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Warner Bro's. [sic] Coraline Corset advertisement [trade card

Advertiser:
Warner Brothers (353 Broadway, New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Carpenter, F., & Co. (Tiffin, Ohio)  Search this
Keefer, J.P. (Chambersburg, Pa.)  Search this
Creator:
Trautmann, Bailey, & Blampey, N.Y. (printer?)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-1/8" x 5".)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Advertising cards
Trade cards
Date:
[ca. 1890-1900]
Scope and Contents:
Color illustration shows two cherubs or putti with a view camera, photographing a corset with a long-leafed plant growing from it. Mark of "Trautmann, Bailey & Blampey, N.Y." (printers?) below image. Coraline, a substitute for whalebone, was manufactured from ixtle, a plant grown in Mexico. "Scattered through the centre of these pulpy leaves are a number of round, tough, elastic fibres like bristles, which average about two feet in length. These leaves are gathered by the natives, and in a crude manner they are pounded and bruised until these fibres are separated from the pulpy portion. This is then dried and put into bales, in which condition it is shipped to our factory. Here we go over it again, carefully hackling and combing it until we have separated all the waste material, leaving only the long and perfect fibres. These fibres are then fed into the winding machine and are bound by stout thread into a firm, continuous cord, This cord, or "coraline," as it is now called, is then ready to be stitched into the corset, which is done in the same manner that ordinary cord is stitched between the folds of cloth. After the Coraline is stitched into the cloth, it passes through a tempering process by passing between heated dies. This is the most wonderful part of the invention, and it is its ability to receive a temper that makes Coraline so valuable as a stiffener for corsets. There is not more difference between soft iron and tempered steel, than between Coraline in its natural state and the same article after it has passed through this tempering process. No starch or artificial sizing of any kind is used, but it is a development of the natural elastic quality already existing in the Coraline, and this elasticity is therefore permanent. Corsets boned with cord may be so loaded with starch or glue that they will seem stiff when new, but this will disappear after a few days' use. Those stiffened with Coraline, on the other hand, grow more elastic with use. This is particularly noticeable in our bosom pads, and in the bust of the Health corsets, both of which are stiffened with Coraline cloth. Rub these until the starch is out of the cloth, and they are much more elastic than when new." (From another Coraline corsets advertisement, quoted in Wikipedia, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Warner_Bros._Coraline_Corsets.
Local Numbers:
00006011.jpg (AC Scan no.)

AC0060-0000901.tif (AC scan no.)

87-10515 (OPPS Neg.)
General:
Two examples in collection: the one shown in neg. no. 87-10515 bears the maker's identification, but it is partly cut off in the other copy. This one also has a black-and-white Warner Brothers advertisement on the verso, with sale imprint of "F. Carpenter & Co., Tiffin, O." shown, while the other copy shows "J. P. Keefer, Chambersburg, Pa." as the seller.
Exhibitions Note:
Selected for use in NMAH virtual (Web) exhibit, "America Wired" (originally called "American Expressions"), 2001/07, at http://historywired.si.edu/object.cfm?ID=273.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
SI Neg. No. 87-10515. Probably public domain (copyright expired) but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Corsets  Search this
Cameras  Search this
View cameras -- 1890-1910  Search this
Photography -- Apparatus and supplies  Search this
Angels  Search this
Putti  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising cards -- 19th century.
Trade cards -- 19th century
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Corsets
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Corsets / 1: Manufacturers and Distributors / Warner Brothers Company, Bridgeport, Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-corsets-ref523

Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs

Creator:
Pullman Palace Car Co.  Search this
Donor:
Pullman-Standard  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Pullman, George M., 1831-1897  Search this
Extent:
128.5 Cubic feet (145 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1882-1955
Summary:
Collection consists of approximately 13,500 images (original photographs, copy prints, and film and glass plate negatives) for freight, passenger, private, and street and rapid transit cars manufactured by the Pullman Palace Car Company. The collection contains primarily early railroad Americana, including interior and exterior views of private and business cars as well as passenger and street cars. The collection is an important part of the historical record of the railroad car-building industry as well as the history of architecture and interior design.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 13,500 images (original photographs, copy prints, and film and glass plate negatives) for freight, passenger, private, and street and rapid transit cars manufactured by the Pullman Palace Car Company. The collection contains primarily interior and exterior views of private and business cars as well as passenger and street cars. The collection is an important part of the historical record of the railroad car-building industry as well as the history of architecture and interior design. Historians, designers, railroad enthusiasts, model railroad hobbyists, scholars, and others will find this collection useful.

The glass plate negatives in this collection were produced using the wet collodion process, which was introduced to the United States in 1855 and used into the 1880s. The plates were coated with chemicals, sensitized, exposed and developed, all while the plate was wet. Later, Pullman photographers used the dry collodion process. This process involved using glass plates with a photographic emulsion of silver halides suspended in gelatin. This process had shorter exposure times.

George Pullman assembled a variety of photographers to document his company's work. The photography was primarily used as a record of work, especially for the Operating Department and Manufacturing Department at Pullman, as well as for prospective corporate customers.

Before establishing an in-plant photographic department in 1888, Pullman relied on local photographers. Some of the photographers included John Jex Bardwell, Wylie Dennison, Henry R. Koopman, J. W. Taylor, Thomas S. Johnson, Wylie Dennison, John P. Van Vorst, Clayton Ford Smith, Joseph McAllister, Melvin C. Horn, Ernie Stutkus, and Donald J. O'Barski. Many of the photographers signed the glass plates using their initials. For example, John P. Van Vorst signed his J.P.V.V.

Photography of Pullman activities began in the Detroit Shops (property of the Detroit Car & Manufacturing Co. which was purchased by Pullman in 1873 and operated as the Detroit Shops of Pullman) in the 1870s and expanded to include photographing the town of Pullman, steel car construction, shop accidents, workers, panoramic views, and in some instances, for company publications. In-plant photography was started with Wylie Dennison in 1888. Dennison was the first full-time Pullman photographer, and he created the Pullman Photographic Department. Dennison instituted the practice of recording each photograph, noting the negative number, description of the car, the type of view (typically one interior view and one exterior view) and lot number. All of Dennison's photography was done outside in the daylight.

