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Floyd Shimomura Papers

Creator:
Shimomura, Floyd  Search this
Names:
Japanese Americans Citizens League  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Articles
Writings
Speeches
Minutes
Financial records
Clippings
Business records
Reports
Newsletters
Place:
California
Date:
1978-2004
bulk 1981-1984
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Shimomura's work with the Japanese American Citizens' League in its efforts to seek redress for the internment of citizens of Japanese descent during World War II. The collection contains correspondence, especially with various chapters of JACL; reports; meeting minutes; business and financial records; convention materials; writings, notes, speeches and testimony; newsletters; campaign materials; clippings and articles; and travel papers for a JACL delegation to Japan.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1948, Shimomura graduated from the University of California, Davis, law school in 1973. He has worked for the State of California for most of his legal career. From 1982 to 1984 he was President of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL). During his presidency he worked to seek redress for citizens of Japanese descent who were interned during World War II.
Related Materials:
William Marutani Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Floyd Shimomura in 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Concentration camps -- 1942-1945 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1980-1990
Articles -- 1980-1990
Writings -- 1980-1990
Speeches -- 1980-1990
Minutes -- 1980-1990
Financial records -- 1980-1990
Clippings -- 1980-1990
Business records -- 1980-1990
Reports -- 1980-1990
Newsletters -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Floyd Shimomura Papers, 1978-2004 (bulk 1981-1984), Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1376
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1376

JACL's Bulletin no. 18: Suggestions of Items to Take to Assembly Centers and Relocation Camps

Maker:
Japanese American Citizens League  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 14 in x 8 7/16 in; 35.56 cm x 21.43125 cm
Object Name:
document
Place made:
United States: California, Marysville
Date made:
1942-05-13
Credit Line:
Gift of Robert Fuchigami
ID Number:
2015.0117.04
Accession number:
2015.0117
Catalog number:
2015.0117.04
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Executive Order 9066
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1694669
Additional Online Media:

William M. Marutani Papers

Donor:
Marutani, Victoria  Search this
Marutani, Victoria  Search this
Creator:
Marutani, William M.  Search this
Names:
Japanese Americans Citizens League  Search this
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (4 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Photographs
Awards
Legal documents
Date:
1940-2003
Summary:
These materials are arranged chronologically and include information about Marutani's life and professional activities. The series includes information about his time in the Army, his association with Tule Lake, his work on the Loving v. Virginia case, photographs, a plaque from the Tule Lake Reunion Committee, and lecture research and notes.
Scope and Contents:
Papers mostly relating to Marutani's activism on behalf of former inmates of Japanese American internment camps during World War II, including: papers relating to Marutani's service with the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, notes, facts and copies of historic documents he gathered; correspondence with former internees; photographs of camps and internees; legislative and litigative materials; and papers relating to Marutani's own wartime and post-war experiences.

This collection documents Marutani's activism on behalf of former Japanese American internment camp residents. Included are papers relating to Marutani's involvement with the CWRIC, notes, research, and photocopies of historic documents; correspondence; photographs of camps and internees; and legislative and litigation materials. Also, there are papers relating to Marutani's own wartime and post-war experiences.

Series 1: Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), 1940-1990 These materials relate to the investigation by the Commission and the response to the results. Series one is divided into two subseries: Correspondence, 1980-1984 and Reference Materials, 1942-1990. The correspondence is in the original order that Marutani created and relates to research, communications between Commission members, and reactions to the Commission's findings. The reference materials also include research done in affiliation with the Commission.

