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Rutan VariEze Kit Components

Materials:
HAZMAT: Cadmium plating
Fiberglass-reinforced plastic components, foam blocks, fiberglass cloth, plexiglass canopy, aluminum and steel hardware, wood.
Dimensions:
Dimensions n/a.
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft Parts
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of James O. Eggleston
Inventory Number:
A19890564000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9403d237b-a912-4d6d-a19d-3a42d96a2a61
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19890564000

Rutan VariEze

Designer:
Scaled Composites  Search this
Manufacturer:
Scaled Composites  Search this
Materials:
Foam covered with fiberglass.
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 6.8 m (22 ft 2 1/2 in)
Length: 4.3 m (14 ft 2 in)
Height: 1.5 m (59 in)
Weights: Empty, 263 kg (585 lb)
Gross, 472.5 kg (1,050 lb)
Engine: Continental 0-200 four-cylinder, air-cooled, 100 horsepower
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of Burt Rutan.
Inventory Number:
A19860067000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv98f49e3d2-0c7f-4b50-829e-3439dc0d3b6f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19860067000
Additional Online Media:

Lear Jet 23

Manufacturer:
Lear Jet Corporation  Search this
Materials:
All-metal
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 10.8 m (35 ft 7 in)
Length: 13.2 m (43 ft 3 in)
Height: 3.8 m (12 ft 7 in)
Weight, empty: 2,790 kg (6,150 lb)
Weight, gross: 5,783 kg (12,750 lb)
Top speed: 903 km/h (561 mph)
Engines: 2 General Electric CJ 610-1 turbojets, 1,293 kg (2,850 lb) thrust
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1964-1966
Credit Line:
Gift of Gates Learjet Corporation
Inventory Number:
A19780122000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9fa5596f7-5c1b-4e21-af6c-441c44c6c499
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19780122000
Additional Online Media:

De Havilland DH-98 B/TT Mk. 35 Mosquito

Manufacturer:
De Havilland Aircraft Company Ltd.  Search this
Materials:
Overall: Alaskan spruce, English ash, Canadian birch and fir, and Ecuadorian balsa
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 16.51 m (54 ft 2 in)
Length: 12.55 m (41 ft 2 in)
Height: 3.81 m (12 ft 6in)
Weights: Empty, 6,638 kg (14,635 lb)
Gross, 10,433 kg (23,000 lb)
Engines: (2) Rolls Royce Merlin 113 and 114, liquid-cooled V-12,
1,690 horsepower
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United Kingdom
Date:
1945
Credit Line:
Donated by the Royal Air Force
Inventory Number:
A19640023000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv98851d52f-9fd9-4b51-8301-a960123c81ae
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19640023000
Additional Online Media:

P-V Engineering Forum PV-2

Manufacturer:
Piasecki Helicopter Corporation  Search this
Dimensions:
Rotor Diameter: 7.7 m each (25 ft 2 in)
Length: 7.7 m (25 ft 5.25 in)
Height: 2.36 m (7 ft 9 in)
Weights: Empty, 327 kg (720 lb)
Gross, 454 kg (1,000 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Rotary Wing
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of Frank Piasecki
Inventory Number:
A19650241000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Exhibit Station:
Vertical Flight
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9c7fbbb9c-11f8-47c2-9070-df0deeebde09
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19650241000

Platt-LePage XR-1

Manufacturer:
Platt-LePage Aircraft Company  Search this
Dimensions:
Rotor Diameter: 9.3 m (30 ft 6 in)
Length: 8.9 m (29 ft 4 in)
Weight: 2,147 kg (4,730 lbs)
Type:
CRAFT-Rotary Wing
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1940-1945
Credit Line:
Transferred from the U.S. Air Force
Inventory Number:
A19600305000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv94b9aa4b5-7ef2-4b91-8379-64c7f94addd1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19600305000

Missile, Surface-to-Surface, V-2 (A-4)

Manufacturer:
Mittelwerk GMBH  Search this
Materials:
Steel; graphite jet vanes, some wooden construction elements in fuselage; aluminum tanks not present.
Dimensions:
Overall: 11 ft. 8 3/8 in. wide x 46 ft. 1 3/16 in. deep x 5 ft. 5 in. diameter x 44 ft. 5 3/16 in. long, 8427.9 lb. (356.6 x 1405.1 x 165.1 x 1354.3cm, 3822.9kg)
Type:
CRAFT-Missiles & Rockets
Country of Origin:
Germany
Credit Line:
Transferred from the U.S. Air Force
Inventory Number:
A19600342000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Space Race
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9c2816946-e717-42f0-9d3e-1e31b26b8e63
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19600342000
Additional Online Media:

Bowlus 1-S-2100 Senior Albatross "Falcon"

Manufacturer:
Bowlus-Dupont Sailplane Company  Search this
Materials:
Originally skinned with mahogany and covered with lightweight cotton "glider cloth," then covered with a shellac-based varnish. In 2000, restorers removed original fabric and shellac coating, recovered with Grade A cotton fabric followed by several coats of nitrate dope, then lemon shellac, finishing with several coats of Johnson Wax.
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 18.8 m (61 ft 9 in)
Length: 7.2 m (23 ft 7 in)
Height: 1.6 m (5 ft 4 in)
Weight: Empty, 153 kg (340 lb)
Gross, 236 kg (520 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1933
Credit Line:
Gift of Mrs. Genevieve J. Eaton
Inventory Number:
A19350058000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv98a89a660-da60-4d0f-bc9a-85b16f3b09b0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19350058000

Journal of Richard E. Blackwelder, West Indies, vol. 5

Collection name:
Richard E. Blackwelder Papers, 1926-1964
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 1 Folder 10
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Diary
Maps
Place:
Montserrat
Antigua
Antigua and Barbuda
Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Beggars Point
Date Range:
1936
Start Date:
19360713
End Date:
19361027
Topic:
Entomology  Search this
Beetles  Search this
Accession #:
SIA Acc. 96-099
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Richard E. Blackwelder Papers, 1926-1964
See more records associated with this person:
Blackwelder, Richard E.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI2404
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Journal of Richard E. Blackwelder, West Indies, vol. 5 digital asset number 1
Additional Online Media:

Newsclippings (see also oversized, Box 163)

Collection Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Container:
Box 12, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1955
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection / Series 2: Military Career / 2.3: Materials Arranged by Posting / 2.3.14: Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) (Taipei, Taiwan), Commanding Officer and Vice-Commander, Thirteenth Air Force
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0023-ref1932
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Newsclippings (see also oversized, Box 163) digital asset number 1

Lockwood-Greene Records

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated  Search this
Lockwood-Greene Company  Search this
Whitman, David  Search this
Greene, Stephen  Search this
Lockwood, Amos  Search this
Former owner:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (233 boxes, 850 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs
Trade literature
Date:
1784-2004
bulk 1915-1930
Summary:
The engineering firm that became Lockwood Greene was founded by David Whitman, a mill engineer, in 1832. Amos D. Lockwood, a consultant, succeeded Whitman and entered a partnership with Stephen Greene in 1882. The firm specialized in industrial engineering and construction; they designed and built a wide variety of structures and work environments worldwide over the next century. Lockwood Greene was acquired by CH2M HILL in December, 2003. Before its acquisition by CH2MHILL it was reportedly the oldest industrial engineering, construction, and professional services firm in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Lockwood Greene records are a comprehensive range of documents related to the appraisal, building, construction, design, evaluation, and engineering of facilities for a variety of clients. The material covers the entire period of industrialization of the United States, and, provides a thorough record of the textile industry, both in New England and the South. Some of the textile mills are documented with unusual completeness, showing water and steam power layouts, factory village plans, and landscaping schedules. A broad range of other building typologies is also covered, including projects with public or retail functions, such as early automobile showrooms, hospitals, apartments and private dwellings, churches, and schools.