The negative numbers assigned to the glass plates were identified with a "lot" number. The lot number identified the production order, and in later years, the plan number was added, designating the layout of the car. Photographing one car out of each new lot was the intital practice, but over-time, the Photographic Department began taking six or more views of the interior and exterior as well as end views.

Lot numbers include:

Lots 1 - 500 (Pullman Car Works - Chicago)

Lots 1 - 500 (Detroit Car Works)

Lots 500 plus (can be freight and passenger mixed)

Lots 1000 to 4999 (Pullman passenger equipment)

Lots 5000 to 5999 (Pullman freight equipment)

Lots 5000 + Haskell and Barker (Pullman overlap)

Lots 6000 to 7000+ (Pullman and P-S passenger)

Lots 8000 to 9999 (Pullman freight equipment)

Lots 10000+ (Pullman freight equipment)

Series 1, Original prints, circa 1880-1949, are arranged numerically by Pullman numbers. The original prints begin with number 7343 and end with number 33091. The photographs document Pullman cars, including freight, passenger, private, and street railway/rapid transit. Many of the images depict interior views of the cars, and there are some views of porters and passengers. There is some documentation of the workmen constructing the cars. The prints are primarily 8" by 10" black-and-white and were originally bound into books and backed on linen. The prints were unbound at some time. Many of the original prints bear an embossed stamp "Built by Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation Chicago." Some photographs are sepia-tone and there are no negatives for these prints.

Series 2, Copy prints, 1885-1955, consists of prints made from the glass plate negatives by the Smithsonian photographic services office. The copy prints were originally stored in loose binders but were re-housed into folders and arranged numerically according to the original Pullman Company number. The number is typically found in the lower right corner of the image. The copy prints are black-and-white and are either 5" x 7" or 8" x 10".

Series 3, Film negatives, 1917-1955, consists of film negatives (4" x 5" and 8" x 10") that are arranged numerically by Pullman numbers. In some instances, information on the enclosure includes the type of car (e.g. sleeper, freight), the name of the car if applicable, name of railroad company, geographical information, and date(s). In some instances, "repro," or "broken glass" are recorded. For negatives that did not conform to the Pullman numbering system, the container list provides additional information. For example, Haskell and Barker Car Company (Haskell and Barker merged with the Pullman Company in 1922) machine shop views, or Pullman cars in St. Paul, Minnesota are recorded in the collection inventory listing.

Series 4, Glass plate negatives, [circa 1882-1948], is divided into two subseries, Subseries 1, 6" x 8" negatives and Subseries 2, 8" x 10" negatives. The series consists of approximately 13,500 glass plate negatives arranged by Pullman Company negative number. The negatives document primarily Pullman cars, including freight, passenger, private and street railway/rapid transit. Many of the images depict interior and exterior views of the cars and some views of porters and passengers. The interior views include details such as seating, window treatments, lighting fixtures, bathroom fixtures, wood paneling, marquetry work, fabrics, floor treatments, and other furnishings. There is some documentation of the construction of the cars by workmen in the factory.

The negative numbers and lot numbers are etched on the glass plates. Overall the series is in good condition, although there are some broken plates which have been separated. The negatives are not inclusive and some plates are missing, or there are two copies. If plates are missing or additional copies exist, this is noted in the collection inventory. In some instances, plates are labeled 3937 and then 3937-A. This numbering distinguished two different views/angles of the same car.

Many of the envelope enclosures contain the negative number, sometimes preceed by the letter "P" (e.g. P9597), lot number (L4700), and in some instances, text describing the negative. Text typically includes the type of car (sleeper, freight), the name of the car if applicable, name of railroad company, geographical information, and date(s). If a copy print was created from the negative plate, the enclosure is stamped "printed." However, this practice was not consistent. Plates that were not printed are occasionally noted, but not with any consistency.

The 6" by 8" glass plates numbered 82-4130 to 82-4167, represent numbers assigned by the Office of Photographic Services, Smithsonian Institution. Previously labeled "Pullman" on the enclosures, the plates primarily document engines and passenger cars for the New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, 1870-1890 and undated. The plates do not have Pullman negative numbers etched in the lower left or right corners and it is unclear if these plates belong to this collection.

Series 5, Indices, 1990 and undated include bound, typescript indices to the Pullman negatives. Created by the National Museum of American History, Division of Transportation (now known as the Division of Work and Industry), the indices include listings by railroad, private cars, freight cars, street cars and rapid transit, and Pullman negatives. The indices provide the name of the railroad/railway (e.g. Chicago & Alton), type of car (e.g. coal car or box car), number, lot, remarks (e.g. baggage area), year, type of view (e.g. exterior or interior) and frame number (for the laser disc).

One index is a supplemental guide listing sepia tone prints for which no negative exists in our collection. The indices for the negative listings on laser discs one and two are available. However, the actual lasers discs are missing.

References

Horn, Don. "The Pullman Photographers," Railroad Heritage, No. 7, 2003, pp. 5-13.

Arnold, Rus. "This Negative File was a Sleeper." Technical Photography. May 1970, pp. 21-XX.

Pullman State Historic Site, http://www.pullman-museum.org/theCompany/timeline.html (last accessed April 18, 2011)
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1, Original prints, 1904-1949

Series 2, Copy prints, 1885-1955

Series 3, Film negatives, undated

Series 4, Glass plate negatives, circa 1882-1948

Series 5, Indices, 1990 and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Recognizing a market for luxurious rail travel, George M. Pullman, who had earlier experimented with sleeping car construction and was wealthy from the provisioning and transporting of Colorado miners in the early 1860s, incorporated the Pullman's Palace Car Company in 1867. By the 1870s his operations were already national and included the operation of sleeping cars under contract with the nation's railroads, the manufacture of cars at the Detroit Works, and the creation of subsidiary firms serving Great Britain and Europe. In the three decades before the turn of the century, the prosperous company grew enormously and included a much heralded model company town adjacent to the new car works at Pullman, Illinois. Acclaim turned to condemnation following the nationwide strike that originated at the Pullman Car Works in 1894. Pullman died in 1897, two years before his company absorbed its last major competitor, the Wagner Palace Car Company, which had been financed by the Vanderbilts.

