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Louis Stops Simon but in 13 Rounds [newspaper article]

Publisher:
The Honolulu Advertiser  Search this
Names:
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Collection Creator:
Black, Julian, Mrs.  Search this
Black, Julian (boxing manager)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (mounted, 13.6"x11.6")
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Newspapers
Clippings
Place:
Honolulu (Hawaii)
Hawaii
Date:
1941
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper article from The Honolulu Advertiser, 22 March 1941; includes photograph of Joe Louis.
Arrangement:
Vol. 84, page 78.
Local Numbers:
AC0002-0000002.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of microfiche and microfilm recommended. Some original volumes are fragile.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Boxing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Reproductions
Newspapers -- 1940-1950
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Collection Citation:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0002-ref627

Louis Fights Dorazio Here Tonight in 14th Title Defense [newspaper article]

Publisher:
Evening Bulletin (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Names:
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Collection Creator:
Black, Julian, Mrs.  Search this
Black, Julian (boxing manager)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (mounted, 13.6"x11.6")
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Newspapers
Clippings
Date:
1941
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper article from Evening Bulletin - Philadelphia, 17 February 1941, on page from scrapbook 83; photos of Gus Dorazio and Joe Louis.
Arrangement:
Vol. 83, page 27.
Local Numbers:
AC0002-0000003.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of microfiche and microfilm recommended. Some original volumes are fragile.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Boxing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Reproductions
Newspapers -- 1940-1950
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Collection Citation:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0002-ref628

Odds Swing Heavily to Brown Bomber [newspaper article]

Publisher:
Evening bulletin (Providence, R.I.)  Search this
Names:
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Collection Creator:
Black, Julian, Mrs.  Search this
Black, Julian (boxing manager)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (mounted, 13.1"x10.7")
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1941
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper article from Evening Bulletin, Providence, Rhode Island, 18 June 1941; cartoon of Billy Conn and Joe Louis by Lanning, article by Lawton Carver.
Arrangement:
Vol. ?, page ?.
Local Numbers:
AC0002-0000004.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of microfiche and microfilm recommended. Some original volumes are fragile.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Boxing  Search this
Collection Citation:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0002-ref629

Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. (1911-1978)

Creator:
United Press International  Search this
Subject:
Humphrey, Hubert H (Hubert Horatio) 1911-1978  Search this
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
United States Congress Senate  Search this
United States Office of the Vice President  Search this
Physical description:
Gelatin silver prints
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Minnesota
Date:
1968
07/24/1968
Topic:
Presidential candidates  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-4083]
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Contact SIA Reference Staff for further information (email photos@si.edu)
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_393905

Will Roper Share Same Fate As Other Heavy Title Contenders? [newspaper article]

Publisher:
San Francisco Call Bulletin  Search this
Names:
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Collection Creator:
Black, Julian, Mrs.  Search this
Black, Julian (boxing manager)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (mounted, 13.7"x11.9")
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Clippings
Newspapers
Photographs
Date:
1939
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper article from San Francisco Call Bulletin, 17 April 1939, on page from scrapbook volume 18; photos of Jack Roper, Nathan Mann, Jim Braddock, Tommy Farr, Harry Thomas, John Henry Lewis, and Joe Louis.
Arrangement:
Vol. 18, page 18.
Local Numbers:
AC0002-0000001.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of microfiche and microfilm recommended. Some original volumes are fragile.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Boxing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 1840-1940
Newspapers
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Reproductions
Collection Citation:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0002-ref626

Portraits in Black: Slide Show Narration

Creator:
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Barthé, Richmond, 1901-1989  Search this
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson), 1904-1971  Search this
Drew, Charles Richard, 1904-1950  Search this
Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938  Search this
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip), 1889-1979  Search this
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Traveling Exhibition Service  Search this
Extent:
1 sound recording (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound recordings
Narration
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1983
Scope and Contents:
Narration for the two slide shows which complimented the exhibition, Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin. Narrator repeats quotes from the words of W.E.B. Du Bois, A. Philip Randolph, Ralph Johnson Bunche, Thurgood Marshall, William Henry Hastie, Charles Richard Drew, James Weldon Johnson, Mary McLeod Bethune, Joe Louis, Richard Barthe, and Paul Leroy Robeson.
Narration. Part of Part of Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin Audiovisual Records. Dated 19830324.
Biographical / Historical:
The exhibition, Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin, presented 36 portraits selected from the Harmon Foundation collection, on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, as well as biographical information and memorabilia. The portraits depicted likenesses of blacks who made significant contributions in the fields of civil rights, law, education, medicine, the military, and the arts. Portrait subjects included Marian Anderson, Joe Louis, W.E.B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, George Washington Carver, Charles Drew, William Ayres Campbell, and Richard Barthe. The exhibition was on display from April 17, 1983 - August 21, 1983 at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum.
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Blacks -- History  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Citation:
Portraits in Black: Slide Show Narration, Exhibition Records AV03-002, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-002, Item ACMA AV003301
See more items in:
Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-002-ref3

