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Fountain in Formal Garden, (painting)

Henderson, William Penhallow 1877-1943  Search this
New Mexico Museum of Art 107 West Palace Avenue Santa Fe New Mexico 87504
Landscape--Garden  Search this
Control number:
IAP 33050059
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums

Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks

Jerwan, Shakir S., 1881-1942  Search this
Moisant Aviation School  Search this
Moisant International Aviators, Inc.  Search this
Audemars, Edmond  Search this
Barrier, Rene  Search this
Byrd, Richard Evelyn, 1888-1957  Search this
Cabrera, Manuel Estrada  Search this
Carranza, Venustiano, General  Search this
Frisbie, John J.  Search this
Garros, Roland  Search this
Jerwan, Shakir S., 1881-1942  Search this
Miller, Bernetta Adams.  Search this
Moisant, Alfred, 1862-1929  Search this
Moisant, Matilde, 1887-1964  Search this
Niles, Charles  Search this
Quimby, Harriet, 1875-1912  Search this
Simon, Rene  Search this
0.87 Cubic feet (2 boxes; 1 folder)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
The Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks Collection contains material from the period 1911-1919. During this period, Jerwan was Chief Pilot at the Moisant School of Aviation, Garden City, New York, and Director of Military Aviation for the government of Guatemala.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents events in Shakir S. Jerwan's career during the period of 1911 to 1919. Scrapbook photographs (many signed) feature Jerwan's pupils and pilots at the Moisant School and of the Moisant International Aviators, including Harriet Quimby, Matilde Moisant, Bernetta Adams Miller, Roland Garros, René Barrier, René Simon and Edmond Audemars. Other photographs include John Frisbie and his man-carrying kites, Charles Niles and his Looper, and Monoplane, Jerwan's flying dog. Also included are a brochure and drawings for the Aeromotor Boat, designed by Shakir Jerwan and his brother, Fuad (Fred) Jerwan. Correspondence includes letters between Shakir Jerwan and Manuel Estrada Cabrera, president of Guatemala, and Venustiano Carranza, later president of Mexico.
The collection consists of one photographic album and one scrapbook.
Biographical / Historical:
Shakir Saliba Jerwan (1881-1942), the son of a Protestant minister, was born in Beirut, Lebanon, then part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1904, Jerwan immigrated to the United States and became a citizen in 1910. In 1911, he learned to fly, earning F.A.I. license number 54. Jerwan was chief pilot for the Moisant School of Aviation, Garden City, New York from 1912 to 1914. From 1915 to 1919 he served as Director of Military Aviation in Guatemala. Jerwan returned to the United States in 1919. His later career was as a hotelier. He was a member of the Early Birds of Aviation.
Shakir S. Jerwan, gift, date unknown, XXXX-0231
No restrictions on access
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Aeronautics -- History  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military -- Guatemala  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1910-1920  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Air pilots -- Correspondence  Search this
Correspondence -- 1910-1920
Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks Collection, Acc. XXXX.0231, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
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Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
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United States National Museum. Division of Plants  Search this
22.74 cu. ft. (1 record storage box) (40 document boxes) (3 tall document boxes) (1 oversize folder)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scientific illustrations
1886-1928 and undated
Descriptive Entry:
These papers include official records that document the history of the USNH while Joseph Nelson Rose was assistant botanist at the United States Department of Agriculture (1888-1896), assistant and associate curator, USNH, United States National Museum (1896-1911), and the Division of Plants, USNM (1917-1928); also personal and official papers documenting Rose's professional career, including incoming and occasional loose outgoing correspondence after 1910 (watermarks on 1910 and 1911 outgoing loose correspondence along with virtually nonexistent outgoing letterpress correspondence after 1909 are a result of water damage to the records) with leading foreign and United States botanists; colleagues; herbarium and nursery curators; florists; agrostologists; field agents; amateur plant collectors; United States Department of Agriculture administrative officers; Smithsonian Institution administrative officers; agricultural experiment stations; editors; and friends. Correspondence regards examination, identification, and reports on botanical specimens; identification of specimens for publications; transfer of specimens to the USNH; exchange of specimens; requests to Rose regarding information on the flora of Texas and Mexico; requests for bulbs, seeds, and plants; purchasing of cacti collections; research and collecting expeditions; authorization for expeditions; nomenclature; illustrations for journals; collaboration over collecting specimens and publishing; requests for jobs; requests to recommend colleagues to systematize cultivated plants; proposals for a building to house the USNH in order to expand the collection; meetings of scientific societies; requests for Who's Who autobiographical information; outgoing letterpress correspondence (1894-1909, 1911-1912) regarding the above; also manuscripts and correspondence pertaining to the joint Cactaceae project with Nathaniel Lord Britton; manuscripts and correspondence about the joint project with John Donnell Smith regarding Hauyeae; reviews; and occasional newspaper clippings pertaining to botanists whose letters are located in the correspondence folders.
Historical Note:
Joseph Nelson Rose, botanist, was born on a farm near Liberty, Indiana, on January 11, 1862. In 1881 he entered Wabash College, graduating with an A.B. in 1885. Rose stayed on at Wabash College as its first postgraduate student, receiving his A.M. in 1887 and his Ph.D. in 1889. During his last two years he acted as an assistant in botany under John M. Coulter, who was to have an influence on his later career.

Rose was appointed as an assistant botanist in the United States Department of Agriculture under George Vasey, working in the United States National Herbarium (USNH), in August 1888. (For a history of the USNH and George Vasey, see the description for the Hunt Institute collection 105.)

When the USNH was moved back to the Smithsonian in 1896, Rose transferred to the United States National Museum as an assistant curator, Division of Plants. In 1905 he was made associate curator.

Though Frederick Vernon Coville was honorary curator, USNH and the Division of Plants, in the United States National Museum (while at the same time chief botanist of the Plant Industry, USDA), it appears that Rose was directly in charge of the National Herbarium. Outgoing letterpress correspondence within these records contains copies of the USNH report for the Smithsonian Annual Report being transmitted by Coville through Rose and Rose's report on the Division of Plants for the Annual Report being sent to Coville. At times, Rose signed outgoing correspondence over the title, acting curator. Coville remained Rose's supervisor, however, with correspondence regarding Rose's collecting activities being transmitted between Smithsonian administrative officers and Coville.

In 1912, Rose transferred from the United States National Museum (USNM) to the Carnegie Institution of Washington as a research associate in order to prepare a monograph with Nathaniel Lord Britton on Cactaceae of the world. This work was jointly supported by the Carnegie Institution, the New York Botanical Garden, and the USDA. Rose was relieved of his administrative duties with the Smithsonian. Nonetheless, he retained an office in the Smithsonian and was allowed the use of Smithsonian franking privileges for all correspondence regarding his project, while retaining the title of custodian of "Cactaceae, Crassulaceae, and Miscellaneous Mexican Collections" in the National Herbarium.

Rose officially returned to the Smithsonian as associate curator, Division of Plants, in 1917, retaining that position until his death on May 4, 1928.

Rose's collecting activities and botanical studies began with the flora, fungi, and pine of Indiana and the Umbelliferae of North America. He was assigned the Mexican collections gathered by Edward Palmer while assistant botanist at the USDA. This led to 20 years of study of the flora of Mexico and numerous publications, including his "Studies of Mexican and Central America Plants," published in Contributions from the United States National Herbarium (1897-1911). His important study on Cactaceae of the world with Nathaniel Lord Britton resulted in the publication of four volumes titled The Cactaceae (1919-1923). Overall, Rose published almost 200 articles and monographs by himself and in collaboration with other botanists. Besides his own collecting explorations, Rose was instrumental in bringing to the Smithsonian one of its most important gifts, the large private herbarium and botanical library belonging to John Donnell Smith of Baltimore.

In reward for his botanical investigations and publications, Rose received an LL.D. from Wabash College in 1925. His remarks made during the ceremonies are included in this collection.
Cactus  Search this
Botanists  Search this
Botany  Search this
Scientific illustrations
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 221, United States National Museum. Division of Plants, Records
Record Unit 221
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Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
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William Penhallow Henderson papers

Henderson, William Penhallow, 1877-1943  Search this
Art in Embassies Program (U.S.)  Search this
Santa Fe Painters and Sculptors  Search this
Henderson, Alice Corbin, 1881-1949  Search this
Henderson, William Oliver  Search this
10.5 Linear feet
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
bulk 1876-1943
The papers of Chicago and Santa Fe painter, muralist, architect, and furniture designer William Penhallow Henderson measure 10.5 linear feet and date from 1876 to 1987 (bulk dates 1876 to 1943). Found within the papers are scattered biographical material; correspondence with friends and colleagues; three diaries; personal business records; two files concerning the Santa Fe Painters and Sculptors and the Art in Embassies Program; architecture, furniture, and other design project files; exhibition files; notes and writings; artwork, including 64 sketchbooks by Henderson and others; miscellaneous printed material; and photographs of Henderson, his family and colleagues.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Chicago and Santa Fe painter, architect, and furniture designer William Penhallow Henderson measure 10.5 linear feet and date from 1876 to 1987 (bulk dates 1876-1943). Found within the collection are biographical material; a file concerning Henderson's father William Oliver Henderson; correspondence primarily with colleagues discussing art-related topics; two diaries describing his student days in Paris, 1902-1903, and one concerning the latter part of his life; personal business records; subject files for the Santa Fe Painters and Sculptors and the Art in Embassies Program; architecture and furniture files containing notes, designs, and photographs of Henderson's work in these areas; additional project files concerning other projects, including a play, architectural projects, and a mural; exhibition files; notes and writings; artwork, including 64 sketchbooks by Henderson; miscellaneous printed material; and photographs of Henderson, his family, colleagues, and artwork.
The collection is arranged into 13 series primarily according to type of material; materials within series are arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1897-1984 (Boxes 1, 12; 14 folders)

Series 2: File on William Oliver Henderson, 1876-1906 (Box 1; 12 folders)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1883-1987 (Boxes 1-2; 1.9 linear feet)

Series 4: Diaries, 1902-1940 (Box 3; 4 folders)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, 1887-1984 (Box 3; 40 folders)

Series 6: Subject Files, 1921-1975 (Box 3; 2 folders)

Series 7: Architecture and Furniture Files, 1926-1983 (Boxes 3-4, 12, OV 14; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 8: Project Files, 1916-1942 (Boxes 4-5, 12, OV 14; 40 folders)

Series 9: Exhibition Files, 1927-1964 (Box 5; 25 folders)

Series 10: Notes and Writings, 1901-1985 (Boxes 5-6; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, 1886-1929 (Boxes 6-8, OV 14; 1.9 linear feet)

Series 12: Printed Material, 1891-1988 (Boxes 8-9; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 13: Photographs, 1887-1985 (Boxes 9-11, 13; 1.6 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Painter, architect, and furniture designer, William Penhallow Henderson was born in 1877 in Medford, Massachusetts. His father, William Oliver Henderson was a friend of painter William Edward Norton and an amateur painter himself. During Henderson's childhood, the family moved several times, settling in Turkey Creek, Texas, in 1879, and Clifton, Kansas, in 1886.

Returning to Boston in 1891, Henderson studied at the Massachusetts Normal Art School and, and in 1899, entered the School of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, studying under Edmund C. Tarbell. In the following year, he won the Paige Traveling Scholarship for two years of study in Europe. His travels, from 1902-1903, included London, where he became acquainted with the family of John Singer Sargent. He also traveled to Paris, Berlin, Dresden, Madrid, and the Azores.

From 1904 to 1910, Henderson taught at the Academy of Fine Arts in Chicago. In 1904 he painted in Mexico and Arizona with colleague Carl N. Werntz. He married the poet-editor of Poetry magazine, Alice Corbin in 1905, and their only child, Alice Oliver Henderson, was born in 1907.

Between 1906 and 1907 Henderson completed ten murals for the Joliet Township High School. Mrs. Henderson's book Anderson's Best Fairy Tales, illustrated by her husband, provided the funds for a second trip to Europe from 1910-1911. In 1914, Henderson built a house and studio of his own design at Lake Bluff, Illinois, and in the same year he was commissioned by Frank Lloyd Wright to design murals for Midway Gardens, Chicago. Unfortunately, the murals were painted over shortly after completion. In the following year, he designed the scenery and costumes for the Chicago Fine Arts Theatre production of Alice in Wonderland.

