To a considerable degree, the James H. Howard papers consist of manuscript copies of articles, book, speeches, and reviews that document his professional work in anthropology, ethnology, ethnohistory, archeology, linguistics, musicology, and folklore between 1950 and 1982. Among these are a few unpublished items. Notes are relatively scant, there being somewhat appreciable materials for the Chippewa, Choctaw, Creek, Dakota, Omaha, Ponca, Seminole, and Shawnee. The chief field materials represented in the collection are sound recordings and photographs, but many of the latter are yet to be unidentified. A series of color photographs of Indian artifacts in folders are mostly identified and represent the extensive American Indian Cultural collection of costumes and artifacts that Howard acquired and created. Other documents include copies of papers and other research materials of colleagues. There is very little original material related to archeological work in the collection and that which is present concerns contract work for the Lone State Steel Company.
Scope and Contents:
The James Henri Howard papers document his research and professional activities from 1949-1982 and primarily deal with his work as an anthropologist, archeologist, and ethnologist, studying Native American languages & cultures. The collection consists of Series 1 correspondence; Series 2 writings and research, which consists of subject files (language and culture research materials), manuscripts, research proposals, Indian claim case materials, Howard's publications, publications of others, and bibliographical materials; Series 3 sound recordings of Native American music and dance; Series 4 photographs; and Series 5 drawings and artwork.
Howard was also a linguist, musicologist, and folklorist, as well as an informed and able practitioner in the fields of dance and handicrafts. His notable books include Choctaw Music and Dance; Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic, and Religion; and Shawnee! The Ceremonialism of a Native American Tribe and its Cultural Backround.
Some materials are oversize, specifcially these three Winter Count items: 1. a Dakota Winter Count made of cloth in 1953 at the request of James H. Howard, 2. a drawing of British Museum Winter Count on 4 sheets of paper, and 3. Photographs of a Winter Count.
This collection is arranged in 5 series: Series 1. Correspondence, 1960-1982, undated; Series 2. Writings and Research, 1824-1992; Series 3. Sound Recordings, 1960-1979; Series 4. Photographs, 1879-1985; Series 5. Drawings and Artwork, 1928-1982.
1925 -- James Henri Howard was born on September 10 in Redfield, South Dakota.
1949 -- Received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Nebraska.
1950 -- Received his Master of Arts from the University of Nebraska and began a prolific record of publishing.
1950-1953 -- Began his first professional employment as an archaeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum in Bismarck.
1955-1957 -- Was a museum lecturer at the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum.
1957 -- James H. Howard received his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan. Joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys in the summer.
1957-1963 -- Taught anthropology at the University of North Dakota.
1962 -- Chief archeologist at the Fortress of Louisberg Archeological Project in Nova Scotia.
1963-1968 -- Taught anthropology at the University of South Dakota; State Archeologist of South Dakota; Director of the W. H. Over Dakota Museum.
1963-1966 -- Director of the Institute of Indian Studies, University of South Dakota.
1968-1982 -- Associate professor of anthropology at Oklahoma State University at Stillwater (became a full professor in 1971).
1979 -- Consulted for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.
1982 -- Died October 1 after a brief illness.
James H. Howard was trained in anthropology at the University of Nebraska (B.A., 1949; M.A., 1950) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1957). In 1950-1953, he served as archeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum; and, in 1955-1957, he was on the staff of the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum. During the summer of 1957, he joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys. Between 1957 and 1963, he taught anthropology at the Universtity of North Dakota. Between 1963 and 1968, he served in several capacities with the University of South Dakota including assistant and associate professor, director of the Institute of Indian Studies (1963-1966), and Director of the W.H. Over Museum (1963-1968). In 1968, he joined the Department of Sociology at Oklahoma State University, where he achieved the rank of professor in 1970. In 1979, he was a consultant for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.
