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Locomotive-Builders - Misc.

Collection Collector:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
White, John H., 1933-  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, ca. 1830-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0523-ref118

Locomotive Builders - General

Collection Collector:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
White, John H., 1933-  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, ca. 1830-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0523-ref119

Beyer, Peacock : locomotive builders to the world / R.L. Hills and D. Patrick

Author:
Hills, Richard Leslie 1936-  Search this
Patrick, David  Search this
Subject:
Beyer, Peacock & Company History  Search this
Physical description:
302 p., [4] p. of plates : ill. (some col.), plans, ports. ; 31 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1982
C1982
Topic:
Locomotives--History  Search this
Locomotives--Design and construction  Search this
Call number:
TJ130.B57 H65 1982
TJ130.B57H65 1982
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_265561

John Stevens Collection

Creator:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Stevens, John, 1749-1838  Search this
Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Camden and Amboy Railroad.  Search this
Danville & Pottsville Railroad  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Place:
Pennsylvania
New Jersey
Date:
1808-1881
Scope and Contents:
The main component of this collection is a double-spaced typewritten document of 858 pages transcribed (apparently in 1903) from original records and consisting of correspondence, newspaper articles, technical descriptions, legal documents, and other material relating to John Stevens, his professional work and career. Some of the correspondence is between Stevens and his rival inventors, such as Robert Fulton, credited with producing the first steamboat.

Other documents in the collection are the orginal papers incorporating the Danville and Pottsville RR in 1831 and a carefully detailed survey and cost estimate of the Camden and Amboy RR in 1830.
Biographical / Historical:
John Stevens (1749 1838) of New York, inventor and engineer, graduated from King's College (now Columbia University) in 1768. Admitted to the New York Bar in 1771, he served as treasurer of New Jersey during the Revolutionary War. He became interested in steam powered navigation in 1787 and for the next fifty years was active in building and promoting steam boats and trains, securing numerous patents, and inventing such important developments as the screw propellor. He established the worlds first steam ferry, between New York City and Hoboken, New Jersey and later built the first operating steam locomotive in the United States Stevens secured a charter from the Legislature of Pennsylvania for the Pennsylvania Railroad, from Philadelphia to Lancaster County. Two of John Stevens' seven sons, Robert and Edwin were also prominent engineers and developers of transportation equipment who collaborated with their father.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steam engineers  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Locomotive builders  Search this
Steamboats  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
John Stevens Collection, 1808-1881, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0333
See more items in:
John Stevens Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0333
Additional Online Media:

Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection

Creator:
Norrell, Thomas, 1899-1985  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (84 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Photograph albums
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1840-circa 1960
bulk 1870-1940
Summary:
Approximately 11,000 images collected by Thomas Norrell consisting of original photographic prints and photographic postcards, original film and glass plate negatives, and duplicate/copy photographic prints and negatives. The majority are external views of single locomotive engines of North American railroad and industrial companies. Images of international railroad company locomotives and of representative locomotives from various locomotive works and builders are also included. The collection contains a small number of subject-specific images covering such topics as train wrecks, funeral trains, experimental locomotives, miniature trains, and locomotives at the 1933 and 1939 World's Fairs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains material related primarily, but not exclusively, to early North American railroad locomotives. Photographs and negatives comprise the bulk of the material in the collection, with the number of individual images well exceeding 10,000. While the collection is particularly valuable for its images of locomotives from smaller or relatively obscure railroad lines and industrial concerns (such as mining and lumber companies), it also includes a substantial number of images from the leaders of the railroad industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (such as the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad).

Norrell's organization of the collection reflects his technical knowledge of railroad engines and his familiarity with various railroad companies. His use of Whyte notation as an organizational schema gives evidence to this. Whyte notation is broadly utilized by the railroad industry as a way to classify locomotives based on their wheel configuration. A count of leading (non-driving) wheels, middle driving wheels, and trailing wheels (non-driving) is represented by a three-digit hyphenated number. For example, a locomotive with four leading wheels, four driving wheels, and two trailing wheels would be classified as a 4-4-2. Norrell utilized this convention when subdividing railroad companies for which he had collected many images, such as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, and the Lehigh Valley Railroad, among others. Norrell subdivided portions of his collection of Pennsylvania Railroad images based on that company's distinct classification system, where letters of the alphabet corresponded to different Whyte notations.

Norrell used other criteria to help subdivide larger assemblages of single-company railroad images, and these have been maintained. In some instances, he used the company number designation found on the locomotive itself (as in the case of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad). Other times, subject designations were used to distinguish rail yards, passenger cars, and special or prominent locomotives. Because the Pennsylvania Railroad comprised such a large segment of images, Norrell organized it according to a number of subdivision types (including year, Whyte notation, and subject) rather than any single one.