Due to his wife's failing health, the family moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1916, and in 1918, Henderson was employed by the U. S. Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation in San Francisco to paint camouflage onto the hulls of ships during World War I.

In 1925, Henderson, with his first son-in-law John Evans, formed the Pueblo-Spanish Building Company, through which he designed and built many private homes and some public buildings, including the Railroad Ticket Office in Santa Fe. Henderson was also successful at designing carved wooden furniture. In the mid-1930s, he was appointed to the Federal Arts Project, for which he completed easel paintings and six murals for the Santa Fe Federal Court Building.

In 1937, Henderson completed the impressive Navajo House of Religion, built in the style of an American Indian hogan and later re-named the Museum of Navajo Ceremonial Art.

William Penhallow Henderson died in 1943 in Tesuque, New Mexico.
The William Penhallow Henderson papers were donated by Carlton Colquitt, on behalf of the estate of his late wife, Alice Henderson Rossin, the daughter of William Penhallow Henderson, in 1988.
Open for research. Use requires an appointment.
The William Penhallow Henderson papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Architects -- New Mexico -- Santa Fe  Search this
Painters -- New Mexico -- Santa Fe  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Furniture designers -- New Mexico -- Santa Fe  Search this
William Penhallow Henderson papers, 1876-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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William Penhallow Henderson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

Roi Partridge papers

Partridge, Roi, 1888-1984  Search this
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Anderson, Sherwood, 1876-1941  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976  Search this
Hunter, Dard, 1883-1966  Search this
Jacques, Bertha  Search this
Linsky, Elizabeth  Search this
Neuhaus, Eugen, 1879-1963  Search this
Partridge, Roi, 1888-1984  Search this
1 Linear foot
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Christmas cards
Drafts (documents)
bulk 1909-1984
The papers of California printmaker and educator Roi Partridge measure 1.0 linear foot and date from 1909-2003, with the bulk of the material dated 1909-1984. Found here are scattered correspondence, notes and writings, a scrapbook, printed material, and photographs. Several of the documents date from the time Partridge was married to photographer Imogen Cunningham, particularly family correspondence and a travel log of family car camping trips to the west. The same travel log documents one sketching trip Partridge made with Eugen Neuhaus.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of California printmaker and educator Roi Partridge measure 1.0 linear foot and date from 1909-2003, with the bulk of the material dated 1909-1984. Found here are scattered correspondence, notes and writings, a scrapbook, printed material, and photographs. Several of the documents date from the time Partridge was married to photographer Imogen Cunningham, particularly family correspondence and a travel log of family car camping trips to the west. The same travel log documents one sketching trip Partridge made with Eugen Neuhaus.

General and family correspondence consists largely of incoming letters with some copies and drafts of outgoing letters. General correspondence is mainly professional in nature and documents exhibitions, commissions, teaching, memberships in artists' organizations, and participation in the WPA Public Works of Art Project. A small number of letters from friends concerning personal and social matters are scattered throughout. Among the correspondents are Ansel Adams, Sherwood Anderson, John Taylor Arms, Hollywood Riviera Galleries, Dard Hunter, the Estate of Bertha Jacques [Elizabeth Linsky, executor], National Academy of Design, and Print Makers Society of California. Family correspondence includes letters to Roi Partridge from family members. Letters to Gryffyd's family are from Imogen Cunningham and Roi Partridge; letters from others about family members are also included.

Among the notes and writings are a travel log that documents car camping trips through California and New Mexico taken by Roi Partridge, Imogen Cunningham, and their three sons between 1924 and 1926. The volume also includes Roi's account of a 1926 sketching trip taken with Eugen Neuhaus along the California coast.

A scrapbook contains clippings and feature articles about Roi Partridge, along with exhibition announcements and reproductions. Additional printed material is about or mentions Roi Partridge and his family, Ansel Adams, and Imogen Cunningham. There are also family Christmas cards with reproductions of etchings and drawings by Roi Partridge.

Photographs are of people and art work, including photographs of Roi and May Ellen Partridge, and Donald Bear, the first Director of the Santa Barbara Museum of Art (Janet Lineberger - later Mrs. Gryffyd Partridge - served as his assistant in the early 1940s). There are numerous photographs and negatives of art work by Roi Partridge (with appraisal and catalog information), and a photograph of Peter Blos' portrait of Partridge.
The collection is arranged into 5 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, circa 1909-1993 (Box 1; 0.3 linear ft.; reel 5028)

Series 2: Notes and Writings, 1924-1964 (Box 1; 5 folders.; reel 5028)

Series 3: Scrapbook, 1922-1977 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1913-2003 (Box 1; 0.25 linear ft.; reel 5028)

Series 5: Photographs, 1940-1987 (Box 1; 0.3 linear ft.; reel 5028)
Biographical Note:
Roy George Partridge (later known as Roi) was born in Centralia, Washington, in 1888, the son of a newspaper publisher and a pianist mother who accompanied silent films in Seattle movie houses. His mother enrolled him in a drawing and painting course at age 10. By 1907, the family had moved to Kansas where Partridge enrolled in studio courses at the newly established Fine Arts Institute of Kansas City. From there he then went to New York City to study at the school of the National Academy of Design during 1909 and 1910.

In 1910, with an art student friend from Seattle and enough cash to last a month, Partridge traveled to Europe and through a severe economy and by selling his etchings, managed to stay for four years. Between 1910 and 1914, he studied etching with Brockhoff in Munich, and rented a studio in Paris from 1911-1914. Once he had produced a sufficient number of prints, his friends John Butler and Clare Shepard arranged for an exhibition of his work in Seattle. They were assisted by Imogen Cunningham who sent her photo to Partridge and began corresponding with him.

The outbreak of World War I forced Partridge's return to Seattle where he and Imogen Cunningham finally met face to face. They were married within a matter of months. In their early years together, Roi managed to earn a living selling his prints and Imogen worked for Edward S. Curtis, whose photographs of American Indians had not yet achieved recognition. The couple soon produced three sons, Gryffyd and twins Padraic and Rondal. The family soon moved to San Francisco where Partridge worked as an artist in an advertising agency that also employed Maynard Dixon. During this time, he became friendly with the young Dorothea Lange who worked at the shop where Partridge had his film developed. After their marriage, Dixon and Lange established a close, long term friendship with the Partridge family.

In 1920, Partridge joined the faculty of Mills College as an art instructor, teaching design, painting, printmaking, lettering, and photography for 26 years. Partridge was such a popular teacher that the number of art students rose sharply and, for a time, art became the institution's most popular major. He was named chairman of the Art Department in 1923, and served as the first director of the college's art gallery from 1925 through 1935.

While teaching, Partridge remained an active artist and participated in exhibitions throughout the country at venues such as the Honolulu Art Academy, de Young Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Toronto Art Gallery, and the Museum of Modern Art. Among the prizes and medals awarded him were: Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, Seattle (1909), National Academy of Design (1910), Panama Pacific Exposition (1915), Art Institute of Chicago (191), Brooklyn Museum (1921), San Francisco Museum (1921), Los Angeles Museum of Art (1922, 1925, 1929), California Society of Print Makers (1929), and Library of Congress (1943). Partridge is represented in the permanent collections of many museums, colleges, and libraries, among them: Walker Art Gallery, Honolulu Academy of Art, San Diego Fine Arts Society, Milwaukee Art Gallery, Mills College, Scripps College, New York Public Library, and Library of Congress. Partridge also illustrated several books, and The Graphic Art of Roi Partridge: a Catalogue Raisonné by Anthony R. White was published in 1988.

Imogen Cunningham and Roi Partridge, both strong-willed and not given to compromise, divorced in 1934. They reconciled in the 1960s and remained on friendly terms until her death in 1976. Partridge's second wife, Marian Lyman, died in 1940. The following year, he married May Ellen Fisher, a teacher, who survived him.

In addition to his professional activities, Partridge pursued a wide variety of other interests. During the 1920s, he, Imogen, and their boys took numerous camping trips throughout California and New Mexico. With his third wife, May Ellen, he became an avid folk dancer and enthusiastic gardener, raised chickens and chinchillas, and kept bees. They had the opportunity to travel to Hawaii and Japan. In Japan, Partridge expanded his Japanese print collection which was eventually donated to the Mills College Art Gallery.

Roi Partridge died in Walnut Creek, California, on January 25, 1984.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art holds the papers of Imogen Cunningham, Partridge's first wife, which contain additional Partridge family correspondence and photographs. An untranscribed oral history interview of Roi Partridge conducted by Steve Steinberg in 1980 is also available.
Separated Material:
A portion of the gifts received from Gryffyd Partridge were separated and filed with the Imogen Cunningham papers, some of which had been earlier donated by Gryffyd.
Gryffyd Partridge donated his father's papers to the Archives of American art in 1992 and 1995. A final gift was received from Janet [Mrs. Gryffyd] Partridge in 2003.
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy. Use of the unmicrofilmed portion requires an appointment.
The Roi Partridge papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Printmakers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Etchers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Christmas cards
Drafts (documents)
Roi Partridge papers, 1909-2003 (bulk 1909-1984). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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Roi Partridge papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler and Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
265.8 Linear feet
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Letterpress books
Museum records
Spain -- history -- Civil War, 1936-1939
bulk 1885-1962
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
The collection is arranged into six series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Art museums -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Letterpress books
Museum records
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
Additional Online Media:


Collection Creator:
Henderson, William Penhallow, 1877-1943  Search this
1.6 Linear feet (Boxes 9-11, 13)
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs are of Henderson, his family, and friends including American Indians Elias Suazo and Klah, stunt riders, an expedition by horseback through the mountains, and Henderson's trip to a mine. Photographs of Henderson's architectural projects, include his own homes in Lake Bluff, Illinois, and Santa Fe, New Mexico. Henderson also was the architect of the White Residence, McComb Garden, Railroad Ticket Office, and the Otis Residence, all in Santa Fe. There are also photographs of exhibitions and of artwork by Henderson and others. The albums of photographs of artwork were assembled by Henderson's daughter, Alice Henderson Rossin. Additional photographs may be found in the Project Files and Furniture Files.
Collection Restrictions:
Open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The William Penhallow Henderson papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
William Penhallow Henderson papers, 1876-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.hendwill, Series 13
See more items in:
William Penhallow Henderson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

A:shiwi (Zuni)

Collection Photographer:
Moon, Carl, 1878-1948  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Fred Harvey (Firm)  Search this
23 Photographs ((10 glass transparencies; 2 copy film transparency; 11 copy film negatives))
Box 4, 9, 10, and 404-405 (film negatives)
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
T006016 (N31783); T006017 (N31784); T006018 (N31778); T006019 (N31779); T006115 (N31780) [RESTRICTED]; T006116 (N31781); T006117 (N31891); T006118 (N31782); T006119 (N31889); T006120 (N31890)

This series contains 10 glass transparencies (plus 13 copy negatives and copy transparencies) shot by Carl Moon and depicting the Zuni community in New Mexico circa 1907-1914. The photographs include depictions of a Zuni Governor, Governor's wife, and other unidentified individuals. Other photographs depict a woman carrying a water jar on her head; children playing outside; adobe buildings in the village; and terraced waffle gardens. One photograph depicting an old Zuni Mission and burying ground in this series is restricted.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email:
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred Harvey Company collection of Carl Moon Southwest photographs, Box and Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
NMAI.AC.090, Series 1
See more items in:
Fred Harvey Company collection of Carl Moon Southwest photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian

Charles P. Alexander Papers

Alexander, Charles P. (Charles Paul), 1889-1981  Search this
59.41 cu. ft. (116 document boxes) (1 half document box) (2 tall document boxes)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Lantern slides
Color transparencies
Black-and-white photographs
circa 1870-1979
The papers of Charles P. Alexander (Record Unit 7298) were received by the Smithsonian Archives in 1981, 1982, and 1984. The papers are open to researchers and may be consulted in the Archives.

The Archives would like to thank Dr. Wayne N. Mathis, Chairman, Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History; Dr. F. Christian Thompson, Research Entomologist, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture; and Professor T. Michael Peters, Department of Entomology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, for their help and cooperation in the transfer of the Alexander Papers to the Archives.
Descriptive Entry:
The papers of Charles P. Alexander offer comprehensive documentation of his professional career and personal affairs. Especially well represented in the papers is material relating to his early studies of birds and insects, his collegiate career at Cornell University, his research on the Tipulidae, the development of his crane fly collection, field work and collecting trips, his teaching and administrative careers at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and his activities in entomological societies and professional organizations.