The Pullman's Palace Car Company entered the twentieth century with a new name, the Pullman Company, and a new president, Robert Todd Lincoln. An extremely profitable virtual monopoly, the Pullman Company began replacing its wood cars with safer all steel bodied models (heavyweights) in its newly segregated manufacturing department and at the same time (1906) came under the regulation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. From 1918 to 1920, the United States Railroad Administration, citing the war emergency, assumed control of the operating arm of the firm, renamed the Pullman Car Lines for the duration of federal control.

The Pullman Company reached its peak during the 1920s, manufacturing new heavyweight cars at a rapid pace. Seeking to expand its freight car production, Pullman merged with the Haskell and Barker Car Company in 1922. Edward F. Carry and his Haskell and Barker associates assumed the presidency and other executive positions in the enlarged Pullman Company. More reorganization took place in 1924, when the Pullman Company Manufacturing Department became a distinct firm, the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation, and in 1927, when a parent or holding company, Pullman Incorporated, was created to oversee the two subsidiary firms. In 1929, following Carry's death, President David A. Crawford engineered the merger of the Pullman Car and Manufacturing Corporation with the Standard Steel Car Company, forming the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company.

During the first three decades of the twentieth century Pullman sought to impede the unionization of its workers by offering new benefits, including a pension plan in 1914, a death benefit plan in 1922, and a plan of group insurance in 1929. F. L. Simmons' Industrial Relations Department, created in 1920, also directed the formation of company-sponsored occupationally-based unions under the plan of employee representation. A. Philip Randolph's Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and other unions would not successfully organize company workers until the New Deal Railway Labor Act of 1934 forbade corporate interference in union matters. The Depression marked the end of Pullman prosperity. Both the number of car orders and sleeping car passengers declined precipitously. The firm laid off car plant and service workers, reduced fares, and introduced such innovations as the single occupancy section in an effort to fill its cars. During this decade the firm built fewer new cars, but it added air conditioning to its existing heavyweights and remodeled many into compartment sleepers.

In 1940, just as orders for lightweight cars were increasing and sleeping car traffic was growing, the United States Department of Justice filed an anti-trust complaint against Pullman Incorporated in the U. S. District Court at Philadelphia (Civil Action No. 994). The government sought to separate the company's sleeping car operations from its manufacturing activities. In 1944 the court concurred, ordering Pullman Incorporated to divest itself of either the Pullman Company (operating) or the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company (manufacturing). After three years of negotiations, the Pullman Company was sold to a consortium of fifty-seven railroads for around forty million dollars. Carroll R. Harding was named president of this new Pullman Company. The new Pullman Company started out optimistically in 1947 with good passenger traffic figures, but the years following brought steady and marked decline. Regularly scheduled lines were cancelled; all shops except St. Louis and Chicago were closed; employees were furloughed, and major railroad owners such as the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroad totally or partially withdrew from service. On January 1, 1969, at the age of 102, the Pullman Company ceased operation, though it maintained a small central office staff to wind up affairs and handle an equal pay-for-equal-work lawsuit (Denver Case) that continued in the courts until 1981.

John H. White (1933-), historian and curator, collected the Pullman photographs in 1969. White was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, and graduated with a bachelors of arts in history from Miami University Ohio in 1958. Shortly after receiving his degree, He joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution as Assistant Curator of the Division of Transportation, Department of Science and Technology, Museum of History and Technology. White later became Associate Curator of the Division, 1961-1966, Curator, 1967-1985, and Senior Historian, 1986-1989. White specialized in land transportation, particularly the history of railroads.

White worked closely with Arthur Detmers Dubin (1923-) to acquire the Pullman photographs for the museum. Dubin was an avid train enthusiast and collector, and he frequently used the Pullman "archives" for his own research on railroads. Dubin was born in Chicago, Illinois and began his architectural education at the University of Michigan in 1941 but his education was interrupted by World War II, and he served with distinction in the United States Army until 1946. After completing his studies in 1949, Dubin joined his father's and uncle's architectural firm, Dubin and Dubin, as a second--eneration architect. The leadership of the firm soon passed to Arthur and his brother, Martin David, and in 1965 they were joined by John Black and in 1966 by John Moutoussamy. Arthur's life--ong interest in trains and transportation and their implications for architecture is evident in transit stations commissions and service on transportation--elated advisory boards (Dubin was a member of the Illinois Railroad Commission), as well as in his writings and personal collections.

In July, 1966, Dubin contacted then Vice President of Public Relations at Pullman-Standard E. Preston Calvert about the history and future of the photographic negative plates. Dubin appealed to Calvert to preserve these materials. Dubin and White were also in contact by correspondence and in June, 1967, White contacted Calvert also, stating that the Chicago Historical Society or Illinois State Historical Society should be offered the plates as a first option. Failing a local Illinois repository accepting the materials, White indicated that the Smithsonian would accept the negatives.

During the spring of 1968, White, working with Dubin and Nora Wilson, editor of the company's publications, coordinated a visit by White to Chicago to examine the photographic negatives at the Pullman Car Works factory in south Chicago. In April 1968, White examined the vast collection of glass plate negatives (approximately 20,000). From April, 1968 to August, 1969, Pullman-Standard and the Smithsonian negotiated acquisition details, including shipping and related costs. In August, 1969, White returned to complete the task of sorting the glass plates, discarding broken plates, and weeding repetitive views. He selected approximately 13,500 glass plates. Views of Pullman towns were donated to the Chicago Historical Society. Dubin appraised the photographic plates and film negatives, presumably on behalf of Pullman-Standard, and estimated the plates to be worth between $54,000 and $67,500 dollars.

