufacturing, Incorporated Interviews

Extent:
(Reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Videotapes
Oral history
Date:
1990
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Peter Liebhold, museum specialist in engineering and industry at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), toured the NUMMI factory and its production lines to document the mechanical applications of Japanese managerial philosophy. Liebhold surveyed increases in automation, the "just-in-time" inventory system, assembly line quality control through kaizen, and the emphasis on teamwork which relied on multi-skilled workers cooperating with managers. These policies differed sharply from traditional American approaches to management and production.

Liebhold interviewed several employees throughout the plant for their responses to the organizational changes. Among those interviewed were Michael Damer, NUMMI's public relation officer, Gary Convis, the senior vice-president for manufacturing and engineering, and George Nano, the NUMMI United Auto Workers (UAW) bargaining committee chairman. The interviews took place in a single session, which was recorded on September 25 and 26, 1990 at the NUMMI plant.

This collection consists of one interview session, totalling approximately 6:00 hours of recordings, and 109 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 18 original videotapes (18 Beta videotapes), 6 dubbing master videotapes (6 U-matic videotapes), and 3 reference copy videotapes (3 VHS videotapes). The collection has been remastered digitally, with 18 motion jpeg 2000 and 18 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 6 Windows Media Video and 6 Real Media Video digital files for reference.
Historical Note:
In an effort to regain some of their share of the domestic market for automobiles, in the 1980s American car manufacturers embarked on a variety of reforms of manufacturing processes and management techniques. In February 1983 General Motors (GM) Corporation entered into a joint venture with Toyota to produce automobiles using Japanese management techniques at a GM plant in Fremont, California. The plant was, at the time, the least productive in the GM system. The combined corporate effort, known as New United Motors Manufacturing, Inc., or NUMMI, opened for production in December, 1984. Within five years the plant operated as efficiently as Japanese manufacturing facilities.
Topic:
History of science and technology  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Interviews
Videotapes
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9550, , New United Motor Manufacturing, Incorporated Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9550
See more items in:
New United Motor Manufacturing, Incorporated Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9550

Interviewees, Ken Gunderson and Ronald Wisnia; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American history

Collection Interviewer:
Shayt, David H.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Wedge Innovations  Search this
Extent:
1 sound recording (Duration 1 hour )
Container:
Box 26, Item 534.1
Box 25, Item 534.1
Box 24, Item 534.1
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Sound recordings
Scope and Contents:
Ron Wisnia, a designer of semi-conductors and integrated circuits, described his work at a number of high-technology and start-up companies in the Silicon Valley. He also gave a geographic definition of the area and the sense of community felt by its inhabitants. Wisnia described the "Paharo Dunes" experience [Wedge's New Product Development Conference in 1991], his woodworking experiences, the transition from Wedge to Macklanburg-Duncan, the SmartLevel manufacturing process (particularly the sensor module and the printed circuit boards), Wedge's overseas manufacturing operations, Rick Shade's work at Wedge, and his work for Koala Technologies. Ken Gunderson came to Wedge Innovations in August 1989 to resolve the stability and performance problems of the SmartLevel's sensor. He described working for Macklanburg- Duncan's SmartTools division, the transition from Wedge to Macklanburg-Duncan, other "Smart" tools, Wedge's outreach to and help from the university community, and the SmartLevel manufacturing process (particularly its sensor and printed circuit boards).
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Records of Wedge Innovations, 1985-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Records of Wedge Innovations
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0534-ref229

Material Culture

Collection Correspondent:
Conklin, Harold C., 1926-2016  Search this
Greenberg, Joseph H. (Joseph Harold), 1915-2001  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harwood, Alan  Search this
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1963
Scope and Contents:
"Notes on the manufacturing processes for various pieces of material culture."
Collection Restrictions:
Materials that identify the participants in Harwood's Bronx and Boston studies are restricted until 2056.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Alan Harwood Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Alan Harwood Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2006-25-ref80

