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Francis, Sam, 1923-1994

Collection Creator:
Rosenblum, Walter, 1919-2006  Search this
Extent:
1 photograph
Container:
Binder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Photos
photographs
Collection Restrictions:
Researcher may use study prints on file in the Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum. Advance appointments are required. Original negatives are stored off-site in cold storage and are not accessible to the public.
Collection Rights:
Copyright to photographs from the Walter Rosenblum Collection is held by the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Requests for permission to reproduce photographs from the collection must be submitted in writing to the Photograph Archives. Certain works of art, as well as photographs of those works of art, may be protected by copyright, trademark, privacy or publicity rights, or other interests not owned by the Smithsonian American Art Museum. It is the applicant's responsibility to ascertain whether any such rights exist, and to obtain any other permission necessary to reproduce and publish the image.
Collection Citation:
Walter Rosenblum Collection, Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
See more items in:
Walter Rosenblum photographs
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Research and Scholars Center
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-saam-photo-ros-ref215

1 [cent] life [written by Walasse Ting, edited by Sam Francis

Author:
Ting, Walasse  Search this
Francis, Sam 1923-1994  Search this
Physical description:
161 p. illus. (mostly col.) 42 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1964
1964]
Call number:
N6490 .T58
N6490.T58
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_125982

Abstract [painting] / (photographed by Walter Rosenblum)

Artist:
Francis, Sam 1923-1994  Search this
Photographer:
Rosenblum, Walter 1919-2006  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Robert Elkon Gallery  Search this
Abstract  Search this
Image number:
ROS R0002665
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_132117

Nicholas Wilder Gallery records

Creator:
Nicholas Wilder Gallery  Search this
Names:
James Corcoran Gallery  Search this
Altoon, John, 1925-  Search this
Avedisian, Edward, 1936-2007  Search this
Bengston, Billy Al  Search this
Davis, Ron, 1937-  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Goode, Joe, 1937-  Search this
Graham, Robert, 1938-  Search this
Hockney, David  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Holland, Tom, 1936-  Search this
Martin, Agnes, 1912-2004  Search this
McCracken, John, 1934-2011  Search this
Moses, Ed, 1926-  Search this
Nauman, Bruce, 1941-  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-  Search this
Price, Kenneth, 1935-2012  Search this
Twombly, Cy, 1928-  Search this
Wilder, Nicholas  Search this
Yokomi, Richard  Search this
Extent:
2.4 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1944-1984
bulk 1968-1979
Summary:
The records of the Nicholas Wilder Gallery of Los Angeles measure 2.4 linear feet and date from 1944 through 1984, with the bulk of materials dating from 1968-1979. Scattered documentation of the contemporary art gallery's fourteen years of operation include artists' inventory cards, photographic transparencies, letters and correspondence, invitations, notes, business and financial documents, and printed materials.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the Nicholas Wilder Gallery of Los Angeles measure 2.4 linear feet and date from 1944 through 1984, with the bulk of materials dating from 1968 to 1979. Scattered documentation of the contemporary art gallery's fourteen years of operation include artists' inventory cards (the bulk of the collection), photographic transparencies, letters and correspondence, invitations, notes, business and financial documents, and printed materials.

The majority of records date from the period after the gallery moved to La Cienega Boulevard to Santa Monica Boulevard in Los Angeles, California. Very few records pertaining to specific exhibitions or openings are included in this collection. However, there is one exhibition catalog and scattered gallery invitations which were used as scrap paper. Other materials include business records that contain financial materials and notes. Printed Materials contain popular newspapers and magazines that reflect Wilder's interests, invitations to other galleries, auction catalogs, and business cards. Correspondence includes scattered gallery correspondence, Wilder's personal correspondence and documents, and holiday cards.

The bulk of the collection consists of artist files which include inventory cards and transparencies of works of art. Information on the inventory cards and transparencies may specify: date of creation, date of accession, potential collectors, purchase records, and titles. Notable artists include: Joe Goode, Tom Holland, Robert Graham, Billy Al Bengston, Cy Twombly, Ken Price, Ed Moses, Ron Davis, John McCracken, Kenneth Noland, Helen Frankenthaler, Jules Olitski, Agnes Martin, Edward Avedisian, John Altoon, Richard Yokomi, Sam Francis, Bruce Nauman, Hans Hofmann, and David Hockney. The majority of inventory cards reflect business at the gallery in the mid-late 1970s.