Series Two: William M. Marutani Papers, 1942-2003
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
William M. Marutani, a second generation Japanese American, was born in Kent, Washington. In the fall of 1941, he enrolled in courses at the University of Washington, but was forced to leave because of Executive Order 9066, which initiated the wartime incarceration of Japanese Americans. Marutani was taken to Fresno Assembly Center in the spring of 1942, and three months later was transferred to Tule Lake concentration camp, where he spent an additional three months. At the age of 20, he volunteered for the armed forces but was denied because of his Japanese ancestry. However, in 1944, he was inducted into a military intelligence school and later sent to Japan where he served in the Counter Intelligence Corps. In 1953, Marutani graduated from the University of Chicago Law School and joined the firm of MacCoy, Evans, and Lewis. He provided legal counsel for the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) and presented arguments in Loving v. Virginia, the ruling that struck down anti-miscegenation laws. In 1981, President Jimmy Carter appointed Marutani to the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC). This commission was created to investigate the incarceration of Japanese Americans and reparations for that action. Marutani was the only Japanese American to serve on the Commission. Based on his recommendations, Congress issued a payment with an apology to those affected. Marutani accepted the apology from President George Bush but refused the payment. Marutani passed away on November 15, 2004, at the age of 81.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Marutani's widow, Victoria Marutani, in 2005.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Concentration camps -- 1942-1945 -- United States  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 20th century
Awards
Legal documents -- 1940-2000
Citation:
William M. Marutani Papers, 1942-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0890
See more items in:
William M. Marutani Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0890
Additional Online Media:

Japanese American Documentary Collection

Creator:
Tanaka, Peter, Dr.  Search this
Tsukamoto, Mary  Search this
McGovern, Melvin  Search this
Nitta, Eugene T.  Search this
Ishimoto, Norman  Search this
Source:
Armed Forces History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Former owner:
Armed Forces History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Names:
Japanese Americans Citizens League  Search this
Emi, Frank  Search this
Hashimoto, M.  Search this
Kamikawa, Juichi  Search this
Kamikawa, Kazu, Mrs.  Search this
Kawashiri  Search this
Kihari, Shigeya  Search this
Matsumoto  Search this
Miyake, Takashi  Search this
Oliver, Floyd A.  Search this
Ozamoto, T.  Search this
Vogel, Mabel Rose  Search this
Wakabayashi, Ron  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes and 1 oversized folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Typescripts
Passports
Albums
Books
Cartoons (humorous images)
Christmas cards
Comic books
Newsletters
Panoramas
Personal papers
Photograph albums
Photographs
Posters
Ration books
Scrapbooks
Telegrams
Place:
Minidoka
Manzanar
Idaho
Amache (Calif.)
California -- 1940-1950
Date:
1900s-1993
Scope and Contents:
The collection is an assortment of souvenirs and memorabilia, which have survived the years since World War II. Many of them, Christmas cards, high school graduation programs, notes to friends, snapshots, and photographic prints in the form of dance programs reflect the interests and concerns of all teenagers. There are camp newsletters and Japanese passports, identification cards, ration books, meal passes, posters; a photograph album contains both family photographs and a record of achievements of members of the Kamikawa family. There is a transcript of a taped interview with Mrs. Kamikawa, who was nearly 90 in February 1982, the time of the interview. A book, Lone Heart Mountain by Estelle Ishigo, portrays in text and sketches life in the relocation centers.

The collection has been filed under the name of each donor rather than by subject such as passports, newsletters, photographs. With very few exceptions the material is in good condition. The historical sketch of the Matsumoto family tree in the photograph album is badly damaged.
Arrangement:
1 series, arranged alphabetically by donor.
Biographical / Historical:
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and the United States went to war. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 authorizing the military to exclude "any and all persons" from designated areas of the United States to protect the national defense. Thus, without the imposition of martial law, the military were given authority over the civilian population.

Under this order, nearly 120,000 men, women and children of Japanese ancestry, nearly two thirds of who were United States citizens, were forced out of their homes and into detention camps in isolated areas of the west. Many of them spent the years of the war living under armed guards, and behind barbed wire. Children spent their school days in the camps, young men left to volunteer or be drafted for military service. The War Relocation Authority administered the camps.