ICE Folder Name: LOCKHEED ELECTRONICS (FAILURE ANALYSIS) P/Q #1524

Collection Creator:
Integrated Circuit Engineering Corporation.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1972
Scope and Contents note:
Content Summary: Hybrid manufacturing process for negative logic modules
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
I.C.E. Integrated Circuit Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
I.C.E. Integrated Circuit Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0600-ref1687

Telescoping Shopping Cart Collection

Creator:
Watson, Orla E., 1896-1983  Search this
Watson, Edith, (estate of)  Search this
Names:
Telescope Carts, Inc.  Search this
Western Machine Company  Search this
Goldman, Sylvan  Search this
O'Donnell, George  Search this
Taylor, Fred  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes, 1 oversized folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Letters (correspondence)
Patents
Photographs
Date:
1946-1983
2000
Scope and Contents:
The Telescoping Shopping Cart Collection, 1946-1983; 2000, provides information relating to the development of the product and the legal challenges encountered by its creator, Orla E. Watson, in the patenting, licensing, and manufacturing process.

The collection is divided into three series: Series 1: Background Information, 1983;2000; Series 2: Business Records, 1946-1979; and Series 3: Legal Records, 1946-1966.

Series 1: Background Information, 1983; 2000, contains two items, a document entitled Brief History of the Telescopic Grocery Cart, authored by Leslie S. Simmons, personal representative, Edith Watson estate, 2000, and Orla E. Watson's death certificate, 1983.

Series 2: Business Records, 1946-1979, contains information on the finances and operations of Telescope Carts, Inc. and the development and marketing of the telescoping cart. Materials include royalty and income tax statements of Orla E. and Edith Watson, business correspondence, a time line of cart development, blueprints, patents, details about the patent process, and marketing and publicity materials of brochures and photographs.

Series 3: Legal Records, 1946-1966, contains material relating to the manufacture and licensing of telescope carts, and legal challenges to both the company and Orla E. Watson, including the challenges to the patent process spearheaded by Sylvan Goldman, and the evidence collected for Watson's claim for a tax refund from the Internal Revenue Service.
Arrangement:
Divided into 3 series

Series 1: Background information, 1983, 2000

Series 2: Business Records, 1946-1979

Series 3; Legal Records, 1946-1966
Biographical / Historical:
The first shopping cart in the United States was developed in the late 1930s and patented by Sylvan Goldman of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Goldman received US Patent 2,155,896 in April 1939 for a "combination basket and carriage" and in April of 1940 he received US Patent 2,196,914 for a "folding basket carriage for self-service stores." It consisted of upper and lower baskets placed atop a folding frame similar to that of a folding chair with wheels. Following use, the baskets would be removed and stacked with others and the frame folded. Prior to each use the baskets and the frame needed to be assembled.

In 1946, Orla E. Watson, of Kansas City, MO, devised a plan for a telescoping shopping cart which did not require assembly or disassembly of its parts before and after use; this cart could be fitted into another cart for compact storage, hence the cart descriptor. The hinged side of the baskets allowed the telescoping. Watson's Western Machine Company made examples of this invention, and the first ones were manufactured and put to use in Floyd Day's Super Market in 1947.

Alongside the telescoping cart, Watson developed the power lift which raised the lower basket on the two-basket telescoping cart to counter height while lifting the upper basket out of the cashier's way at the check out counter. This made moving groceries, before the invention of the automatic conveyor belt, easier for the customer and the cashier. Watson manufactured and sold the power lift in 1947, but then discontinued efforts on the invention to focus on the telescoping cart. The patent application was abandoned and never granted.

The manufacturing, distribution, and sales of Watson's telescoping carts was handled by Telescope Carts Inc., established in 1947 by Watson, his partner, Fred Taylor, and George O'Donnell. The company had difficulty with the manufacture and sale of the carts, as authorized suppliers were not making carts of the quality expected. Other manufacturers saw an opportunity, and soon telescoped carts were being made and sold by unlicensed parties despite Watson's pending patent.