Financial records originating from the James Corcoran Gallery are included in this collection. The relationship between the two establishments is unclear although it seems that the James Corcoran Gallery moved into the space previously occupied by the Nicholas Wilder Gallery.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series:

Series 1: Business Records, 1968-1978, 1980-1984, circa 1970s (Box 1; 5 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1974-1981, circa 1970s (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 3: Printed Material, 1976-1980, circa 1970s (Box 1; 9 folders)

Series 4: Artist Files, 1944-1984, circa 1960s-1970s (Box 1-3; 2 linear feet)
Historical Note:
In April 1965, Nicholas Wilder (1937-1989) founded his contemporary art gallery at 814 North La Cienega Boulevard in Los Angeles, California. His interest in art started at Amherst College where he worked for the art department as a slide technician. While in graduate school at Stanford University, he worked at the Lanyon Gallery in Palo Alto, California. An initial offer of financial backing to open a gallery inspired a move to Los Angeles. Although that offer fell through, Wilder remained determined. In late 1964, Wilder sold shares of his future gallery to friends in order to secure funds. He bought the shares back shortly after opening.

The Nicholas Wilder Gallery's first show featured Edward Avedisian. The gallery expanded and featured artists from New York and California, including: Joe Goode, John McCracken, Kenneth Noland, Helen Frankenthaler, Jules Olitski, Cy Twombly, Ed Moses, Ken Price, Agnes Martin, John Altoon, Sam Francis, Billy Al Bengston, and Hans Hofmann. The gallery helped start the careers of American artists such as Robert Graham, Tom Holland, Ron Davis, and Bruce Nauman. In 1970, the gallery moved to 8225 ½ Santa Monica Boulevard. Through its fourteen years of operation, the gallery held a new show every month. Wilder's openings represented a large source of pride and he ensured that every opening reception included a stocked bar for his clients.

Initially, the gallery succeeded through Wilder's talents and passion for art. At its peak, the Nicholas Wilder Gallery sold two million dollars worth of art per year. However, in the mid-1970s a change in attitude within the art world affected sales. According to Wilder, many artists no longer painted for expression but as a viable business venture. Furthermore, he claimed that buyers would not risk collecting works from a younger or less well-known artist. In addition to these factors, Wilder attributed the decline of his gallery to his extravagance and lack of business sensibilities. Eventually, the gallery faced financial problems and Wilder recognized the need to leave the business.

The Nicholas Wilder Gallery closed on December 31, 1979. Wilder informed his employees that he would close a year in advance and ensured that all of his artists found a new gallery for representation. He moved to New York after leaving his gallery and became an artist. Nicholas Wilder passed away in 1989 from AIDS-related causes.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Nicholas Wilder conducted by Ruth Bowman on July 18, 1988.

Nicholas Wilder Gallery records, 1927-1980, are also located at the Getty Research Institute.
Provenance:
The Nicholas Wilder Gallery records were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1998 by Matthew Curtis Klebaum, a friend of Wilder's and a former employee of the James Corcoran Gallery.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Nicholas Wilder Gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Art dealers -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Artists -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Citation:
Nicholas Wilder Gallery records, 1944-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.nichwild
See more items in:
Nicholas Wilder Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-nichwild
Additional Online Media:

Shirley Jaffe papers

Creator:
Jaffe, Shirley, 1923-  Search this
Names:
Ford, Hermine  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Held, Al, 1928-  Search this
Jenkins, Paul, 1923-2012  Search this
Kushner, Robert, 1949-  Search this
Mitchell, Joan, 1926-1992  Search this
Nochlin, Linda  Search this
Rivers, Larry, 1925-2002  Search this
Smith, Kimber, 1922-1981  Search this
Stone, Sylvia, 1928-  Search this
Sugarman, George, 1912-1999  Search this
Extent:
7.1 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sketches
Video recordings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Photographs
Interviews
Date:
circa 1950-2011
Summary:
The papers of artist Shirley Jaffe measure 7.1 linear feet and date from circa 1950-2011. The collection documents her life and career as an American painter living in Paris through biographical material, letters, notebooks, writings, project files, printed material, photographic material, and sketchbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Shirley Jaffe measure 7.1 linear feet and date from circa 1950-2011. The collection documents her life and career as an American painter living in Paris through biographical material, letters, notebooks, writings, project files, printed material, photographic material, and sketchbooks.