In-depth study of the company's earliest history is hampered by a scarcity of records, many of which were lost in the great fire that destroyed Boston's city center in 1872. Nevertheless, graphic and textual evidence does exist within the collection that illuminates these early projects, in addition to the fabric of surviving buildings. The Lockwood Greene records document several commissions that the firm would return to again and again over the course of many decades as clients requested plant additions, upgrades to mechanical and operating systems, and other substantive changes. Researchers are encouraged to examine the blueprints, elevations, and plans for these later additions in order to find illustrations of the firm's earlier interventions at the site. In addition to drawings, other visual evidence for nineteenth-century projects can be found in the company's extensive photo files, which often document structures for which drawings do not exist.

The Lockwood Greene records contain an abundance of graphic and textual evidence for structures designed after 1910 until the 1930s. After this period, visual documentation becomes much more limited. This is partially due to the evolution of drafting tools and information management technologies within the architecture and engineering profession. Lockwood Greene was an early adopter of technological innovations in rendering and data capture, beginning with the introduction of aperture cards and microfilm and extending to the adoption of computer-aided design (CAD) programs. These more modern formats were not part of the acquisition, and, at the time of writing, still reside with the company.

The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of interest to historians of architecture and engineering, as well as those that study the history of business and labor relations. It provides extensive textual and documentary evidence on the evolution and growth of American engineering and the increasing professionalization of the discipline through specialization during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rich holdings of architectural drawings, photographs, and specifications provide unparalleled resources that trace the evolution of industrial buildings and their typologies; experimentation with building materials and systems, particularly with regards to fireproofing; and the history of textile manufacture in the United States. In addition, there is also rich visual and documentary evidence of the changing relationships between corporations and their employees through photographs, plans, and designs for company towns and mill villages, as well as through corporate records that illustrate the work culture of Lockwood Greene itself. The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of special interest to historic preservationists as the awareness of the significance of industrial and vernacular buildings continues to grow, and detailed design drawings and other visual material will be of especial value for restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive-reuse projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Project Drawings, Renderings, and Plans, 1784-1969, undated

Series 2, Photographs and Slides, 1881-2001, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photo Albums, 1906-1934

Subseries 2.2: Photographic Files, 1881-1956

Subseries 2.3: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1948-1974

Subseries 2.4: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1919-1999

Subseries 2.5: Project Negatives and Transparencies, 1956-1970

Subseries 2.6: Project Slides and Transparencies, 1985-2001

Subseries 2.7: Project Slides and Transparencies, Culls, 1974-2001

Subseries 2.8: Project Slides and Transparencies, Corporate Photography, 1976-1998

Subseries 2.9: Photograph Album Covers, 1920, undated

Series 3: Job Files, 1872-1957, undated

Subseries 3.1, Specifications, 1913-1942, undated

Subseries 3.2: List of Drawings, 1872-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3: Project Files, 1919-1969, undated

Subseries 3.4: Reports, 1913-1969

Subseries 3.5: Job Cost Records, 1913-1957, undated

Series 4, Corporate Records and History, 1881-2004, undated

Subseries 4.1: Meeting Minutes, 1913-1995

Subseries 4.2: Corporate Files, 1891-2004, undated

Subseries 4.3: Historical Research and Reference Files and Photographs, 1881-1983, undated

Subseries 4.4: Corporate Publications, 1917-2001, undated

Series 5, Non-Lockwood Greene Publications, 1910-1984, undated

Series 6, Audio-Visual, 1964
Biographical / Historical:
Lockwood Greene, one of the nation's oldest engineering firms, traces it roots to 1832, when Rhode Island native David Whitman began a machinery repair service. Riding the wave of the early industrial revolution in textile manufacturing, Whitman added mill design services to his repertoire, which formed the backbone of a flourishing consulting business for the rest of the century. Whitman was one of the first itinerant mill engineers or "doctors" that traveled throughout New England advising various industrialists on the placement, design, and construction of their factories and the layout of the complicated system of machinery and shafting that they contained. His largest commission was the design of the Bates Manufacturing Company complex in Lewiston, Maine, which was incorporated in 1850 and soon became one of the largest textile producers in New England.

Upon Whitman's death in 1858, his unfinished work was assumed by Amos D. Lockwood, a prominent mill agent and astute businessman who had built a name for himself in Connecticut and Rhode Island. The successful completion of the projects at Lewiston brought enough additional demand for Lockwood's services to prompt him to relocate to Boston, where he formally opened an independent consulting office with partner John W. Danielson in 1871. For the next ten years, A.D. Lockwood & Company was involved in a least eight major mill design projects, half of which were for new construction. One of these projects, the design and construction of the Piedmont Manufacturing Company in Greenville (now Piedmont), South Carolina was especially significant and is considered to be a prototype for the Southern textile industry.

In 1882, Lockwood established a new business, Lockwood, Greene and Company, with Stephen Greene, a professionally-trained civil engineer who had joined the firm in 1879. As the firm grew, it expanded its scope as consultants supplying all of the necessary architectural and engineering services a prospective owner needed to initiate, equip, and run a complete plant. Acting as the owners' representative, the company supervised construction and installation but did not directly act as builders or contractors. Lockwood

Greene's objective expertise was legendary and made it a leader in this emergent field. As Samuel B. Lincoln explains in his history of the company:

"The new firm's knowledge and experience in the textile industry enabled it to analyze samples of cloth and, from such samples, to provide everything necessary for a completed plant to make such goods in any desired quantity. It did not at any time act as selling agents for machinery or equipment, neither did it accept commissions or rebates from suppliers: by this policy it maintained a position as impartial and independent engineer." (pages 105-107)

Greene became president of the company upon Lockwood's death in 1884. Under his leadership, the company expanded into additional industries and designed an array of other industrial building types that would prefigure the diversity of later work. In 1893, the company revolutionized American industry by designing and constructing the first factory whose operating power was provided entirely over electric wires from a remote power plant, rather than relying upon a water source or a stockpiled fuel supply. The Columbia Mills project created a great deal of publicity for the firm and was a signal to other manufacturers that there were viable alternatives to the use of steam power.

As changing economic conditions led Lockwood Greene to move away from its traditional reliance upon the textile manufacturing industry, it was very successful at soliciting projects for a wide variety of structures, from newspaper plants and automotive factories to convention halls and schools. After 1900, Lockwood Greene expanded its operations and opened branch offices in other cities, including Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Atlanta, and Charlotte. In 1915, Edwin F. Greene, president and son of Stephen Greene, reorganized the firm as Lockwood, Greene & Company, Incorporated This new entity served as the parent company and controlled three subsidiaries: one to own and operate cotton mills that Greene had acquired; one to manage other companies' textile mills; and one to provide engineering services.

Lockwood Greene expanded its operations tremendously as the textile industry boomed under wartime demand and in the years following. The severe textile depression from 1923 to 1928 caused the collapse of this structure, however, as Lockwood Greene continued to suffer deep losses in the textile mills that it owned. The parent company was dissolved in 1928 and the engineering subsidiary, which had remained profitable, was salvaged as Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated.