References

Historical note courtesy Martha T. Briggs and Cynthia H. Peters, Guide to Pullman Company Archives, The Newberry Library, Chicago, 1995.

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago Area Architects Oral History Project http://www.artic.edu/aic/resources/resource/734?search_id=1 (last accessed on February 23, 2011)

John H. White papers, 1959-1989, Record Unit 007384, Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C.

Telephone conversation of Alison Oswald, archivist, with John H. White, April 14, 2011.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Pullman Palace Car Company Materials, 1867-1979 (AC0181)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, 1880s-1990 (AC0523)

Materials in Other Organizations

•Art Institute of Chicago

•Bombardier Corporation

•California State Railroad Museum

•Chicago History Museum

•Arthur Dubin Collection at Lake Forest College

•Illinois Railway Museum

•Indiana University Northwest's Calumet Regional Archives

Pullman-Standard Railroad Car Manufacturing Company Personnel Records—Personnel Record Series CRA 314 This index of employee names was created from the original personnel cards housed at Indiana University Northwest's Calumet Regional Archives from the Indiana locations. Although the records are not complete from the Michigan City plant for the entire period from 1912 to the 1970's, there may be information that will assist researchers with finding key details of a family member. The Hammond Pullman plant was merged with the Haskell Barker Company of Michigan City in 1922.

•Newberry Library, Chicago

The Pullman Company archives at the Newberry Library consists of 2,500 cubic feet of records from the Pullman Company and Pullman heirs. The collection is comprised of business archives of the Pullman Palace Car Company from 1867 and includes records of the entire firm up to the 1924 split into operating (sleeping car operation, service, and repair) and manufacturing companies. From 1924 to 1981 the records chronicle the activities of the operating company only.

•Pennsylvania State Archives

•Pullman State Historic Site

•Pullman Technology (Harvey, Illinois)

•Smithsonian Institution Archives

•South Suburban Genealogical & Historical Society (South Holland, Illinois)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Pullman-Standard Company, through Nora Wilson, editor of employee publications for the Department of Public Relations and Advertising, on October 8, 1969.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view original glass plate and film negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270. Unrestricted access to photographic prints and other portions of the collection.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Freight cars  Search this
Railroads -- Dining-car service  Search this
Roomette car  Search this
Hospital cars  Search this
Dining cars  Search this
Hotel car  Search this
Sleeping cars (Railroads)  Search this
Local transit  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass plate negatives
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1890-1900
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1175
See more items in:
Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1175
Additional Online Media:

Lockwood-Greene Records

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated  Search this
Lockwood-Greene Company  Search this
Whitman, David  Search this
Greene, Stephen  Search this
Lockwood, Amos  Search this
Former owner:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (233 boxes, 850 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs
Trade literature
Date:
1784-2004
bulk 1915-1930
Summary:
The engineering firm that became Lockwood Greene was founded by David Whitman, a mill engineer, in 1832. Amos D. Lockwood, a consultant, succeeded Whitman and entered a partnership with Stephen Greene in 1882. The firm specialized in industrial engineering and construction; they designed and built a wide variety of structures and work environments worldwide over the next century. Lockwood Greene was acquired by CH2M HILL in December, 2003. Before its acquisition by CH2MHILL it was reportedly the oldest industrial engineering, construction, and professional services firm in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Lockwood Greene records are a comprehensive range of documents related to the appraisal, building, construction, design, evaluation, and engineering of facilities for a variety of clients. The material covers the entire period of industrialization of the United States, and, provides a thorough record of the textile industry, both in New England and the South. Some of the textile mills are documented with unusual completeness, showing water and steam power layouts, factory village plans, and landscaping schedules. A broad range of other building typologies is also covered, including projects with public or retail functions, such as early automobile showrooms, hospitals, apartments and private dwellings, churches, and schools.

In-depth study of the company's earliest history is hampered by a scarcity of records, many of which were lost in the great fire that destroyed Boston's city center in 1872. Nevertheless, graphic and textual evidence does exist within the collection that illuminates these early projects, in addition to the fabric of surviving buildings. The Lockwood Greene records document several commissions that the firm would return to again and again over the course of many decades as clients requested plant additions, upgrades to mechanical and operating systems, and other substantive changes. Researchers are encouraged to examine the blueprints, elevations, and plans for these later additions in order to find illustrations of the firm's earlier interventions at the site. In addition to drawings, other visual evidence for nineteenth-century projects can be found in the company's extensive photo files, which often document structures for which drawings do not exist.

The Lockwood Greene records contain an abundance of graphic and textual evidence for structures designed after 1910 until the 1930s. After this period, visual documentation becomes much more limited. This is partially due to the evolution of drafting tools and information management technologies within the architecture and engineering profession. Lockwood Greene was an early adopter of technological innovations in rendering and data capture, beginning with the introduction of aperture cards and microfilm and extending to the adoption of computer-aided design (CAD) programs. These more modern formats were not part of the acquisition, and, at the time of writing, still reside with the company.

The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of interest to historians of architecture and engineering, as well as those that study the history of business and labor relations. It provides extensive textual and documentary evidence on the evolution and growth of American engineering and the increasing professionalization of the discipline through specialization during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rich holdings of architectural drawings, photographs, and specifications provide unparalleled resources that trace the evolution of industrial buildings and their typologies; experimentation with building materials and systems, particularly with regards to fireproofing; and the history of textile manufacture in the United States. In addition, there is also rich visual and documentary evidence of the changing relationships between corporations and their employees through photographs, plans, and designs for company towns and mill villages, as well as through corporate records that illustrate the work culture of Lockwood Greene itself. The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of special interest to historic preservationists as the awareness of the significance of industrial and vernacular buildings continues to grow, and detailed design drawings and other visual material will be of especial value for restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive-reuse projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Project Drawings, Renderings, and Plans, 1784-1969, undated

Series 2, Photographs and Slides, 1881-2001, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photo Albums, 1906-1934