Scattered biographical materials include address and appointment books, an interview with Jaffe by Jeff Perkins recorded on one videocassette, and other documents.

Letters make up a significant portion of the collection and are primarily written to Shirley from friends and family. In addition to frequent letters received from her siblings and mother, Jaffe also received letters from artists Joan Mitchell, Sam Francis, Kimber Smith, Sylvia Stone and Al Held, Hermine Ford, Robert Kushner, and George Sugarman.

The papers include eighty-four notebooks kept by Jaffe containing lists, addresses, notes, sketches and the occasional diary entry. Project files contain correspondence, gouache studies, sketches, and printed material related to commissions and collaborations, including illustrations, murals, and the design of stained glass windows in the Chapelle Saint-Jean-l'Evangéliste in Perpignan, titled Funéraria.

Printed materials include articles, published books about Jaffe, clippings, exhibition catalogs, a recorded radio broadcast, and reviews.

There are photographs, slides, transparencies, and one electronic disc (CD) of digital photographs depicting Jaffe's paintings, exhibitions, and artists and art world figures including Larry Rivers, Kimber Smith, Linda Nochlin, Sam Francis, Paul Jenkins, and Joan Mitchell at exhibition openings in the 1960s-1970s. Eight sketchbooks contain drawings by Jaffe in ink, marker, and pen.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1950s-2000s (0.3 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Letters, 1950s-2000s (3 linear feet; Box 1-4)

Series 3: Notebooks and Writings, 1950s-2000s (0.9 linear feet; Box 4-5)

Series 4: Project Files, 1970s-2003 (0.6 linear feet; Box 5, 9)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1952-2011 (0.7 linear feet; Box 5-6, 9)

Series 6: Photographic Material, 1950s-circa 2010 (1.3 linear feet; Box 6-8)

Series 7: Sketchbooks, 1960s-2000s (0.3 linear feet; Box 8)
Biographical / Historical:
Shirley Jaffe (1923-2016), née Sternstein, was an American painter living and working in Paris.

Born in New Jersey and raised in Brooklyn, Shirley Jaffe completed her studies at the Cooper Union in 1945. In 1949 she and husband Irving Jaffe moved to Washington, D.C. where she attended the Phillips Art School. Later that same year, they moved to Paris. The Jaffes returned to New York briefly in the early 1950s, but moved back to Paris in 1953, where Shirley Jaffe has been living and working ever since. She was married to Irving Jaffe until 1962.

Jaffe started her career as an abstract expressionist but began to work in a flat and geometric style in the late 1960s. She was part of the American expatriate art scene in Paris and associated with Joan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Sam Francis, Kimber Smith, and others. In 1963, Jaffe received a grant from the Ford Foundation to spend a year working in Berlin.

Jaffe took on several commissions in France including illustrations, murals, and notably, the design of stained glass windows in the Chapelle Saint-Jean-l'Evangéliste in Perpignan, titled Funéraria. Her paintings have been exhibited in New York at the Holly Solomon Gallery and the Tibor de Nagy Gallery, and at galleries and museums throughout France.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Shirley Jaffe conducted by Avis Berman, September 27-28, 2010.
Provenance:
The Shirley Jaffe papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by Shirley Jaffe in 2014.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Shirley Jaffe papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Women artists -- France -- Paris  Search this
Expatriate artists -- France  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Video recordings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Photographs
Interviews
Citation:
Shirley Jaffe papers, 1950s-2011. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.jaffshir
See more items in:
Shirley Jaffe papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-jaffshir
Additional Online Media:

3EP Ltd. records

Creator:
3EP Ltd. (Palo Alto, Calif.)  Search this
Names:
Anderson, Mary Margaret  Search this
Arnoldi, Charles, 1946-  Search this
Bengston, Billy Al  Search this
Cook, Gordon  Search this
Falkenstein, Claire, 1908-1997  Search this
Fay, Joe, 1950-  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Gilhooly, David  Search this
Goldyne, Joseph R.  Search this
Jefferson, Jack, 1921-2000  Search this
Kirkeby, Paula  Search this
Lobdell, Frank, 1921-  Search this
Moses, Ed, 1926-  Search this
Olivera, Nathan  Search this
Phillips, Jay, 1954-1987  Search this
Phillips, Matt  Search this
Sugarman, George, 1912-1999  Search this
Zirker, Joseph  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
1970-1984
bulk 1979-1984
Summary:
The records of California fine arts print publisher 3EP Ltd. founded by Moo (Mary Margaret) Anderson, Joseph Goldyne, and Paula Kirkeby measure 4.3 linear feet and date from 1970 to 1984. The records include scattered administrative files; artists' files that include correspondence, lists, price lists, and miscellany; printed materials, photographs, including two dismantled photo albums and negatives; and numerous fine arts prints by various contemporary artists, including Gordon Cook, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, David Gilhooly, Joseph Goldyne, Jack Jefferson, Frank Lobdell, Fred Martin, Ed Moses, Nathan Oliveira, Jay Phillips, Matt Phillips, and Joseph Zirker.
Scope and Contents:
The records of California fine arts print publisher 3EP Ltd. founded by Moo (Mary Margaret) Anderson, Joseph Goldyne, and Paula Kirkeby measure 4.3 linear feet and date from 1970 to 1984. The records include scattered administrative files; artists' files that include correspondence, lists, price lists, and miscellany; printed materials, photographs, including two dismantled photo albums and negatives; and numerous fine arts prints by various contemporary artists, including Gordon Cook, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, David Gilhooly, Joseph Goldyne, Jack Jefferson, Frank Lobdell, Fred Martin, Ed Moses, Nathan Oliveira, Jay Phillips, Matt Phillips, and Joseph Zirker.

Administrative records consist of chronological correspondence, subscriber lists and forms, price lists, exhibition lists, and other miscellaneous records. Business/administrative correspondence is mostly between the 3EP Ltd. founders and various museums, galleries, and collectors, with a few letters to artists. Artists' files include resumes, correspondence, catalogs, clippings, photographs and slides. Artists include Chuck Arnoldi, Billy Al Bengston, Gordon Cook, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, Jack Jefferson, Frank Lobdell, Ed Moses, George Sugarman, and Joseph Zirker, among many others.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 5 series.

Series 1: Administrative Records, 1978-1984 (0.2 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Artists Files, 1970-1984 (1.8 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 3: Printed Material, 1981-1984 (0.1 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 4: Artwork, 1979-1984 (1.9 linear feet; OV 4-22)

Series 5: Photographic Material, 1981-1983 (0.3 linear feet; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
3EP Ltd. was founded by Moo (Mary Margaret) Anderson, Joseph Goldyne, and Paula Kirkeby in 1978 in Palo Alto, California. The print publisher worked with over 20 artists to produce fine art prints and monotypes and operated until 1984.

Harry W. and Mary Margaret Anderson, respectively known as Hunk and Moo, are avid art collectors with one of the largest private art collections of 20th Century American Art. Moo has a special interest in works of art on paper and prints. Moo and Paula Kirkeby, director of Smith Anderson Gallery in Palo Alto, along with San Francisco artist Joseph Goldyne formed 3EP Ltd. In addition to sales, the mission of 3EP Ltd. was to encourage experimentation with the monoprint. Anderson and Kirkeby commissioned a custom-built Takach-Garfield press for their facilities and invited artists to work with the monotype technique and printmaking, techniques that were initially unfamiliar to many of the artists who worked with 3EP Ltd. Artists invited to work at 3EP include Gordon Cook, Claire Falkenstein, Joe Fay, Sam Francis, David Gilhooly, Frank Lobdell, Ed Moses, Nathan Oliviera, Jay and Matt Phillips, and many others. 3EP Ltd. closed in 1984.
Related Materials:
The de Young Museum has a collection of 3EP Ltd. prints which are part of the Anderson Graphic Arts Collection.
Provenance:
The 3EP Ltd. records were donated in 1984 by Moo (Mary Margaret) Anderson and Paula Kirkeby. Plates received with the donation were returned to the donors.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility.
Rights:
The 3EP Ltd. records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art publishing -- California -- Palo Alto  Search this
Intaglio printing  Search this
Graphic arts  Search this
Prints -- 20th century  Search this
Printmakers -- California  Search this
Genre/Form:
Prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Citation:
3EP Ltd. records, 1970-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.3epltd
See more items in:
3EP Ltd. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-3epltd