Alexander was a prolific letter writer, and over half the collection consists of correspondence written and received between 1906 and 1979. The correspondence reflects all phases of his career and is particularly rich in documenting crane fly research and the building of Alexander's personal collection of Tipulidae. Alexander's network of correspondents was world-wide, and in several instances letters describing political and social issues (especially during World War II) are found. Also included are many letters to friends and family members concerning personal matters.

The collection is particularly strong in documenting field work and collecting trips conducted by Alexander, 1904-1964. Included are field notes, diaries and journals (kept by both Alexander and his wife, Mabel) documenting his initial observations on birds and insects in upstate New York; extensive collecting in the western United States, western Canada and Alaska; and field work executed in New England, the Great Smoky Mountains and the maritime provinces of Canada. Field work is also illustrated by many photographs and color slides taken by Alexander.

Materials relating to the personal life and family history of Alexander, and his wife Mabel, are found throughout the collection. Included is genealogical and biographical information on their families; an autobiographical sketch which documents Alexander's life to 1915; magazine articles and newspaper clippings concerning Alexander; correspondence relating to honors and awards, lectures and his retirement from teaching; and records summarizing his research, publications and collection. Of particular interest is his "Crane Fly Haven" Guest Book which contains many personal reminiscences and includes biographical data on entomologists.

Photographic documentation of Alexander's life and work is a major strength of the collection. Included are numerous photographs of Alexander, 1895-1979; pictures of his wife Mabel; and various family photographs. Alexander was an outstanding photographer and his papers contain over 10,000 35mm color transparencies. The slides thoroughly illustrate field work conducted by Alexander, 1951-1964, especially in western North America and include many fine pictures of flora and fauna encountered on the trips. Many slides of entomologists, professional colleagues and family members are also found.

Records dealing with Alexander's crane fly research and collection include specimen lists, research notes, species tabulations, locality data, loan documentation, maps, photographs, drawings and figures, shipment lists, information on collectors, bibliographic references, manuscripts and reprints.

The papers contain a wealth of information for researchers interested in the history of entomology. In addition to corresponding with many prominent entomologists, Alexander also collected biographical data on, and photographs of, many colleagues. The material includes autobiographical sketches solicited by Alexander, photographs, biographical data assembled by Alexander, newspaper clippings, obituaries, and publications. His collection of 35mm color slides also includes many pictures of entomologists.

The papers also include diaries and notebooks kept by Alexander during his student years at Cornell University and during his career at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst; diplomas and certificates awarded Alexander; copies of lectures and examinations given by Alexander; correspondence and a notebook of the New Zealand insect collector, Thomas R. Harris; and photographs, correspondence, and family papers of the entomologist, Jay R. Traver.
Historical Note:
Charles P. Alexander (1889-1981), entomologist and authority on the Tipulidae (crane flies), was born in Gloversville, New York. He developed an early interest in natural history, primarily through the influence of an older brother, William P. Alexander. His earliest studies concentrated on ornithology, and he published his first paper on birds at the age of 13 in 1903. Gradually his interests shifted to the study of insects, and his first entomological paper, "Rove Beetles of Eastern New York," appeared in 1909. In that year, Alexander enrolled at Cornell University to study entomology under John Henry Comstock, James G. Needham, Alexander D. MacGillivray, Oskar A. Johannsen and others. At Cornell, the study of crane flies became his primary entomological pursuit. His first paper on the family, "Fulton County (New York) Tipulidae," was published in 1910--one of 25 papers on crane flies which he authored as an undergraduate. Alexander received the Bachelor of Science degree in 1913 and the Ph.D. in 1918, both from Cornell.

Alexander's professional career began in 1917 when he accepted the position of Curator of the Snow Entomological Collection at the University of Kansas. From 1919 to 1922, he served as a Curator with the Illinois Natural History Survey. In 1922, Alexander was appointed Assistant Professor at the Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst (now the University of Massachusetts), where he remained as a faculty member and administrator for the rest of his career. On his retirement from teaching in 1959, the University awarded him an honorary Doctor of Science degree.

Alexander's research was almost exclusively focused on the study of the Tipulidae, the largest family of the order Diptera. He described close to 11,000 species of Diptera, over 10,000 of them belonging to the family Tipulidae. Alexander assembled a huge personal collection of crane flies which contained more than 10,500 species. He acquired many specimens on numerous field trips and collecting expeditions. Between 1934 and 1964, Alexander (assisted by his wife Mabel) made 18 collecting trips to the western United States, western Canada and Alaska. He also collected extensively in New England, the Great Smoky Mountains, and the maritime provinces of Canada. His collection was also increased by means of a large network of insect collectors, former students, and professional colleagues who sent him specimens from around the world. The collection was purchased by the Smithsonian Institution in 1973. His bibliography includes 1017 papers and books totaling over 20,000 pages, with 15,000 of his own illustrations.

Alexander was active within the entomological profession, and his achievements were widely recognized. A member of the Entomological Society of America (ESA) from 1910 until his death, Alexander served as President of the Society from 1941 to 1943 and was elected an Honorary Member in 1969. In 1976 he received the L. O. Howard Award for Distinguished Achievement in Entomology of the Eastern Branch of ESA. Alexander was also a Corresponding Member of the American Entomological Society; an Honorary Member of the National Pest Control Association; an Honorary Fellow of the Sociedad Chilean de Entomologia; an Honorary Member of the Kebun Raya Indonesia (Botanical Gardens of Indonesia); and a Fellow of the Entomological Society of London. In 1952, he was the recipient of the Bernardo O'Higgins Order of Merit of the government of Chile.

For additional biographical information on Alexander see George W. Byers, "In Memoriam. Charles P. Alexander, 1889-1981," Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 55 (1982) 409-417; Ashley B. Gurney. "Charles Paul Alexander." Fernald Club Yearbook, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, No. 28 (1959), 1-6; and John Sherwood. "Doc Alex: The World's Greatest Crane Fly Electronic Data Bank." The Washington Star, November 22, 1979.
September 25, 1889 -- Born in Gloversville, New York

1903 -- Published first natural history paper, "A Young Woodcock," American Ornithology, at age 13

1906 -- Encouraged by E. Porter Felt, begins study of crane flies

1909 -- Published first entomology paper, "Rove Beetles of Eastern New York," Philatelic West

1910 -- Published first paper on crane flies, "Fulton County (New York) Tipulidae," Entomological News

1913 -- Bachelor of Science, Cornell University

November 10, 1917 -- Married Mabel Marguerite Miller in Lawrence, Kansas

1917-1919 -- Curator, Snow Entomological Collection, University of Kansas

1918 -- Ph.D., Cornell University

1919, 1921 -- "The Crane Flies of New York," Cornell University Agricultural Experimental Station Memoirs

1919-1922 -- Curator, Illinois Natural History Survey

1922-1930 -- Assistant Professor, Massachusetts Agricultural College (now the University of Massachusetts, Amherst)

1929 -- Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile, Part I, Crane Flies, British Museum (Natural History)

1930-1938 -- Professor in charge of Entomology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

June-September 1934 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

1938-1948 -- Chairman, Department of Entomology and Zoology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

June 1939 -- Collecting trip to Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina and Tennessee

May-June 1940 -- Collecting trip to Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina and Tennessee

June-August 1941 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

1941-1943 -- President, Entomological Society of America

May-July 1942 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

1943 -- "The Diptera or True Flies of Connecticut (Tipulidae)," Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey, Bulletin 64

1945-1946 -- Acting Dean, School of Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

June-September 1946 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

1946-1952 -- Dean, School of Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

June-September 1947 -- Collecting trip to the western United States and Canada

June-September 1948 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

1948-1959 -- Chairman, Department of Entomology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

June-August 1949 -- Collecting trip to the western United States and Canada

June-August 1950 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

June-July 1951 -- Collecting trip to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia

June-September 1952 -- Collecting trip to the western United States and Canada

1952 -- Bernardo O'Higgins Order of Merit, Chilean Government

June-September 1953 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

June-September 1954 -- Collecting trip to Alaska

June-September 1955 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

June-August 1956 -- Collecting trip to the western United States and Canada

May-August 1957 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

May-August 1958 -- Collecting trip to the western United States

1959 -- Retirement from University of Massachusetts, Amherst

1959 -- Honorary Doctor of Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

June-September 1959 -- Collecting trip to the western United States and Canada

1959-1981 -- Professor of Entomology, Emeritus, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

July 1960 -- Collecting trip to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

June-August 1961 -- Collecting trip to Newfoundland

June-July 1962 -- Collecting trip to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

1963 -- Honorary Membership, Entomological Society of America

March-July 1963 -- Collecting trip to California

January-June 1964 -- Visiting Professor, University of California, Berkeley

1965 -- A Catalog of Diptera of America North of Mexico (Tipulidae), USDA Agricultural Research Service

1967 -- "The Crane Flies of California", Bulletin of the California Insect Survey

1970 -- A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States (with Mabel M. Alexander) Museu de Zoological, Univer. de Sao Paulo, Brazil

1976 -- L. O. Howard Award for Distinguished Achievement in Entomology, Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America

1976 -- One-thousandth paper on crane flies published

1979 -- Death of Mabel M. Alexander

December 3, 1981 -- Death

1982 -- Dedication of the Charles and Mabel Alexander Conference Room, Fernald Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (May 10)
Biography  Search this
Entomology  Search this
Entomologists  Search this
Lantern slides
Color transparencies
Black-and-white photographs
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7298, Charles P. Alexander Papers
Record Unit 7298
See more items in:
Charles P. Alexander Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Business Correspondence of Peter Hurd

Collection Creator:
Hurd, Peter, 1904-1984  Search this
Archival materials
1923-1989, undated
Scope and Contents note:
This subseries includes letters from Walter Annenberg, Julie Eisenhower, Alfred Eisenstaedt, Mrs. Douglas Fairbanks, and Prince Ranier of Monaco. Six letters from Pat Nixon include photographs of Henriette Wyeth Hurd finishing Mrs. Nixon's portrait.

See Appendix for a list of correspondents from Series 2.3.
Arrangement note:
Folders are arranged alphabetically by correspondent. Some of the folders contain letters from a single correspondent and some contain letters from a range of correspondents, all or whom are not listed in the folder title.
Appendix: Correspondents from Series 2:3:
Abell-Hanger Foundation, 1969-1970

Abilene Club, 1950

Abilene Fine Arts Museum, 1973-1974

Abrams: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1963-1971

Abrums, Mrs. John Denise, 1973

Academy Foundation, 1955-1971

Accademia Culturale Adriatica d'Italia, 1949

Achenbach, Col. H. F., 1967

Acosta, Manuel G., 1961-1971

Addison Gallery of American Art, 1968-1969

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1968

Adkins, Eugene B., 1965-1975

Admirals Club, 1962-1972

Ainsworth, Mrs. Ed, 1967-1969

Air Force: see Academy Foundation; see Headquarters [U. S. Air Force] see Headquarters of Fifteenth Air Force