The collection is arranged into three series: Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960, and Series 3, Ephemera, undated.

Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated,contains photographic negatives and is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, and Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated.

The series contains original negative images, copy negatives of other printed images, and copy negatives of printed material, such as book illustrations. The inclusive dates for the series reflect the subject of the material photographed (as in the case of copy negatives) rather than the date the negative was created.

The negatives primarily depict views of single locomotive engines from various North American and international mainline and short line railroads. Interspersed among these are views of company-owned locomotives representing such North American industries as mining (coal, iron, limestone, copper, gold, quartz, zinc), lumber (timber, pulp, paper), metallurgical production (coke, iron, steel), stone/brick production (masonry, cement, gravel), utilities (power, light, telephone), chemical production, leather production, automotive production, and food service. A number of military railroad locomotives as well as early metropolitan transit systems are also represented among the negatives. Most of the images depict steam locomotives, though some diesel engines, diesel-electric hybrid engines, passenger and freight cars, and assorted repair/service vehicles are also spread throughout.

Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated consists of polyester film negatives ranging in size from 2 1/4" x 4 1/4" to 5" x 7". Additional larger polyester film negatives are interfiled with the glass plate negatives of Subseries 2 and range in size from 5" x 7" to 8" x 10".

The negatives are physically arranged by size, then by the negative series number originally assigned to them by the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation. This numbering system generally, but not always, follows an alphabetical order by name of railroad company (North American and international) or industrial company. The majority of the film negatives are 5" x 7" or smaller, and the number series for this size of negative begins with 85-20939 and ends with 85-31126.

Film negatives larger than 5" x 7" are separated and interfiled with the glass plate negatives of Subseries 2. As such, the negative series number range for these larger film negatives is not always consecutive. The first series number range begins at 82-4189 and ends at 82-4429. The second range begins at 82-13786 and ends at 82-13795. A printed, item-level index of the negatives containing an alphabetical list of railroad and industrial company names and associated negative numbers is available for consultation in the Archives Center.

The envelope enclosures for all negatives generally include the name of the railroad or industrial company, the engine/locomotive number, the engine/locomotive builder, the Whyte classification (wheel arrangement), the year of the engine/locomotive's construction, a brief description of the image, the size of the negative, and the negative series number.

Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, consists of glass plate negatives ranging in size from 5" x 7" to 10" x 12". Three broken glass plate negatives have been re-housed and are stored separately. Otherwise the plates are arranged by size, then by original negative series number as assigned by the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation. This number range is not always consecutive because the glass plate negatives are interfiled with the larger film negatives of Subseries 1. A printed, item-level index of the negatives containing an alphabetical list of railroad and industrial company names and associated negative numbers is available for consultation in the Archives Center.

The 8" x 10" glass plate negative number series begins with 82-4168 and ends with 82-4424.

The 5" x 7" glass plate negatives contain series numbers 82-13783 to 82-13785.

The 12" x 10" glass plate negatives contain series numbers 82-4430 to 82-4452.

The envelope enclosures for the negatives generally include the name of the railroad or industrial company, the engine/locomotive builder, the Whyte classification (wheel arrangement), in some cases a brief description of the image, and the negative series number.

Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960,consists of visual material, including photographic postcards, illustrated postcards, photographic prints (made through a variety of photographic processes), and a photograph album. It contains five subseries: Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies; Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies; Subseries 3, Railroad Builders; Subseries 4, Subjects; and Subseries 5, Duplicate Images.

Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960 includes photographic and illustrated postcards and photographic prints of North American railroad companies, industrial railroads, and urban transit companies. The images range in size from 2 1/4" x 4 1/4" to 8" x 10," with the majority being silver gelatin prints. Occasional albumen prints, cyanotype prints, and salted paper prints are found in the collection. The majority of the images are views of single locomotive engines, though some images of railroad stations, roundhouses, rail yards, and passenger cars are interspersed throughout. While the majority of the photographs are 4" x 6" or smaller, there are prints larger than 4" x 6" which are arranged alphabetically by railroad or industrial company name. In some cases multiple larger images from railroad companies with names close to each other alphabetically are filed together in a single folder and identified with the first common letters of the company names.

Norrell's original alphabetical organization by railroad or industrial company name has been preserved. In some instances where a substantial number of images for a particular railroad company exist, Norrell subidivided the images either by Whyte notation (wheel arrangement) or by subject. This usually follows either an alphabetical or numerical organization, but not in every case. In many instances, hand-written notes and postage appear on the reverse of the photographic postcards. Addresses and salutations indicate that many of the postcards were not sent to Thomas Norrell directly, but were acquired by him at a later date.

Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960, includes photographs, illustrated postcards, and a photograph album depicting international railroads and railroad locomotives. Of particular interest is the photograph album compiled by Thomas Norrell containing sixty individual photographs of steam locomotive engines from eighteen assorted British, continental European, and South American railroad companies. The images are all approximately 14" x 10," and each corresponds to an identification chart mounted in the front of the album indicating the railroad company, engine number, Whyte notation (wheel arrangement), and special notes about each engine.

Subseries 3, Railroad Builders, circa 1850-1960 consists photographic prints and photographic postcards containing images of locomotives separated by builder. Norrell's original alphabetical arrangement of the images by locomotive works or manufacturing company name has been preserved.

Subseries 4, Subjects, 1804-1940, contains photographic prints and photographic postcards organized by subject. The images are arranged chronologically by date of the subject of the images. Of particular interest are Norrell's photographs of locomotives at the 1933-1934 Chicago and 1939-1940 New York World's Fairs.

Subseries 5, Duplicate Images, circa 1850-1960, contains duplicate photographic prints and duplicate copy prints created from the either the photographs in Series 2 or from the film and glass plate negatives from Series 1. The duplicate images, including photographic postcards and photographic prints, are subdivided by first letter of the name of the railroad or industrial company. The duplicate copy prints created from the negatives are arranged numerically by a negative number recorded on the negative itself.

Series 3, Ephemera, undated,consists of an unidentified and undated piece of railroad track.

References

Staufer, Alvin F. Pennsy Power III 1847-1968. Medina, OH: Alvin F. Staufer, 1993.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in three series.

Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 3, Railroad Builders, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 4, Subjects, 1804-1940

Subseries 5, Duplicate Images, circa 1850-1960

Series 3, Ephemera, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Norrell was born in West Ham (Essex County) England on November 11, 1899. He emigrated to the United States as a young man and became a naturalized citizen in 1911. He took an apprenticeship at the Baldwin Locomotive Works around 1920. Although the Baldwin works benefited from a boom in the export of steam locomotives meant to replenish foreign rail systems impacted by use during the First World War, the upswing was short-lived. Business at Baldwin slowed considerably in the 1920s as diesel engines began replacing steam locomotives. Recognizing that opportunities for advancement within Baldwin were scarce, Norrell moved out of railroad work completely and into the paper box industry. He married his wife Wilhelmina in 1929, and they resided in Cranston, Rhode Island and later Silver Spring, Maryland.

Despite his shift away from railroads as a vocation, Norrell maintained a life-long interest in trains and was a collector of photographic and print material related to locomotive engines, train cars, and industrial railroads. He contributed a number of articles to various railroad periodicals and was generous in providing images from his collection to other authors for reproduction in their publications. Norrell also influenced and supported a number of prominent railroad historians, including John H. White Jr., curator of the Division of Transportation in the Smithsonian National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History). It was through White's efforts that Norrell's collection became part of the Smithsonian Institution.

In 1942 Norrell gained some degree of notoriety for having rediscovered the famed Brady Civil War negatives in the vault of the Phelps Publishing Company in Springfield, Massachusetts while searching for an unrelated daguerreotype of an early Massachusetts locomotive. The locomotive had been identified from a wood-engraving made by an artist for a Phelps subsidiary publication, and Norrell secured permission to search the Phelps Company's vault for the image. During his search, Norrell stumbled upon and recognized the famed Civil War collection from earlier printed publications of the images. He brought the collection to the attention of the National Archives, which deferred to the Library of Congress. The storage fees for the images had been unpaid for many years by their owner, and the Phelps Company, interested only in recovering compensation for the use of the space, seized the images and sold them at cost to the Library of Congress in 1944.

Norrell later lived in Fredericksburg, Virginia, close to his daughter Elise Mann. He died there on February 1, 1985.

References

Bell, Kurt R. "On the Shoulders of a Giant: A Profile of John H. White, Jr.," Railroad History, 204 (Spring-Summer 2011): 6-23.

Hodge, Robert, comp. An Index to the Death Notices in the Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia), 1981-1991. Fredericksburg, VA: Robert A. Hodge (1992).

Norrell, Thomas. "The Norris Construction Record," Railroad and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, 150 (1983): 57-XX.

Norrell, Thomas. "Uriah Wells, Locomotive Builder of Petersburg," Railroad and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, 124 (1969): 40-XX.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930: Population Schedule. Massachusetts Enumeration District 9-169, Supervisor's District 10, Sheet 4-1, 1930.

Vanderbilt, Paul, comp. Guide to the Special Collections of Prints and Photographs in the Library of Congress. Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, 1955.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Baldwin Locomotive Works Collection (Engine Registers and Order Books), 1833-1956, (AC0157)

Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings, 1870-1890, (AC0353)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, 1880s-1990, (AC0523)

Materials Held by the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry

Three images from the collection, including an 1848 daguerreotype image of the locomotive "Tioga", an 1855 daguerreotype image of a locomotive on the Niagara Falls, and a circa 1870 daguerreotype image of a Rome, Watertown, and Ogdensburgh locomotive.