Clement Greenberg papers

Creator:
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Names:
American Committee for Cultural Freedom  Search this
Avedisian, Edward, 1936-2007  Search this
Bannard, Walter Darby, 1934-  Search this
Baziotes, Ethel  Search this
Bush, Jack, 1909-  Search this
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Connolly, Cyril, 1903-1974  Search this
Davis, Gene, 1920-1985  Search this
Diebenkorn, Richard, 1922-1993  Search this
Dorazio, Piero, 1927-  Search this
Dzubas, Friedel, 1915-  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Feeley, Paul, 1910-1966  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Fuller, Peter, 1947-1990  Search this
Goodnough, Robert, 1917-  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Hosaisson, Philippe  Search this
Kainen, Jacob  Search this
Krauss, Rosalind E.  Search this
Moffett, Kenworth  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-  Search this
O'Faolin, Nuala  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Pepper, Beverly  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Sander, Ludwig, 1906-  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Smith, Kimber, 1922-1981  Search this
Solomon, Deborah  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Truitt, Anne, 1921-2004  Search this
Waddington, Leslie  Search this
Wisenski, Kurt  Search this
Extent:
8.6 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Interviews
Etchings
Photographs
Reports
Date:
1937-1983
Summary:
The papers of art critic, author, and lecturer Clement Greenberg measure 8.6 linear feet and date from 1937 to 1983. The bulk of the collection consists of letters from art critics, artists, family, friends, galleries, and museums. Notable correspondents include Jack Bush, Anthony Caro, Richard Diebenkorn, Friedel Dzubas, Helen Frankenthaler, Adolph Gottlieb, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Robert Motherwell, Charles Pollock, Jules Olitski, David Smith, and Anne Truitt among others. Also found are biograpical materials, personal business and financial records, an etching by Kurt Wisneski, printed materials, and two reports by Greenberg concerning his travels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of influential New York art critic Clement Greenberg measure 8.6 linear feet and date from 1937 to 1983. The bulk of the papers (7 feet) consists of letters from art critics, artists, family, friends, galleries, and museums, with some letters from Greenberg. Correspondents include Edward Avedisian, Darby Bannard, Ethel Baziotes, Jack Bush, Anthony Caro, Gene Davis, Richard Diebenkorn, Piero Dorazio, Friedel Dzubas, Andre Emmerich, Paul Feeley, Sam Francis, Helen Frankenthaler, Robert Goodnough, Adolf Gottleib, Hans Hofmann, Philippe Hosiasson, Jacob Kainen, Rosalind Krauss, Robert Motherwell, Ken Moffett, Barnett Newman, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Beverly Pepper, Ludwig Sander, David Smith, Kimber Smith, Clyfford Still, Anne Truitt, and Leslie Waddington.

Biographical materials include a transcript of an interview with Greenberg conducted by Deborah Solomon in 1983. Greenberg's personal business and financial records include correspondence regarding his lectures and seminars, requests for his writings, student queries, documents regarding his television and radio appearances, royalty statements, and receipts for gifts of works of art. Also found within business records are documents relating to Greenberg's testimony at the Mark Rothko Trial in 1974.

Artwork consists of one etching by Kurt Wisenski entitled "Spring." The papers contain very few of Greenberg's writings about art. Found are lists of artists, and reports written by Greenberg on the state of art in Japan and India in 1967, likely related to his membership in the American Committee for Cultural Freedom. Printed material includes scattered clippings concerning art and exhibition announcements.

One series of ACCESS RESTRICTED papers contains documents relating to Greenberg's role as a trustee in the David Smith estate; correspondence between Greenberg with Andre Emmerich and Peter Fuller, Nuala O'Faolain, and the Greenberg family; and some financial materials regarding the sale and loan of Greenberg's art collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1950s-1983 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Business and Financial Records, 1940-1983 (Box 1; 12 folders)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1937-1983 (Boxes 1-8; 7 linear feet)

Series 4: Artwork, 1973 (Box 8; 1 folder)

Series 5: Writings and Notes, 1967-1983 (Box 8; 3 folders)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1950-1982 (Box 8; 2 folders)

Series 7: Restricted Material, 1963-1983 (Boxes 9-11; 1.2 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Clement Greenberg was a highly influential art critic working in New York City from the 1940s through the 1960s. He was an advocate of modern art, particulary the abstract expressionist movement, and one of the first critics to recognize the significance of Jackson Pollock's work.

Greenberg was born in 1909 to Russian immigrants in Bronx, New York. After graduating from Syracuse University in 1930, he married and had a child, David. He settled in New York City while working at the United States Customs Department as an appraiser.