Subseries 2.2: Photographic Files, 1881-1956

Subseries 2.3: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1948-1974

Subseries 2.4: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1919-1999

Subseries 2.5: Project Negatives and Transparencies, 1956-1970

Subseries 2.6: Project Slides and Transparencies, 1985-2001

Subseries 2.7: Project Slides and Transparencies, Culls, 1974-2001

Subseries 2.8: Project Slides and Transparencies, Corporate Photography, 1976-1998

Subseries 2.9: Photograph Album Covers, 1920, undated

Series 3: Job Files, 1872-1957, undated

Subseries 3.1, Specifications, 1913-1942, undated

Subseries 3.2: List of Drawings, 1872-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3: Project Files, 1919-1969, undated

Subseries 3.4: Reports, 1913-1969

Subseries 3.5: Job Cost Records, 1913-1957, undated

Series 4, Corporate Records and History, 1881-2004, undated

Subseries 4.1: Meeting Minutes, 1913-1995

Subseries 4.2: Corporate Files, 1891-2004, undated

Subseries 4.3: Historical Research and Reference Files and Photographs, 1881-1983, undated

Subseries 4.4: Corporate Publications, 1917-2001, undated

Series 5, Non-Lockwood Greene Publications, 1910-1984, undated

Series 6, Audio-Visual, 1964
Biographical / Historical:
Lockwood Greene, one of the nation's oldest engineering firms, traces it roots to 1832, when Rhode Island native David Whitman began a machinery repair service. Riding the wave of the early industrial revolution in textile manufacturing, Whitman added mill design services to his repertoire, which formed the backbone of a flourishing consulting business for the rest of the century. Whitman was one of the first itinerant mill engineers or "doctors" that traveled throughout New England advising various industrialists on the placement, design, and construction of their factories and the layout of the complicated system of machinery and shafting that they contained. His largest commission was the design of the Bates Manufacturing Company complex in Lewiston, Maine, which was incorporated in 1850 and soon became one of the largest textile producers in New England.

Upon Whitman's death in 1858, his unfinished work was assumed by Amos D. Lockwood, a prominent mill agent and astute businessman who had built a name for himself in Connecticut and Rhode Island. The successful completion of the projects at Lewiston brought enough additional demand for Lockwood's services to prompt him to relocate to Boston, where he formally opened an independent consulting office with partner John W. Danielson in 1871. For the next ten years, A.D. Lockwood & Company was involved in a least eight major mill design projects, half of which were for new construction. One of these projects, the design and construction of the Piedmont Manufacturing Company in Greenville (now Piedmont), South Carolina was especially significant and is considered to be a prototype for the Southern textile industry.

In 1882, Lockwood established a new business, Lockwood, Greene and Company, with Stephen Greene, a professionally-trained civil engineer who had joined the firm in 1879. As the firm grew, it expanded its scope as consultants supplying all of the necessary architectural and engineering services a prospective owner needed to initiate, equip, and run a complete plant. Acting as the owners' representative, the company supervised construction and installation but did not directly act as builders or contractors. Lockwood

Greene's objective expertise was legendary and made it a leader in this emergent field. As Samuel B. Lincoln explains in his history of the company:

"The new firm's knowledge and experience in the textile industry enabled it to analyze samples of cloth and, from such samples, to provide everything necessary for a completed plant to make such goods in any desired quantity. It did not at any time act as selling agents for machinery or equipment, neither did it accept commissions or rebates from suppliers: by this policy it maintained a position as impartial and independent engineer." (pages 105-107)

Greene became president of the company upon Lockwood's death in 1884. Under his leadership, the company expanded into additional industries and designed an array of other industrial building types that would prefigure the diversity of later work. In 1893, the company revolutionized American industry by designing and constructing the first factory whose operating power was provided entirely over electric wires from a remote power plant, rather than relying upon a water source or a stockpiled fuel supply. The Columbia Mills project created a great deal of publicity for the firm and was a signal to other manufacturers that there were viable alternatives to the use of steam power.

As changing economic conditions led Lockwood Greene to move away from its traditional reliance upon the textile manufacturing industry, it was very successful at soliciting projects for a wide variety of structures, from newspaper plants and automotive factories to convention halls and schools. After 1900, Lockwood Greene expanded its operations and opened branch offices in other cities, including Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Atlanta, and Charlotte. In 1915, Edwin F. Greene, president and son of Stephen Greene, reorganized the firm as Lockwood, Greene & Company, Incorporated This new entity served as the parent company and controlled three subsidiaries: one to own and operate cotton mills that Greene had acquired; one to manage other companies' textile mills; and one to provide engineering services.

Lockwood Greene expanded its operations tremendously as the textile industry boomed under wartime demand and in the years following. The severe textile depression from 1923 to 1928 caused the collapse of this structure, however, as Lockwood Greene continued to suffer deep losses in the textile mills that it owned. The parent company was dissolved in 1928 and the engineering subsidiary, which had remained profitable, was salvaged as Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated.

After a rocky start with the onset of the Depression, the company began to prosper during the Second World War and its growth continued steadily throughout the next several decades. In the late 1960s, as a result of declining business, the company's headquarters was transferred from Boston to Spartanburg, South Carolina. In 1981, Phillipp Holtzman USA, a subsidiary of Phillipp Holtzman AG of Frankfurt, Germany, acquired a majority interest in Lockwood Greene. In 2003, CH2M Hill, a global provider of engineering, construction, and operations services based in Denver, Colorado, acquired the company.

From its beginnings under David Whitman, Lockwood Greene has become one of the most diversified engineering firms in the United States. The firm is best known as a designer of industrial and institutional buildings, but the company has become a leader in many additional areas in recent years. Lockwood Greene dominates the market in the design and production of the germ- and dust-free "clean room" facilities required by the pharmaceutical industry and micro-electronics manufacturers. The company has also developed expertise in designing integrated security and networking systems for industrial plants, international port facilities, and military installations worldwide.