Albert, Harry B., 1954-1969

Albuquerque National Bank, 1963-1969

Alexander, George W., 1974

Alford, J. R. T., 1971

Allen, David, 1967-1968

Allen, Douglas, 1971-1972

Allen, Evelyn, 1967

Aller, Robert, 1974

Alley Book Stall, 1951-1968

Allred, Dr. E. C., 1974

Amarillo Art Center, 1973-1974

Amarillo Public Schools, 1951

America The Beautiful Fund, 1965-1973

American Artist, 1962-1974

American Artists Group, Inc., 1937-1946

American Association of Museums, 1969

American Broadcasting Company, 1966

American Embassy in Mexico, 1965-1966

American Factors, Limited: see AMFAC

American Federation of Arts, 1938-1947

American Heritage, 1964-1975

American Institute of Architects, 1959

American Medical Association, 1965

American Museum of Natural History, 1969-1970

American Orchid Society, Inc., 1951

American Watercolor Society, 1962-1973

AMFAC (American Factors, Ltd.), 1949-1969

Amick, L. D., 1960

Anderman, George G., 1970-1971

Anderson, Clinton P., 1941-1971

Anderson, Donald B., 1962-1967

Anderson, Donald James, undated

Anderson, Mildred K., 1968

Anderson, Robert O., 1954-1972

Andrews/Nelson/Whitehead, Inc., 1964

Annala, Ronald, 1969

Annenberg, Walter H., 1967-1973

Architectural Digest, 1973

Arizona: see Babbitt, Bruce

Arizona Bank, 1973

Arizona Highways, 1952-1974

Arizona State Fair, 1954

Arizona State University, 1965

Armstrong, 1963

Artesia: College of Artesia, 1967-1971

Arthur, Zinn, 1954

Art in America, 1963

Art Institute of Chicago, 1935-1941

Artists Equity Association, Inc., 1965-1974

Artists Showroom, 1973

Artists/USA, Inc., 1970

Ash, Frances and Bob, 1969

Asia Foundation, 1959

Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, 1962-1974

Associated American Artists, 1936-1975

Aston, Rogers, 1972-1973

Atlantic Monthly Press, 1955-1968

Atwood, Bob, 1967

Austin, Flavius, 1973-1974

Ayer: N. W. Ayer & Son, Inc., 1942-1950

Ayers, Thomas G., 1972-1973

Aylward, Nell, undated

Babbitt, Bruce, 1982

Bacon, Ernst, 1965-1969

Bailey, Kenneth, 1967-1974

Bailey, William S., 1963-1968

Baker Company, 1969

Baker, Frederick, 1970

Baker, Straus, 1964-1968

Bales, Bob, 1962-1966

Balis, C. Wanton, 1950-1951

Ball, Eve, 1966

Ball, Ralph, 1974

Ball, Robert L., 1947

Ballantine, Bill, 1969

Ballin, Hugo, 1937

Barbee Welding Supply Co., 1984

Barnard, Jacqueline, 1968

Barnes, Courtlandt D., 1968-1969

Barnes, Katrina M., undated

Barnes, W. U., 1966-1968

Barry, Claude and Dana, 1974

Bass, Perry, R., 1958-1978

Bates, Jack, 1951-

Beal, Carlton, 1968-1970

Beam: Jim Beam Bottle Project, 1969-1970

Beitz, Lester, 1946

Bell, Carol Ann, 1967

Bencsik Gallery, 1974

Bennett, Fred, 1967

Berger, Tom, 1974

Bergman, B., 1970

Betancourt, Romulo, 1964-1967

Biddle, Francis, 1966

Biddle, John H., 1971

Biggs, John, 1937-1981

Bishop, John, 1950-1951

Bishop Printing & Litho Co., 1971

Bissell, Mrs. Alfred, undated

Black, D. Eric, 1969

Black, Vance, 1972

Blair Galleries, 1966-1970

Blake, Dorothy, undated

Blakenship, W. B., 1968-1969

Blaustein, Julian, 1957-1958

Blue Lake Project, 1969-1972

Blumenstock, Mrs. George, 1972

Bockius, R. W., 1967

Bogle, Dorothy, 1951-1966

Bohemian Club, 1967-1969

Boise Art Association, 1964

Bolt, Reggie, 1966

Bonfoey, Kay, 1973

Bonney, Cecil, 1965

Bonney, William, 1976

Book of the Month Club, Inc., 1971-1972

Book Stall, 1969

Boren, James, 1968

Borton, Hugh, 1970-1980

Bouldin, Marshall, 1968

Bowden, A. J., 1971

Bowers: Charles W. Bowers Memorial Museum, 1964-1965

Bowlin's Mesilla Book Center, 1967

Bowman, Frank, 1950-1963

Bradford, Dewey C., 1961-1965

Bradley, Palmer, 1965

Branch, Hampton, 1964

Brandywine Galleries, Ltd., 1970-1973

Brandywine River Museum, 1979

Branham, Mary, 1961

Brantley, Alexandra, 1974

Brass Door Galleries, 1974

Breck, Louis W., 1960-1965

Breese, E. W., 1967

Breidster, W. Fritz, 1967

Brenton, Daniel, 1969

Brewer, Mike, 1961

Brice, Charles R., 1956

Briggs, James, 1961

Briggs, Randall W., 1960-1974

British Broadcasting Corp., 1942

Brook, A., 1965

Brown, Arthur, 1964

Brown, John F., 1969-1970

Brown, Raymond, 1969

Browne, Mrs. Spencer, 1961

Browser's Magazine, 1972

Brusher, Hal, 1973

Buckingham, L. J., 1969

Bunting, Mrs. Frederick W., 1965-1966

Bureau of Reclamation, 1969-1974

Burgess, Ryk, 1971

Burnham, Alice, 1971

Burress, Mary, 1972

Busch, Niven, 1946-1973

Business Men's Assurance, 1962-1972

Butcher, Mrs. Cary P., 1964-1965

Butler, Charles, 1969

Butler Institute of American Art, 1967

Butoler, Olivia, undated

Bynner, Witter, 1940-1975

Byrom, Gilliam, 1973

Cabell, Charles P., 1953-1967

California Institute of the Arts: see Bales, Bob

Carlin Galleries, 1981

Carroll, John M., 1969-1971

Carter, Jimmy, undated envelope fragment

Chester Art Guild: see Dawson, James

Chicago: see Art Institute of Chicago

Circle Gallery, Ltd., 1972-1974

Coe Kerr Gallery, Inc.: see Busch, Niven

Colorado: University of Colorado, undated

Copley, James S., 1967-1973

Cosmos Club, 1960-1967

Country Gentleman, 1941-1952

Coward-McCann, Inc., 1944-1957

Craver Farms, 1982

Daeuble: Carroll, Daeuble, Du Sang and Rand, 1967

Dahl, Bjarne B., 1973

Dailey, Fred, 1972

Dakota Artists Guild, 1969

Dale, Mrs. Chester, 1966

Dall Smith, Inc., 1963-1967

Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 1937-1960

Dallas Terminal Annex, 1938-1978

Dalrymple, Mrs. Glen, 1965

Daniels, Charles E., undated

Darlington, Carol S., 1964

Darlington, Jack, 1967

Darnell, Casey and Blair, 1965

Dartmouth College, 1960-1961

Datsun endorsement, 1972-1979

Daughtery, Frank, 1959

Davenport, Mrs. O. H., undated

Davey, Danny, 1969-1971

Davidson, Barbara, 1968-1969

Davidson, Harry M., 1967

Davis, John, 1956

Davis, Larry, 1967-1968

Davis, Morgan J., 1961-1969

Davis, Mrs. Ray V., 1954-1966

Davis, W. B., 1967

Dawley, David G., 1967

Dawson, James, 1970

Day, Fred, 1951

Dean, Susan, 1965-1967

Deane, Martha, 1968

Decorators' Showcase, 1967

Deere & Company, 1972

Delaware: University of Delaware, 1978

Dena, Benito Palomino, 1967-1970

Denkhoff, Ray, 1967

Denman, Franklin & Denman, 1967

Dent: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1965

Dent, Mrs. John, 1966

Desert Magazine, undated

Desert Magazine Art Gallery, 1962-1963

Dietz, Mrs. Robert, 1965

Diggdon, Philip D., 1974

Dillon, Austin, H., 1969-1971

Dixon, Don, 1968

Dixon, George, 1959

Dobie-Paisano Project, 1965-1966

Dobson, B. C., 1967

Dodds, R. W., 1949

Dohanos, Stevan, 1963

Dolan, Eugene, 1969

Donald Art Company, Inc., 1964

Donti, Jerrold, 1968

Doornbos, E., 1966

Dougherty, Dudley T., 1967

Douglas Art Association, 1972

Dow, James, 1961-1968

Dow: Louis F. Dow Co., 1955-1956

Drake, Blaine, 1963-1967

Drankow, Mrs. Matty, 1966

Dressel & Altman, 1967

Driskell, Mrs. Joseph, 1967-1968

Dunn, Fern, 1968

Dunn, Helen, 1967

Dupre, Grace D., 1965-1972

Dysart, Cabot, 1963-1967

Easter, Sister Claretta, 1966-1967

Easterling, Ross, 1969

Eastern New Mexico University, 1963-1979

Eastern Washington State Historical Society, 1964

East Texas State University, 1961-1970

Eaton, Bonnie, 1968

Eaton, L.?, 1952

Eaton, Nan and Bob, 1965-1970

Eckman, Mary, 1966

Edinburgh Regional College, 1951-1952

Editions Press, 1973

Edwards, J. W., 1969

Egri, Ted, 1959

Ehrt, Herbert A., 1951

Eiseman, Douglass W., 1961

Eisenhower, Julie: see Nixon, Pat

Eisenstaedt, Alfred, 1968

Eliot, Alexander, 1970

Elliott, Ben, 1965

Elliott, George, 1951-1972

Elliott, Hazel, 1967

Elliott, Will, 1941

Elliston, Lura Duff, undated

Elms Gallery, 1964

El Paso Museum of Art, 1961-1978

Embry, W. Glenn, 1953-1966

Emmet, Barton, 1965-1966

Emmet, John, 1966-1967

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1944-1977

English, Frances Bonnell, 1969

Ericson, Andrea, undated

Espinoza, Noel, 1969

Esty: William Esty Company, 1962

Evans, Annie Mae, 1962

Evans, Dorothy T., 1965-1973

Evans, Elinor, 1972

Evans, Ernestine, 1968

Evans, G. W., 1960-1961

Evans, Ira K., undated

Evans, Joe M., undated

Evans, Louise, 1955-1967

Evans, Truett, 1962-1970

Ewbank, H. R., 1954

Ezell, James Kerry, 1970

Fairbanks, Mrs. Douglas, 1971

Falkner, Mrs. Herbert, 1970

Fall, Hugh V., 1936

Faltermeier, Robert, 1973

Family Circle Magazine, 1954

Farm Journal, 1950-1970

Farnsworth Television & Radio Corp., 1942-1948

Farr, R., 1965

Farrar & Rinehart, 1940

Farrington, Mrs. L. H., 1946

Faude, Susan, 1967-1968

Faudree, William, 1977

Fauntleroy, O. W., 1959-1960

Faver, Robert M., 1974-1975

Feather, G. A., 1951

Fedway [Department Store], 1965

Feist, Herbert E., 1971

Felpes, undated

Ferargil, Inc., 1950

Ferguson, Tana, undated

Ferguson, Thomas, 1967

Fergusson, Erna, 1951

Ferroni, Brimo, 1947

Ferrucci, Mario, 1968

Fideler Company, 1952

Field Enterprises Corp., 1965-1975

Fielding, William, 1967

Film Enterprises, 1972-1973

Fine Arts Commission, 1959-1962

Finley, David Edward, 1965-1969

Fireman's Fund, 1967

First National Bank of Albuquerque, 1970

First National Bank of Chicago, 1962-1974

Flannery, Vaughan, undated

Flannery, W. E., 1954

Fleetwood, Charles, 1969

Fleischmann, Justin and Lillian, 1966-1971

Fleming, Joseph, 1970

Fleming, Pat, 1968

Flynn, J. Walter, 1960-1966

Fogg Art Museum, 1940-1971

Foote, Cone, & Belding, 1949-1955

Ford, Jesse Hill, 1965

Ford Motor Company, 1950-1969

Ford, Merrill, 1965-1968

Fort, Tomlinson, 1961-1973

Fortune, Cedric, 1973

Foster, Mrs. Maurice, 1969

Foster, Robert, 1971-1973

Foust, Chester, 1955-1961

Fowler, Frank N., 1973-1974

Fox, Chris, 1966-1967

Francis, Helen, 1974

Frank, Paul A., 1946

Franklin Mint, 1970-1973

Franklin Pierce College, 1968

Frauwirth, Sidney, 1964-1965

Friedberg, Opal, 1967

Friends Magazine, 1962-1964

Frison, Don, 1969-1970

Fuller, Charles D., 1968

Fulton, R. H., 1969

Fundingsland, Mrs. S. E., 1974

Georgia: University of Georgia, 1980

Goddard, Robert H., 1964-1971

Golden Anniversary Friendship Flight, 1962

Grant, W. D.: see Business Men's Assurance

Guelph: University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada), 1977

Hacker, George, 1951

Hackley Art Gallery, 1949-1954

Hadley, John M., 1970

Haeberle, Peter, 1970-1971

Hagberg, Peter, 1967

Hagerman First National Bank, 1962

Hale, Mrs. D. L., 1978

Hall Brothers, Inc., 1951

Hall, Walter B., 1969

Halliburton, Erle, 1968

Hallmark Cards, Inc., 1949-1962

Halsey, Admiral, 1945 (letter signed by secretary)

