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[Trade catalogs on conversion of school buses, hearses and ambulances ... ]

Author:
Wolfington Body Company  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<2> v. : ill
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1980
1980-
Topic:
School buses--Design and construction  Search this
Hearses (Vehicles)--Design and construction  Search this
Ambulances--Design and construction  Search this
Call number:
054325
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_740545

Classic American funeral vehicles, 1900 through 1980 / Walt McCall & Tom McPherson

Title:
Classic American funeral vehicles, 1900-1980 photo archive
Author:
McCall, Walter M. P (Walter Miller Pearce) 1938-  Search this
McPherson, Thomas A  Search this
Physical description:
126 p. : chiefly b&w ill. ; 22 x 26 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2000
C2000
Topic:
Hearses (Vehicles)--History  Search this
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1032929

American funeral cars & ambulances since 1900, by Thomas A. McPherson. Editing and design by George H. Dammann

Title:
American funeral cars and ambulances since 1900
Author:
McPherson, Thomas A  Search this
Physical description:
350 pages illustrations 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1973
[1973]
Topic:
Ambulances  Search this
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Call number:
TL235.8 .M32X
TL235.8.M32X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_38516

Flxible : professional vehicles : the complete history / Thomas A. McPherson ; with a foreword by Walter M.P. McCall

Author:
McPherson, Thomas A  Search this
Subject:
Flxible Company History  Search this
Physical description:
319 pages : illustrations ; 23 x 28 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
1993
©1993
Topic:
Commercial vehicles--History  Search this
Ambulances--History  Search this
Hearses (Vehicles)--History  Search this
Call number:
TL235.8 .M32f 1993
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1078330

Horse-drawn funeral vehicles : 19th century funerals / editor, Michael P. D'Amato

Title:
19th century funerals
Nineteenth century funerals
Author:
D'Amato, Michael P  Search this
Carriage Museum of America (Bird-in-Hand, Pa.)  Search this
Physical description:
414 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2004
2004 + 1 booklet (15 p. :
19th century
Topic:
Hearses (Vehicles)--History  Search this
Horse-drawn vehicles--History  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_825938

James Cunningham, Son and Company Photographs

Creator:
James Cunningham, Son and Company (Rochester, New York)  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
Rochester (N.Y.)
Date:
1908-1964
bulk 1908-1929
Summary:
The collection consists of glass plate negatives and photographic prints of the glass plate negatives depicting horse-drawn hearses (funeral wagons), carriages, and ambulances and motorized vehicles produced by James Cunningham, Son and Company from approximately 1908 to 1929. The majority of the glass plates and photographic prints depict horse-drawn hearses, but there are some motorized vehicles.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of glass plate negatives and photographic prints of the glass plate negatives depicting horse-drawn hearses (funeral wagons), carriages, and ambulances and motorized vehicles produced by James Cunningham, Son and Company from approximately 1908 to 1929. The majority of the glass plates and photographic prints depict horse-drawn hearses, but there are some motorized vehicles.

There are approximately 335 glass plate negatives and the same number of photographic prints. It is unknown who created the photographic prints, but some of the glass plates were originally held at the Free Library of Philadelphia.

The glass plates are in three sizes: 5" x 7" 8" x 10" and 11" x 14". The glass plates and the photographic prints are arranged by an alpha-numeric system that was presumably developed by the company. In some instances, J.L. Hill is identified as a photographer.

In some instances, the model number, style and date are provided. Most images are side views, although there are some rear and interior views. Some glass plates are unidentified or missing. Some of the descriptions include lamp number information. Many carriages had mounted lamps or lanterns that were oil or battery powered. if a carriage was built for a specific person or company, such as W. H. Graham Company, this information is listed.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Glass Plates, A1 to A55, 1908-1929 and undated

Series 2, Glass Plates, B1 to B159, [1913?] and undated

Series 3, Glass Plates, C1 to C50, undated

Series 4, Glass Plates, D1 to D64, undated

Series 5, Glass Plates, E1 to E8, undated

Series 6, Photographic Prints, undated

Series 7: Background Materials, 1930s-1964
Biographical / Historical:
James Cunningham (1815-1886) was born in County Down, Ireland to Arthur and Ann Cunningham. He came to the United States in 1833 from Canada seeking work in the New York City area, where he had an uncle practicing architecture. In Canada, Cunningham had worked in woodwork design in a carpenter's shop east of Toronto in Cobourg, Ontario. Cunningham returned to Canada via Rochester, New York. While in Rochester, he was introduced to George Hanford and J.H. Whitbeck, entrepreneurs who set up the first coach-making shop in Rochester in 1834.