Watson applied for a patent on his shopping cart invention in 1946, but Goldman contested it and filed an application for a similar patent. In 1949 Goldman relinquished his rights to the patent and granted them to Watson. In exchange, Goldman received licensing rights in addition to the three other licenses previously granted; Watson continued to receive royalties for each cart produced.

The royalties Watson received for each cart manufactured led to his 1954 claim against the Internal Revenue Service, for refund of taxes paid on the profits of his invention, as a Congressional bill changed the status of invention-derived income from ordinary income to capital gains, thereby lowering the taxes owed.

Orla E. Watson was born in 1896, and after attending Nevada Business College for one year, he worked as a stock clerk in a hardware store in Kansas City, then joined the Army until 1918, when he entered a series of jobs as machinist, layout man, forman. He tinkered with mechanical inventions on the side (such as a Model T Ford timer). In 1933, he opened his own business making air conditioners, but he took two more jobs before opening Western Machine Co., a machine shop and contract manufacturing business in 1946.

He had also applied for and was granted four patents prior to the telescoping shopping cart, for mechanical valves, pumps, and gauges, none of which were ever licensed or manufactured.

Orla E. Watson died January 17, 1983.
Separated Materials:
The National Museum of American History's Division of Culture and the Arts houses original shopping carts created by Sylvan Goldman and Orla E. Watson.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History in July, 2000, by the estate of Edith Watson, through Leslie S. Simmons, personal representative. The two telescoping Watson carts were donated in July 2000 by Leslie S. Simmons, personal representative, Edith Watson estate.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Shopping carts  Search this
Retail trade -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Grocery trade  Search this
Container industry -- Equipment and supplies -- 1940-2000  Search this
Supermarkets -- 1940-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Patents -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1940-2000
Citation:
Telescoping Shopping Cart Collection, 1946-1983, 2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0739
See more items in:
Telescoping Shopping Cart Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0739
Additional Online Media:

General Motors EV1 Records

Creator:
General Motors Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 2 oversize folders )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Reports
Advertisements
Audiovisual materials
Catalogs
Correspondence
Diagrams
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Posters
Press releases
Date:
1990-2005
bulk 1993-1999
Summary:
This collection documents the design, testing, production and promotion of the first zero-emission electric car produced by a major car company, the General Motors EV1. The materials include photographs, promotional booklets and marketing, press coverage, and publications, as well as design details and specifications, describing the process by which this ambitious and controversial vehicle was produced and released to the public in the mid- to late 1990s. This collection would be of interest to researchers in the areas of innovative design, automobile marketing, environmental initiatives, and the automotive industry.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains materials relating to General Motors's development, promotion, and production of the EV1, the first commercially-available zero-emission electric vehicle, between 1990 and 2005. Included are design diagrams, photographs, and internal communication, but the vast majority of items are publicity materials such as press releases, newspaper and magazine coverage, and promotional material for auto shows.

Due to the nature of the donation (twenty-three separate donors from the original EV1 design team) there is some duplication of materials throughout the collection, though efforts were made to keep duplicates to a minimum.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Design, Testing, and Production Materials, 1991-1997

Series 2: Event Photographs, 1993-1994, 2000

Series 3: Press Coverage Materials,1991-2005

Series 4: Product Promotion Materials, 1990-2002

Series 5: Publications,1994, 1996-1999

Series 6: Post-Production Materials, 1999, 2002, 2004-2005
Biographical / Historical:
The General Motors EV1 is considered one of the most technologically advanced vehicles produced in the twentieth century and was the most energy-efficient car in the world at the time of its premiere. Manufactured for the consumer market by GM in 1997, EV1 featured many engineering innovations in aerodynamics, electric drive systems, electronic controls, and hydraulic braking, and was propelled by a rechargeable lead-acid battery pack, producing zero emissions. It was issued twenty-three patents for its advanced features, as well as winning several awards and competitions, including the electric vehicle world land speed record in 1994.