After a rocky start with the onset of the Depression, the company began to prosper during the Second World War and its growth continued steadily throughout the next several decades. In the late 1960s, as a result of declining business, the company's headquarters was transferred from Boston to Spartanburg, South Carolina. In 1981, Phillipp Holtzman USA, a subsidiary of Phillipp Holtzman AG of Frankfurt, Germany, acquired a majority interest in Lockwood Greene. In 2003, CH2M Hill, a global provider of engineering, construction, and operations services based in Denver, Colorado, acquired the company.

From its beginnings under David Whitman, Lockwood Greene has become one of the most diversified engineering firms in the United States. The firm is best known as a designer of industrial and institutional buildings, but the company has become a leader in many additional areas in recent years. Lockwood Greene dominates the market in the design and production of the germ- and dust-free "clean room" facilities required by the pharmaceutical industry and micro-electronics manufacturers. The company has also developed expertise in designing integrated security and networking systems for industrial plants, international port facilities, and military installations worldwide.

Banham, Raynor. A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900-1925. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

Biggs, Lindy. The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in America's Age of Mass Production. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Bradley, Betsy Hunter. The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Greene, Benjamin Allen. Stephen Greene: Memories of His Life, with Addresses, Resolutions and Other Tributes of Affection. Chicago, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 1903.

Heiser, William J. Lockwood Greene, 1958-1968, Another Period in the History of an Engineering Business. Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated, 1970.

Lincoln, Samuel B. Lockwood Greene: The History of an Engineering Business, 1832-1958. Brattleboro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1960.

Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated The Lockwood Greene Story: One-Hundred-Fifty Years of Engineering Progress. Spartanburg, South Carolina: Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated; undated.
Related Materials:
"[Trade catalogs from Lockwood, Greene & Co.]", Trade Literature at the American History Museum Books, Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lockwood Greene, Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1997 (original drawings). An addendum to the collection was donated by CH2M HILL in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Architects  Search this
Architecture, Commercial  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Construction industry  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Textile mills  Search this
Mills  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Industrial buildings -- Design and construction  Search this
Industrial buildings  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Factories -- Power supply  Search this
Factories -- Design and construction  Search this
Factories  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Commercial buildings  Search this
Electric power production  Search this
Genre/Form:
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 21st century
Photographs -- 20th century
Trade literature
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Lockwood Greene Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1113
See more items in:
Lockwood-Greene Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1113
Additional Online Media:

Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records

Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Names:
American Society of Civil Engineers.  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (25 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Place:
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Date:
1884-1952 and undated
Scope and Contents:
The Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records consists primarily of correspondence and business records documenting Robert A. Cummings' firm, consulting work, and participation in professional associations, especially the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1892-1893, circa 1900-1939; technical data and publications on soils testing, 1900-1939; and drawings, blueprints, and photographs and glass negatives of construction projects.

Series 1, Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated documents the professional life of Robert A. Cummings. There are three subseries within this series: Subseries 1, Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated; Subseries 2, Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated; and Subseries 3, Writings, 1908-1939 and undated. This series includes documents related to the Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, including patents, photographs, and advertisements. The series also includes documents relating to professional organizations such as the Allegheny County Authority, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the World Engineering Congress. Cummings was also a member of the Soils Committee for the American Society of Civil Engineers, and those documents are included in this series. Cummings wrote published and unpublished articles regarding concrete, soil, and construction methods. His writings are also included in this series.

Series 2, Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated consists of six subseries: Subseries 1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated; Subseries 3, Contracts (for projects), 1902-1930 and undated; Subseries 4, Legal Materials, 1907-1916; Subseries 5, Financial, 1894-1921 and undated; and Subseries 6, Personnel, 1918-1921. This series contains the bulk of the information about Cummings' concrete business. Within this series are administrative materials that document the running of the business, including daily reports, bond and insurance papers, specifications, supply notes, field requisitions, and design notebooks. Also included is correspondence to and from Cummings. Recipients of the correspondence include company employees and corporations that did business with the company. A portion of the correspondence is divided topically into subjects such as soil sampling apparatus and barge claims.

The bulk of this series consists of contracts for projects on which Cummings worked. The majority of the projects consist of bridges, water tanks, commercial buildings, and retaining walls. Materials include correspondence, receipts from vendors, hand-written notes, accident reports, blueprints, sketches, and laboratory test reports on materials. The contracts are arranged by contract number as assigned by Cummings. The unnumbered contracts are listed alphabetically. The legal materials consist of documentation that relate to legal matters Cummings dealt with, including the lawsuits Robert Cummings vs. William J. Stewart, Alexander Melville vs. Robert Cummings, andLock Joint Pipe Company vs. Frederick Melber and Electric Welding Company. This series also contains financial and personnel records, including account books, bills, receipts, proposals, estimates, and business journals, as well as applications for employment, correspondence, and weekly progress reports.

Series 3, Subject Files, 1891-1949 and undated consists of correspondence, pamphlets, printed materials, and drawings. The topics within the subject files include soil testing and standards, roads, railroads, minerals, electricity, and concrete barges.

Series 4, Publications, 1887-1955, includes published material related concrete. The series is divided into two subseries: publications by title and publications by subject. Included are booklets, articles of incorporations, charters and by-laws, journals, and government publications. Some of the materials are in German or French.

Series 5, Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated includes 3" x 5", 8" x 10" and other various sizes of photographic prints. The series contains black and white and sepia toned prints. Some of the prints have been mounted onto cardboard or cloth, and some prints have tape on the corners. Some of the prints are annotated on the back. Most of the images are of construction sites in various stages of progress, the interiors of buildings being constructed, manufacturing equipment, and laborers working. Some of these images document early twentieth century methods of manufacturing, such as the use of rope pulleys.

Series 6, Photograph Negatives, undated includes about 75 photograph film negatives. The images in these negatives are primarily of construction scenes, including workers, equipment and work sites.

Series 7, Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated includes 8" x 10", 5" x 8", and 3" x 4" glass plate negatives containing images of bridges, slabs of concrete, construction scenes, the interiors and exteriors of hotels, and the interiors and exteriors of railroad stations.

Series 8, Lantern Slides, undated includes images of the work of the Cummings Structural Concrete Company on 4.5" x 5" glass slides. The images are of industrial machinery, construction sites, and workers.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated

Subseries 1.2: Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.3: Writings, 1908-1939 and undated

Series 2: Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.3: Project Contracts, 1902-1930 and undated

Subseries 2.4: Legal Materials, 1907-1916

Subseries 2.5: Financial, 1894-1921 and undated

Series 3: Subject Files, 1891-1970 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Alphabetical, 1891-1970

Subseries 3.2: Testing, 1904-1916

Series 4: Publications, 1887-1955

Subseries 4.1: By title, 1887-1953

Subseries 4.2: By subject, 1902-1940 and undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated

Series 6: Photograph Negatives, undated

Series 7: Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated

Series 8: Lantern Slides, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Augustus Cummings (1866-1962) was a consulting civil engineer who worked primarily in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was born in Norfolk, England and attended the Gresham School at Holt in Norfolk. He trained as a civil engineer with William J. Brewster in his offices, located in Westminster, London, England. During his early career, he worked as a surveyor and field examiner at the Ordinance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland before he relocated to Canada to conduct engineering work on the Grand Trunk Railroad. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Cummings was employed as a general draftsman for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in Philadelphia. He worked later as a designer of heavy dredging machinery for the Bucyrus (Ohio) Steam Shovel and Dredge Company and as an assistant engineer of the Norfolk and Western Railroad in Roanoke, Virginia. Cummings established a firm as a civil and consulting engineer in Philadelphia in 1893 before relocating to Pittsburgh in 1899. He founded the Cummings Structural Concrete Company and the Electric Welding Company in 1900, and in 1902 he founded the Lehigh Valley Testing Laboratory, all of which were located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1936, he partnered with his son in the consulting firm of Robert A. Cummings, Jr. and Associates.