Joe Louis: my life / by Joe Louis, with Edna and Art Rust, Jr

Author:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Rust, Edna  Search this
Rust, Art 1927-  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
277 p., [16] leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1978
C1978
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)  Search this
Boxing  Search this
Call number:
CT275.L887A1
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_106544

Brown bomber

Author:
Nagler, Barney  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
236 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1972
[1972]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1041758

Joe Louis : American / by Margery Miller

Author:
Miller, Margery  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
x, 181 p., [10] p. of plates : ill., ports. ; 19 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1945
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)  Search this
Call number:
CT275.L887 M55 1945
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_567941

Portraits in Black Narration and Music

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Howard University  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Search this
United Nations  Search this
Barthé, Richmond, 1901-1989  Search this
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson), 1904-1971  Search this
Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938  Search this
Johnson, Mordecai W. (Mordecai Wyatt), 1890-1976  Search this
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip), 1889-1979  Search this
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Traveling Exhibition Service  Search this
Extent:
2 sound recordings (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound recordings
Narration
Music
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
circa 1983
Scope and Contents:
Narrator presents short historical and biographical profiles of outstanding Americans of negro origin: W.E.B. Du Bois, A. Philip Randolph, Ralph Johnson Bunche, Thurgood Marshall, William Henry Hastie, Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, Mary McLeod Bethune, Joe Louis, James Weldon Johnson, Richmond Barthe, and Paul Robeson. Quotes written by these outstandings Americans and read by narrator are included. Music played between biographical profiles.
Narration and music. Part of Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin Audiovisual Records. AV003484 and AV003508: same content but AV003484 has beeps throughout recording. Undated.
Biographical / Historical:
The exhibition, Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin, displayed 36 portraits--27 oil paintings and 9 color photo reproductions--selected from the Harmon Foundation collection, on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, as well as biographical information and memorabilia. The exhibition was on view at the Anacostia Community Museum from April 17, 1983 - August 21, 1983. Likenesses of blacks who made significant contributions in the fields of civil rights, law, education, medicine, the military, and the arts were on display. Included were Marian Anderson, Joe Louis, W.E.B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, George Washington Carver, Charles Drew, William Ayres Campbell, and Richmond Barthe.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV003508-1

ACMA AV003508-2
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American women  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Civil rights leaders  Search this
African American diplomats  Search this
Diplomats  Search this
African American educators  Search this
Educators  Search this
African American lawyers  Search this
Lawyers  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
Clergy  Search this
African American authors  Search this
Authors  Search this
African Americans in the performing arts  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Artists  Search this
African American athletes  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Armed Forces  Search this
African American soldiers  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Education  Search this
Blacks -- History  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Music
Citation:
Portraits in Black Narration and Music, Exhibition Records AV03-002, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-002, Item ACMA AV003484
See more items in:
Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-002-ref2

Champion--Joe Louis, black hero in white America / Chris Mead

Author:
Mead, Chris 1959-  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 330 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1985
C1985
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)  Search this
Call number:
GV1132.L6M4 1985X
CT275.L887 M4
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_268848

Joe Louis : 50 years an American hero / by Joe Louis Barrow and Barbara Munder

Author:
Barrow, Joe Louis  Search this
Munder, Barbara  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 270 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1988
C1988
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)  Search this
Call number:
GV1132.L6B37 1988X
CT275.L887B2
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_352585

The tempering years

Author:
Hoyt, Edwin Palmer  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
373 p., [16] p. of plates, illus., ports. 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1963
[c1963]
1933-1945
1919-1933
1918-1945
Topic:
History  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_536675

Joe Louis : the great black hope / Richard Bak

Author:
Bak, Richard 1954-  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 315 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1998
1996
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_548323