Materials Held by Other Institutions

Thomas Norrell photographic album, and other views of rail transportation in Canada and the United States, circa 1920-1979, R5500-27-4-E, Andrew Audubon Merrilees fonds. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation (now known as the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry) by Thomas Norrell on April 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270. The collection is stored off-site with the exception of the negatives. Some glass plate negatives are broken and may require special handling care.
Rights:
Copyright status unknown, though most images are in the public domain.
Topic:
Railroad companies -- Europe  Search this
Railroad companies -- Africa  Search this
Railroad companies -- North America  Search this
Railroad companies -- South America  Search this
Railroad accidents  Search this
Mine railroads  Search this
Locomotive builders  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Ephemera
Citation:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Collection, XXXX-XXXX, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1174
See more items in:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1174
Additional Online Media:

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection

Collector:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
White, John H., 1933-  Search this
Extent:
31.33 Cubic feet (94 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Ephemera
Manuscripts
Writings
Articles
Photographs
Photocopies
Research
Date:
1880s-1990
Scope and Contents:
The archivist has arranged the collection into five separate series: Series 1: CAR BUILDERS, arranged alphabetically by company or individual. Series 2: EQUIPMENT - ROLLING STOCK, arranged in two sections: alphabetically by White's heading: Articles in Progress and alphabetical by type of railroad car under White's heading: Research Files for Book in Progress. Series 3: LOCOMOTIVES, arranged alphabetically by Locomotive builders in two sections, first by individual company and second by individuals. Series 4: RAILROAD COMPANIES AND LINES, arranged alphabetically by railroad companies and railroad lines. Series 5: PUBLICATIONS, White's files for his book The American Railroad Freight Car, which are arranged into two sections, Illustrations and Text. Both sections are arranged numerically by chapters or sections of the book.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series. Most material arranged alphabetically and chronologically.

Series 1: Car Builders

Series 2: Equipment--Rolling Stock

Subseries 2.1: Articles in progress

Subseries 2.2: Research Files for Books in Progress

Series 3: Locomotives

Series 4: Railroad Companies and Lines

Series 5: Publications
Biographical / Historical:
John H. White, Jr., (1933- ), historian and museum curator, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He graduated with a B.A. in history from Miami University, Ohio, in 1958. Shortly after receiving his degree, White joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution as Assistant Curator of the Division of Transportation, Department of Science and Technology, National Museum of History and Technology (NMHT). White became Associate Curator of the Division, 1961-1966, Curator, 1967-1985, and Senior Historian, 1986-1989. White specialized in land transportation, particularly the history of railroads. He retired in 1990. His papers, the John H. White, Jr., Papers, circa 1959-1989 are at the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

This collection of railroad materials was begun many years ago by employees of the Smithsonian Institution, and maintained later by curators and museum specialists working in the Division of Transportation, NMHT, later named the National Museum of American History (NMAH).

Some of the clippings date back to the time of J. Elfreth Watkins in the 1880-1890s. In 1885 Watkins was appointed Curator of the Section of Steam Transportation, which was successively known as Transportation and Engineering, and Technological Collections. Other portions of White's collection were clearly from Carl Mitman, author of several hundred entries on inventors and engineers in the Dictionary of American Biography and a Smithsonian employee who served as Curator of Mechanical Technology in 1919. In 1921 Mitman took the title of Curator of the Divisions of Mineral and Mechanical Technology, serving in this capacity until 1931. In 1931 the Division of Engineering was established. Mitman served as Curator of the Division and in charge of Mineral Technology, 1931-1938, Head Curator of the Department of Arts and Industries, 1932-1938, and Head Curator of the Department of Engineering and Industries, 1938-1948.

Some portions of this collection were acquired under the time of Frank A. Taylor (Mitman's protégé) who was Assistant Curator, 1928-1931, Assistant Curator for Mechanical Technology, 1932, Curator of the Division and in charge of Mechanical Technology, 1932-1948, Head Curator of the Division of Engineering and Industry, 1948-1957. In 1955 Taylor was appointed Assistant Director, United States National Museum (USNM), with special responsibility for planning the new NMHT, and in 1958 was appointed the first Director of the new museum. In 1962 Taylor became Director of the USNM with responsibility for both the National Museum of Natural History and NMHT.

Smith Hempstone Oliver of the Division of Transportation also kept up the files to a degree, though his main interest was in automobiles.

When White started employment at the Museum in June, 1958, there were, perhaps, two file cabinets on railroads. As Mr. White mentions in a letter to the archivist in March of 2002, "It was and is a great mix of odds and ends -- photos, news clippings, small prints, manufacturing catalogs, post cards, etc. Some junk and some treasure."