This collection of documentary materials relates to the involuntary relocation of Japanese Americans was collected by the Division of Armed Forces History in connection with the exhibit A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the United States Constitution at the National Museum of American History in 1988. The donors either were members of the Japanese American Citizens League or reached through the League. Interesting and revealing information is available about a few of the donors. They were primarily teenagers or young adults at the time of the relocation and the materials in the collection reflect their interests and concerns. Juichi Kamikawa, who had completed a year of college in Fresno, California, graduated from the Corcoran School of Art in Washington, D.C. after the war and became a respected artist. His family record is one of distinction in both Japan and the United States for several generations. Masuichi Kamikawa, his father, received the Order of the Sacred Treasure from the Japanese Emperor for outstanding contributions to the cultural heritage of Japan. Among achievements cited were his work in merchandizing and banking in Fresno, California. Mary Tsukamoto is one of the contributors to the video conversations in the exhibit. She is a retired teacher who was 27 years old in 1942 and a long time resident of Florin, California. Along with her entire family, she was sent to the center at Jerome, Arkansas. Mabel Rose Vogel taught high school at one of the camps, Rowher Center, Arkansas.
Related Materials:
The Division of Armed Forces History will have additional documents collected for the exhibit, A More Perfect Union, described above, that may be useful. Another collection on this topic in the Archives Center is collection #450, the Gerald Lampoley Collection of Japanese American Letters, 1942 1943, a collection of six letters written by Japanese Americans to their former teacher. Researchers may also refer to the records of the War Relocation Authority, Record Group 210, or those of the United States Commands, 1947 , Record Group 338, in the National Archives. Further, the National Headquarters of the Japanese American Citizens League in San Francisco, California, and the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles, California, maintain related collections.
Provenance:
Donated by a number of Japanese Americans, many of whom are members of the Japanese American Citizens League, headquartered in San Francisco. This material was acquired for inclusion in the exhibition, A More Perfect Union, described above, but was not placed on display for one reason or another. In certain instances, items in this collection were omitted from the exhibit if they were considered too fragile or too sensitive to prolonged exposure to light. It is possible that related items, currently on display, ultimately will be transferred to the Archives Center; if this occurs, it would be useful to distinguish between the two groups of exhibited and undisplayed materials. Transferred from the Division of Armed Forces History, June 1988.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Collection located at off-site storage area.

Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to LP recordings only possible by special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Military history, Modern  Search this
Concentration camps -- 1942-1945 -- United States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Typescripts -- 1940-1950
Passports
Albums -- 1940-1950
Books
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Christmas cards
Comic books
Newsletters -- 1940-1950
Panoramas
Personal papers -- 1940-1950
Photograph albums -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Posters -- 1940-1960
Ration books
Scrapbooks -- 1900-1950
Telegrams -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Japanese American Documentary Collection, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0305
See more items in:
Japanese American Documentary Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0305
Additional Online Media:

Norman Mineta

Artist:
Everett Raymond Kinstler, 5 Aug 1926 - 26 May 2019  Search this
Sitter:
Norman Yoshio Mineta, born 12 Nov 1931  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 106.7 x 91.4cm (42 x 36")
Frame: 117 x 101.8 x 5.1cm (46 1/16 x 40 1/16 x 2")
Culture:
Norman Yoshio Mineta: American\Asian American\Japanese American  Search this
Type:
Painting
Date:
2009
Topic:
Artwork\Sculpture\Statuette  Search this
Norman Yoshio Mineta: Male  Search this
Norman Yoshio Mineta: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Commerce  Search this
Norman Yoshio Mineta: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Transportation  Search this
Norman Yoshio Mineta: Politics and Government\US Congressman\California  Search this
Norman Yoshio Mineta: Politics and Government\Public Official\Mayor\San Jose, CA  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of George and Sakaye Aratani; Hill & Knowlton; Verizon Communications; AT&T; Freddie Mac; Saturn Electronics & Engineering/Wally Tsuha; Ms. Irene Hirano and the Japanese American National Museum; National Japanese American Memorial Foundation; Office of Hawaiian Affairs; The Washington Center for Internships and Academic Seminars; Asian American Government Executives Network; Asian Pacific American Institute for Congressional Studies; Allen Okamoto, Chairman of Asian Real Estate Association of America; Association of Asian/Pacific Community Health Organizations; Col. S. Phil Ishio (ret.) and Connie Ishio; Japanese American Citizens League (National); Japanese American Citizens League (D.C. Chapter); Japanese American Veterans Association; Justice & Security Strategies, Inc.; Leadership Education for Asian Pacifics, Inc.; Robert Nakamoto; National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development; National Association of Realtors®; National Council of Asian Pacific Americans; OCA; State Farm®; and other friends of Norman Mineta
Object number:
NPG.2010.19
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
20th Century Americans: 2000 to Present
On View:
NPG, South Gallery 341
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2010.19