During his career, Cummings worked on the design and construction of a variety of projects, including bridges, warehouses, filtration systems, private residences, machine shops, dry docks and piers, factories, dams, and locks. He additionally conducted railroad and land surveys, researched various types of cement, and designed rock, hydraulic, and elevator dredges. Cummings is best known for inventing the "Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete," in which iron or steel bars are embedded within a mixture of Portland cement, water, sand, and gravel or broken stone. As Cummings stated in a 1904 presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, reinforced concrete "makes an excellent paint for preserving iron or steel, adhering to the metal very firmly and protecting it thoroughly against corrosion. It can easily be made water tight, and its durability is beyond question. These properties of cement mortar can be utilized in re-enforced concrete. This material is well adapted for molding into a monolithic structure, which does not disintegrate when subjected to shocks such as are produced by railroad trains and vibrates much less for a given load than structural steel. Correctly designed re-enforced concrete structures are not liable to sudden failures, as is the case with ordinary concrete, but gives warning by the falling off of the surface concrete long before the point of failure is reached."

Cummings belonged to a number of professional organizations, including the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Engineering Societies Library Board, the American Railway Engineering Association, the American Society for Testing Materials, and the Institution of Civil Engineers of London, England. He married Mary Eloise Hood on December 14, 1892, and had two children, Robert Augustus Jr. and Eloise Hood. Robert A. Cummings died on October 21, 1962, in Pittsburgh.

References

Cummings, Robert A. Presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, Meeting of Structural Section. November 22, 1904.

Hool, George A. Concrete Engineers Handbook, Data for the Design and Construction of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Structures. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1918.
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0218
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0218
Additional Online Media:

Design Research, Inc. collection

Creator:
Design Research, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Benjamin Thompson and Associates  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Design Research, Inc.  Search this
Marimekko Oy  Search this
Thompson, Benjamin, 1918-2002  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Writings
Press releases
Legal correspondence
Resumes
Drawings
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Speeches
Financial records
Correspondence
Date:
1953-1979
Summary:
This collection consists ofcorrespondence, scrapbooks, catalogs, brochures, original drawings, photographs, financial records, resumes, legal documents, magazine articles, business records, press releases, artwork, and samples of boxes, bags, and buttons. Files documenting the company's history include a statement of the company's philosophy and records pertaining to the establishment of new stores in various cities. Project files document the furniture, fabrics, rugs, and accessories imported and design by Design Research, Inc. Bound reprints of articles that appeared in Interiors and International Design magazines are included. Clippings and other records documenting the design and construction of D/R stores are provided in the files pertaining to Benjamin Thompson & Associates, Inc. Also found in these files is a printed and bound presentation copy of Thompson's address, "The Craft of Design and the Art of Building", along with other articles by and about Thompson. Additional information pertaining to D/R's association with Marimekko can be found in the Cooper- Hewitt Design Archive's Marimekko Collection.
Arrangement note:
Unprocessed. Consists of six record groups: 1) Company history; 2) Office records; 3) Project files; 4) Clippings and Scrapbooks; 5) Benjamin Thompson & Associates, Inc. for D/R; and 6) Photographs.
Biographical/Historical note:
Retail establishment and product design. Design Research, Inc. (D/R), founded in 1953 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by architect Benjamin Thompson, specialized in the latest post-war products for the modern home. The displays in the stores were considered unique in that they were designed at domestic scale and the products were shown in realistic, homelike arrangements.

Products were sought and selected based on the anticipated preferences of customers, not on traditional retail buying patterns. At the time, the availability of "good design" was limited to wholesale firms such as Herman Miller and Knoll. Thompson was the first to introduce the work of many European and Asian designers to the American retail market, including the work of the design firm of Marimekko for which D/R was the exclusive U.S. represenative. The company also created many of its own products including chairs manufactured by Thonet. D/R later opened stores in New York City, San Francisco, and Philadelphia. Thompson's own architectural firm, Benjamin Thompson & Associates, Inc., designed all of the D/R stores. For the San Francisco store, Thomspon renovated the former Ghirardelli Chocolate factory. Even after the stores officially closed in 1978, D/R remained a model for many merchants.
Provenance:
The materials in this collection were donated to Cooper-Hewitt in 1995 by Benjamin and Jane Thompson.
Restrictions:
Unprocessed; access is limited. Permission of Library Director required for use.
Topic:
Furniture design -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Retail trade -- United States  Search this
Furniture store  Search this
Display of merchandise -- United States  Search this
House furnishings -- United States  Search this
Stores, Retail -- Design  Search this
Stores, Retail -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Writings
Press releases
Legal correspondence
Resumes
Drawings
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Speeches
Financial records
Correspondence
Identifier:
SIL-CH.1997-123-2
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-ch-1997-123-2

[Trade catalogs from Lakewood Engineering Co.]

Variant company name:
Multiple offices: Philadelphia, PA  Search this
Company Name:
Lakewood Engineering Co.  Search this
Notes content:
Mechanical and industrial equipment ; industrial cars and factory trucks ; mine cars and quarry cars ; clam shell and dump buckets ; sugar cane car ; platform cars ; coke barrow ; chemical car ; pipe dolly ; side dump car ; tier-lift trucks ; creosoting cars ; industrial railways ; portable tracks and apparatus ; "Lakewood-Milwaukee" concrete mixers ; building mixers and accessories ; contractor's equipment ; hoist towers ; concrete chuting systems ; "Better Good Roads for Maricopa County Arizona" shows Lakewood products in use for road building ; batch mixers ; installations of concrete built using Lakewood products, including the Broadway subway terminal in NY , the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the Lincoln memorial in DC , and the Missouri State Capitol , etc. ; industrial haulage equipment ; storage battery trucks ; trailers ; "Floatbridge" hand operated float and traveling bridge ; narrow gauge track cars and batch boxes ; "Carr" road forms ; subgraders ; finishing machines for road building ; mortar mixers ; grout mixers ; screeds ; tampers ; concrete placing equipment .
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
41 pieces; 3 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Construction and earth-moving machinery  Search this
Iron and steel products (castings; sheet steel; steel wire; wire rope; pig iron and structural steel products )  Search this
Materials handling equipment (includes barrels; bottling and filling; casters; chains; etc.)  Search this
Mining machinery; equipment and supplies  Search this
Railroad; streetcar; subway and tramway equipment and supplies  Search this
Road building machinery and equipment  Search this
Topic:
Barrels  Search this
Bottling  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Earthmoving machinery  Search this
Industrial equipment  Search this
Iron industry and trade  Search this
Mining machinery industry  Search this
Railroad equipment industry  Search this
Road machinery  Search this
Roads -- Design and construction  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Street-railroads  Search this
Subways  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_25495
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_25495

James Cunningham, Son and Company Photographs

Creator:
James Cunningham, Son and Company (Rochester, New York)  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
Rochester (N.Y.)
Date:
1908-1964
bulk 1908-1929
Summary:
The collection consists of glass plate negatives and photographic prints of the glass plate negatives depicting horse-drawn hearses (funeral wagons), carriages, and ambulances and motorized vehicles produced by James Cunningham, Son and Company from approximately 1908 to 1929. The majority of the glass plates and photographic prints depict horse-drawn hearses, but there are some motorized vehicles.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of glass plate negatives and photographic prints of the glass plate negatives depicting horse-drawn hearses (funeral wagons), carriages, and ambulances and motorized vehicles produced by James Cunningham, Son and Company from approximately 1908 to 1929. The majority of the glass plates and photographic prints depict horse-drawn hearses, but there are some motorized vehicles.