White found the material very useful for research and greatly expanded the collection. It more than doubled in size during his years in the Division, 1958-1990. The collection was White's working file and was set up to meet his needs. According to White, the collections greatest lack was cross referencing -- which was mostly in his head. He could usually find things but the organization might be confusing to other users. It was not intended for public use.

White is the author of many books on railroads, including:

American Locomotives: An Engineering History, 1830-1880. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968; 1997.

Early American Locomotives, with 147 engraving. New York: Dover Publications, 1972.

American Single Locomotives and the "Pioneer". Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973.

The Pioneer, Chicago's First Locomotive. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1976.

The American Railroad Passenger Car. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

The John Bull, 150 Years a Locomotive. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.

A Short History of American Locomotive Builders in the Steam Era. Washington, D.C.: Bass, 1982.

Great Yellow Fleet: A History of American Railroad Refrigerator Cars. Golden West Books, 1986

The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
Provenance:
The manuscript was donated by Jack White in 1995.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Manuscripts
Writings
Articles
Photographs -- 19th century
Photocopies
Research
Citation:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, ca. 1830-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0523
See more items in:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0523
Additional Online Media:

Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings

Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
9 Cubic feet (4 drawers)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Technical drawings
Erection drawings
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Pennsylvania
Date:
1870-1890
Summary:
Collection consists of 202 assembly drawings of locomotives and tenders, prepared to check the clearances and major component parts of the locomotive and retained for engineering reference.
Scope and Contents note:
202 assembly drawings of locomotives and tenders, prepared to check the clearances and major component parts of the locomotive. When work was slow, draftsmen hand-colored the drawings. They were not used in the shop but were retained for engineering reference.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Baldwin Locomotive Works was the largest and most successful locomotive building firm in the world. It was begun as a machine shop owned and operated by Matthias W. Baldwin in 1831. Baldwin turned out its first locomotive engine from its shop in Philadelphia in 1832; within a few years the company was producing two a month and employed 240 men. By 1852, 500 engines had been produced; by 1861, 1,000; and by 1868, 2,000. At that point, the company employed between 1,600-1,700 men, and was one of the very largest machine works in the nation. In 1906 Baldwin began construction of a large auxiliary plant in Philadelphia suburb of Eddystone. In 1928 the Broad Street plant was closed and all work transferred to the Eddystone Plant.

Baldwin had been forced by hard financial times to take on a series of partners between 1839 and 1846, and the firm's name changed repeatedly as a result. It was known as Baldwin, Vail & Hufty (1839-1842); Baldwin & Whitney (1842-1845); M.W. Baldwin (1846-1853); and M.W. Baldwin & Co. (1854-1866). After Baldwin's death in 1866 the firm was known as M. Baird & Co. (1867-1873); Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co. (1873-1890); Burnham, Williams & Co. (1891-1909); it was finally incorporated as the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1909.

The company's phenomenal growth ended with in the mid-1920s as the U.S. railroad industry began its long decline. Despite various mergers and acquisitions--and an increased attention to the development of diesel engines--a slow but sure decline set in. Baldwin declared bankruptcy in 1935. World War Two brought a temporary respite, but after the war the steam locomotive was obsolete and orders rapidly diminished. The Westinghouse Corporation bought Baldwin in 1948 but was unable to turn the company around. In 1950 the Lima-Hamilton Corporation and Baldwin merged but in 1956 the last of some 70,500 locomotives were produced and the company's long history came to an end.

Sources

History of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 1831-1902

A Short History of American Locomotive Builders in the Steam Era, John H. White, (1982).
Related Archival Materials:
Archives Center #157, the Baldwin Locomotive Works Collection, consists of Engine Registers and Order Books for locomotives, 1833-1956. In addition, a six-reel microfilm edition of collection #157 is located in the NMAH Library (mfm-720).

Photographs relating to Baldwin are in the Railroad and Firefighting History Photographic Collection, Division of Work and Industry.

The DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University has a collection of 8,500 original Baldwin engineering drawings and has published three guides to their records.
Provenance:
Collection donated by H.L. Broadbelt, July 1959-November 1960.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad equipment industry  Search this
Locomotives -- Drawings  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- Rolling-stock  Search this
Railroads -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Baldwin locomotives  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Locomotive works -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Locomotive industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical drawings
Erection drawings
Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings, 1870-1890, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0353
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0353
Additional Online Media:

Diary

Collection Creator:
Craton, Forman H., 1902-1983  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1930-1931
Scope and Contents:
Based on a few diary entries, letters to his mother and memory. Divided into Home, Friends, and the General Electric Co. Written in 1973.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Forman H. Craton Collection, 1902-1983, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Forman H. Craton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0454-ref258
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Diary digital asset number 1
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Handwritten diary