In early 1990, partly based on a boast by departing president of GM Roger Smith that electric vehicle technology was a reality, the state of California mandated that the major auto makers produce two percent of their vehicles emissions-free by 1998. Between 1990, when the barely-functional prototype car Impact debuted at the Los Angeles Auto Show, and 1994, when a fleet of fifty Impacts were premiered across the nation in the prEView Drive Program, a team of engineers worked on design, manufacture, and proof of concept vehicles that would eventually develop into the EV1: the first zero-emissions car to be released to consumers. The car's components were manufactured in several stages and locations: the assembly plant was in the Craft Centre in Lansing, Michigan; the motors were produced by Delco Remy in Anderson, Indiana; the battery pack, consisting of thirty-two 10-volt lead-acid batteries was produced by Delco Remy at their plant in Muncie, Indiana; and the power inverter and magnetic battery charger were constructed by Hughes Aircraft in Torrence, California.The finished car emitted zero pollutants, could accelerate from 0-60 mph in eight seconds, and had a range of eighty miles between charges. During 1995, the manufacturing process was refined, and the EV1 was announced in 1996 at both the Los Angeles and Detroit Auto Shows. The following year it became available to consumers through the Saturn division of GM marketing. However, due to concerns about parts and maintenance for the life of the car, GM only offered it on three-year lease programs, never for sale outright.

Though the EV1 did relatively well in the California and Arizona markets its first year, the 1999 EV1 Generation II showed a significant decline in consumer interest. The lease-only option was not appealing to many, and the limited range of the car, combined with a lack of publicly available charging stations, was a significant deterrent. Despite initial plans to expand the fleet of EVs by producing an S10 pickup truck with the new technology, and enthusiastic support from EV1's small but loyal customer base, GM stopped production on EVs altogether before the year 2000. When the last lease ran out in 2003, the fleet was recalled into storage, and except for a few that were donated to museums and universities for engineering programs and design study, the remaining EV1 vehicles were crushed and recycled in 2005.

The legacy of the EV1 remains in most of the hybrid fuel-electric vehicles and fuel-cell technology produced in the twenty-first century. It vaulted General Motors into the lead for development of advanced technology vehicles, beginning the long and ongoing effort to reduce US dependence on foreign oil as well as addressing the environmental issues caused by gasoline-powered engines.
Related Materials:
Related artifacts were donated to the Division of Work and Industry. See accession 2005.0061 and 2006.031-.034.
Provenance:
Collection donated in 2006 by Jill Banaszynski, General Motors Corporation; Patrick M. Bouchard, General Motors Corporation; Loran D. Brooks; Dan Brouns; Linda Ludek Brouns; Ray Buttacavoli; Laurel Castiglione, General Motors Corporation; Dennis H. Davis, General Motors Corporation; Robert E. DeGrandchamp; James N. Ellis; Hesham Ezzat, Marty M. Freedman, General Motors Corporation; Jamie Grover, Saturn Corporation; Steve M. Kunder, General Motors Corporation; Michael Kutcher, General Motors Corporation; Linda J. Lamar, General Motors Corporation; Kuen Leung, General Motors Corporation; Thomas M. Lobkovich; Joanne Mabrey, General Motors Corporation; Joseph F. Mercurio, General Motors Corporation; William L. Shepard, General Motors Corporation; Steven Tarnowsky; Lance Turner, General Motors Corporation.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobiles, Electric  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Advertisements -- 20th century
Audiovisual materials
Catalogs
Correspondence -- 20th century
Diagrams
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Posters -- 20th century
Press releases
Citation:
General Motors EV1 Records, 1990-2005, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0912
See more items in:
General Motors EV1 Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0912
Additional Online Media:

History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews

Extent:
6 videotapes (reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Date:
1997
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera or digital recorder as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were videotape recorded in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the National Museum of American History, documented the history, development, commercialization and applications of diagnostic ultrasound. Session One was recorded between January 20 through January 24, 1997 at Acuson Corporation located at Mountain View, California. Interviewees included scientists, engineers, managers, and a patent attorney from Acuson. The session took place at several sites on the Acuson campus. Interviews focused on the history of the company, the development of ultrasound and transducer technologies, design and commercial development of the equipment, the manufacturing process, clinical applications, education of clinicians, and the patenting process.