Banham, Raynor. A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900-1925. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

Biggs, Lindy. The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in America's Age of Mass Production. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Bradley, Betsy Hunter. The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Greene, Benjamin Allen. Stephen Greene: Memories of His Life, with Addresses, Resolutions and Other Tributes of Affection. Chicago, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 1903.

Heiser, William J. Lockwood Greene, 1958-1968, Another Period in the History of an Engineering Business. Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated, 1970.

Lincoln, Samuel B. Lockwood Greene: The History of an Engineering Business, 1832-1958. Brattleboro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1960.

Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated The Lockwood Greene Story: One-Hundred-Fifty Years of Engineering Progress. Spartanburg, South Carolina: Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated; undated.
Related Materials:
"[Trade catalogs from Lockwood, Greene & Co.]", Trade Literature at the American History Museum Books, Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lockwood Greene, Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1997 (original drawings). An addendum to the collection was donated by CH2M HILL in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Architects  Search this
Architecture, Commercial  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Construction industry  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Textile mills  Search this
Mills  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Industrial buildings -- Design and construction  Search this
Industrial buildings  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Factories -- Power supply  Search this
Factories -- Design and construction  Search this
Factories  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Commercial buildings  Search this
Electric power production  Search this
Genre/Form:
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 21st century
Photographs -- 20th century
Trade literature
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Lockwood Greene Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1113
See more items in:
Lockwood-Greene Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1113
Additional Online Media:

Vacuum Condensers in a Sugar Mill, Caracas, Cuba. Copyright 1899 by Strohmeyer & Wyman. [on negative] [non-stereo photonegative,]

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Strohmeyer & Wyman  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-3/4" x 3-1/2".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Caracas (Cuba)
Cuba
Date:
1899
Local Numbers:
RSN 15975
General:
Currently stored in box 3.1.49 [84].
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories -- Cuba  Search this
Machinery -- Cuba  Search this
Sugar -- Cuba  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1890-1900 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.1: Underwood and Underwood Negatives / RSN Numbers 15881-15984
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref12515

[River rapids in factory setting.] 23264 interpositive

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1897
Local Numbers:
RSN 28000
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.59 [133].
NOTE! IMAGE REVERSE COPIED ON VIDEODISC!
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Rapids  Search this
Rivers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1890-1900 -- Interpositives -- Glass.
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 27951-28046
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref25757

West Factory Time Book, 1890-1900 [photocopy]

Collection Donor:
Nickse, Hugo  Search this
Johnson, Hanford  Search this
Steinway, Henry Ziegler  Search this
Collection Creator:
Comstock, Cheney and Co.  Search this
Pratt, Read and Company  Search this
Container:
Box 42, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records, 1839-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records
Pratt, Read Corporation Records / Series 3: Pratt, Read and Company, Pratt, Read and Company, Inc., and Pratt-Read Corporation / 3.7: Personnel Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0320-ref425

Steinway & Sons Piano Works finishing dept. [fire insurance map]

Collector:
Steinway & Sons  Search this
Collection Creator:
Steinway, William  Search this
Steinway, Henry Ziegler  Search this
Steinway family  Search this
Steinway & Sons  Search this
Krüsi, Bartholomew, Rev.  Search this
Collection Source:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 12.4" x 9.7")
Type:
Archival materials
Floor plans
Date:
Circa 1895
Scope and Contents:
Illustrated with a drawing of the plant building and the plant floor plan. done by Barlows Insurance Surveys
Arrangement:
Series No. 3, Box No. 4, Folder No. 10 .
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must use positive microfilm copy of diary. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Insurance  Search this
Fire insurance -- Maps  Search this
Genre/Form:
Floor plans -- 1890-1900
Collection Citation:
Steinway and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1857-1919, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Steinway & Sons Records and Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0178-ref590

S.S. White Dental Manufacturing Company/Brooks Typewriter Company Records

Donor:
Fitzgerald, Thomas E.  Search this
Author:
Brooks, Byron A.  Search this
S.S. White Dental Manufacturing Co.  Search this
Peyton, Joseph I.  Search this
Williams Typewriter Company  Search this
Brooks Typewriter Company  Search this
Names:
Union Typewriter Company  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business records
Correspondence
Credit records
Balance sheets
Legal documents
Date:
1890-1897
Summary:
This collection documents a patent dispute between the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company and the Williams Typewriter Company.
Scope and Contents:
This collection concerns a patent dispute between the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company and the Williams Typewriter Company. The dispute centered on the manufacture and sale by the White company of typewriters on behalf of the Brooks Typewriter Company. These were a typewriting machine developed and patented by Byron A. Brooks in 1891. The Williams company produced a very similar machine which Brooks claimed was infringing on his patents. The records in this collection document Brooks' and the White company's efforts to prove Brooks' claims.

The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence received or sent by the S. S. White Company. Most of these letters are from either Byron A. Brooks or Joseph I. Peyton, a Washington, D.C., patent attorney. A group of summary notes and memoranda about the correspondence (filed separately) provides insight into the nature and progress of the case. The collection includes a number of legal agreements between the various parties, as well as a copy of the 1890 Incorporation Certificate of the Union Writing Machine Company and the original Incorporation Certificate of the Brooks Typewriter Company. Also of interest are a number of credit reports prepared by R. G. Dun & Company of New York in 1893 1896; these report on the background and assets of the Union Writing Machine Company and the Elliott & Hatch Book Typewriter Company. Also included in the collection are balance sheets for production of the Brooks Typewriter, 1894 1896.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into
Biographical / Historical:
The S. S. White Company was a dental supply house founded in Philadelphia in 1844 by dentist Samuel Stockton White. Initially, White manufactured porcelain teeth only for his own use. He eventually gave up his dental practice in favor of full time production of dental instruments, supplies, and teeth. His porcelain teeth won awards at both the 1851 Crystal Palace Exposition in London and the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. In 1881 the firm was incorporated as the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company. Soon afterwards, extensive manufacturing facilities were acquired on Staten Island, New York. The firm's main offices were located in Philadelphia and two additional factory buildings were located in that city's Frankford section. In addition to producing dental supplies, such as teeth, amalgams for fillings, and precision instruments, the firm manufactured dental machinery such as vulcanizers and sterilizers. It also interested itself in and produced other types of machinery, such as typewriters. In 1970 the company was merged into the Penn Walt Company.
Related Materials:
Mr. Fitzgerald deposited photostatic copies of some of the records in this collection in the Dietz collection at the Milwaukee Public Museum. The bulk of surviving records from the S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Company are located at the Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington, Delaware, where they form accession #1320 in the Manuscripts and Archives Department.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Thomas E. Fitzgerald, December 19, 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Patents -- 1890-1900  Search this
Typewriters -- 1890-1900  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 19th century
Credit records -- 1890-1900
Balance sheets -- 1890-1900
Legal documents -- 1890-1900
Citation:
S.S. White Dental Manufacturing Company/Brooks Typewriter Company Records, 1890-1897, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0365
See more items in:
S.S. White Dental Manufacturing Company/Brooks Typewriter Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0365