Collection Creator:
Craton, Forman H., 1902-1983  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 4-5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1939
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Forman H. Craton Collection, 1902-1983, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Forman H. Craton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0454-ref263
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Handwritten diary digital asset number 1

Diary

Collection Creator:
Craton, Forman H., 1902-1983  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1941
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Forman H. Craton Collection, 1902-1983, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Forman H. Craton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0454-ref268
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Diary digital asset number 1
  • View Diary digital asset number 2
  • View Diary digital asset number 3

Diary

Collection Creator:
Craton, Forman H., 1902-1983  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 2-3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1942
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Forman H. Craton Collection, 1902-1983, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Forman H. Craton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0454-ref269
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Diary digital asset number 1
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Ames Iron Works [notebook]

Collector:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Ames Iron Works.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 9.4" x 7.5")
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Notebooks
Date:
December 1889
Scope and Contents:
Diagrams and figures for locomotive boiler parts.
Local Numbers:
AC0225-0000006 (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engineering  Search this
Locomotive builders  Search this
Engineering notebooks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notebooks
Collection Citation:
Engineering Notebook Collection, 1835-1930, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Engineering Notebook Collection
Engineering Notebook Collection / Series 1: Engineering Notebooks / Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0225-ref524

Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books

Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Names:
Baldwin, Matthias W. (industrialist)  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet
6 Microfilm (35 mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Microfilm
Ledgers (account books)
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1822-1956
Scope and Contents note:
This collection consists of Engine Registers and Engine Order Books. The Engine Registers list all locomotives built by the company from 1833 through 1956. They provide information on the purchasing railroad, date of trial, engine name, construction number, class, track gauge, number of wheels, size of cylinders, number of valves and fuel type. The Order Books, dating from 1854 1900, provide the same sort of information on specifications, as well as prices and delivery. The records in both sets of books are arranged chronologically and the information within each is arranged numerically by construction number.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Baldwin Locomotive Works was the largest and most successful locomotive building firm in the world. It was begun as a machine shop owned and operated by Matthias W. Baldwin in 1831. Baldwin turned out its first locomotive engine from its shop in Philadelphia in 1832; within a few years the company was producing two a month and employed 240 men. By 1852, 500 engines had been produced; by 1861, 1,000; and by 1868, 2,000. At that point, the company employed between 1,600 1,700 men, and was one of the very largest machine works in the nation. In 1906 Baldwin began construction of a large auxiliary plant in the Philadelphia suburb of Eddystone. In 1928 the Broad Street plant was closed and all work transferred to the Eddystone Plant.

Baldwin had been forced by hard financial times to take on a series of partners between 1839 and 1846, and the firm's name changed repeatedly as a result. It was known as Baldwin, Vail & Hufty (1839 1842); Baldwin & Whitney (1842 1845); M. W. Baldwin (1846 1853); and M. W. Baldwin & Company (1854 1866). After Baldwin's death in 1866 the firm was known as M. Baird & Company (1867 1873); Burnham, Parry, Williams & Company (1873 1890); Burnham, Williams & Company (1891 1909); it was finally incorporated as the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1909.

The company's phenomenal growth ended with in the mid 1920s as the United States railroad industry began its long decline. Despite various mergers and acquisitions and an increased attention to the development of diesel engines a slow but sure decline set in. Baldwin declared bankruptcy in 1935. World War Two brought a temporary respite, but after the war the steam locomotive was obsolete and orders rapidly diminished. The Westinghouse Corporation bought Baldwin in 1948 but was unable to turn the company around. In 1950 the Lima Hamilton Corporation and Baldwin merged but in 1956 the last of some 70,541 locomotives was produced.

Source

History of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 1831-1902, (1902); A Short History of American Locomotive Builders in theSteam Era, John H. White, (1982).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings (NMAH.AC.0353)

Consists of builder's drawings of locomotives and tenders, 1870-1890.

The DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University

University has a collection of 8,500 original Baldwin engineering drawings; the library has published three guides to their records.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum's Division of Transportation by the Baldwin Hamilton Corporation in 1976.
Restrictions:
Original volumes are fragile. Researchers should consult the microfilm located in the National Museum of American History library (mfm 720).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Transportation  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Locomotives -- Registers  Search this
Locomotive industry -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books, 1833-1956, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0157
See more items in:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0157
Additional Online Media:

[Engine Order Book Volume 9: ledger]

Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 12.3" x 14.0".)
Container:
Box 11, Volume 9
Type:
Archival materials
Ledgers (account books)
Date:
1890-1891
Scope and Contents:
Partial scan of page 184 dated January 1891.
Local Numbers:
AC0157-0000001 (AC scan no.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, except that slides may be in cold storage and require warm-up period. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Locomotive builders  Search this
Locomotives -- Registers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Collection Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books, 1833-1956, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0157-ref530

[Engine Register Volume 1: ledger]

Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 12.3" x 14.0".)
Container:
Box 1, Volume 1
Type:
Archival materials
Ledgers (account books)
Date:
1833-1871
Scope and Contents:
Partial scan of page 1 dated January 1833.
Local Numbers:
AC0157-0000002 (AC scan no.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, except that slides may be in cold storage and require warm-up period. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Locomotive builders  Search this
Locomotives -- Registers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Collection Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books, 1833-1956, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0157-ref531

[Engine Register Volume 10: ledger]

Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 15.7" x 12.3".)
Container:
Box 3, Volume 10
Type:
Archival materials
Ledgers (account books)
Date:
June 6, 1891 to May 25, 1904
Scope and Contents:
Partial scan of page 59 "Register of engines made by Burnham, Williams & Co., 1895.
Local Numbers:
AC0157-0000006 (AC scan no.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, except that slides may be in cold storage and require warm-up period. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Locomotive builders  Search this
Locomotives -- Registers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Collection Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books, 1833-1956, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0157-ref532

[The first successful anthracite coal burning locomotive: reproduction of technical drawing.]

Collector:
Millholland, James A., fl. 1860s-1900  Search this
Names:
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Co.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Millholland, James A., (Jr.), 1842-1911  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 11.1" x 6.2".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Technical drawings
Date:
March 1888
Scope and Contents:
Diagram of the 1852 design built for Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, published in the National Car and Locomotive Builder, March 1888, p. 38, top.
Local Numbers:
AC0163-0000008.tif (AC scan no.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Locomotives  Search this
Railroad equipment industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 1860-1890
Technical drawings
Collection Citation:
James A. Millholland Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
James A. Millholland Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0163-ref550

Interstate Commerce Commission Locomotive Inspection Reports

Creator:
Interstate Commerce Commission  Search this
Yungmeyer, Martha  Search this
Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (24 boxes )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Records
Photographs
Date:
1931-1964
Summary:
Records compiled by the Bureau of Rail Safety of the Federal Railroad Administration. Data include names of locomotive builders and railroads operating them.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is arranged into four series: Series 1: STEAM LOCOMOTIVES BOILER RECORDS, Series 2: ELECTRICS, DIESELS, RAIL CAR RECORDS, Series 3: RECORD BOOKS, & Series 4: PHOTOPRINTS and consists of records and photographs of the ICC for the years 1931-1964. Most of the photographs are of accidents or failures of equipment. The photographs are dated and railroads identified. Accident times and circumstances are noted. The records were compiled by the Bureau of Rail Safety of the Federal Railroad Administration. Data include names of locomotive builders as well as of railroads operating them.
Arrangement:
Divided into 4 series

Series 1: Steam Locomotive Boiler Records

Series 2: Electrics, Diesels, Rail Car Records

Series 3: Record Books

Series 4: Photoprints
Biographical / Historical:
The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), a former independent agency of the U.S. Government, was established in 1887 and charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the ICC's jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipelines, transportation brokers and express agencies.

The first regulatory commission in US history, the ICC was established as a result of mounting public indignation against railroad malpractices and abuses. The ICC's effectiveness was at first limited by the failure of Congress to give it enforcement power, by the Supreme Court's interpretation of its powers and by the vague language of its enabling act. However, beginning with the Hepburn Act (1906), the ICC's jurisdiction was gradually extended beyond railroads to all common carriers except aircraft by 1940. Its enforcement powers to set rates were also progressively extended, through statute and broadened Supreme Court interpretations of the commerce clause of the Constitution, as were its investigative authority for determining fair rates of return on which to base rates. In addition, the ICC was given the task of consolidating railroad systems and managing labor disputes in interstate transport. In the 1950s and 1960s the ICC enforced Supreme Court rulings that required the desegregation of passenger terminal facilities.

Beginning in the 1960s the ICC's functions were progressively reduced as government control of surface transportation was deregulated. The agency was terminated at the end of 1995 and many of its remaining functions were transferred to the new National Surface Transportation Board.

Source

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Smithsonian in [1971?] by Martha Yungmeyer, the daughter of D.W. Yungmeyer, who had been an inspector for the ICC.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Transportation  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Accidents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Records
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Interstate Commerce Commission Locomotive Inspection Reports, 1931-1964, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Martha Yungmeyer.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0241
See more items in:
Interstate Commerce Commission Locomotive Inspection Reports
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0241
Additional Online Media:

William Mason Papers

Creator:
Mason, William, (manufacturer), 1808-1883  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Family papers
Date:
1839-1857
Summary:
Papers of William Mason of Taunton, Massachusetts--engine builder, machinist, and manufacturer of locomotives and cotton machinery. The papers consist of bills, receipts, and correspondence concerning the operation of his household, the construction of his residence, and several incidental papers dealing with his business affairs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of William Mason (1808-1883), of Taunton, Massachusetts, document an engine builder, machinist, and manufacturer of locomotives and cotton machinery. The papers consist of bills, invoices, receipts, and correspondence concerning the operation of his household, the construction of his residence, and several incidental papers dealing with his business affairs.