There are approximately 335 glass plate negatives and the same number of photographic prints. It is unknown who created the photographic prints, but some of the glass plates were originally held at the Free Library of Philadelphia.

The glass plates are in three sizes: 5" x 7" 8" x 10" and 11" x 14". The glass plates and the photographic prints are arranged by an alpha-numeric system that was presumably developed by the company. In some instances, J.L. Hill is identified as a photographer.

In some instances, the model number, style and date are provided. Most images are side views, although there are some rear and interior views. Some glass plates are unidentified or missing. Some of the descriptions include lamp number information. Many carriages had mounted lamps or lanterns that were oil or battery powered. if a carriage was built for a specific person or company, such as W. H. Graham Company, this information is listed.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Glass Plates, A1 to A55, 1908-1929 and undated

Series 2, Glass Plates, B1 to B159, [1913?] and undated

Series 3, Glass Plates, C1 to C50, undated

Series 4, Glass Plates, D1 to D64, undated

Series 5, Glass Plates, E1 to E8, undated

Series 6, Photographic Prints, undated

Series 7: Background Materials, 1930s-1964
Biographical / Historical:
James Cunningham (1815-1886) was born in County Down, Ireland to Arthur and Ann Cunningham. He came to the United States in 1833 from Canada seeking work in the New York City area, where he had an uncle practicing architecture. In Canada, Cunningham had worked in woodwork design in a carpenter's shop east of Toronto in Cobourg, Ontario. Cunningham returned to Canada via Rochester, New York. While in Rochester, he was introduced to George Hanford and J.H. Whitbeck, entrepreneurs who set up the first coach-making shop in Rochester in 1834.

From 1834 to 1838 Cunningham worked as an apprentice and journeyman for George Hanford and J.H. Whitbeck. He formed a partnership with two of his fellow-workers, James Kerr and Blanchard Dean. Together they bought out Hanford and Whitbeck and made cutters, known as one-horse open sleighs and buggies. In 1842 Kerr and Blanchard resigned, and James Cunningham assumed full responsibility.

Cunningham married Bridget Jennings in 1838, and they had three children: Augustine, Joseph, and Margaretta. Cunningham's son, Joseph (1842?-1914) joined his father in the company and as a result, the company reorganized in 1866 as James Cunningham and Son. Joseph Cunningham became a full partner in 1868. Rufus Dryer (1846-1937) became a partner in 1875 when he married Margaretta Cunningham in the same year. There were branch offices with display rooms in Louisville, Nashville, Memphis, New Orleans, Chicago, Des Moines, Kansas City, Topeka, Denver, and San Francisco. In 1876, Cunningham carriages and a hearse won prizes at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.

In 1882, the firm was incorporated as James Cunningham, Son and Company. It was the largest industrial enterprise in Rochester, New York, both in its plant area and in capital. The firm continued to make carriages until 1915. Joseph Cunningham and Rufus Dryer retired in 1909, and the company, which had become a partnership, was reincorporated. Augustine Cunningham, son of Joseph Cunningham, was president, James Dryer (son of Rufus Dryer) vice-president, and Francis Cunningham (son of Joseph Cunningham) was secretary and general manager.

In 1908 the company began automobile production, not for the popular market, but for the type of customer that bought its carriages. The company did not mass-produce their automobiles. Intially, it made only automobile bodies and assembled the rest of the car from engines, transmissions, axles, and radiators made by proprietary companies. By 1910 it produced the entire automobile. In 1916 Cunningham produced a V-8 engine, and the Cunningham car became outstanding for its clean, classic lines. It was the first car to not have running-boards, using instead steps of brass-framed aluminum.

In the late 1920s Cunningham entered the aviation business and created a subsidiary, the Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corporation. The primary aim of the corporation was to build an airplane that would combine stability with speed. The first Cunningham-Hall plane designed with these requirements was a modified biplane: the lower wing was considerably larger than the upper and slotted, so that a current of air could be made to flow between its surfaces. This enabled the plane to land at low speeds. It was first tested in the small town of LeRoy, New York. Cunningham-Hall continued to make aircraft until 1938. Its X-14324, produced in 1934, was a low-wing monoplane made entirely of metal. The company also produced primary trainers, a six-place cabin plane, other passenger and cargo craft, and experimental planes for the Army and Navy. By the early 1930s the company had ceased to produce automobiles and funeral carriages/hearses.

Over the years Cunningham made a wide variety of products. During World War II, Cunningham found a temporary role in defense production. Prior to the war the compaay had produced a variety of odd products: safety belts for aircraft, diving helmets, even belt buckles for Boy Scout uniforms. During the Civil War the company made carriages for the Union armies, and the First World War, ambulances and automotive windlasses for observation balloons. More significant had been its experience of producing armored and tracked vehicles. In March 1928, Cunningham's first tank was tested at Aberdeen, Maryland. Equipped with a revolving turret and armed with a 37 millimeter cannon and a .30 caliber machine gun, it traveled twenty miles an hour, faster than any tank produced up to that time. In 1933, Cunningham developed a tank track, with light-weight rubber-block treads that allowed for even greater speeds. Cunningham also developed experimental half-tracks, cargo carriers, armored cars, and a weapons carrier for a 75 millimeter Howitzer.

In 1940 James Dryer retired. The corporation was dissolved in 1941 and replaced by a partnership, with Augustine and Francis Cunningham as co-partners. After World War II, the firm produced small farm and garden machines such as sickle-bar mowers, tractors, and rotary tillers. Cunningham also designed and produced a complete line of plumbing fixtures for house trailers in a constant effort to retool and redefine itself in the post-war years.

By 1952, the firm met Andrew W. Vincent, an electrical engineer with Stromberg-Carlson in Rochester. Vincent devoted himself to perfecting a small dial telephone system. The heart of this system was the crossbar switch. The company acquired Vincent's initial designs and patent applications and hired him as a consultant. The company restricted its production to creating prototypes of switching devices. The Cunningham crossbar was versatile. It had the ability to switch electrical information from low-level DC signals to 100 megacycles, reliably and at high speeds.

In 1968, Peter F. Cunningham, then president of the company, sold controlling interest to the Gleason Works, a Rochester-based manufacturer of machine tools. Under Gleason Works, the company was renamed Cunningham Corporation. In 1977, all Cunningham-related activities ended.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

National Museum of American History, Division of Work & Industry

1929 Cunningham touring car. See accession #:310671.

National Air and Space Museum Archives

Cunningham-Hall Collection, 1917-1940 (bulk 1928-1930)

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Trade Literature Collection

Trade catalogs from James Cunningham Son & Company (See SILNMAHTL_12462)

Materials in Other Organizations

Long Island Museum of American Art, History and Carriages

Includes drawings, a trade catalog, a cart, and a buggy from James Cunningham and Sons.

Detroit Public Library

Papers of the James Cunningham Company, 1902-1964 (bulk 1909-1946)

Includes notebooks of G. Carson Baker, chief designer and David Fergusson, chief engineer, patent applications, correspondence, drawings and blueprints related to Fergusson's work, parts and instruction books for early automobiles (including electric automobiles), photographs of Cunningham factories, military vehicles and motor trucks.