From 1834 to 1838 Cunningham worked as an apprentice and journeyman for George Hanford and J.H. Whitbeck. He formed a partnership with two of his fellow-workers, James Kerr and Blanchard Dean. Together they bought out Hanford and Whitbeck and made cutters, known as one-horse open sleighs and buggies. In 1842 Kerr and Blanchard resigned, and James Cunningham assumed full responsibility.

Cunningham married Bridget Jennings in 1838, and they had three children: Augustine, Joseph, and Margaretta. Cunningham's son, Joseph (1842?-1914) joined his father in the company and as a result, the company reorganized in 1866 as James Cunningham and Son. Joseph Cunningham became a full partner in 1868. Rufus Dryer (1846-1937) became a partner in 1875 when he married Margaretta Cunningham in the same year. There were branch offices with display rooms in Louisville, Nashville, Memphis, New Orleans, Chicago, Des Moines, Kansas City, Topeka, Denver, and San Francisco. In 1876, Cunningham carriages and a hearse won prizes at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.

In 1882, the firm was incorporated as James Cunningham, Son and Company. It was the largest industrial enterprise in Rochester, New York, both in its plant area and in capital. The firm continued to make carriages until 1915. Joseph Cunningham and Rufus Dryer retired in 1909, and the company, which had become a partnership, was reincorporated. Augustine Cunningham, son of Joseph Cunningham, was president, James Dryer (son of Rufus Dryer) vice-president, and Francis Cunningham (son of Joseph Cunningham) was secretary and general manager.

In 1908 the company began automobile production, not for the popular market, but for the type of customer that bought its carriages. The company did not mass-produce their automobiles. Intially, it made only automobile bodies and assembled the rest of the car from engines, transmissions, axles, and radiators made by proprietary companies. By 1910 it produced the entire automobile. In 1916 Cunningham produced a V-8 engine, and the Cunningham car became outstanding for its clean, classic lines. It was the first car to not have running-boards, using instead steps of brass-framed aluminum.

In the late 1920s Cunningham entered the aviation business and created a subsidiary, the Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corporation. The primary aim of the corporation was to build an airplane that would combine stability with speed. The first Cunningham-Hall plane designed with these requirements was a modified biplane: the lower wing was considerably larger than the upper and slotted, so that a current of air could be made to flow between its surfaces. This enabled the plane to land at low speeds. It was first tested in the small town of LeRoy, New York. Cunningham-Hall continued to make aircraft until 1938. Its X-14324, produced in 1934, was a low-wing monoplane made entirely of metal. The company also produced primary trainers, a six-place cabin plane, other passenger and cargo craft, and experimental planes for the Army and Navy. By the early 1930s the company had ceased to produce automobiles and funeral carriages/hearses.

Over the years Cunningham made a wide variety of products. During World War II, Cunningham found a temporary role in defense production. Prior to the war the compaay had produced a variety of odd products: safety belts for aircraft, diving helmets, even belt buckles for Boy Scout uniforms. During the Civil War the company made carriages for the Union armies, and the First World War, ambulances and automotive windlasses for observation balloons. More significant had been its experience of producing armored and tracked vehicles. In March 1928, Cunningham's first tank was tested at Aberdeen, Maryland. Equipped with a revolving turret and armed with a 37 millimeter cannon and a .30 caliber machine gun, it traveled twenty miles an hour, faster than any tank produced up to that time. In 1933, Cunningham developed a tank track, with light-weight rubber-block treads that allowed for even greater speeds. Cunningham also developed experimental half-tracks, cargo carriers, armored cars, and a weapons carrier for a 75 millimeter Howitzer.

In 1940 James Dryer retired. The corporation was dissolved in 1941 and replaced by a partnership, with Augustine and Francis Cunningham as co-partners. After World War II, the firm produced small farm and garden machines such as sickle-bar mowers, tractors, and rotary tillers. Cunningham also designed and produced a complete line of plumbing fixtures for house trailers in a constant effort to retool and redefine itself in the post-war years.