Howard's abiding interest were the people of North America, whom he studied both as an ethnologist and archeologist. Between 1949 and 1982, he worked with the Ponca, Omaha, Yankton and Yaktonai Dakota, Yamasee, Plains Ojibwa (or Bungi), Delaware, Seneca-Cayuga, Prairie Potatwatomi of Kansas, Mississipi and Oklahoma Choctaw, Oklahoma Seminole, and Pawnee. His interest in these people varied from group to group. With some he carried out general culture studies; with other, special studies of such phenomena as ceremonies, art, dance, and music. For some, he was interest in environmental adaptation and land use, the latter particularly for the Pawnee, Yankton Dakota, Plains Ojibwa, Turtle Mountain Chippewa, and Ponca, for which he served as consultant and expert witness in suits brought before the United Stated Indian Claims Commisssion. A long-time museum man, Howard was also interested in items of Indian dress, articles associated with ceremonies, and other artifacts. He was "a thoroughgoing participant-observer and was a member of the Ponca Hethuska Society, a sharer in ceremonial activities of many Plains tribes, and a first-rate 'powwow man'." (American Anthropologist 1986, 88:692).
As an archeologist, Howard worked at Like-a-Fishhook Village in North Dakota, Spawn Mound and other sites in South Dakota, Gavin Point in Nebraska and South Dakota, Weston and Hogshooter sites in Oklahoma, and the Fortess of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia. He also conducted surveys for the Lone Star Steel Company in Haskall, Latimer, Le Flore and Pittsburg counties in Oklahoma.
Howard's American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts, that he acquired and created during his lifetime, is currently located at the Milwaukee Public Museum. In Boxes 19-21 of the James Henri Howard Papers, there are photographs with accompanying captions and descriptions in binders of his American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts that his widow, Elfriede Heinze Howard, created in order to sell the collection to a museum.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by James Henri Howard's wife,
Elfriede Heinz Howard, in 1988-1990, 1992, & 1994.
The James Henri Howard papers are open for research.
Access to the James Henri Howard papers requires an appointment.
Curtin worked at the Cattaraugus Reservation beginning in September, 1883 (Bureau of American Ethnology-AR 5, Washington, D.C., 1887, page xxxi). Hewitt did record the same origin myth in Munsee from the same informant, but this is Manuscript Number 16. He also recorded the Seneca origin myth in 1896 on the Cattaraugus Reservation from this informant, "Mr. John Armstrong, of Seneca-Delaware-English mixed blood..." (cf. Bureau of American Ethnology AR 21, 1903, page 137 and pages 221 ff.).
NAA MS 2204
Title page carries A. notation by J.N.B. Hewitt: "The Legend of Moskim, the Life God, in Delaware, Algonquian, Recorded by J.N.B. Hewitt." However, the text itself and the title quoted above are in Curtin's handwriting.
Contents: Box 1 Unpublished material (pink slips show parts xeroxed for U. Chodowiec). Box 2 Published and unpublished material. Box 3 Published material (32 AR Bureau of American Ethnology). Box 4 Non Iroquois and miscellaneous material. Box 5 Material identified by Chodowiec: "mostly Curtin's myths rewritten and corrected by Hewitt."
Seneka historical legends and mythic tales in English only, collected on the Cattaraugus Reservation, N. Y., during the summer of 1883 and 1886. 1. The Boy Cared for by a Bear. 18 pages. 2. The Man with the Panther-skin Coat. 10 pages. 3. Hi'-non' Ho-ha-waqk, i. e., The Son of Thunder. 7 pages. 4. The Vampire. 3 pages. 5. The Uncle and his Nephew. 27 pages. 6. A Hunter Persued by a Stone-Coat. 6 pages. 7. The Orphan. 5 pages. 8. The Potent Boy. 8 pages. 9. The Seven Maidens Making Wampum. 7 pages. 10. The Man who was aided by Ga-cyen-de-tha' (Fire-dragon). 15 pages. 11. An Uncle and his Nephew (Second Story). 9 pages. 12. Hi'-non' (Thunder) and the Rattlesnakes. 4 pages. 13. Hagowanen and O-the-gwen'-da' (Flint). 33 pages. 14. Two Boys Carried Off by the Cheroki. 1 1/2 pages. 15. Uncle and Nephew. 7 pages. 16. Netyogwesuk. (? Delaware Story). 5 pages. 17. A Woman's Bear Lover. 7 pages. 18. The Two Brothers. 9 pages. 19. Ga-na, The Seneca War Chief. 7 pages. 20. Twelve Brothers and their Uncle (Great-Head). 6 pages. 21. The Woman who married the Great Snake. 5 pages. 22. Hat-hon-das (The Listener). 13 pages. 23. On-gweq i-as (Man he eats) and his Brother. 7 pages. 24. The Man-eating Wife, the Old Woman and the Morning-Star. 8 pages. 25. Dhadyoendzadases and the Old Woman's Grandson. 7 pages. 26. Ga-no-gwi-o-eon, a War-chief. 6 pages.
