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Ephraim George Squier collection of negatives and photographs

Creator:
Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888  Search this
Extent:
312 negatives (photographic) (black and white)
3 Photographic prints (black and white)
Culture:
Chimú (archaeological culture)  Search this
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)  Search this
Central Andes  Search this
Colonial Inka (Inca)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Black-and-white negatives
Stereoscopic photographs
Photographs
Place:
Peru -- Antiquities
Peru -- photographs
Date:
circa 1862-1868
Summary:
The Squier collection consists primarily of glass plate negatives made by Squier in the Central Andes region of Peru from 1862 to 1868 while he served as the United States Commissioner to Peru.
Scope and Contents:
The Squier collection consists primarily of glass plate negatives made by Squier in the Central Andes region of Peru from 1862 to 1868 while he served as the United States Commissioner to Peru. A few of the negatives measure 6.5 x 8.5 inches but the overwhelming majority of them are stereoscopic. Each stereoscopic negative has a notation in Squier's hand etched into the emulsion. The bulk of these Squier made in Cusco and the Cusco region and include depictions of colonial and archaeological Inka (Inca) architecture and antiquities, and Spanish architecture. The negatives he made in Lima and Lima Province, and the Trujillo, Ancash, Puno, Ayacucho, and Arequipa regions also depict Inka or Central Andres (which includes Chimú) antiquities and Inka colonial architecture. In addition, there are representations of objects, contemporary streets scenes and village scenes, and a few negatives made in Bolivia. The few prints in the collection are copy photographs made of Squier's drawings.
Arrangement note:
Negatives Arranged by negative number (N18828-N19139)

Prints Arranged by print number (P04466, P04467, P18525)
Biographical/Historical note:
Ephraim George Squier (1821-1888) was born Bethlehem, New York, and as a young man pursued several career paths until he settled on archaeology in about 1847. This interest led to the publication of the 1848 Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, which he co-authored with Edwin H. Davis and represents the Smithsonian Institution's first official publication. His fascination with the antiquities of the Western Hemisphere encouraged him to secure political posts in Central and South America that would allow him to pursue these interests. From 1846 to 1869, Squier worked in various diplomatic positions throughout Latin America, and it was then that he undertook archaeological and ethnological field work. Originally appointed by President Lincoln, from 1862 to 1868, Squier was the United States Commissioner to Peru. His studies and travels produced another extremely popular book, Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas (1877). Several of the photographs in the NMAI's collection appear as (slightly altered) illustrations in this book. Squier's papers and the original photographs from his negatives are housed at the Tulane University Library. Squier died in Brooklyn, New York, in 1888.
Related Materials:
Papers of Ephraim George Squier,1835–1872; Tulane University Library.
Provenance:
Historically, the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation managed all photographic materials separately. This collection description represents current management practices of organizing and contextualizing related archival materials.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Topic:
Incas -- Peru -- Antiquities -- Photographs  Search this
Incas  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Black-and-white negatives
Stereoscopic photographs
Photographs
Citation:
Ephraim George Squier collection of negatives and prints, circa 1862-1868, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.041
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-041

Qero/Kero

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Museo Nacional, Santiago)  Search this
Expedition:
Mrs. Thea Heye Chile Expedition (1929-1930) (Mrs. Thea Heye - Lothrop Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Samuel Kirkland Lothrop (S.K. Lothrop), Non-Indian, 1892-1965  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Thea Heye (Thea Kowne/Mrs. Dorothea Page/Mrs. George Gustav Heye), Non-Indian, 1888-1935  Search this
Object Name:
Qero/Kero
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved, incised
Dimensions:
18 x 13 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Coast; Peru
Date created:
AD 1475-1532
Catalog Number:
17/7382
Barcode:
177382.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_189955
Additional Online Media:

Vessel

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Possible collector:
De Cost Smith, Non-Indian, 1864-1939  Search this
Previous owner:
De Cost Smith, Non-Indian, 1864-1939  Search this
Donor:
De Cost Smith, Non-Indian, 1864-1939  Search this
Object Name:
Vessel
Media/Materials:
Stone
Techniques:
Carved, pounded, pecked, abraded, incised
Dimensions:
5.50 x 7.00 x 3.70 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Native Term:
canopa
Place:
Cusco (Cuzco) Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1250-1532
Catalog Number:
20/1602
Barcode:
201602.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Containers and Vessels
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_215360
Additional Online Media:

Weaving shuttle

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago Natural History Museum), 1893-  Search this
Possible collector:
Dr. Carlos Bruch, Non-Indian, 1869-1943  Search this
Object Name:
Weaving shuttle
Media/Materials:
Camelid bone
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Weaving tools/equipment
Place:
Fuerte Quemado; Santa María Department; Catamarca Province; Argentina
Date created:
AD 1300-1500
Catalog Number:
8/7063
Barcode:
087063.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Weaving tools/equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_92769
Additional Online Media:

Qero/Kero with animal figurehead

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Harmon W. Hendricks (Harmon Washington Hendricks), Non-Indian, 1846-1928  Search this
Object Name:
Qero/Kero with animal figurehead
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved, carved
Dimensions:
26 x 18 x 26 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Coast; Peru (inferred)
Date created:
AD 1475-1532
Catalog Number:
10/5858
Barcode:
105858.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_114416
Additional Online Media:

Qero/Kero

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
MAI agent:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
Object Name:
Qero/Kero
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved, polished, incised
Dimensions:
14 x 11 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Native Term:
qero
Place:
Near Cusco (Cuzco); Cusco (Cuzco); Cusco (Cuzco) Province; Cusco (Cuzco) Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1470-1532
Catalog Number:
16/9707
Barcode:
169707.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Food/Beverage Serving
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181346
Additional Online Media:

Vessel

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Donor:
Sherwin Landfield (Sherwin Herman Landfield), Non-Indian, 1921-2007  Search this
Jacqueline Landfield (Marie Louise Jacqueline Plas/Mrs. Sherwin Landfield), Non-Indian, 1926-2011  Search this
Collector:
Sherwin Landfield (Sherwin Herman Landfield), Non-Indian, 1921-2007  Search this
Object Name:
Vessel
Media/Materials:
Pottery, clay slip
Techniques:
Mold-made, modeled, slipped, perforated
Dimensions:
17.50 x 14.00 x 5.00 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Native Term:
paqcha
Place:
Ecuador
Date created:
AD 1470-1532
Catalog Number:
26/6399
Barcode:
266399.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_387111
Additional Online Media:

Bottle

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Donor:
Sherwin Landfield (Sherwin Herman Landfield), Non-Indian, 1921-2007  Search this
Jacqueline Landfield (Marie Louise Jacqueline Plas/Mrs. Sherwin Landfield), Non-Indian, 1926-2011  Search this
Collector:
Sherwin Landfield (Sherwin Herman Landfield), Non-Indian, 1921-2007  Search this
Object Name:
Bottle
Media/Materials:
Pottery
Techniques:
Coiled/hand built
Dimensions:
13 x 12.5 x 11.1 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Andes; Cordillera de los Andes (Andes Mountains); Bolivia, Peru (inferred)
Date created:
AD 1470-1532
Catalog Number:
26/6402
Barcode:
266402.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_387244
Additional Online Media:

Jar

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Marshall H. Saville (Marshall Howard Saville/M.H. Saville/MHS), Non-Indian, 1867-1935  Search this
Expedition:
Second Ecuador Expedition (1907)  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
Marie A. Heye (Marie Antoinette Lawrence Heye), Non-Indian, 1845-1915  Search this
Object Name:
Jar
Media/Materials:
Pottery, paint
Techniques:
Coiled/hand built, painted
Dimensions:
20 x 16 x 28 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Native Term:
urpu
Place:
San Luis; Ecuador
Date created:
AD 1400-1532
Catalog Number:
1/2720
Barcode:
012720.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Containers and Vessels
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_13507
Additional Online Media:

Llama figure

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Harmon W. Hendricks (Harmon Washington Hendricks), Non-Indian, 1846-1928  Search this
Object Name:
Llama figure
Media/Materials:
Gold-silver-copper alloy
Techniques:
Hammered, rolled, repoussé, soldered, polished
Dimensions:
5.00 x 4.00 x 0.60 cm
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Peru
Date created:
AD 1400-1500
Catalog Number:
13/1591
Barcode:
131591.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_141114
Additional Online Media:

Qero/Kero

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Thea Heye (Thea Kowne/Mrs. Dorothea Page/Mrs. George Gustav Heye), Non-Indian, 1888-1935  Search this
MAI agent:
Dr. Marshall H. Saville (Marshall Howard Saville/M.H. Saville/MHS), Non-Indian, 1867-1935  Search this
Object Name:
Qero/Kero
Media/Materials:
Wood, tree pitch/gum
Techniques:
Carved, incised, aboriginally repaired
Dimensions:
26 x 20 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Cusco (Cuzco) Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1475-1532
Catalog Number:
13/6899
Barcode:
136899.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_147410
Additional Online Media:

Double-chambered bottle with man and llama figures

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Object Name:
Double-chambered bottle with man and llama figures
Media/Materials:
Pottery, clay slip
Techniques:
Coiled/hand built, modeled, slipped
Dimensions:
20.5 x 8 x 16.5 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Chan Chan; Trujillo Province; La Libertad Region; Peru
Date created:
circa AD 1500
Catalog Number:
14/3673
Barcode:
143673.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_154423
Additional Online Media:

Cup in the form of an alpaca

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
MAI agent:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
Object Name:
Cup in the form of an alpaca
Media/Materials:
Stone
Techniques:
Carved, drilled
Dimensions:
12 x 9.5 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Native Term:
illa
Place:
Cusco (Cuzco) Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1470-1532
Catalog Number:
14/3676
Barcode:
143676.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Food/Beverage Serving
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_154426
Additional Online Media:

Qero with bird figurehead

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
MAI agent:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
Object Name:
Qero with bird figurehead
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Dimensions:
15 x 10 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Cusco (Cuzco) Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1300-1500
Catalog Number:
14/3678
Barcode:
143678.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_154428
Additional Online Media:

Staff head/finial with human features

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
MAI agent:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
Object Name:
Staff head/finial with human features
Media/Materials:
Gold
Techniques:
Hammered, mold-made, folded, soldered
Dimensions:
4 x 9 cm
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Ica Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1400-1500
Catalog Number:
14/3680
Barcode:
143680.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Personal items
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_154430
Additional Online Media:

Vessel in the form of a man

Culture/People:
possibly Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Object Name:
Vessel in the form of a man
Media/Materials:
Pottery
Techniques:
Mold-made
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Río Madre de Dios, Bolivia border; Tambopata Province; Madre de Dios Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1400-1600
Catalog Number:
16/1800
Barcode:
161800.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_173638
Additional Online Media:

Vessel in human form

Culture/People:
possibly Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Object Name:
Vessel in human form
Media/Materials:
Pottery
Techniques:
Mold-made
Dimensions:
37 x 15 x 12 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Río Madre de Dios, Bolivia border; Tambopata Province; Madre de Dios Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1400-1600
Catalog Number:
16/1802
Barcode:
161802.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_173640
Additional Online Media:

Paqcha (ritual vessel) depicting a llama head with arybalo (jar)

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
A. Hyatt Verrill (Alpheus Hyatt Verrill), Non-Indian, 1871-1954  Search this
Seller:
A. Hyatt Verrill (Alpheus Hyatt Verrill), Non-Indian, 1871-1954  Search this
Object Name:
Paqcha (ritual vessel) depicting a llama head with arybalo (jar)
Media/Materials:
Pottery, clay slip
Techniques:
Mold-made, coiled/hand built, modeled, slipped, painted, burnished
Dimensions:
21 x 11 x 20.5 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Native Term:
paqcha
Place:
Cusco (Cuzco) Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1470-1532
Catalog Number:
16/4835
Barcode:
164835.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_176659
Additional Online Media:

Qero/Kero

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
José A. Gayoso (José Galloso), Non-Indian, 1898-1970  Search this
Seller:
José A. Gayoso (José Galloso), Non-Indian, 1898-1970  Search this
Object Name:
Qero/Kero
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved, incised
Dimensions:
9 x 7 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Vicinity of Lima; Lima; Lima Province; Peru
Date created:
AD 1475-1532
Catalog Number:
17/8981
Barcode:
178981.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_191299
Additional Online Media:

Qero/Kero

Culture/People:
probably Inka (Inca) (archaeological) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
José A. Gayoso (José Galloso), Non-Indian, 1898-1970  Search this
Seller:
José A. Gayoso (José Galloso), Non-Indian, 1898-1970  Search this
Object Name:
Qero/Kero
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved, aboriginally repaired
Dimensions:
13 x 11 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Cusco (Cuzco) Region; Peru
Date created:
AD 1475-1532
Catalog Number:
17/8952
Barcode:
178952.000
See related items:
Inka (Inca) (archaeological)
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_191677
Additional Online Media:

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