By 1952, the firm met Andrew W. Vincent, an electrical engineer with Stromberg-Carlson in Rochester. Vincent devoted himself to perfecting a small dial telephone system. The heart of this system was the crossbar switch. The company acquired Vincent's initial designs and patent applications and hired him as a consultant. The company restricted its production to creating prototypes of switching devices. The Cunningham crossbar was versatile. It had the ability to switch electrical information from low-level DC signals to 100 megacycles, reliably and at high speeds.

In 1968, Peter F. Cunningham, then president of the company, sold controlling interest to the Gleason Works, a Rochester-based manufacturer of machine tools. Under Gleason Works, the company was renamed Cunningham Corporation. In 1977, all Cunningham-related activities ended.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

National Museum of American History, Division of Work & Industry

1929 Cunningham touring car. See accession #:310671.

National Air and Space Museum Archives

Cunningham-Hall Collection, 1917-1940 (bulk 1928-1930)

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Trade Literature Collection

Trade catalogs from James Cunningham Son & Company (See SILNMAHTL_12462)

Materials in Other Organizations

Long Island Museum of American Art, History and Carriages

Includes drawings, a trade catalog, a cart, and a buggy from James Cunningham and Sons.

Detroit Public Library

Papers of the James Cunningham Company, 1902-1964 (bulk 1909-1946)

Includes notebooks of G. Carson Baker, chief designer and David Fergusson, chief engineer, patent applications, correspondence, drawings and blueprints related to Fergusson's work, parts and instruction books for early automobiles (including electric automobiles), photographs of Cunningham factories, military vehicles and motor trucks.

Rochester Museum and Science Center, Libraries and Collections Department

Local Business History vertical files hold items related to James Cunningham, Son and Company as well as books.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1973 by the Cunningham Company to the National Museum of American History, Division of Transportation.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Horse-drawn vehicles  Search this
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Automobile industry and trade  Search this
Carriage industry  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Carriage and wagon making  Search this
Ambulances  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1900-1950
Citation:
James Cunningham, Son and Company Photonegatives, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1193
See more items in:
James Cunningham, Son and Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1193

Horton['s] Funeral Home [long-view exterior] [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Cadillac  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet, 4" X 5".)
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Exterior shot of Horton's Funeral Home with two cars (Cadillacs) and a hearse parked in front of the building. Three men stand next to each automobile, respectively. Next to Horton's is another business, "Hilltop Appliances." In the bottom left-hand corner of the negative is the notation "65e" (not ink on negative). "KODAK SAFETY 78" edge imprint. No ink on negative, no Scurlock number.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Funeral homes -- 1950-1960 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Appliance stores  Search this
Automobiles -- 1950-1960  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.6: Black and white negatives in cold storage arranged by client
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-06-ref27362

[Malvan and Schey Funeral Home : acetate film photonegative,]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Creator:
Defender (film manufacturer)  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 17
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1935
Scope and Contents:
Funeral home with sign, hearse, and two other automobiles. "1935 / Mr. M. Malvin [sic]. E" in ink on film edge. Defender safety base edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Automobiles -- 1930-1940  Search this
Funeral homes -- 1930-1940 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Buildings -- Washington (D.C.) -- 1930-1940.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref302
Additional Online Media:

Zeferino Ramirez Funeral Home

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Advertiser:
Ramirez, Zeferino  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Philatelic Collection, Smithsonian Institution.  Search this
Blenkle, Victor A., Dr., 1900-1978 (physician)  Search this
Collection Source:
Extractive Industries, Division of.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (black/white, 3-1/2" x 5-1/2".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Postcards
Picture postcards
Place:
California
Los Angeles (Calif.)
Santa Monica (Calif.)
Date:
[picture postcard]
Scope and Contents:
Reproduction of a black-and-white photograph of a man driving a hearse. Next to the car is a man on a motorcycle. Probably used as a trade card to advertise a family business.
General:
Series 1, Box 3, U.S.A.--California--Santa Monica.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Motorcycles  Search this
Mexican American business enterprises  Search this
Funeral homes -- 1910-1930 -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Reproductions
Postcards
Picture postcards
Collection Citation:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection, c. 1880-c. 1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number X, folder number XX
See more items in:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0200-ref2225

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