How great was Joe Louis? / by Wilfrid Diamond

Author:
Diamond, Wilfrid  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
128 p., [4] leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1955
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)  Search this
Call number:
CT275.L887 D53 1955
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_677009

Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis

Creator:
Black, Julian, Mrs.  Search this
Black, Julian (boxing manager)  Search this
Names:
Jacobs, Mike  Search this
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Roxborough, John  Search this
Extent:
109 Volumes
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Volumes
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Date:
1935-1944
Summary:
The collection consists of 109 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings assembled by Julian Black, manager of Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. They document Louis's career from 1935 to 1944.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 109 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings assembled by Julian Black, manager of Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. They document Louis's career from 1935 to 1944. Louis became one of America's most celebrated sports figures both for his extraordinary boxing skills and for his role as a symbol of national pride, especially in his bouts with the German champion Max Schmeling. His national respect and international prominence stood in ironic contrast to the nation's legal and social practices of racial segregation.

Joe Louis's manager, Julian Black, assembled three sets of scrapbooks to document Louis's career. This collection consists of ninety-two volumes from Black's set, sixteen volumes from a similar but not identical set of scrapbooks assembled for Louis, and one oversize miscellaneous volume.

The third set of scrapbooks belonged to John W. Roxborough, Joe's manager or co-manager from 1933 to 1948. It is held by the Bentley Historical Library at the University of Michigan. This set contains ninety-four volumes covering the period 1935 to November 1941. Part of this collection has been microfilmed. Although the numbering of the volumes in each of the three sets is different it appears that each set has the same information.

The scrapbooks contain newspaper clippings from throughout the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1944 and articles from Ring magazine. This collection documents Joe Louis's fights from June 25, 1935, through 1944, including championship fights from June 22, 1937, through September 29, 1941. (The Steve Ketchel fight on January 11, 1937, in Buffalo is not represented. See the scrapbook volume listing at the end of this guide.)

The scrapbooks were assembled with great care using high-quality binding and paper. The clippings are neatly mounted and show great attention to detail. All clippings are identified by the name of the paper; the day of the week and the date; and the author, artist, or photographer. Clippings include full-length articles and brief sketches, cartoons, photographs, and records and statistics of the boxers. The clippings are grouped in volumes by each of Louis's fights and then arranged chronologically.

Hundreds of major and minor newspapers throughout the United States and Canada are represented in the scrapbooks. Coverage extends from very large metropolitan dailies to small-town newspapers. Among the newspapers represented are titles as diverse as: Akron Beacon Journal; Daily Colonist, Victoria, British Columbia; Shreveport Times; Tribune Tulsa; and the Worchester Daily Telegraph.

While these scrapbooks are about the Joe Louis fights, there is a wealth of material on many other people connected with boxing in this period, including all of Joe Louis's opponents, his trainer, his managers, his promoter Mike Jacobs, and most of the sports reporters and writers of the time. Anyone of any importance connected with boxing during this period can be found in the pages of these volumes. There are also retrospective articles on earlier boxers and historical fights.

The two sets of scrapbooks in this collection are numbered separately: the Julian Black Scrapbooks, Volumes 1-92; and the Joe Louis Scrapbooks, Volumes 17-20, 52-58, 61-63, and 71 and 72. Although much of the same material is found in both sets, there are sufficient differences in content and in physical condition of the volumes. The container list indicates the relationship between the two sets. The 109th volume consists of an oversize miscellaneous scrapbook of random news clippings, 1941-1944, of later Louis matches.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series. Clippings arranged chronologically in scrapbooks, grouped in volumes.

Series 1: Julian Black Volumes, 1935-1941

Series 2: Joe Louis Volumes, 1936-1940
Biographical note:
Joe Louis Barrow, the seventh child of Monroe and Lily Barrow, was born May 13, 1914 in a cabin in the cotton fields of Lexington, Alabama. While Joe was still a young boy, his father suffered a mental breakdown and later died in the Searcy State Hospital near mobile, Alabama. His mother later married Pat Brooks, a widower with many children of his own, and the combined family moved to Detroit when Joe was ten.

After an introduction to boxing and lessons by his friend Thurston McKinney, Joe tried his luck at competition. The Brewster East Side Gymnasium became a second home for him. At sixteen he entered his first amateur tournament.

Joe Louis was an outstanding amateur. He lost only four decisions in fifty-four fights, and forty-one of his wins were by a knockout. Joe fought his last amateur fight on April 13, 1934, in St. Louis.