Minoru Yasui

Artist:
Hanasono Studio  Search this
Sitter:
Minoru Yasui, 19 Oct 1916 - 12 Nov 1986  Search this
Medium:
Gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image: 13.9 × 8.7 cm (5 1/2 × 3 7/16")
Sheet: 15.1 × 9.8 cm (5 15/16 × 3 7/8")
Culture:
Minoru Yasui: American\Asian American\Japanese American  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1945
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Tie  Search this
Minoru Yasui: Male  Search this
Minoru Yasui: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Minoru Yasui: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Activist  Search this
Minoru Yasui: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Activist\Civil rights activist  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the daughters of Minoru Yasui
Object number:
NPG.2016.31
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2016.31

LIM Report, a research report prepared for the Presidential Select Committee on JACL (Japanese American Citizens League)

Collection Donor:
Marutani, Victoria  Search this
Collection Creator:
Marutani, William M.  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1990
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
William M. Marutani Papers, 1942-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William M. Marutani Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0890-ref530

Oral history interview with Isamu Noguchi, 1973 Nov. 7-Dec. 26

Interviewee:
Noguchi, Isamu, 1904-1988  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-  Search this
Subject:
Knoll, Hans  Search this
Ward, Eleanor  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Hare, David  Search this
Kline, Franz  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Brummer, Joseph  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Becker, John Bruere  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Gorky, Arshile  Search this
Brancusi, Constantin  Search this
Fraser, James Earle  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Ruotolo, Onorio  Search this
Covarrubias, Miguel  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne  Search this
Graham, Martha  Search this
Schoen, Eugene  Search this
Ito, Michio  Search this
Guston, Philip  Search this
Price, Edison A.  Search this
Moore, Henry  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée  Search this
Collier, John  Search this
Hopkins, Harry Lloyd  Search this
Neumann, J. B. (Jsrael Ber)  Search this
Hasegawa, Saburo  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster),  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Kahn, Louis I.  Search this
LÔeger, Fernand  Search this
Graham, John D. (John Dabrowsky)  Search this
Breton, André  Search this
Shoji, Sadao  Search this
Raymond, Antonin  Search this
Taniguchi, Yoshiro  Search this
Barnard, George Grey  Search this
Gregory, Peter Ronald  Search this
McMahon, Audrey  Search this
Calder, Alexander Stirling  Search this
Kantor, Morris  Search this
Borglum, Gutzon  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
Egan, Charles  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Brummer Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Bollingen Foundation  Search this
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Leonardo da Vinci Art School  Search this
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill  Search this
Unesco  Search this
Topic:
Sound recordings  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
Gardens, Japanese  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Sculpture, Modern  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11906
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216546
AAA_collcode_noguch73
Theme:
Asian American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_216546
Additional Online Media:

Gerald Lamboley Collection of Japanese-American Letters

Creator:
Sato, Sanji (student)  Search this
Satow, R. (student)  Search this
Satow, Susama Paul (student)  Search this
Lamboley, E. Gerald  Search this
Sato, Kiyo (student)  Search this
Komata, Tomi (student)  Search this
Names:
Edward Kelley School (Sacramento (Cal.))  Search this
Pinedale Assembly Camp.  Search this
Poston Relocation Camp  Search this
War Relocation Authority  Search this
Cox, Mary Aline, 1890-1972 (teacher)  Search this
Extent:
0.12 Cubic feet (1 folder, 6 letters)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Biographies
Typescripts
Transcripts
Place:
Sacramento (Calif.) -- Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Poston (Ariz.) -- Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Pinedale (Calif.) -- Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Date:
1942-1943
Summary:
Letters from students of Japanese-American ancestry to Miss Cox, their former teacher at the Edward Kelley School in Sacramento, California. This teacher has been identified as Mary Aline Cox by Ms. Colleen Zoller, January 13, 2009.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains six letters dated 1942 1943 from former students of Japanese American ancestry to Miss Cox, a teacher at the Edward Kelley School in Sacramento, California. Three letters were written from inside a camp, while the others were written from outside of camp. The letters are arranged chronologically. Sanji Sato, a young male not yet out of high school, penned both Letters 1 and 3. The first dated June 12, 1942 was written from Pinedale "A.C." [Assembly Center]. This letter contains a brief description of the center, one of many used to keep internees until the ten more permanent camps were prepared to receive them, and its physical surroundings, as well a mention of the medical examination and vaccinations the evacuees underwent.

Letter 3, more lengthy in nature, covers the dates January 1, 1943, to March 6, 1943. Sent from Poston, Arizona (location of the largest relocation camp), Sato indicated the block and barrack numbers of his lodgings. The camp is defined by the arid surroundings, temperature, flora and fauna, and natural landmarks; its

inhabitants are defined by their New Year's Exhibition and Boy Scout Troops. Pertinent to the historian are Sato's opinion of the "loyalty" forms, why Japanese Americans should fight in World War II, and the behavior of other Poston residents. Also of interest are his personal discussions of his former life on the farm, his passion for the American flag, and remembrance of his dog.

Letter 2 was written by a student identified as "Kiyo" on December 26, 1942, in Garrett, Indiana while on vacation from college (later identified as Ms. Kiyo Sato). A former internee at Poston Relocation Center, she wrote of her reaction to school and dorm life, as well as her reaction, as a person of Japanese ancestry, to a Midwestern town. She expressed hope of ending any misconceptions and of the evacuees returning home "in one piece." Letter 4 is signed "R. Satow and family" and dated April 19, 1943. A year after leaving the relocation center, the writer, having reached Keenesburg, Colorado, thanks Miss Cox for her assistance. The writer's surroundings are reported in addition to updates on other former internees' activities.

The Poston Relocation Center was also the home of Susuma Paul Satow, writer of Letter 5. Satow diplayed the belief that his volunteering in the army benefited the government and reflected well on Japanese Americans. Another topic discussed the regret that some "No No Boys" experienced and Satow's personal lack of empathy for them. The writer voiced concern about anti Japanese American discrimination in Sacramento, and, thus, his hesitancy to return.

Letter 6, from Tomi Komata, was undated and meant to inform Miss Cox of his life in college (possibly Downer College). "Released and happy," Komata announced the lack of expected discrimination and the racial tension that did exist, as well as his scorn of those in camp who listened to rumors of prejudice. Mentions of the WRA and how internees should be more willing to embrace its programs are included.
Arrangement:
1 series. Not arranged.
Biographical / Historical:
On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 to bar "any and all persons" from certain sections of the United States for purposes of national defense. A reaction to the "yellow peril" "demonstrated" by the attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, the Executive Order would mean that all Japanese immigrants and Americans of Japanese ancestry would be required to "evacuate" the West Coast of the United States. By the end of this policy in 1946, over 120,000 men, women, and children had been forcefully relocated to various types of internment camps.