Halteman, Theodore, 1968

Hamilton, Donald W., 1969-1970

Hamilton, Jim, 1970

Hamilton, John, 1966

Hamilton, Minard, 1961

Hammer Galleries, 1962

Hammer, Mrs., 1964

Hamner, Laura, 1939-1965

Hanna, Mrs. Dan R., 1966

Hanrahan, James S., 1961

Hanes, Mabel, 1964

Hardcastle: George Hardcastle and Son, Inc., 1962

Hardy, Gladys E., 1970

Harman, Fred, 1969

Harmon, H. R., 1955-1956

Harper, Mrs. Gerald, 1973

Harris, Mrs. Charles Lee, 1971

Harris, Mrs. Henry B., 1975

Harris, W. T., 1965-1968

Harrison, John R., 1966-1970

Harrison, Milton, 1964-1967

Harvard Art Review, 1969

Haswell, Anthony, 1964

Hatch, Francis W., 1967-1970

Hathaway, C., 1966

Haverford College, 1951-1981

Hawkins, Gardiner, 1972-1974

Hawkins, H. H., 1967

Hawks, John, 1967

Haynsworth, Mrs. R. F., 1971

Headquarters [U. S. Air Force], 1942-1976

Headquarters of Fifteenth Air Force, 1955-1966

Healey, Giles Greville, 1964

Heard, John F., 1965

Heart Association of Broward County, 1966-1969

Heath, Robert and Jean, 1976-1980

Heckman: W. L. Heckman Co., 1967

Heineman, Ben W., 1966-1976

Helbis, John and Shirley, 1966

Hemmle, Agnes and Gene, 1967

Henderson, undated

Henderson, Charles, 1950-1965

Hensley, Gene, 1970

Hensley, Jackson, 1967-1968

Hercules Powder Company, 1953-1974

Hergesheimer, Joseph, 1925-1941

Heron, Clyde, 1969

Herrin, Lex, 1967

Heston, Loomis, 1969-1970

Hettinger: H. I. Hettinger & Co., 1953

Hevenor, Richard K., 1969

Heyser, Estill S., 1950

Heywood, Barrett H., 1975

Hickman, Charles S., 1973

High Mesa College, 1968

Hightower, Frank, 1971

Hildebrand, Ira, 1967-1971

Hilliard, H. T., 1966-1969

Hinkle, Clarence E., 1959-1972

Hirsch, Peter, 1966

Hirschi & Adler, 1967-1968

Hissom, R. J. 1967-1971

Hitch, Henry C., 1968-1970

Hoard, Mary C., 1973-1974

Hodson, R. J., 1968

Hoffer, Clarence W., 1961

Hogg, Eleanor H., 1963

Hogsett, Glade C., 1959

Holden, W. Curry, 1950-1977

Holle, Charles G., 1968-1969

Holliday: W. J. Holliday & co., 1951

Hollister, Paul, 1971

Holman, Herschel E., 1960

Holmes, Myrtle, 1972

Holt: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1956

Holt, Robert B., 1968-1971

Homer, Jack, 1951

Hondo Valley Traffic Safety, 1963

Honolulu Art Association, 1971

Hoopes, Clement R., 1971

Hoover, Mrs. Thomas B., 1964

Hopwell, Mrs., undated

Hopwood, Mrs. W. J., 1975

Horgan, Ed, 1950-

Horwitz, Mary Lou, undated

Horgan, Paul: see Correspondence, Letters to and from Paul Horgan

Hosford, Penny, 1965

Hotton, Esther H., 1964-1965

Houghton Mifflin Company, 1943-1972

House & Garden, 1955-1975

Houston Chronicle, 1966

Houston Post, 1954

Howard, Eldon B., 1967-1968

Howard Roy, 1963

Hubbard, Jere, 1967-1968

Hughes, Ruth, 1972

Huling, Ray G., 1974

Hulse, Max D., 1968-1970

Humble Oil & Refining Company, 1955-1961

Hunsaker, Joe Ben, 1968

Hunt, Robert N., 1948

Hunter Gallery, 1969

Hunter, Pamela, 1972

Hurley, Norma, 1971

Hurley, Wilson D., 1968

Hutchins, Susan, 1923-1928

Interior: Department of the Interior: see Bureau of Reclamation

MacNider, Jack, 1972

McKee, John J., 1971-1982

Mesilla Design Center: see Bowlin

Mexico: see American Embassy in Mexico

National Academy of Design, 1982-1989

New Mexico: Office of the Governor, 1981

New Mexico State University: see Anderson, Clinton P.

New Mexico: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1975-1978

Nixon, Pat, 1978-1980

Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1975-1977

Quivira Bookshop: see Dietz, Mrs. Robert

Rainier: Prince Rainier of Monaco, 1976

Reagan, President and Mrs., 1981 and 1984 (Christmas cards designed by Jamie Wyeth)

Rockefeller, Mrs. John D., III, 1978

Rummell, Mrs. W. B., 1983

St. John's College, 1963-1977

St. Vincent Hospital, 1979

Schumpert, Billy, 1968

Scripps College, 1977

Smithsonian Institution, 1978

Suzette International, 1981

Swallow Press, Inc., 1969-1977

Tankersley, Mrs. Garvin, 1975-1978

Taylor, Robert, 1976

Texaco, 1977-1982

Texas A&M University, 1980-1982

Texas Centennial Exposition, 1936

Texas-New Mexico Library Association, 1976-1977

Texas: University of Texas, Austin, 1964-1979

Thompson, Daniel V., 1975

Treidel, Mrs. Walter, 1974-1975

Trigg, Mrs., undated

Twaddell, Kristie, 1975

United States Information Agency, 1975-1976

Vance, Mrs, Alex, 1975-1978

Vance, "Monk", 1975

Vinson, Bailie, 1959-1978

Vollum, Orville, 1973-1975

Wagley, Philip F., 1977

Walbridge, Norton S., 1976

Walker Air Force Base, 1954-1967

Walters, Richard H., 1975

Waltrip, Rufus, 1972

Watson-Guptill Publications, 1969-1975

Watson, Jo Ann, 1974-1975

Waxman, Lilo, undated

Webster, Jack, 1976-1980

Weitzenhoffer, Mrs. Aaron M., 1976

West, W. F., 1979

Western Fine Arts Foundation, 1974-1977

Whetstone Fine Framing, 1980

Wiggins, Walt, 1978

Wilkerson, Tom, 1975-1977

Wilkinson, Kirk C., 1979

Willis, Ken, 1978-1979

Willner, Catherine, 1979

Wilmington Savings Fund, 1973-1975

Wilmot, Paul D., 1977

Wilson: Sandra Wilson Galleries, 1977

Wilson: Woodrow Wilson Fine Arts, 1980

Wood, Dennis, 1975

Woods, Carol R., 1980

Woodsmall, Warren O., 1976

Woodson, Weldon D., 1977

Woodward, Daniel E., 1975

Woodworth, Charlie H., 1978

Woolfitt, Adam, 1969

Woolley, Bennett L., 1972

Woolvin, Sam, 1976

Wyeth, Betsy, 1976

Wyeth: Nicholas Wyeth, Inc., 1978

Wyoming: University of Wyoming, 1976
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Collection Rights:
The Peter Hurd and Henriette Wyeth Hurd papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Peter Hurd and Henrietta Wyeth Hurd papers, 1917-1993. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.hurdpete, Subseries 2.3
See more items in:
Peter Hurd and Henriette Wyeth Hurd papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

Forman H. Craton Papers

Craton, Forman H., 1902-1983  Search this
General Electric Company  Search this
4.15 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Letters (correspondence)
Personal papers
Diaries and memoirs, profusely illustrated with photographs and other mementos, which describe Craton's life, education and work experience as an engineer at General Electric in minute detail, and include his comments on the culture, current events and politics of the times; and correspondence, mostly letters from Craton to his wife and to his mother.
Scope and Contents:
This memoir is the autobiography of a man whose entire career from college graduation to retirement was spent working in one of the giants of American industry, the General Electric Company. His life spanned more than three quarters of the twentieth century and the detail in which it has been recorded provides much scattered historical, cultural, social and economic information about the period.

It is part contemporaneous diary written on a daily or weekly basis, part a record of chronological periods of Mr. Craton's life reconstructed from notes, scattered diary entries, sketches, photographs and memory and part a record of specific experiences, for example the family's boating years, Mr. Craton's time at the War Production Board, his religious life. Mr. Craton referred to it as "my 40-volume autobiography-----a continuous story of my life since birth. I estimate there are at least three million words in this record-----" in a two page autobiographical account written November 28, 1978 for Milton Wise, a former classmate.

References to Mr. Craton's work at G.E. appear in the daily and weekly diary entries but are in separate sections in the record of Mr. Craton's life that was written after his retirement. The story of those years is divided into two sections, one relating to home, family and friends and another to his career at G.E. These sections on his work contain a significant amount of information on the company's transportation interests and the manufacture and merchandising of locomotives and locomotives parts as well as descriptions of Mr. Craton's colleagues.

The year 1942 spent in Washington as a dollar-a-year man at the War Production Board and his account of his trips to Washington immediately before and immediately afterwards paint an interesting picture of war-time Washington, its hotels, restaurants, and cocktail lounges and the social life of which they were a part. They also give some indication of a Federal government rapidly expanding to meet war-time needs at home and abroad.

Major current events occurring during Mr. Craton's lifetime are also noted. They begin with the arrival of the Graf Zeppelin in New York In October 1928; the election of Herbert Hoover as president in that year as well as subsequent presidential elections were recorded as were the depression of the thirties and its effect on family life, and World War II. Developments in the space program and the landing of the astronauts on the moon were watched on television and noted in the memoirs.

The record is replete with Mr. Craton's disapproval of labor unions and their activities and his bias about Jews and Blacks, and reference to social classes that he considered his inferiors. Entries throughout the years from childhood on describe friends, acquaintances and fellow workers in minute detail. They also describe every woman with a pretty face or good figure noticed on the street, in a store, restaurant or hotel and document the drinking that was one aspect of recreational life at the time among some groups.

Looking back on the period from 1949 to 1963 from the vantage point of 1977 Mr. Craton divided it into 3 periods. In the one he entitled "Emancipation" there is a lengthy description of their friendship with the Brightmans, biographical details of the members of the Dinner Club, a detailed account of Bab's wedding and the birth of the first grandchild. This record of friends, family and activities is heavily illustrated with photographs and clippings.

Numerous references to the family's daily living and travel expenses show the changes that occurred in the price level over the years and caused Mr. Craton major concern about inflation.

The memoirs are profusely illustrated with photographs of family, friends and places visited as well as with magazine pictures, menus, programs, and other mementos.

Much of the collection is typed on 8-1/2 by 5 inch notebook sheets. Much is handwritten in a small, neat script. Photographs are labeled.

The Container List indicates by folder whether the contents are diary or memoirs written after the fact.
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Memoirs, 1902-1983

Series 2: Correspondence, 1923-1982
Biographical / Historical:
Childhood and Youth

Forman Craton, an only child, was born on June 23, 1902 in Syracuse, New York. His mother, Annie Fairbanks Hutchison was the granddaughter of General Orrin Hutchison, a man of some prominence in Onondaga County, New York. His father, Dr. Samuel Boyce Craton, was the great grandson of Joshua Forman, the founder of Syracuse, New York. Dr. Forman earned his medical degree at Syracuse University and became an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist. Somewhat later he confined his practice to diseases of the eye.

Mr. Craton's memoirs recount several unpleasant memories of a dark, gloomy house on McClennan Ave. in Syracuse where he spent his earliest years. Among them were the death of a brother who was a "blue" baby, a series of colds, coughs, sore throats and other respiratory complaints, getting sick on street cars, fear of dogs, and fear of being banished from home for misbehavior.

About April 1, 1908 the family moved to 326 Highland Ave., a socially better neighborhood where they spent the next 7 years which are described by Mr. Craton as among the happiest in his life. The long winters offered a multitude of winter activities for children. They built snowmen, snow forts, snow houses. There were few cars so the streets were not cleared and youngsters went sledding and tobogganing on nearby hills. The tennis court at the Sedgwick Farm Club was flooded for skating and hockey. Indoors the children played "house" with appropriate rearrangement of the furniture or hide-and-seek in houses with large attics. In good weather, hopscotch, baseball and football took over along with climbing trees and riding bicycles.

Burten Holmes' travel pictures, special movies such as "Birth of a Nation" and later Jack London's "The Sea Wolf" as well as books and records were part of the cultural scene. Magazines too, "St. Nicholas", "Boys' Life" and "American Boy" were available. At his mother's instigation young Craton began a stamp collection.