John Roxborough had encouraged Louis as an amateur and became his manager when Joe turned pro. Roxborough hired Jack Blackburn, a boxer himself, to coach and train the young Joe Louis. At this time Roxborough also teamed up with Julian Black of Chicago in a business venture that carried over into the management of Joe Louis.

Joe's professional debut took place in Bacon's Arena in Chicago on July 4, 1934. He decisively defeated Jack Kracken for a fifty-dollar purse. Only four of his first twenty-seven foes lasted all fifteen rounds.

As Joe Louis worked his way up the ladder as a contender for the heavyweight championship he acquired the nickname the "Brown Bomber." On May 14, 1935, one day after his twenty-first birthday, the young pugilist signed a ten-year contract with Julian Black. The contract stipulated that fifty percent of Joe Louis's gross earnings from boxing contests, exhibitions, movies, and radio would go to Julian Black. Jack Blackburn, the trainer, was paid from Joe's portion of the money. John Roxborough, the other manager, claimed "to have a contract for twenty-five percent of Louis's gross earnings for an indefinite period."

The newly organized 20th Century Sporting Club, with Mike Jacobs as promoter, operated in competition with Madison Square Garden. The club signed the promising young boxer to an exclusive contract. Joe's first appearance in a New York ring took place at Yankee Stadium on June 25, 1935, against Primo Carnera. Joe KO'd Carnera in the sixth round. On September 24, 1935, also at Yankee Stadium, Joe knocked out Max Baer in the fourth round.

After winning twenty-seven straight fights, including twenty-three KO's, Louis was the heir apparent to James J. Braddock's heavyweight title. On June 19, 1936 he battled max Schmeling, the former champ who was considered washed up. Schmeling surprised everyone by punishing and then finishing Louis off with a twelfth-round knockout.

A year later, in his thirty-sixth professional fight, Joe Louis won the heavyweight crown at twenty three years of age by defeating Jim Braddock in Chicago in eight rounds. Braddock fought Louis to avoid a fight with Max Schmeling and the possible loss of the title to a German. Braddock, however, insisted on a percentage of Louis's future purses. It is generally believed he received ten percent of all Joe's earnings over a period of fifteen years.

After defeating two easy opponents, Louis met max Schmeling in a dramatic rematch on June 22, 1938. Like Jesse Owens in the Berlin Olympic Games, Louis symbolized American democracy versus an increasingly menacing Nazi Germany. The irony of a black hero representing a racially segregated society in a symbolic battle between freedom and oppression was not lost on all Americans and, although Louis himself was not a political activist, his example added fuel to the movement for racial equality and civil rights. Louis defeated Schmeling in two minutes and four seconds of the first round.

In the following years promoter Jacobs searched for opponents for Louis. After defeating five former champions - Carnera, Baer, Sharkey, Braddock, and Schmeling-the pickings were slim. on January 25, 1939, Joe "squared-off" with the first Black to fight him professionally -- John Henry Lewis (great-great nephew of Tom Molineaux, the first of America's Black heavyweight champions). Lewis was the light-heavyweight champion of the world and a natural 175 "pounder." He and Joe were close personal friends outside of the ring. Nevertheless, Joe totally outclassed Lewis in the ring.

Joe Louis defended his title twenty times before World War II interrupted his career. He was eventually classified 1-A and inducted into the Army. During the winter of 1941-1942 he staged bouts for the Navy and Army. The service relief fund received $75,000 from the purse of each fight. While in the service the Brown Bomber traveled extensively, giving boxing exhibitions and refereeing bouts. For his service on behalf of the armed forces, he received a citation from the United States government.

Louis retired an undefeated champion March 1, 1949. He came out of retirement and lost a fifteen-round decision to Ezzard Charles on September 27, 1950 at Yankee Stadium. He won eight more fights from the end of 1950 until the fall of 1951. However, on October 26, 1951, Louis lost by a knockout in the eighth round to Rocky Marciano. He retired for good after this comeback attempt. For many years after he retired, Joe had income tax problems and other financial problem. He also underwent a brief stay in a Denver psychiatric hospital. Joe Louis died in 1981. Click here to go to scope and content note.
Joe Louis Heavyweight Championship Fights, 1937-1950:
1937 June 22 -- Joe Louis knocked out James J. Braddock, 8 rounds, Chicago.