27. Bloody-Hand Offered Food to the Animals. 3 pages. 28. The Horned-Snake and the Young Woman. 6 pages. 29. The Great Worm and Grandfather, Thunder. 3 pages. 30. The Senecas at War with the Cheroki. 3 pages. 31. An Owl Story. 5 pages. 32. A Young Man pursued by his Sister-in-law. 5 pages. 33. The Dry Village in the Flood. 7 pages. 34. Ha-tci-non-don, a Chief. 35. The Daughters of Owee Ye-gen-djiq (Swan Mother) and the Son of Doen-djo-wens. 5 pages. 36. The Woman turned into a Snake from eating too much Fish. 2 pages. 37. The Two Sisters Captured by the Cheroki. 3 pages. 38. The Man killed by three Hunters. 4 pages. 39. Grandmother and Grandson. 11 pages. 40. The Race between the Turtle and the Fox. 3 pages. 41. A Dead Man speaks out of the Fire, whereat his mother becomes a bear and pursues his murderer. 8 pages. 42. Da-gwa-no-en-yent and her husband. 7 pages. 43. Ho-da-den-on (Hodadeion). 55 pages. 44. Bald Eagle Sends Mud-turtle around the World. 4 pages. 45. The Grandmother and her Granddaughter. 1 page. 46. Dzogeon and his Uncle. 4 pages. 47. Porcupine's Grandson and the Bear. 11 pages. 48. The Hatiwen-non-da-dye's (Thunders) rescue a woman from Antropophagi. 6 pages. 49. Sha-go-dyo-weq-go-wa. No 1. 3 pages. 50. The Murderous Crow. 4 pages.
74. Seneka Superstitions. 1 page. 75. The Man who became a fish and a Nya-gwai-e-he'. 76. Charm broken by eating an Otter's heart. 4 pages. 77. The Squeezed heart and the Naked Dance. 3 pages. 78. The Poor Hunter and the Little Man. 3 pages. 79. The Owl and the Two Sisters. 3 pages. 80. The Battle With the Great Snake. 2 pages. 81. The Fox and the Rabbit. 2 pages. 82. Da-gwa-no-en-yent. 2 pages. 83. Ongwe i-as and his Brother Dagwano-en-yent. 5 pages. 84. Gen-non' sgwa' (Stone Coat). 1 page. 85. The Gen-non' s-gwa' (Stone Coat) 2 pages. 86. The Gen-non' s-gwa' (Stone Coat). 3 pages. 87. Medicine Men. 2 pages. 88. The Snake with two heads. 2 pages. 89. The Turtle and his forces on the warpath. 5 pages. 90. The Red people and the Senekas. 1 page. 91. Seneka Ghost Story. 1 page. 92. Seneka Witch Story. 1 page. 93. Seneka Witchcraft. 1 page. 94. The Two Brothers. 3 pages. 95. Hotho' (Cold). 1 page. 96. The Story of the Boy and the Chestnuts. 5 pages. 97. Gaq-ga and Sga-ge-diq. 4 pages. 98. The Man who married a Buffalo Woman. 8 pages. 99. Wishakon and his Grandfather Visit Plethoak. 8 pages. 100. Ha-den-the-ni and Ha'-ni-gon-gen-da-tha'. 21 pages. 101. Ho-di-on-skon. 102. The Creation of Man. 2 pages. 103. The Great Bear and the Six Hunters, or the Great Dipper (Constellation).