Most of the neighborhood families, including his, belonged to the Sedgwick Farm Club, two and a half blocks from his house. It had large rooms, bowling alleys, a squash court, tennis courts, a children's playground. Dancing school which he attended was held at the club once a week. He also attended Sunday School regularly.

After one term at a private school young Craton transferred to Lincoln, the neighborhood public school, where he finished the 8 grades in 6 years. In summarizing his early years Mr. Craton remarked on the varied backgrounds of his school friends and the fact that rich and poor children mixed well and played together. He mentioned being conscious of class distinctions as early as 1912 and this awareness reappears throughout his life.

The comfortable life of young Forman's early years changed abruptly with the untimely death of his father, Dr. Craton, on February 26, 1915. The family income dropped from $10,000 to $12,000 annually, a very good one for that period, to about $1,500 a year from his father's estate. Shortly after his father's death the boy and his mother moved to 410 Douglas St. It was a "nice flat" but the lad was aware that the neighborhood was not as good as Highland St. Forman gradually lost touch with his old playmates (his mother resigned from the Sedgwick Farm Club to save money) and the boy soon became part of the Douglas St. crowd.

The young Forman began his high school days at North High School. Two of the city's characteristics were important to him during this period. The NY Central R.R. ran through downtown Syracuse and watching the trains was a fascinating pastime. The Erie Canal on which boats were hauled by horse through the city competed with the NY Central for by his attention. Although too slight for competitive sports he was an enthusiastic fan of the football and baseball teams at school. His lone outside activity at school was dramatics.

Work experience during his high school years included several one or two day-at-a-time jobs shoveling snow for the NY Central, laboring work at a steel company, tips for errands at the State Fair, and Christmas clerking at a men's store. His first full time job was as gardener for the Calthop sisters during the summer of 1919, at 20¢ an hour. In the fall of 1919 he got a job working after school and on Saturdays at Bardeen's, a book publishing company. The summer before university he was a machinist's helper at Solrag Process Co. That summer he and his mother moved to a flat at 205 Waverly Ave, a block from Syracuse University where he enrolled in the fall.

To his bitter disappointment the young man was not asked to join Phi Delta Theta, his father's fraternity and this caused great unhappiness in his early days at the university. Because of the necessity to be practical about earning a living for himself and his mother he put aside his interest in writing and cartooning, and majored in mechanical engineering. He excelled in his college work, and was invited to join several honorary fraternities in engineering and mathematics. He made a number of friends both male and female and in spite of his early bitterness over his rejection by his father's fraternity had a satisfying college career. After intercession by a friend of his father's about which Forman later wrote that he was ashamed, he received and accepted a bid from Phi Delta Theta in the middle of his college years.

In August 1923 the Cratons vacationed at Star Island, in the Isles of Shoals, New Hampshire, where young Forman quickly became friends with Willette Flitschner, from Louisville, KY. whom he would marry in a few years.

Young Manhood

During his final year at college an interview with Mr. George Pfeiff who was recruiting for a new course in Factory Management at the General Electric Co. led to a job offer in Schenectady, NY. After some soul searching about leaving his mother in Syracuse he left for the job at General Electric in Schenectady. His career at General Electric lasted 38 years.

Homesickness was a serious problem as Forman Craton began his career with the company. With the exception of vacations he had spent all of his young life, including his college years, in Syracuse. He went directly from a vacation at Star Island where Willette was also vacationing to a plant employing 22,000 people in a city in which he was a stranger. His proclivity for introspection, always strong, and his sensitivity to people and his surroundings are clearly evident in his letters to his mother and to Willie in August and September, and recur frequently throughout the years. He turned to poetry at this time for solace, particularly Sara Teasdale. The year 1924 ends with two letters to Willie declaring his love.

Because the young man had been recruited for the Factory Management Course he was moved from spot to spot in the plant, some assignments lasting a week, others several weeks. In 1925 Forman enrolled in an accounting course at G.E. that involved home work. That and almost daily letters to his mother and Willie left him little free time. Still troubled by home-sickness and unhappy in his work, after much agonizing he asked for a transfer to "test" which in effect meant starting again.

He had become convinced that his interests lay in engineering rather than in manufacturing and the test course pointed its members toward design, application engineering and technical sales.

A young Mr. Craton left for the General Electric facility in Erie, a plant with 5000 employees, on January 10, 1926 and never looked back. The transfer brought him immediate satisfaction and pleasure in his work and began a lifetime career. He found Erie and its people interesting, began attending the Unitarian Church where he met and enjoyed knowing a number of young people. His early months there were spent in rented rooms but late in the year he rented an apartment at 1308 W 9th Street in preparation for his marriage to Willie.

Family Life

Forman Craton and Willie Flitschner were married January 27, 1927. He made his first trip for the company, the first of an endless number, in 1927. The year 1928 was a banner year for the young couple. A daughter named Barbara and always called Bab was born on August 28 at Hamot Hospital. His salary having been increased to $42.00 a week in February, they bought a secondhand, dearly beloved Dodge for $225. In late June Forman wrote the first paragraph of his first short story, in an endeavor to follow through on his interest in writing. The year 1928 was also the year that the Graf Zeppelin which had left Germany in October 13 arrived in New York on October 15. In November the Cratons voted for Herbert Hoover who won the presidency by a large electoral majority. His Democratic opponent was Al Smith.

On May 24, 1932 a new baby, Roger Phelps Craton, was born. As the depression hit bottom Mr. Craton's salary was cut to $1900 a year, his work week to 4 days and he felt lucky to still have a job.

The death of Willie's mother made 1935 a sad year for the family. Increasing responsibilities at GE as business improved kept Mr. Craton busy at the plant and frequently out of town. As his responsibilities increased the necessary and expected business entertaining increased keeping him away from home often during the evenings in Erie. He was out of town more frequently also and business entertaining often involved drinking and late nights.

The war years meant greater responsibility at the plant and long working hours for Mr. Craton and the restrictions felt by all families as rationing affected family eating habits and recreation, especially the use of automobiles.

For several years after the children were born Mr. Craton's mother either lived with the family or visited for long periods of time. His mother had become harassed by worry, fears and discontent

and no effort by Mr. Craton seemed to assuage these. This situation continued through out the thirties. On November 19, 1939 Mr. Craton wrote "all of this makes life at home unnatural, strained, unpleasant and nerve wracking."

Mr. Craton's frequent and long business trips made the responsibility for his mother especially difficult for his wife. It was January 1944 before the elder Mrs. Craton left the Craton house to reside at St. Margaret's Home with many misgivings on her part and Mr. Craton's.

His mother's death occurred on September 28, 1947 and an inheritance of about $20,000 from her made building a longed for new home possible in 1948.

Another crisis in their family life was the suicide of Willette Craton's father, "the Colonel", on April 10, 1946. Long widowed he had remarried at age 70, apparently not very successfully. He was also driven by financial worries. What estate there was went to the second wife with only the proceeds of a $1,000 insurance policy to Willette Craton, causing some feeling of resentment.

Graduation from university were important family occasions as were the children's marriages.

Thanksgiving was generally spent with Bab and Tom Moore and their family, Christmas with Roger and Joan and theirs.

Children and Grandchildren

A daughter named Barbara and always called Bab or Babbie was born on August 28, 1928 at Hamont Hospital. Her brother, Roger Phelps Craton was born on May 24, 1932.

Both children did well in school, received good grades, and were a source of pride and satisfaction with their behavior, appearance, and accomplishments. Bab wanted a year at Southern Seminary in Buena Vista, Virginia before entering college. Despite their concern about the expense the Cratons agreed because they feared she could not get all the necessary credits in the Erie public school. Her graduation from Southern Seminary was an important family occasion which involved visiting the Robeys and other relatives living in the area.

Bab left Erie in late September 1946 for her first year at Syracuse University. By 1949 she was a senior at Syracuse University and Roger was a senior at Strong Vincent High School and well-thought of as a young sailor at the Erie Yacht Club.

Bab graduated from college in June, 1950 and she and Tom Moore, an architectural student, were married in August. Since he had one more year for his degree in architecture she went to work in an office in Syracuse. Roger graduated from high school that year and entered the University of Pennsylvania in the fall of 1975.

The first grandchild, Elizabeth Forman Moore, was born on September 15, 1952. Her father Tom joined an architectural firm in Berea, Ohio where they lived for a time before moving to Brecksville, Ohio. A second grandchild, Peter Moore born in 1955 was followed by another girl, Margaret Joanna Moore, born October 2, 1957 and called Peggy.

Another Moore grandchild, Charles Andrew, born July 3, 1965 shortly became a cause of much

family concern and anxiety because of his failure to thrive and respond developmentally. By April 1970 he was placed in the Sunnyhaven Home in Columbus, Ohio. He was transferred to a state hospital in Breckville in the spring of 1973. Sunnyhaven felt he could no longer be helped there and he had become more difficult to manage. Mr. Craton never became reconciled to Charles' retardation or the fact that he was born to his adored daughter.

Peg Moore the youngest child was thinking about college during the annual Thanksgiving visit in 1974-she was interested in one with a strong art curriculum. Peter Moore was an increasingly excellent football player in high school, winning several awards. He planned to enter Wooster College in the fall, having graduated from high school in 1975 the same year Elizabeth graduated from Bowling Green University. She was attending classes at the Univ. of Georgia, working in the Admissions Office and living at 2511 Planthersville Road in Decatur.

Roger Craton at the University of Pennsylvania joined the fraternity to which his father and grandfather belonged. He was active in Masks and Wigs and also played lacrosse. He graduated with high honors in 1954 and married Joan Gibson the following November.

Roger and Joan Craton moved to Detroit, he to work in a bank and finish his M.A. degree at night.

By 1960 Roger was working for the Ford Motor Company. His first child, a boy named Lincoln after Joan's father, was born May 30, 1960. Cynthia, his second child was born on August 1, 1962. Both of these children attended private schools and lived in London for the several years during which Roger Craton worked for Ford in London.

By 1971 Roger had returned to Ford in Detroit, and had bought a large home in Bloomfield Village, Birmingham, Michigan. He had been appointed comptroller of Ford's North American Automotive Operations, a 30 million dollar a year business.

On July 5, 1980 Roger phoned his parents that he was leaving Ford to become chief finance officer with a seat on the board of directors of Chesebrough-Pond Corporation effective August 1, 1980. His new annual compensation was to be $300,000. Thus meant that the Roger Craton family would move to Greenwich, Connecticut in June 1981 when Cynthia Craton would graduate from high school.

A Thirty Eight Year Career At The General Electric Co.

The following account of Mr. Craton's career was written by him in November 1978 at the request of Milton Wise of the class of 1924 of Syracuse University, who was compiling a book on the surviving members of their class at the College of Applied Science.

"On July 7, 1924 I reported in Schenectady for General Electric's new Factory Management Course and thus began a rewarding GE career that was to span the next 38 years. However, a year on this course convinced me I was slanted more toward engineering than manufacturing. So I transferred to the "test" course, which pointed its members toward both design and application engineering as well as technical sales. It proved to be a good move.

Long fascinated by trains and discovering GE's deep involvement in rail transportation apparatus, I soon transferred to the Erie, Pa. plant where I finally headed traction motor test nights and later took locomotive test. The latter was an impossible dream come true, involving electric locomotive riding and operation on the 4-mile test track. In November 1926 I moved into railway control engineering at Erie to design circuitry for gasoline-electric cars and various types of electric-drive locomotives. Also I had an indoctrination course on traction motor design and application.

In 1930 the Lackawanna suburban electrification out of Hoboken was inaugurated. It included two 3,000-volt trolley-battery-diesel locomotives for transfer freight service between the Jersey City and Secaucus yards. I'd done the control engineering on these locomotives and helped put them into service, This included the thrill of operating the locomotive pulling a 105-car freight train up grade out of Jersey City, through the Bergen Hill tunnel and on to Secaucus, to me an incredible experience. This assignment was my first intimate exposure to railroading and years later I wrote an article about it which appeared in TRAINS Magazine.