Rochester Museum and Science Center, Libraries and Collections Department

Local Business History vertical files hold items related to James Cunningham, Son and Company as well as books.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1973 by the Cunningham Company to the National Museum of American History, Division of Transportation.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Horse-drawn vehicles  Search this
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Automobile industry and trade  Search this
Carriage industry  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Carriage and wagon making  Search this
Ambulances  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1900-1950
Citation:
James Cunningham, Son and Company Photonegatives, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1193
See more items in:
James Cunningham, Son and Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1193

United States Navy Engineering Drawings on Microfilm

Creator:
United States. Navy. Bureau of Aeronautics [BuAer]  Search this
Names:
United States. Navy. Bureau of Aeronautics [BuAer]  Search this
Extent:
69.84 Cubic Feet (776 microfilm cartons)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Microfilms
Manuals
Date:
[no dates]
Scope and Contents:
Included in this collection are drawings for the following aircraft: Douglas AD series, BTD-1 and F3D, Grumman F4F-3, F4F-4, F4F-7, F6F-3, F8F-1, Goodyear F2G-1, McDonnell FH-1, North American FJ-1, General Motors FM-1, FM-2, Chance-Vought F4U-1, F4U-4, F4U-5, F8U-1, OS2U, Beech GB-2, UC-43, Bell HSL-1, HTL-5, HTL-6, HUL-1, Grumman J2F, JRF, Naval Aircraft Factory N3N, Martin PBM, Consolidated PB2Y, PB4Y, Lockheed R7V-1, Curtiss SB2C, North American SNJ, General Motors TBM-3, Goodyear ZPG-3W and K type airship, as well as drawings of miscellaneous equipment, several incomplete microfilm sets, manufacturer specifications and technical documentation and manuals.
Biographical / Historical:
The United States Navy Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) maintained record copies of engineering drawings for aviation equipment operated by the Navy and microfilm copies of these drawings were created by the Drawings and Microfilm Section of BuAer's Maintenance Division for the use of the Navy. In the mid 1980s, a portion of this drawing collection was loaned to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) for processing by NASM personnel. In 1991, positive reference copies of microfilm, comprising some 3000 rolls, were loaned to NASM to assist in the processing of the hardcopy drawings and with the understanding that, should funding be available, NASM would duplicate the microfilm for its own collection as a "second security copy." The completion of the Archives II complex in College Park, MD in the 1990s allotted sufficient storage space to NARA's Cartographic and Architectural Branch for the RG72 drawing collection to be housed directly under NARA custody. As a result, NARA recalled its loan of the material, including the microfilm collection. The drawings were returned in 1994, but NARA granted an extension of the microfilm loan to allow NASM to duplicate portions of the collection which were relevant to NASM's artifact collection. The resulting 776 rolls of diazo 35mm film duplicates portions of microfilm contained in NARA RG72 and includes some records of the Drawings and Microfilm Section and Publications Section of BuAer's Maintenance Division.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
NARA, unknown, 1994, 1994-0058, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Grumman Aircraft Family  Search this
Douglas Aircraft Family  Search this
Goodyear Aircraft Family  Search this
McDonnell Aircraft Family  Search this
General Motors (Eastern) Aircraft Family  Search this
North American Aircraft Family  Search this
Vought Aircraft Family  Search this
Curtiss, General, Aircraft  Search this
Lockheed Aircraft Family  Search this
Consolidated Aircraft Family  Search this
Martin Aircraft Family  Search this
Naval Aircraft Factory Aircraft Family  Search this
Bell Aircraft Family  Search this
Beech Aircraft Family  Search this
Naval aviation  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes, Military  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Microfilms
Manuals
Identifier:
NASM.1994.0058
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1994-0058

Multiple-Mirror Telescope Interviews

Extent:
files (Reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Videotapes
Oral history
Date:
1989
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
David DeVorkin, curator at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum (NASM), recorded six sessions with twelve participants to document this multi-institutional scientific program. He was particularly interested in design and construction of the MMT; in its operation (with basic structural and optical design elements); in how astronomers use the telescope; and in the phenomenon of "consortia." DeVorkin also visually documented the operation of the MMT, including a nighttime observing session, various artifacts and equipment, and the interaction of former colleagues during group discussions. Interviews took place on May 8, 10 and 11, 1989, at the observatory, in a studio in Tucson, Arizona, and at Flandrau Planetarium of the University of Arizona.

This collection consists of six interview sessions, totalling approximately 11:20 hours of recordings, and 257 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 24 original videotapes (19 Beta videotapes, which includes 6 Beta tapes taken by Camera A, and 4 Beta tapes taken by Camera B, and 5 1-inch reels), 13 dubbing master videotapes (13 U-Matic videotapes, which includes 2 U-Matic tapes taken by Camera A, and 2 U-Matic tapes taken by Camera B), and 8 reference copy videotapes (8 VHS videotapes, which includes 1 VHS tape taken by Camera A, and 1 VHS tape taken by Camera B). The collection has been remastered digitally, with 25 motion jpeg 2000 and 25 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 25 Windows Media Video and 25 Real Media Video digital files for reference.

Please note that session 6 is comprised of dual sets of tape from two cameras positioned at different angles.

Additional Information: See Record Unit 262, Records of the Mt. Hopkins Department, SAO, 1966-1967, and Record Unit 9520, Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews, 1976, Smithsonian Institution Archives. Also, consult records of the director and assistant director, SAO, for additional documentation on the MMT.
Historical Note:
Since 1979, completely new and radical designs for astronomical telescopes have emerged. The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) was the prototype, both technically and institutionally, for the next generation of large telescopes. The MMT was the world's first large-scale multiple mirror telescope, which used the combined light of six 72-inch reflecting telescopes in a single altitude-azimuth mount. Computers controlled all pointing and tracking of the MMT's individual telescopes. The MMT was located at the Smithsonian's Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. Development of this site was begun by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in the late 1960s as the Mt. Hopkins Observatory, renamed the Whipple Observatory in 1981. The MMT was jointly developed and run by SAO and the University of Arizona (UA). This arrangement was the first of several university and observatory consortia that have attempted larger multiple mirror and segmented mirror designs.

Session participants included astronomers, engineers and opticians who worked on virtually every facet of MMT design and development in the 1970s and 1980s. Nathaniel Carleton received an A.B. and Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University, the latter in 1956; he taught physics until 1962 when he was appointed a physicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. He was primarily interested in physics of the Earth's upper atmosphere but became interested in astronomy and the study of other planets. He was involved with the development of the MMT from the beginning.

Frederic H. Chaffee was educated as a physicist at Dartmouth College and received a Ph.D in astronomy from the University of Arizona in 1968. Shortly thereafter he joined the stellar atmospheres group at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and, under Smithsonian auspices, returned to Arizona to help establish the first optical telescope on Mt. Hopkins. He became the first resident astronomer at the Mt. Hopkins Observatory and then resident director of the observatory during the 1970s, when the MMT was built. He became director of the MMT Observatory in July 1984.

Craig Foltz received an A.B. in physics from Dartmouth College in 1974 and a Ph.D. in astronomy from Ohio State University in 1979. He held postdoctoral, research associate, and teaching positions until he was appointed staff astronomer and project scientist for the MMT in 1984.

Carol Heller received a B.S. in biology from the University of Arizona and shortly thereafter became a night assistant at the 9-inch telescope on Mt. Hopkins. She began work with the MMT four years later and was one of the few control room operators of large-scale telescopes in the world.