Kondratas also interviewed several of the participants on audiotape. The tapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are also available through the Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives.

This collection consists of one interview session, totaling approximately 12:00 hours of recording and 203 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 24 original Betacam videotapes, 12 dubbing master U-matic videotapes, and 6 reference copy VHS videotapes. The collection has been remastered digitally, with 24 motion jpeg 2000 and 24 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 24 Windows Media Video and 24 Real Media Video digital files for reference.
Historical Note:
Medical diagnostic ultrasound systems use high-frequency sound waves to produce images of soft tissues and internal body organs. First introduced to the medical world in the 1950s, it is a widely used diagnostic imaging modality today. Ultrasound exams are non-invasive and generally considered safe at the power levels used for diagnostic exams. Ultrasound is used in obstetrical, abdominal, urological, vascular and cardiac applications.

Sonar - the technique of sending sound waves through water and observing the returning echoes to characterize submerged objects - inspired early ultrasound investigators to explore ways to apply the concept to medical diagnosis. Early on, ultrasound was used to detect gallstones, breast masses, and tumors. During the early 1970s, the technology advanced to gray scale ultrasound systems that produce static images of internal organs easily recognizable to physicians. Later in the 1970s, the development of real-time ultrasound imaging enabled physicians to see continuous live-action images of the area under investigation. The 1980s saw the introduction of spectral Doppler and later color Doppler which depicts blood flow in various colors to indicate speed of flow and direction.

In 1979, Samuel H. Maslak, Sc.D., began developing a new approach to medical ultrasound imaging. The scanners used in the existing ultrasound technology produced satisfactory diagnostic images from the returning echoes through sixty-four electrical channels, but the machines could not refine the images because computers for ultrasound imaging did not exist. Dr. Maslak's work in applying computer technology to ultrasound led to the founding, with Robert Younge and Amin Hanafy, of Acuson Corporation in 1982. Acuson introduced its first product in 1983, the Acuson 128 Computed Sonography System which applied computer technology to diagnostic ultrasound. The 128 channel software-controlled image formation process provided black-and-white and color ultrasound images with high resolution and clarity.

Acuson continued to develop ultrasound technology. The introduction of the Sequoia 512 system in 1996 provided clinicians with twice the amount of image information in half of the time. Acuson's development of a new way to form ultrasound images called Coherent Image Formation used both the phase and the amplitude information from ultrasound echoes to produce images. Conventional ultrasound systems produced images based only on the amplitude information. This discovery offered the user increased spatial and temporal image resolution.

Bradford C. Anker was educated at Purdue University receiving the B.S. degree in industrial engineering in 1968. Anker joined the Hewlett-Packard Automatic Measurement Systems Division in 1968. During his six years there, Anker progressed through the materials management function and was master scheduling manager when he left Hewlett-Packard to join Spectra-Physics, where he held several senior manufacturing and management positions during his ten years at the company. Anker was Vice President, manufacturing, for Margaux Controls before joining Acuson in 1983, as Vice President, manufacturing.

Corinne Augustine was educated at the University of Florida where she received the B.S.I.E. degree in 1980, and the M.B.A. degree in 1991 at Stanford University. Augustine joined Frito Lay Company in 1980 as the Industrial Engineering Department Manager. She then joined Intel Corporation in 1984 as the Industrial Engineering and Production Manager. From 1986 through 1989, Augustine was the New Products Project Manager at Sun Microsystems. In 1991, Augustine joined Acuson Corporation as a project manager and was promoted to Director of manufacturing in 1994.