Pratt, Read and Company, Pratt, Read and Company, Inc., and Pratt-Read Corporation

Collection Donor:
Nickse, Hugo  Search this
Johnson, Hanford  Search this
Steinway, Henry Ziegler  Search this
Collection Creator:
Comstock, Cheney and Co.  Search this
Pratt, Read and Company  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1863 - 1988
Scope and Contents:
The records in this series three document the company from 1863-1990, during which time it was known as Pratt, Read & Company (from 1863-1936), Pratt, Read & Company, Inc. (from 1936 1970), and then as Pratt Read Corporation (from 1970 to the present day). These records, which form the bulk of the collection, are arranged into fifteeen series: Executive Records, Stock Records, Financial Records, Publicity and Advertising Scrapbooks, Advertising Records, Sales Records, Personnel Records, Real Estate Records, Machinery Records, Manufacturing and Design Records, Engineering Department Records, Photoprints, Photonegatives, Historical and Background Information, and Publications.

The EXECUTIVE RECORDS, 1863 1988, include the corporate minute books for the period 1863-1980. Unfortunately, the minute book for the period from November 1863 to August 1902 is missing from the collection. Other records include copies of the company's bylaws and articles of association, board papers from 1936 1985, annual and quarterly reports from 1936-1985, and several miscellaneous items. The STOCK RECORDS include three stock certificates; a stock transfer book, 1938-1956; a stock analysis done by Salomon Brothers in 1986; and notices to stockholders, 1956-1986.

FINANCIAL RECORDS, 1864 1985, include annual financial statements from 1864-1923 and 1971-1985; two journals, 1933-1942; and general ledgers, 1926-1964. The audit report of accounts, 1913-1941, provides financial data for both Pratt, Read and Comstock, Cheney. A two year financial planning program for the company covers the period 1978-1980. Also of interest is a May 1982 report on the possible acquisition of Sohmer & Company; Pratt Read acquired the Long Island based piano manufacturer later that year.

The collection contains many ADVERTISING RECORDS. These materials document the company's efforts to keep its name and products prominently before its customers in the piano industry. The majority of these advertisements appeared in trade journals such as the Music Trade Review, Music Trades, the Piano Technician's Journal, and the Piano Trade Magazine. In addition to clipped out copies of Pratt, Read's advertisements, the PUBLICITY AND ADVERTISING SCRAPBOOKS, 1902-1988, contain news clippings about competing firms, developments in piano technology, articles about prominent individuals in the trade, and the activities of various organizations and associations, such as the Piano Tuners' Guild. Other clippings provide details on Pratt, Read's latest technological innovations and the company's efforts to promote the use of pianos in school music programs. The majority of these scrapbooks date from 1934-1935 and 1953-1988; they are arranged chronologically from the back of the book forward. Another scrapbook, dating from 1902-1985, contains miscellaneous news clippings and advertisements. Also included in this subseries are two publicity scrapbooks, 1952-1974, which contain news releases put out by Pratt, Read.

ADVERTISING RECORDS, 1958-1977, consist of the actual materials which were created during the development of the company's advertisements. Again, these advertisements were developed primarily for piano trade magazines. These records include artwork, mechanicals, proofsheets, photoprints, photonegatives, transparencies, and preliminary sketches. They represent about 95 percent of Pratt, Read's advertising campaigns between 1958 and 1977 and include advertisements that were never used. Pratt, Read contracted with a number of different advertising agencies during this period, including C. A. Smith & Co. (Westport, Conn.), Shailer/Davidoff, Inc. (Fairfield, Conn.), Dexter Associates (Madison, Conn.), and McNamara Associates, Inc. (Detroit, Mich.). However, the bulk of the records in this subseries was generated by the firm of Marc Dorian, Inc. (Mamaroneck, N.Y.), between 1970 and 1977. Cleverly utilizing animated piano keys, hammers, and other piano action elements, Marc Dorian created several series of advertisements. While most emphasized Pratt, Read's long history and tradition of quality, others adopted a slightly risqué theme or were built around quotations from Shakespeare. Some of these advertisements were translated and used in German piano trade journals. The materials in this subseries have been arranged by advertisement, in chronological order by date of their first recorded use.

Information concerning the sale and marketing of Pratt, Read's piano keyboards and actions can be found in the SALES RECORDS, 1860 1979. These include an 1860 agreement with the firm of Julius Pratt & Company for the joint sale of ivory combs; price lists for ivory combs, 1864-1865 and 1920; labels for boxes of ivory combs; and blank sales receipts from the company's London office, undated The monthly sales figures, 1914 1931, show total sales income by month and by year, while the monthly sales statistics, 1917-1936, detail sales according to type and value of goods sold (e.g., sharps, ivory, hammers, etc.). The record of sharp sales is a day by day accounting which lists customer name and type of sharps ordered. The scrap orders journal is a daily record of orders for small ivory items, such as collar buttons, billiard cue tips, and beads, as well as scrap ivory. Information on sales for the period 1952-1969 can be found in two charts, one showing the total number of complete keyboards shipped and the other showing average key and action prices.