In 1931 I moved from design into locomotive application engineering and commercial work, the two functions being combined at Erie. However we were fast sinking into the abyss of the Depression. By 1932 the only active job we had was apparatus for the Pennsylvania Railroad electrification; if you weren't fortunate enough to be working on that, and I wasn't, it was touch and go whether you'd be short-timed or dismissed. I got down to four days a week and 157 per month with a wife and two children to support but I hung onto my job. That was the bottom. In 1933 things began to improve slowly, I was assigned the New Haven Railroad commercial work at Erie. The New Haven was progressive and interested in dieselization as well as possibly extending their electrification to Boston. We made extensive diesel-switcher studies culminated by an initial order for ten units. This was followed in 1937 by an order for six 3,600-hp 216-ton 11,000/600-volt AC/DC passenger locomotives for operation into Grand Central. On September 21, 1938 while running freight tests on these, we found ourselves in the middle of the hurricane of that date, another experience I wrote about for TRAINS.

In the late 1930s GE and American Locomotive Co. were partners in the diesel business; they built 100 tons and up using our equipment and we anything below 100. I was assigned promotion of our diesels with the New England railroads. This meant extensive traveling involving memorable episodes. My experiences on the Boston & Maine, where we had a demonstrator, were particularly noteworthy and were covered by a TRAINS article entitled "Joy & Pain on the Boston & Maine."

In 1940 I became manager of Industrial Haulage at Erie which had responsibility for the GE mining and industrial locomotive business, about to come on strong with World War II in the immediate offing. This was my first managerial job. I became active in the Mining & Industrial Electric Locomotive Section of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association and was chairman of the section. Also I spent much of 1942 in Washington as a dollar-a-year man on the War Production Board and was responsible for scheduling the manufacture of all locomotives in the U.S. below 100-tons; these included both diesel and steam as well as the military requirements. I made a 2-month trip to Hawaii in early 1945 to appraise the postwar market for diesels in the sugar industry.

In 1945 I became assistant general sales manager and in 1947 general sales manager of GE's locomotive and transportation equipment business. The product line included electric-drive locomotives of all types and sizes, electrical propulsion equipments sold to other builders for locomotives, subway and rapid-transit cars, trolley cars and coaches, off-highway vehicles, and a large parts business. After the war we had a period of inflation and labor trouble including a 9-week strike which made pricing and shipping promises difficult. Also as 1950 approached we struggled to get our business up to $100,000,000 annually, which would keep about 5,000 employees busy at Erie. So it was a challenging and interesting time.

In the early 1950s due to rapid growth the Company was reorganizing, decentralizing and establishing new measurements. In 1953 a study team was formed to recommend how the Company's foreign operations could be blended smoothly into all this. On the team were four from international operations, four from domestic, and the chairman, an international man. On this team I represented the Company's heavy apparatus business. The nine of us holed up in a New York hotel for over a year on this when we weren't traveling around on interviews including a 3-week trip to Central and South America. It was one of the most fascinating of my business experiences.

After this I returned to my marketing job at Erie, the position having been upgraded slightly from "sales" to "marketing" in the reorganization. In 1956 I spent three months taking the Company's Advanced Management Course. Back in Erie again, I headed a team to study the reorganization of our own business. we spent four months on this and presented our report in May 1957. We recommended the business be split up into three decentralized sections: 1) Locomotives; 2) Equipments; 3) Parts sales. Our recommendations were adopted and the department reorganized. I became general manager of the equipment business, a position I held until my retirement o July 1, 1962 at age 60.

Equipment doesn't sound as glamorous as locomotives but actually is more so. We'd adapted our locomotive propulsion apparatus to oil-well drilling which put us into that business; I've visited an oil-well drilling platform 60 miles offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. With expansion of open-pit mining and the proliferation of heavy off-highway vehicles, our motorized-wheel business was booming. Mass transit was promising an even greater future. Also we supplied electrical equipments to Alco and Baldwin as well as our own associates in the Erie Plant. These lines along with parts kept some 2,500 people busy in our Equipment Section."


It took 17 years thanks to his early career change and the depression for Mr. Craton's salary to reach %5,000. The next step up meant that he was eligible to join Elfun, an investment fund for G.E. managers and executives.

With the end of the depression and the increasing industrial activity caused by war production Mr. Craton's salary had risen to $6,700 a year. Overtime and extra compensation brought this to $8,500. By November 1946 several increases had raised his base salary to $9,000 and following a long strike at the plant this figure was raised to $9,720. A March 13, 1946 journal entry noted that Mr. Craton's income tax for 1945 was $1,800 -- "more than he used to make". One of the satisfactions of these increases was the purchase of a small boat that added a great deal to the family's recreation.

Mr. Craton became eligible for the GE stock plan in 1953 and was authorized to purchase 900 shares of company stock over the next 10 years at $71.00 a share. His stock in GE enabled him to retire at age 60 instead of 65. He noted that the 2500 shares he owned in 1965 for which he had paid about $60,000 over the years had a market value of $300,000. It was the income from the Elfun trusts and the dividends from G.E. stock, substantial contributions to his retirement income, that made the extensive travel during his early retirement years possible.

Despite the post-war salary increases and his investment income that appeared to keep pace with the inflation of those years, inflation was an abiding concern for Mr. Craton.

Leisure Time

As a young single man much of Mr. Craton's social life revolved around the Unitarian Church. He enjoyed the young people he met at church-related social affairs and found them interesting.

After their marriage the Cratons played bridge with friends, occasionally played poker for small stakes, went to movies, and attended lectures and concerts at Chautauqua during the season. They entertained and were entertained by friends for cocktails and dinner and made weekend visits to friends living out of town. Swimming, walking the beach and picnics at Peninsula, a local recreation area, were important when the children were young. They were regular television viewers with a number of favorite programs. The Watergate hearings were watched daily during the second Nixon administration and all space shots were followed with interest. The week-end sports programs were watched with anticipation and pleasure. Mr. Craton's interest in opera is well-documented and he was a regular radio and television fan of the Metropolitan Opera performances. He also bought and played frequently recorded arias.

A friendship with the Brightmans developed into a more active social life than usual but this subsided after the Brightmans left Erie.

Recreation during the years from 1945 to 1964 was centered in the Yacht Club which Mr. Craton joined when he bought a small boat. Boating then became a major recreational activity. Young Roger quickly became an excellent sailor, participating in sail boat races with skill and enthusiasm. The first boat was replaced by a larger but still modest one. Mr. Craton's interest eventually resulted in his being elected commodore of the Erie Yacht Club, a highly prized distinction. The Cratons participated in all of the Yacht Club activities, using it for dinner, dancing, and special occasions, even after Mr. Craton sold his boat.

Mrs. Craton joined a local book club in 1928 and was still a member in 1982.

Most of the home repair and upkeep was done by Mr. Craton, a careful and persistent workman who was proud of his results. He was indefatigable in searching for parts and pleased to avoid what he considered outrageous charges, particularly by plumbers. Mrs. Craton did most of the gardening but he helped with the heavy work.

During periods when Mr. Craton was keeping a diary on a daily or weekly basis much of his spare time was devoted to writing it. He also spent many hours in creative writing in an effort to get published and for a brief period in drawing cartoons for possible publication.

Mr. Craton became an avid photographer and gave it special emphasis after the children were born and during vacations. He also used a movie camera for some occasions.

During his retirement years Mr. Craton was a regular attendant at the YMCA Friday speakers luncheon, lunched with a friend on a weekly basis and he and Willie enjoyed frequent dinners out with the Reeds and the Ogdens, friends of long-standing.

For a period of years immediately following retirement Mr. Craton was actively engaged in fundraising for the United charities campaign, particularly among G.E. retirees and played a major role in a capital fund drive for the Booker T. Washington YMCA.

Religious Life

As a small child Mr. Craton went to Sunday School at the May Memorial Unitarian Church in Syracuse where the minister was the Reverend John H. Applebee. After his father's death when he was twelve years old he went to the church service with his mother. In his teens he also belonged to the Young People's Religious Union. He was one of two delegates from May Memorial selected to attend the Unitarian Laymen's Third Annual Institute at Star Island, Isles of Shoal, off Portsmouth, New Hampshire, July 28 - August 11, 1923 where he first met and fell in love with Willette, his wife.

In Schenectady as a young man on his first job Mr. Craton attended All Souls Unitarian Church. He liked the people and the minister, the Reverend Ernest Caldecott, very much and depended heavily on the church for his religious and social life during a period of severe loneliness and homesickness. He began however to have some problems with Unitarianism. Although he enjoyed the sermons as lectures he found them lacking in spirituality. During this period Mr. Craton was also unhappy with the factory management course at General Electric. He felt he was not suited to the manufacturing part of the General Electric Co. although he was much impressed by the vast scope of the company. He finally worked out a transfer from factory management to "test" that resulted in a transfer from Schenectady to Erie, PA and the real beginning of a satisfying career in GE.

The Unitarian church in Erie was neither as large nor as socially well-connected as that in Schenectady but the people were hospitable and the Reverend Charles Judson Dutton an interesting minister. Despite his concerns about the lack of spirituality he continued to attend the church until the children were ready for Sunday School. Both Cratons felt that the children needed a different Sunday School for their religious initiation.

The Cratons tried St Paul's Episcopal for a time and then the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant in the early 40's. There they remained first they attended without joining the church. His attendance was spotty because he was overwhelmed with work and travel. Later the yacht club activity took up the weekends and attendance dropped to Christmas and Easter. The Cratons finally joined the Presbyterian Church because they wanted Bab and Tom Moore to be married there. His retirement did not get Mr. Craton to resume regular attendance but Mrs. Craton was a faithful volunteer in the church library for many years.


Mr. Craton's health as a child seems to have been unexceptional. There were coughs, colds, upper respiratory complaints and several of the common childhood diseases but nothing out of the ordinary.

As a young man he developed an intermittent bladder problem that medication helped some and that seemed to be more nuisance than serious. This was life-long. There was also a chronic urethritis that he noted with concern. While he recorded a number of minor ailments in his journal he lost little or no time from work. The first hospitalization was for an appendectomy in 1947. Mr. Craton's care and concern about his own health carried over to his wife and children. He seemed excessively upset about the children's routine childhood illnesses.

Once Mr. Craton reached the management level at the Corporation he made annual visits to the Mayo Clinic for physical examinations paid for by the company. These were continued for many years after his retirement when Mrs. Craton became a Mayo patient also. The Clinic findings for both of the Cratons are recorded in some detail.

Having disregarded a doctor's advice about a car trip to Florida in 1969 Mr. Craton spent several weeks hospitalized there and several more recovering enough to return to Erie. A detached retina in the summer of 1970 resulted in hospitalization, surgery and a long period wrestling with double vision. Much dreaded prostate surgery occurred in 1971 successfully.

The annual visit to the Mayo Clinic in 1973 brought a diagnosis of angina pectoris, use of nitroglycerine, orders to cut his drinking to one drink a day, to cut down on sweets and to walk every day.

Chronic emphysema was beginning to interfere with Mr. Craton's physical activity and to diminish his pleasure in those he pursued.

Another detached retina meant another hospitalization and recovery period. This was followed by ambulatory surgery for a fracture of a hand. A severe bronchitis took Mr. Craton back to Hamot Hospital again in the first week of February. By this time Mr. Craton was almost living the life of an invalid whose physical condition dictated his activity or lack of it. In May of 1982 there was another hospitalization for tests all of which negative. Following the second retina surgery Mr. Craton in his words "developed a post-operative nervous condition that lasted for months, that required doctoring, extensive use of Valium...For months I had to fight depression, apprehension and the jitters. I had no appetite and lost perhaps as much as twenty pounds". (Special note at beginning of Diary for the year 1978)

During his working and retirement years there were a number of dental problems that seemed to be exacerbated by his objections to the dentist's charges. He continued with the same dentist year after year and also continued complaining about him.

Mr. Craton's Writing

Mr. Craton had interests from a very young age in writing and in drawing cartoons. The interest in writing was life-long, that in cartoons short-lived. Because of the necessity to be practical about earning a living for himself and his mother, Mr. Craton put aside his interest in writing and cartoons and majored in mechanical engineering. Throughout his life however he continued to try to write for publication and document his life whenever he could find the time to do so. In June 1927 for example, six months after his marriage he wrote his first short story. In 1934 after a vacation trip to Canada he tried another short story. The memoir itself is testament to his writing interest. The diary sometimes abandoned for lack of time was always returned to -- once after a lapse of 27 years. This gap was filled during his retirement years when he also wrote extensively on particular periods of his life or special activities such as boating.

A number of statements scattered throughout the memoirs indicate that regular entries were important to him, helped him cope with problems and enhanced his enjoyment of his good times.