The collection is arranged by type of material and then chronologically. Some materials relate to personal matters such as clothing, furniture, and food purchases. Others relate to William Mason's business affairs. The collection provides an understanding of the time, labor, tools, machinery, and supplies necessary to build the home of a successful businessman between 1848 and 1850 in Taunton, Masachusetts.

A partial description of William Mason, (little is known of his personal life), and of his times can be made through a study of his expenditures. The wages of both skilled and unskilled workers can be studied from payroll receipts. The cost of supplies, tools and equipment can be examined. The quantity and variety of products necessary to construct a home can be gauged to an extent.

Of note are the type and variety of products that each store stocked. Most were specialty stores with limited purpose. Mr. Mason generally paid his payroll bills when delivered. However, there are many bills with receipt of payment given as much as a year later. Some bills had statements asking early payment, others included interest, and some reminders of non-payment.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Business Records, 1839-1857

Series 2: Correspondence, 1845-1857
Biographical / Historical:
William Mason was born in 1808 in Mystic, Connecticut. His father was a blacksmith. As a boy, Mason spent time in his father's shops. He left home at the age of twelve and worked as an operator in the spinning room of a small cotton factory. He was a born mechanical genius and could repair the most complicated machine in the mill. At the age of fifteen he tent to East Haddam, where a mill for the manufacture of thread was being established, to start the machines. At seventeen he worked at the machine shop connected with the mill, where he stayed for three years. It was here he set up the first power loom in the country for the manufacture of diaper linen. He also constructed an ingenious loom for the weaving of damask table cloths.

In 1833, Mason joined Asell Lamphaer at Killingly, Connecticut to make the ring frame for spinning. He remodeled and perfected the "ring" which had been a failure, overcame the prejudice attached to it because of its failure, and caused the device to acquire the reputation it still retains today.

In 1835, Mason moved to Taunton, Massachusetts to join Crocker and Richmond, manufacturers of cotton machinery. He worked almost entirely on ring frames. The firm failed in 1837 during the financial crisis. The business was taken over by Messrs Leach and Keith. Mason was employed as foreman. On October 8, 1840 his greatest invention, the "self acting mule" was patented. Competition required improvements and on October 3, 1846 he received a patent for "Mason's Self acting Mule."

Leach and Keith suffered a failure in the winter of 1842 owing Mason a large amount of money. James K. Mills & Co. of Boston, a leading commission firm, came to his rescue and helped him to buy out the former partners. In 1845, new buildings were erected and the plant became the largest one devoted to the manufacture of machinery in the country. It made cotton machinery, woolen machinery, machinists' tools, blowers, cupola furnaces, gearing, shafting, car wheels made with spokes, and after 1852, locomotives.

Mason wanted to improve the symmetry of the American locomotive. A first engine was turned out in 1853. In 1857 his firm failed but he managed to reopen the plant soon afterwards. The textile business recovered rapidly but the locomotive business was less prosperous. By 1860, he had produced a total of only 100 engines. The figure was doubled by 1865 due to the wartime demand and the pace continued for the next several years. Also during the Civil Was, 600 Springfield rifles were turned out weekly.

Mason's locomotives were genuinely handsome without ornaments. His influence was exerted over all locomotive builders at the time and later. In 1856 he built two locomotives for the Cairo and Alexandria R.R. (Egypt) in which a commentator said that the engines' excellence was due to the accuracy of execution attained by an admirable set of tools and a skillful set of workmen. Opinion by Master Mechanics was that they were the easist engines to keep in repair. The business was organized as the Mason Machine Works in 1873 with a capital of $800,000.

Mason died in 1883 of pneumonia. The 700th engine was being completed. Only 54 more engines were completed by 1889 and delivered in 1890. The company continued to build cotton machinery.

William Mason was a painter and a good violinist. He established a bank in Taunton for his employees and made gifts to charity. He is remembered as a pioneer in the building of locomotives which ranked foremost in the country.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Manufacturers  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Locomotive builders  Search this
Housing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Family papers
Citation:
William Mason Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0045
See more items in:
William Mason Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0045

[Engine Order Book Volume 12: ledger]

Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (12.3" x 14.0".)
Type:
Archival materials
Ledgers (account books)
Date:
1893-1897
Scope and Contents:
Partial scan of page 315, engines ordered in 1895.
Arrangement:
In series 2, box 12 (or 4), volume 12?
Local Numbers:
AC0157-0000007m (AC scan no.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, except that slides may be in cold storage and require warm-up period. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Locomotive builders  Search this
Locomotives -- Registers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Collection Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books, 1833-1956, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0157-ref533

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