In the late 1930s, Clement Greenberg attended a meeting of the U.S. Works Progress Administration and heard Hans Hofmann speak of avant-garde art. In 1939, he wrote one of his first important critical pieces "Avant-Garde and Kitsch" for the Partisan Review. Greenberg argued that the avant-garde art movement rose out of the need to defend and maintain high art standards against the decline in taste brought about by America's consumerism and capitalist culture.

In 1940, Greenberg joined Partisan Review as an editor. He became art critic for the Nation in 1942, and was associate editor of Commentary from 1945 until 1957. In December 1950, he joined the CIA-fronted American Committee for Cultural Freedom.

Throughout the 1940s through the 1960s Greenberg continued to write and, in his essays and articles, he promoted the work of Abstract Expressionists, among them Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Hans Hofmann, Barnett Newman, and Clyfford Still. He particularly championed Jackson Pollock. Greenberg wrote several seminal essays that defined his views on art history in the 20th century. "Greenberg on Collage" was one one of his most important.

Greenberg's views on pop art were mixed. He also became less enamored with Abstract Impressionism, particularly the second generation. However, he became very interested in the Color-Field and Hard-Edge painters.

Through the 1960s Greenberg's views informed a younger generation of art critics including Michael Fried and Rosalind E. Krauss. Some writers maintain that Greenberg's views were so well-respected that he had too much of an influence on the world of art. In time, Greenberg's antagonism to Postmodernist theories and other modern art movements caused him to lose much of his credibility among both artists and art critics.

Greenberg died at the age of eighty-five in 1994.

Since his death, letters edited by his widow, Janice Van Horne and a re-evaluation of his writings have helped to restore his reputation within the art world.
Related Material:
The Portland Art Museum holds Clement Greenberg's private art collection as well as a library of exhibition catalogs.
Separated Material:
Clement Greenberg loaned papers for microfilming on reels N69-91, N70-7, and N737 between 1968-1969. Most, but not all, of these papers were later donated by Greenberg.
Provenance:
Clement Greenberg donated his papers in several accretions between 1984 to 1991.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Some of the collection is ACCESS RESTRICTED: documents relating to the estate of David Smith; some correspondence with Peter Fuller, Nuala O'Faolain, and the Greenberg family; and sale and loan agreements. Contact the reference staff for more information about permission to use this portion of the collection.
Rights:
The Clement Greenberg papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art criticism -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Japan  Search this
Art -- India  Search this
Modernism (Art) -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Interviews
Etchings
Photographs
Reports
Citation:
The Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.greeclep
See more items in:
Clement Greenberg papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-greeclep
Additional Online Media:

Interview with Sam Francis

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1979 December
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19700
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19700

Interview with Sam Francis

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
circa 1979
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14305
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14305

Interview with Sam Francis

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1979 June 26
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19698
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19698

Interview with Sam Francis

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1979 September 9
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19699
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19699

Interview with Sam Francis

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
circa 1979
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19701
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19701

Interview with Sam Francis

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1980 January 18
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19703
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19703

Flash Art interviews with Sam Francis

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1981 November
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19704
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19704

Editorial review of Flash Art interview with Sam Francis

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1981 November
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19705
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19705

Recording of Sam Francis and Jan Butterfield testing stereo equipment

Creator:
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
circa 1980
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19706
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19706

Sam Francis: artist file, [photographs]

Artist:
Francis, Sam 1923-1994  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Artist files
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Image number:
VFM VF001091
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_138647

Saturated blue : writings from the notebooks / Sam Francis ; [afterword by Pontus Hulten]

Author:
Francis, Sam 1923-1994  Search this
Hultén, Pontus 1924-2006  Search this
Subject:
Francis, Sam 1923-1994 Notebooks, sketchbooks, etc  Search this
Francis, Sam 1923-1994 Themes, motives  Search this
Francis, Sam 1923-1994  Search this
Physical description:
1 v. (unpaged) : col. ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Self-portraits
Date:
1995
C1995
Call number:
N40.1.F815 F7 1995
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_503481

Interview with Sam Francis

Creator:
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1979 November 29
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)13591
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_13591

Sound test

Creator:
Butterfield, Jan, 1937-2000  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
circa 1980
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14304
See more items in:
Jan Butterfield papers, 1950-1997
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14304

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