Keith Hege did not appear on screen, but was interviewed during the observing session by speakerphone. Hege, associate astronomer at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, obtained a Ph.D in nuclear physics at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1965. Hege taught at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Hollins College before joining Steward Observatory in 1975. In 1978 he coordinated Steward Observatory's speckle interferometry program, which was applied to the MMT for cophased interferometric imaging.

Thomas Hoffman received a B.S. degree from the University of Rochester and M.S. and Professional M.E. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1954. He served over fourteen years as chief engineer and head of the Engineering Department of the SAO in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and was program engineer for the MMT. He left the Smithsonian in 1979.

Aden Meinel, one of the key players in developing the MMT, received his B.S. and Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California, Berkeley. He held numerous appointments, including director of Kitt Peak National Observatory, Steward Observatory, and the Optical Sciences Center (University of Arizona). He was also professor at the Optical Sciences Center until 1985, when he became senior scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

Michael Reed was educated at Yale University and Stanford University, and received a Ph.D. in mathematics in 1969. He taught at Princeton University from 1968 through 1974, when he received an appointment at Duke University. He worked on the various aspects of the MMT, including selection of the alt-azimuth mount during the 1970s.

Robert Shannon received a B.S. in optics and M.S. in physics from the University of Rochester. He worked with the Itek Corporation as director of the Advanced Technology Labs before becoming professor and director of the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona in 1969.

Ray Weymann received a Ph.D. in astronomy from Princeton in 1959 and was a Research Fellow at the California Institute of Technology from 1959 through 1961. He taught at the University of Arizona in 1961, became an astronomer at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona in 1970, and was appointed director of Mt. Wilson Observatory in Los Angeles in 1986.

Joseph T. [J.T.] Williams designed, built, and operated astronomical instrumentation at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory sites worldwide for more than thirty years. He studied electrical engineering and served in the U.S. Navy submarine service before joining the Smithsonian at the Haleakala Observatory (Maui, Hawaii) in 1959. After holding several positions with SAO, Williams became manager for site planning and construction of the MMT from 1975 through 1979 and became assistant director for MMT operations and development, in collaboration with the University of Arizona, in 1980. In the 1990 he served on the committee to convert the MMT to a single mirror 6.5-meter telescope.

Fred L. Whipple was educated at University of California, Los Angeles, and received a Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1931. He joined the staff of the Harvard College Observatory in 1931 and became a teacher there in 1932. He ultimately became the Phillips Professor of Astronomy, 1970. Whipple was also appointed director of Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in 1955 and shortly thereafter moved its headquarters to Cambridge, Massachusetts. During his tenure as director, Whipple selected and developed Mt. Hopkins as an observatory site. The observatory, initially known as the Mt. Hopkins Observatory, was dedicated the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in 1981. He worked closely with the University of Arizona and the U.S. Air Force in developing the MMT. He retired in 1977 and subsequently held the position Emeritus Phillips Professor of Astronomy at Harvard.
Topic:
Astronomy and astrophysics  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Observatories -- Astrophysical  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Videotapes
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9542, , Multiple-Mirror Telescope Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9542
See more items in:
Multiple-Mirror Telescope Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9542

Benson Russell Shaw Photo Album

Extent:
0.24 Cubic Feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1909-1925
Summary:
Photo album that, based on caption information, appears to have been created by Benson Russell Shaw. Photographs show various aircraft and notable figures in aviation, as well as aerial photographs and scenes taken inside the Wright Company factory in Dayton, Ohio and the Lawson Aircraft Company in Green Bay, Wisconsin.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a photo album, measuring approximately 11.25 by 7.5 inches, with a black cover and black paper pages and bound with string. The album contains black and white photographs of various sizes mounted on the pages, as well as some loose photographs and a few news clippings. Most of the photographs are labeled. Based on caption information contained in the album, it appears to have been created by Benson Russell Shaw. The photographs show aircraft including various airplanes designed by Benson Russell Shaw; a 1915 Heinrich (Aeroplane Co.) biplane; Huntington (NY) 1915 Tractor Biplane; Burnelli-Carisi Biplane (1915); Curtiss JN-4 Jenny; Wright-Martin Model V; Lawson (Alfred) M.T. One Primary Training Tractor; Lawson (Alfred) M.T. Two; Lawson (Alfred) L-4 Midnight Airliner (including interior views); and unidentified aircraft models made by Benoist, Voisin, and Curtiss. In addition to Shaw, notable figures in aviation shown in the photos include George L. Bumbaugh; John Guy Gilpatric; Peter Carl "Tex" Millman; Edwin M. Post, Jr.; Giovanni Emmanuele Angelo Leonardo "John" Carisi; Alfred W. Lawson; Caleb Smith Bragg; Jesse Gurney Vincent; Glenn Hammond Curtiss; and John Rodgers. The album also includes scenes of aircraft manufacturing; a flying demonstration at the Indiana State Fair in 1911; the Indianapolis Motor Speedway; interior views of the Wright Company factory in Dayton, Ohio; aerial views taken in 1917 of various sites in New York City, including the Statue of Liberty; aerial views taken of New Brunswick and Highland Park, New Jersey; testing of "Haskelite" veneer at Haskell Manufacturing Company; and views taken of the interior of the Lawson Aircraft Company in Green Bay, Wisconsin.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Benson Russell Shaw (1893-1961) was an early aviator and aircraft designer who also worked as a draftsman and engineer for major aircraft companies including the Wright Company and Lawson Aircraft Corporation. Shaw also founded the Aeronautical Instrument Company. In addition to designing and constructing eight different aircraft, Shaw also redesigned and built a copy of a Morane-Saulnier monoplane in 1915. Shaw served as secretary of the National Aeronautic Association and in this capacity he was responsible for the technical supervision of the Detroit, St. Louis, Miami, Dayton and Baltimore Air Races during the period from 1922-1925. Shaw was hired in 1925 to oversee Henry Ford's airports and later was chief airport engineer for Stout Air Lines. In the late 1920s, Shaw supervised construction of Grand Canyon Airport and Koch Field in Flagstaff, Arizona and the improvement of Lambert Field in St. Louis, Missouri. Shaw then moved to Washington, D.C. and was a vice president at Morris Plan Bank. In 1942, Shaw enlisted in the U.S. Army and served in ordnance. In addition to the National Aeronautic Association, Shaw was a member of the Society of American Engineers and the Early Birds of Aviation.
Provenance:
Donor unknown, Gift, unknown, XXXX.1202
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Citation:
Benson Russell Shaw Photo Album, Acc. XXXX.1202, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.1202
See more items in:
Benson Russell Shaw Photo Album
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-1202
Additional Online Media:

Pemberton Billing P.B.2 Album

Creator:
Pemberton Billing Ltd (UK)  Search this
Extent:
0.18 Cubic Feet (1 flat box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1913-1914
Summary:
The album, titled "The Supermarine P.B.2," dates from late 1913 to early 1914 and was probably designed as a brochure and prospectus for Pemberton-Billing Ltd. as well as the Pemberton Billing P.B.2 aircraft.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of an extremely fragile 16-page silk-mounted album of illustrations, text, and engineering drawings reproduced as photographs, self-described as a "Souvenir of Mr. Pemberton Billing's aeronautical undertaking at Southampton." The album, titled "The Supermarine P.B.2," dates from late 1913 to early 1914 and was probably designed as a brochure and prospectus for Pemberton-Billing Ltd. as well as the Pemberton Billing P.B.2. The illustrations highlight the P.B.1 and P.B.2 "Supermarine" flying boats, and provide an overview of the Pemberton-Billing Ltd. works at Southampton, including the main assembly shop, a "Supermarine Tidal Dock," and a seaplane flight school. Only one Pemberton Billing P.B.1 was built, and failed to make any successful flights. The P.B.2, seen here in drawings and illustrations only, was never constructed.
Arrangement:
Photo album is assumed to be in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Noel Pemberton Billing (1881-1948) was an English aviator, inventor, publisher, and politician. In 1913, he founded Pemberton-Billing Ltd., an establishment based at Woolston, Southampton, England, for the construction of aircraft "capable of navigating the surface of the sea as also the air above." He coined the word "supermarine" to describe these flying boats and used "Supermarine, Southampton" as the telegraphic address for the new firm. Pemberton-Billing Ltd.'s first flying boat design, the P.B.1, was exhibited to the public at the Fifth International Aero Show, Olympia, London, in March 1914. Following the outbreak of World War I later that year, Noel Pemberton Billing joined the Royal Naval Air Service, leaving the works in charge of factory manager Hubert Scott-Paine. During the war, the Pemberton-Billing Ltd. factory did repair and experimental work for the British Admiralty's Air Department, producing several experimental models. By late 1915, Noel Pemberton Billing had become a vocal critic of the government's policy on aerial warfare and an advocate for the creation of a separate air force, eventually resigning from the RNAS to campaign for a greater use of air power during World War I. After having been successfully elected as a Member of Parliament on March 10, 1916, Pemberton Billing sold his share of the firm to Scott-Paine; with Hubert Scott-Paine as the new managing director, the company was renamed and registered on September 20, 1916, as Supermarine Aviation Works Limited.
Provenance:
Unknown, found in collection.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Citation:
Pemberton Billing P.B.2 Album, Acc. XXXX.0794, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0794
See more items in:
Pemberton Billing P.B.2 Album
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0794
Additional Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from Wm. H. Page Steel & Wire Co. Inc.]

Variant company name:
The following information comes from "A Brief History of Page Fence" by Beryle G. Sweet, who retired in 1992 as chairman and CEO of Page Aluminized Steel Corp. (See http://users.telerama.com/~cass/Pagefence.html online or hard copy of text in file box.) Founded 1885 as Page Woven Wire Fence Co in Adrian Michigan. Incorporated in 1889 and changed name to Page Steel & Wire Co. In 1902, the company moved to Monessen Pennsylvania, to be closer to the steel billets of the Pittsburgh Steel Co. Purchased by American Chain Co. in 1920. In 1976 changed name to American Chain & Cable Co. Also in 1976, bought by Babcock & Wilcox Ltd. of the UK and renamed Acco Industries Inc. and later Acco Babcock. In 1982 the fencing division was spun off to form Page-Wilson Corp. In 1987, Page-Wilson was liquidated and the fencing division was sold separately, becoming Page Aluminized Steel Corp. and Page Two Inc. (of Bartonville, IL.) The Monessen factory was closed down in 1991, following a United Steel Workers strike. The Bartonsville factory continues to produce for both Page Aluminized Steel Corp. and Page Two Inc.  Search this
Company Name:
Wm. H. Page Steel & Wire Co. Inc.  Search this
Related companies:
Page Woven Wire Fence Co. ; American Chain Co. ; American Chain & Cable Co. ; Acco Industries Inc. ; Acco Babcock ; Page-Wilson Corp. ; Page Two Inc. ; Page Aluminized Steel Corp.  Search this
Notes content:
File contains numerous brochures , primarily from the 1910s through the 1930s, featuring Page's various product lines. "Ornamental Fences and Specialties, catalogue No. 52" dating from 1914 or 1915 shows on the cover the Adrian Michigan address as the "offices and specialty mill" of the Page Woven Wire Fence Co. but lists Monessen Pennsylvania as the address of the "steel and wire mills." In addition to the woven fences, this catalogue also features hitching posts , door mats , tree guards , mail boxes and arches. "Aristos 'Copperweld' Copper Clad Steel Wire" (1918): trolley wiretwisted pair , electrical strand , transmission lines. "Welding Wire Research" (1930). "Page-Armco Welding Rods and Electrodes hand book" catalog no. 500, fourth edition, (1922) for oxy-acetylene and electric welding . "Page Fence: For Home, Factory & Institution" catalog no. 616-B (c. 1937): chain link fence ; wrought iron fence . "America Ingot Iron Wire: Electrical and Mechanical" (1920). "Armco Iron Rods and Wire" for oxy-acetylene and electric welding (1919) . "Page hi-tensile Electrodes" (1941). "Standard Specifications Woven Wire Fabric Guard: Page Hi-Way Guard" (1926) . "Page Traffic Tape: little changes big results" (1933): woven construction . "An Outstanding Improvement in Highway Guard Rails" (1933): Page Traffic Tape. "Page Protection Fence Styles OTR and OW." "Page Hi-Tensile Electrodes: Data of Interest to Every User of Welding Wires" (1934). "Page Welding Wires and Electrodes" (1934). "An Outstanding Improvement in Highway Guard Rails: The Most Important Announcement in years on Highway Improvement" (1934): Page Traffic Tape. "Page Steel Wire Products" (1934) : bond wires , bridge wire , electrodes welding , farm fence , gas rods welding , highway guard , chain link fenced , page fence , rope wire , spring wire , steel wire products , telegraph wire , telephone wire. "Page Strand" (1934). "Page Fence for Profitable Farming" (1934) catalogue No. 500-A , sheep and cattle fence , poultry fence , wolf-proof Texas styles , farm gates . ornamental and trellis , barbed wire . "Page Panel Partitions" (1934). "Page-Allegheny Alloys: 'the wonder wire' / round-shaped and flat wire welding wire products" (1934). "Page Fence" Page Steel and Wire Division of American Chain Co. Inc., catalog number 616. "Page Welding Wires and Electrodes" (1934). "Page Highway Guard : the Life Line of the Highway" , catalog No. 169 (1928). "The Border Patrol" (1931) fencing. "Page Hard Facing Welding Rods : for gas and electric welding" (c. 1934/1935). "Page Traffic Tape for Modern Roads (c. 1934/1935) guard rail , four strand . "Page Allegheny Stainless Steel Weld Electrodes" (c. 1945). Page Welding Hand Books Page-Armco Processed Welding Wire and Electrodes" catalogue #34 (1926). "Page Lawn Fence" (1935): hot zinc coating. "Pages Stainless Steel Tennis Court Net" (1935). "Page Outdoor Advertising Signs" on chain link fence (c 1932-1935).
Includes:
Trade catalog and histories
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
37 pieces; 2 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Monessen, Pennsylvania, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Railroad; streetcar; subway and tramway equipment and supplies  Search this
Electrical apparatus and equipment  Search this
Iron and steel products (castings; sheet steel; steel wire; wire rope; pig iron and structural steel products )  Search this
Fences  Search this
Agricultural tools and machinery  Search this
Telephone; telegraph and telecommunications equipment and supplies  Search this
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Road building machinery and equipment  Search this
Farm equipment and supplies (including dairy and poultry equipment)  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
Agricultural implements  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Dairying  Search this
Electric apparatus and appliances  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Fence industry  Search this
Iron industry and trade  Search this
Railroad equipment industry  Search this
Road machinery  Search this
Roads -- Design and construction  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Street-railroads  Search this
Subways  Search this
Telecommunication systems  Search this
Telephone  Search this
Telephone supplies industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_27228
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_27228

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