1937 August 30 -- Joe Louis defeated TOUT Farr, 15 rounds, decision, New York City.

1937 August 30 -- Joe Louis defeated TOUT Farr, 15 rounds, decision, New York City.

1938 February 23 -- Joe Louis knocked Out Nathan Mann, 3 rounds, New York City.

1938 April 1 -- Joe Louis knocked out Harry Thomas, 5 rounds, New York city.

1938 June 22 -- Joe Louis knocked out Max Schmeling, one round,, New York City.

1939 January 25 -- Joe Louis knocked out John H. Lewis, one round, New York City.

1939 April 17 -- Joe Louis knocked out Jack Roper, one round, Los Angeles.

1939 June 28 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tony Galento, 4 rounds, New York city.

1939 September 30 -- Joe Louis knocked out Bob Pastor, 11 rounds, Detroit, Michigan.

1940 February 9 -- Joe Louis defeated Arturo Godoy, 15 rounds,decision, New York City.

1940 March 29 -- Joe Louis knocked out John Paychek, 2 rounds, New York city.

1940 June 20 -- Joe Louis knocked out Arturo Godoy, 8 rounds, New York city.

1940 Decenber 16 -- Joe Louis knocked out Al McCoy, 6 rounds, Boston.

1941 January 31 -- Joe Louis knocked Out Red Burman, 5 rounds, New York city.

1941 February 17 -- Joe Louis knocked out Gus Dorazio, 2 rounds, Philadelphia.

1941 March 21 -- Joe Louis knocked out Abe Simon, 13 rounds, Detroit, Michigan.

1941 April 8 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tony musto, 9 rounds, St. Louis, Misssouri.

1941 May 23 -- Joe Louis beat Buddy Baer, 7 rounds, Washington, D.C., on a disqualification.

1941 June 18 -- Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn, 13 rounds, New York city.

1941 September 29 -- Joe Louis knocked out Lou Nova, 6 rounds, New York city.

1942 January 9 -- Joe Louis knocked out Buddy Baer, one round,, New York City.

1942 March 27 -- Joe Louis knocked out Abe Simon, 6 rounds, New York city.

1946 June 19 -- Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn, 8 rounds, New York city.

1946 September 13 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tami Mauriello, one round, New York City.

1947 December 5 -- Joe Louis defeated Joe Walcott in a 15-round bout by a split decision, New York city.

1948 June 25 -- Joe Louis knocked out Joe Walcott 11 rounds, New York city.

1950 September 27 -- Ezzard Charles defeated Joe Louis in latter's attempted comeback, 15 rounds, New York City.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Mrs. Julian Black in two installments to the Division of Community Life (now the Division of Home and Community Life), National Museum of American History: twenty-two volumes in 1976 and eighty-seven volumes in 1977.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of microfiche and microfilm recommended. Some original volumes are fragile.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American athletes  Search this
Boxers (Sports) -- 1930-1950  Search this
Sports -- 1930-1950  Search this
Boxing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0002
See more items in:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0002
Additional Online Media:

Joe Louis : the life of a heavyweight / Lew Freedman

Author:
Freedman, Lew  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
vi, 245 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
2013
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)  Search this
African American boxers  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1005703

Joe Louis scrapbooks, 1935-1944 [microform]

Author:
Harding, Robert S (Robert Steven) 1944-  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Archives Center  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Black, Julian  Search this
Physical description:
304 microfiches : ill., ports. ; 11 x 15 cm
Type:
Microforms
Place:
United States
Date:
1986
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)--History--Sources  Search this
Scrapbooks  Search this
Call number:
mfc 887
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_306650

Guide to the Julian Black scrapbooks of Joe Louis, 1935-1944 / by Robert S. Harding

Author:
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Archives Center  Search this
Harding, Robert S (Robert Steven) 1944-  Search this
Subject:
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Black, Julian  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Archives Center  Search this
Physical description:
29 p. : ill.; 28 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1987
Topic:
Boxers (Sports)  Search this
Scrapbooks  Search this
Call number:
GV1132.L6N35 1987X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_307856

The fight of the century / Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, and the struggle for racial equality / Thomas R. Hietala

Author:
Hietala, Thomas R. 1952-  Search this
Subject:
Johnson, Jack 1878-1946  Search this
Louis, Joe 1914-1981  Search this
Physical description:
375 p., [14] p. of plates : ill., ports. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
2002
C2002
20th century
Topic:
African American boxers  Search this
Boxing--History  Search this
Race relations  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_700419

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