NAA MS 3860
Examined 1971 by Urszula Chodowiec (student of W. N. Fenton and Claude Levi-Strauss) and left with her notes attached in the 5 boxes.
The Boy Cared for by a Bear
The Man with the Panther-skin Coat
Hi'-non' Ho-ha-waqk, i.e., The Son of Thunder
The Uncle and his Nephew
A Hunter Persued by a Stone-Coat
The Potent Boy
The Seven Maidens Making Wampum
The Man who was aided by Ga-cyen-de-tha' (Fire-dragon)
An Uncle and his Nephew
Hi'-non' (Thunder) and the Rattlesnakes
Hagowanen and O-the-gwen'-da' (Flint)
Two Boys Carried Off by the Cheroki
Uncle and Nephew
A Woman's Bear Lover
The Two Brothers
Ga-na, The Seneca War CHief
Twelve Brothers and their Uncle (Great-Head)
The Woman who married the Great Snake
Hat-hon-das (The Listener)
On-gweq i-as (Man he eats) and his Brother
The Man-eating Wife, the Old Woman and the Morning-Star
Dhadyoendzadases and the Old Woman's Grandson
Ga-no-gwi-o-eon, a war-chief
Bloody-Hand Offered Food to the Animals
The Horned-Snake and the Young Woman
The Great Worm and Grandfather, Thunder
The Senecas at War with the Cheroki
An Owl Story
A Young Man pursued by his Sister-in-law
The Dry Village in the Flood
Ha-tci-non-don, a Chief
The Daughters of Owee Ye-gen-djiq (Swan Mother) and the Son of Doen-djo-wens
The Woman turned into a Snake from eating too much Fish
The Two Sisters Captured by the Cheroki
The Man killed by three Hunters
Grandmother and Grandson
The Race between the Turtle and the Fox
A Dead Man speaks out of the Fire, whereat his mother becomes a bear and pursues his murderer
Da-gwa-no-en-yent and her husband
Bald eagle Sends Mud-turtle around the World
The Grandmother and her Granddaughter
Dzogeon and his Uncle
Porcupine's Grandson and the Bear
The Hatiwen-non-da-dye's (Thunders) rescue a woman from Antropophagi
The Murderous Crow
The Man who became a fish and a Nya-gwai-e-he'
Charm broken by eating an Otter's heart
The Squeezed heart and the Naked Dance
The Poor Hunter and the Little Man
The Owl and the Two Sisters
The Battle With the Great Snake
The Fox and the Rabbit
Ongwe i-as and his Brother Dagwano-en-yent
Gen-non' sgwa' (Stone Coat)
The Gen-non' s-gwa (Stone Coat)
The Snake with two heads
The Turtle and his forces on the warpath
The Red people and the Senekas
Seneka Ghost Story
Seneka Witch Story
The Two Brothers
The Story of the Boy and the Chestnuts
Gaq-ga and Sga-ge-diq
The Man who married a Buffalo Woman
Wishakon and his Grandfather Visit Plethoak
Ha-den-the-ni and Ha'-ni-gon-gen-da-tha'
The Creation of Man
The Great Bear and the Six Hunters, or the Great Dipper (Constellation).
Contents: 1. The Vampire (Published as "The Vampire Skeleton", 32nd A. R. page 458). 2 pages. 2. Seneca Witchcraft- 1 page. 3. Seneca Ghost Story 1/2 page. 4. Shagodyoweqgowa (False Faces), 1/2 page. 5. Medicine Men. 1 page. 6. Snake with two heads, 1 page. Published 32nd A. R. page 106. Shagodyoweqgowa. 1 page. See 32nd A. R., page 357. 8. A Seneca Witch Story. 1 page. 9. The Owl and the Two Sisters. 2 pages.