Mr. Craton also tried persistently when he could find the time to write and rewrite for publication. While he had no success with his interest in short-story writing and none with the cartoons he submitted to Collier and the Saturday Evening Post for publication, he did succeed with several articles about trains and railroads. An article about diesel electric locomotives in industry resulted in a check for $35.00 and publication in the magazine Purchasing in 1944. Another milestone was the publication in Steel of an article for which he was paid $55.00.

Yankee, a magazine with a circulation of about 350,000 accepted and paid $250 for an article entitled "Candle Light" that was based on visits to the Isles of Shoals when Mr. Craton was a young man. Trains also accepted a railroading article "Joy and Pain on the Boston and Maine" for which it paid $45.00 and in December 1970 published "Tarzan Jr." and paid $125.00 for it. The published articles were a source of pride and satisfaction.


Travel was an important part of Mr. Craton's life. His business trips were frequent and often lengthy, taking him away from wife and family. They included time spent in Hawaii, Australia, Mexico and Venezuela on G.E. business.

Family travel included frequent trips of short duration to visit family or friends, annual trips to the Mayo Clinic combined with visits to family or friends, and trips to Buena Vista, Virginia where cousins, the Robeys lived and operated Southern Seminary, a girls preparatory school. The earliest vacation trip of note was in 1931 to Colorado. This was by car, driving an average 300 miles per day for a total mileage of 3,940 miles. Gasoline averaged 15¢ a gallon, oil 25¢ a quart. There was a trip to Canada in 1933, a Great Lakes Cruise in 1936.

During the war Mr. Craton was sales manager for locomotives for industry, the military, the Maritime Commission and underground mining. Because G.E. thought there was a potential post-war market in Hawaii, particularly in the sugar fields Mr. Craton was sent there while wartime travel restrictions were still in effect to determine the design of a standard diesel electric unit for use in Hawaii.

This trip began a life long love affair with the islands that resulted in seven more trips of several months each with Mrs. Craton after he retired.

During those seven years the Cratons spent two or three of the worst months of the Erie winter in Hawaii.

Mr. Craton's retirement at age 60 meant a real emphasis on travel that started with a nine week trip to Europe in 1962 and included Holland, Germany, Switzerland and Italy and was followed by several months in Florida in early 1963. In 1964 there was a South Sea Island cruise followed by several months in Hawaii, in 1966 a trip of 80 days around the world and in 1967 a return to Europe, with close friends, Barbara and Charles Reed. 1968 saw a trip to the North Cape, the Scandinavian countries, Russia and Ireland.

A trip to Florida in 1969 was an unfortunate one. Mr. Craton spent much of it in hospital and recovering from a back problem. There was a return to Hawaii in 1971 but a planned return in 1972 had to be cancelled because a bleeding intestinal tract sent Mr. Craton into the hospital again. Several months were required for recuperation.

In June 1972 the Cratons returned to Canada, this time to Banff, Lake Louise, Jasper and Vancouver, and again in January 1973 returned to Kappa Sands, Kauai, Hawaii where they spent Erie's worst winter months each year from 1973 through 1977.

A second detached retina for Mr. Craton prevented any winter travel in 1978 but by June of 1978 the Cratons were able to visit Joan and Roger Craton who by then were living outside London. It was a memorable trip with a number of short trips beyond the London area.

Mid March of 1979 took the Cratons on a trip to the American south. Their first stop was to see their great-grandchild Carrie, and then on to Charleston, Savannah, Hilton Head and Jekyll Island, where they visited their friends the Bauschards. Mr. Craton did not enjoy much of this trip, would have preferred being home but realized that his wife needed both a change and less work and more rest than she got at home. They cut the trip short by a week and returned home.

The last recorded trips were to see Joan and Roger and their new home in Connecticut in late March and Roger's summer place in Good Hart in July 1982.
Gift to Smithsonian from Mrs. Willette Craton, October 9, 1992
Collection is open for research.
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Electrical engineers  Search this
Electric engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Photographs -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 1920-1930
Personal papers -- 20th century
Diaries -- 20th century
Forman H. Craton Collection, 1902-1983, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
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Forman H. Craton Papers
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Modern nature : Georgia O'Keeffe and Lake George / [catalogue essayists], Erin B. Coe, Gwendolyn Owens, Bruce Robertson

O'Keeffe, Georgia 1887-1986  Search this
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Coe, Erin Budis  Search this
Owens, Gwendolyn  Search this
Robertson, Bruce 1955-  Search this
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O'Keeffe, Georgia 1887-1986  Search this
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Physical description:
200 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), portraits ; 32 cm
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Lake George
Lake George (N.Y.)
George, Lake (N.Y. : Lake)
20th century
Painters--Homes and haunts  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
In art  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries


Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents  Search this
8.70 cu. ft. (9 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (1 16x20 box)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Descriptive Entry:
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead. Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from 1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
Historical Note:
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the secretaries of State, War, Navy, Interior, and Agriculture; the Attorney General; and the Postmaster General. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877, and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and seven citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of Citizen Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead. The office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.

The Regents of the Smithsonian have included distinguished Americans from many walks of life. Ex officio members (Vice President) have been: Spiro T. Agnew, Chester A. Arthur, Allen W. Barkley, John C. Breckenridge, George Bush, Schuyler Colfax, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, George M. Dallas, Charles G. Dawes, Charles W. Fairbanks, Millard Fillmore, Gerald R. Ford, John N. Garner, Hannibal Hamlin, Thomas A. Hendricks, Garret A. Hobart, Hubert H. Humphrey, Andrew Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Walter F. Mondale, Levi P. Morton, Richard M. Nixon, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Theodore Roosevelt, James S. Sherman, Adlai E. Stevenson, Harry S. Truman, Henry A. Wallace, William A. Wheeler, Henry Wilson.

Ex officio members (Chief Justice) have been: Roger B. Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Nathan Clifford, Morrison R. Waite, Samuel F. Miller, Melville W. Fuller, Edward D. White, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F. Stone, Fred M. Vinson, Earl Warren, Warren E. Burger.

Regents on the part of the Senate have been: Clinton P. Anderson, Newton Booth, Sidney Breese, Lewis Cass, Robert Milledge Charlton, Bennet Champ Clark, Francis M. Cockrell, Shelby Moore Cullom, Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, George Franklin Edmunds, George Evans, Edwin J. Garn, Walter F. George, Barry Goldwater, George Gray, Hannibal Hamlin, Nathaniel Peter Hill, George Frisbie Hoar, Henry French Hollis, Henry M. Jackson, William Lindsay, Henry Cabot Lodge, Medill McCormick, James Murray Mason, Samuel Bell Maxey, Robert B. Morgan, Frank E. Moss, Claiborne Pell, George Wharton Pepper, David A. Reed, Leverett Saltonstall, Hugh Scott, Alexander H. Smith, Robert A. Taft, Lyman Trumbull, Wallace H. White, Jr., Robert Enoch Withers.

Regents on the part of the House of Representatives have included: Edward P. Boland, Frank T. Bow, William Campbell Breckenridge, Overton Brooks, Benjamin Butterworth, Clarence Cannon, Lucius Cartrell, Hiester Clymer, William Colcock, William P. Cole, Jr., Maurice Connolly, Silvio O. Conte, Edward E. Cox, Edward H. Crump, John Dalzell, Nathaniel Deering, Hugh A. Dinsmore, William English, John Farnsworth, Scott Ferris, Graham Fitch, James Garfield, Charles L. Gifford, T. Alan Goldsborough, Frank L. Greene, Gerry Hazleton, Benjamin Hill, Henry Hilliard, Ebenezer Hoar, William Hough, William M. Howard, Albert Johnson, Leroy Johnson, Joseph Johnston, Michael Kirwan, James T. Lloyd, Robert Luce, Robert McClelland, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., George H. Mahon, George McCrary, Edward McPherson, James R. Mann, George Perkins Marsh, Norman Y. Mineta, A. J. Monteague, R. Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton, Robert Dale Owen, James Patterson, William Phelps, Luke Poland, John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, B. Carroll Reece, Ernest W. Roberts, Otho Robards Singleton, Frank Thompson, Jr., John M. Vorys, Hiram Warner, Joseph Wheeler.

Citizen Regents have been: David C. Acheson, Louis Agassiz, James B. Angell, Anne L. Armstrong, William Backhouse Astor, J. Paul Austin, Alexander Dallas Bache, George Edmund Badger, George Bancroft, Alexander Graham Bell, James Gabriel Berrett, John McPherson Berrien, Robert W. Bingham, Sayles Jenks Bowen, William G. Bowen, Robert S. Brookings, John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Vannevar Bush, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Rufus Choate, Arthur H. Compton, Henry David Cooke, Henry Coppee, Samuel Sullivan Cox, Edward H. Crump, James Dwight Dana, Harvey N. Davis, William Lewis Dayton, Everette Lee Degolyer, Richard Delafield, Frederic A. Delano, Charles Devens, Matthew Gault Emery, Cornelius Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley, John B. Henderson, John B. Henderson, Jr., A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Gardner Greene Hubbard, Charles Evans Hughes, Carlisle H. Humelsine, Jerome C. Hunsaker, William Preston Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton, Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Museums -- Administration  Search this
Museum trustees  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 1, Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents, Minutes
Record Unit 1
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Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
4 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Curators' Annual Reports

United States National Museum  Search this
49 cu. ft. (98 document boxes)
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Descriptive Entry:
The administration of the United States National Museum required curators to submit regular reports on the activities of the departments, divisions, and sections. Prior to about 1900 these reports were often made monthly and semiannually as well as annually. The reports were traditionally submitted to the Director of the National Museum to be used in preparing the published Annual Report of the United States National Museum. The individual reports, however, were not reproduced in their entirety in the published Annual Report and generally contain more information than is to be found in the published version.

Reports were stored by the Office of Correspondence and Reports (later known as the Office of Correspondence and Documents), and then by the Office of the Registrar.

Includes reports submitted to the Director of the United States National Museum by curators and administrators.
Museums -- Administration  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 158, United States National Museum, Curators' Annual Reports
Record Unit 158
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Curators' Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Additional Online Media:

Scrapbook, Volume 2 (2 of 2)

Collection Creator:
Studenski, Paul, 1887-1961  Search this
Box 1, Folder 14
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Paul Studenski Collection, Acc. 1989-0012, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul Studenski Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1815)

Fish Hawk R/V  Search this
United States Fish Commission  Search this
A. L. Treadwell  Search this
North Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico  Search this
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Tortugas, Garden Key, Florida, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
25 Dec 1912
Common name:
Animalia Annelida Polychaeta Eunicida Eunicidae
Published Name:
Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1815)
USNM Number:
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.

Untitled Object

Albatross R/V  Search this
United States Fish Commission  Search this
North Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico  Search this
Florida Keys, Dry Tortugas, Garden Key, Florida, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
25 Nov 1919
Common name:
Accession Number:
USNM Number:
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Invertebrate Zoology
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.

Nodilittorina tuberculata complex

Fish Hawk R/V  Search this
United States Fish Commission  Search this
North Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico  Search this
Florida Keys, Dry Tortugas, Garden Key, Florida, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
24 Dec 1912
Common name:
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Littorinidae
Published Name:
Nodilittorina tuberculata complex
Accession Number:
USNM Number:
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.

Coenobita clypeatus (Fabricius, 1787)

Albatross R/V  Search this
Microhabitat Description:
in shell  Search this
United States Fish Commission  Search this
North Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico  Search this
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Florida Keys, Dry Tortugas, Garden Key, Florida, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
25 Nov 1919
Common name:
Land Hermit Crabs
Animalia Arthropoda Malacostraca Decapoda Coenobitidae
Published Name:
Coenobita clypeatus (Fabricius, 1787)
Accession Number:
USNM Number:
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.

Stichodactyla helianthus (Ellis, 1768)

Fish Hawk R/V  Search this
United States Fish Commission  Search this
North Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico  Search this
Alcohol (Ethanol)
Florida Keys, Dry Tortugas, Garden Key, Florida, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
Collection Date:
24 Dec 1912
Common name:
Animalia Animalia Cnidaria Cnidaria Anthozoa Anthozoa Actiniaria Actiniaria Stichodactylidae Stichodactylidae
Published Name:
Stichodactyla helianthus (Ellis, 1768)
Stichodactyla sp.
USNM Number:
See more items in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Data Source:
NMNH - Invertebrate Zoology Dept.

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