Not only had the possessions and lives of these people been disrupted, their privacy and Constitutional rights were ignored as the government thoroughly investigated their lives, looking for any signs of disloyalty to America. Early in 1943, tests were made of their "loyalty" as they were asked to forswear allegiance to the emperor of Japan, swear allegiance to the United States, and volunteer for military service.

Through programs established by the War Relocation Authority (WRA), internees were permitted to leave the camps permanently, provided they had a job or attended a college or university and passed additional government investigations. By 1943, 17,000 people had left the camps in this manner. Others left by joining the military. By 1946, the last permanent camp was dismantled.
Materials in Other Organizations:
War Relocation Authority, Record Group 210, or those of the United States Commands, 1947 , Record Group 338, National Archives and records Administration

National Headquarters of the Japanese American Citizens League in San Francisco, California

Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles, California
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History:
Japanese American Documentary Collection, 1905-1945 (AC0305)
Provenance:
Collection donated by E. Gerald Lamboley, June 2, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Usage or copyright restrictions. Contact repository for further information.
Topic:
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Internees -- Japanese Americans -- 1940-1950  Search this
Concentration camps -- United States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japanese Americans  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Evacuation of civilians  Search this
Teachers -- 1940-1950  Search this
Students -- 1940-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Biographies
Typescripts -- 1940-1950
Transcripts
Citation:
Gerald Lamboley Collection of Japanese-American Letters, 1942-1943, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0450
See more items in:
Gerald Lamboley Collection of Japanese-American Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0450
Additional Online Media:

What's Changed in the 30 Years Since the Smithsonian Opened an Exhibition on Japanese Internment

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Mon, 27 Feb 2017 15:25:00 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_0dde023e40e016a2e2be565a0a29c493

The Japanese American experience

Author:
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies Museum  Search this
Physical description:
33 p. : ill., ports. ; 23 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
1985
C1985
Topic:
Japanese Americans--Social conditions--Exhibitions  Search this
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Call number:
E184.J3 J37
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_657123

JACL in quest of justice / Bill Hosokawa

Title:
J.A.C.L. in quest of justice
Author:
Hosokawa, Bill  Search this
Subject:
Japanese American Citizens' League History  Search this
Physical description:
383 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1982
Topic:
Japanese Americans--Social conditions  Search this
Japanese Americans--Politics and government  Search this
Japanese Americans--Economic conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_517907

Remapping Asian American history / edited by Sucheng Chan

Author:
Chan, Sucheng  Search this
Physical description:
xxii, 277 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Asia
United States
Date:
2003
C2003
Topic:
Asian Americans--Historiography  Search this
Asian Americans--Social conditions  Search this
Asian Americans--Ethnic identity  Search this
Transnationalism--History  Search this
Emigration and immigration  Search this
History  Search this
Ethnic relations  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_740333

Historical memories of the Japanese American internment and the struggle for redress / Alice Yang Murray

Author:
Murray, Alice Yang  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 590 p. : ill., map ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2008
Topic:
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Japanese Americans--Reparations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Japanese Americans  Search this
Collective memory  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_960596

Asian America : a primary source reader / edited by Cathy J. Schlund-Vials, K. Scott Wong, Jason Oliver Chang

Editor:
Schlund-Vials, Cathy J. 1974-  Search this
Wong, Kevin Scott  Search this
Chang, Jason Oliver  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 321 pages : illustrations, map ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
History
Date:
2017
Topic:
Asian Americans--History  Search this
Asian Americans--Study and teaching  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1083330

Reflecting on the Japanese American experience during World War II in film, spoken-word, and discussion

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 05 May 2016 20:13:12 +0000
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_771da58ef7bed6d2b682c91af4b51f3d

A new podcast: Order 9066

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 13 Mar 2018 20:47:48 +0000
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_25d8e49702776e4aea39afb1cb53956d

Leaving home behind: The fates of Japanese American houses during incarceration

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 19 May 2017 16:27:43 +0000
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_beef805139d7b1fb430b9c5629701105

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