Amin Hanafy, Sc.D., was educated at Alexandria University in Egypt where he received the bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1965. He attended the New Jersey Institute of Technology receiving the M.S. in electrical engineering in 1971 and the Sc.D. in acoustical optical imaging in 1977. His professional experience included four years with Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering, where he was an instructor in the electrical engineering department. He spent six years as a design engineer at L & R Manufacturing Company. He then joined Hewlett-Packard Company as Technical Director of transducer activity, from 1975 until 1981. Hanafy was one of the founders, with Robert Younge and Samuel Maslak, of Acuson Corporation in 1981. He was the transducer division director at Acuson until 1988, and continued his association as Principal Fellow.

Thomas Jedrzejewicz received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Northeastern University in 1958. After ten years as a field application engineer with Raytheon Company, Jedrzejewicz worked as product development specialist at Corning Glass Works and then as product manager at American Optical. From 1975 to 1978, he served as Marketing Manager for ultrasound for Picker Corporation. Then, following two years at SmithKline Instruments and one year at Technicare, Jedrzejewicz became Marketing Manager for ultrasound and nuclear medicine at Toshiba America Medical Systems. From 1983 to 1989, he performed various tasks for Acuson, including the commencement of Acuson's marketing and communications plans. He then worked as Director of ultrasound marketing for Toshiba America Medical Systems for two years before again joining Acuson as Director of technical programs in 1992.

Hugh G. Larsen received the B.S.E.E. degree from Brown University in 1965. He received the M.S.E.E. at the University of Cincinnati in 1971 and the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at the University of Vermont in 1976. From 1976 to 1983, Larsen worked at Hewlett-Packard on their phased-array cardiac ultrasound system. In 1983, he joined Acuson working in a variety of technical and managerial roles to advance ultrasound technology. In 1991, he was promoted to Director of Imaging Technology on the Sequoia program and then served as Director of the Sequoia Engineering.

Samuel H. Maslak, Sc.D., was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), receiving the degree of Sc.D. in 1975 and the degrees of E.E., S.M. and S.B. in electrical engineering in 1971. Maslak's dissertation was on ultrasound design. His professional experience included four years with Hewlett-Packard Company, where he was a member of the technical staff and project manager at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. While at Hewlett-Packard, Maslak invented a unique scanner architecture which was subsequently patented and assigned to Hewlett-Packard. In 1979, Dr. Maslak began developing a new and proprietary approach to medical ultrasound imaging. This work led to the founding, with Robert Younge and Amin Hanafy, of Acuson Corporation in 1982. Maslak served as President and Chief Executive Officer from the inception of the company until June 1995, when he was elected to Chairman of the Board. Maslak retained his position as Chief Executive Officer.

After receiving her law degree from Ohio State University in 1982, Liza K. Toth first worked in the Chicago patent law firm of Hume Clement. She helped start the Intellectual Property group in the San Jose, California, law firm of Hopkins & Carley. After July 1994, Toth served as Acuson's Chief Patent Counsel responsible for the patent, trademark and copyright portfolio of the company.

J. Nelson Wright received the B.S. in 1976 and the M.S. in 1978 in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to joining Acuson, Wright was a member of the technical staff at the MIT Lincoln Lab from 1976 to 1981. Wright joined Acuson as Project Manager during the development of the Acuson 128 ultrasound system. Beginning in 1987, Wright initiated and subsequently contributed to and managed the development of Sequoia ultrasound technology.

Additional interviewees included David Burris and Marketing Communication Manager Jackie Ferreira. Also included are Gelston Howell, Manager of transducer development, Alan Kirby, 128 XP Production Manager, Jon Knight, Production Manager of Sequoia manufacture, Vaughan Marian, Mechanical Engineering Senior Fellow, Rick Sperry, Process Engineer, and Worth Walters, New Products Development Engineer.
Topic:
Medicine  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
History of Medicine.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9593, History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9593
See more items in:
History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9593

Shoe Construction

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Container:
Box 12, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1872-1940
undated
Scope and Contents:
Consists of descriptions of the shoe manufacturing process. Material is both intended as general instruction and specific descriptions of company design and creation processes.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Shoes, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Shoes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-shoes-ref71

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