PERSONNEL RECORDS, 1890 1983, primarily date from the mid 1940s to the late 1970s. Notable exceptions, however, include a photocopy of the West Factory time book from 1890 1900, a company payroll from February 1894, and three piece rate books from the period 1926-1939. The piece rate books, arranged by factory department, show employee name and amount earned per piece completed. Many of the records in this subseries set forth personnel practices and policy, through instructions, memoranda, and employee handbooks. Details of Pratt, Read's organization and structure can be found in various organization manuals, charts, and evaluation program records. The company's dealings with the local chapter of the United Furniture Workers of America union are represented by correspondence, 1945-1946; agreements, 1947-1982; a union publicity scrapbook, 1948 1952; and three scrapbooks of news clippings about strikes in 1947 and 1974. This subseries also includes a complete run of Harmony Magazine, the employee newsmagazine, from 1953-1981.

The REAL ESTATE RECORDS, 1867-1978, consist of maps, plans, architects' drawings, and specifications detailing the various buildings at Pratt, Read's two factory sites. The Deep River site is depicted on two maps taken from the 1867 edition of the Beers & Company Atlas of New York and Vicinity. Site specific insurance maps provide detailed information about factory layout, building construction, and manufacturing processes for the period pre 1880 and 1915-1937. Most of the plans for the Deep River site date from the period after the great fire of 1881. They include the main keyboard factory, the player action factory, bleach houses, an ivory storage vault, various storehouses, and other utilitarian buildings. The Ivoryton site is represented by plans for the expansion of the keyboard factory in the post World War II period. Also of interest are plans and architects' drawings for apartment buildings and houses for company employees, a housing plat of Deep River, and a real estate record book that shows receipts from tenants in company owned housing for the period 1932-1945.

While some of the MACHINERY RECORDS, 1903-1954, relate to the engines and boilers used to keep the factory running, most deal with the machines used to turn out finished ivory keys, piano keyboards, and piano actions. These take the form of a series of oversize blueprint drawings on each machine. The drawings are arranged according to their original order of placement in several different folios of drawings. Thus, drawings for the same machine are sometimes found in different folders within this subseries usually indicating later modifications to the machine. These drawings were selected by a historian knowledgeable about machinery and manufacturing processes during the initial visit to the Pratt, Read site. They were chosen for their emphasis on the specialized processes involved in working with ivory and the production of pianos. Drawings for more general purpose machines were not selected for this collection. The drawings of specialized machines, dating from 1903 1934, are located in ten oversized folders in two map case drawers.

MANUFACTURING AND DESIGN RECORDS, 1892-1968, document the raw materials used in the manufacturing process, the output of goods produced, and the design and specification of keyboards and action components. The oldest item in this subseries is a private inventory book written by George L. Cheney shortly after he became president of the firm in 1892. It records on hand stocks of ivory, combs, piano keys, ebony and other woods, and real estate property. The register of lumber received, 1936-1947 a continuation of the record begun by Comstock, Cheney & Company in 1926 is an accounting of the various types of wood ordered for use in this industry.

Ivory usage is documented in a number of records. Two ivory purchase journals, 1936-1955, record the weight and prices of ivory tusks purchased, by lot number. The tusk ivory receiving reports, 1946-1955 (also arranged by lot number) record the number assigned to each tusk, its quality grade, characteristics, and any defects. The tusk ivory inventory record book, 1950-1953, provides the invoice number and weight of each lot of tusks. Handwritten notes of ivory work done by Grace Schmelke describe one employee's daily piece rate work in the years 1955-1958. The ivory bleaching record is a spiral bound notebook which records the movement of individual tusks into and out of the bleach houses. Other records show the percent of wastage per lot of ivory and the number of keys produced. The file titled "Production Procedures for Ivory and Lumber" contains a number of descriptive narratives concerning the qualities of ivory and wood used in pianos, the procedures involved in bleaching ivory and in processing ivory keyboards, and a step by step description of the ivory shop routine. Also of interest are copies of the formulas used in dyeing piano sharps.

Piano production and design records include correspondence and news clippings from 1942-1946 that provide information on the curtailment of piano production during World War II by both Pratt, Read and the piano industry in general. Under regulations imposed by the War Production Board and the Office of Price Administration, raw materials essential to the war effort were not available for piano production and piano prices escalated to levels that discouraged sales. Despite these restrictions, Pratt, Read attempted to maintain a research and development program, examining the possibilities of producing other parts of the piano, such as backs, boards, ribs, and cases. This effort is documented in the correspondence files of Peter Comstock, 1943 1945, which also contain information about the whole piano industry's attempts to cope with wartime restrictions. Peter Calamari's files document a postwar cooperative effort with the Aeolian American Piano Company to produce a player piano. They include correspondence, drawings, specifications, and photoprints.

Action specification books were kept by type of piano regular, upright, and grand. The books, dating from 1927 1968, are arranged alphabetically by customer name. Information is provided on the style, size, specifications, and price of keys, sharps, actions, and other components sold to each company. Oversize blueprint drawings of piano actions dating from 1924 to 1957 are also found in this subseries. Other drawings include artists' views for several pianos designed by Benjamin J. Beck, 1944; designs for a folding keyboard, 1946; and designs for the K 4 piano assembly, 1947.

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT RECORDS, 1964, consist of customer files, interoffice correspondence, vendor files, and miscellaneous files. They are a complete one year sample, chosen at random, of the Engineering Department records from a period of Pratt, Read's high postwar productivity. The customer files are arranged alphabetically by name of company or individual to whom Pratt, Read supplied actions, keyboards, or components. Several major piano and organ companies are included, such as Aeolian American, Janssen, Kimball, Lowrey, and Sohmer & Company. The files consist of specifications, drawings, memos, and schedules for production. The interoffice correspondence is that sent or received by A. W. Nordquist, Chief of the Manufacturing Engineering Section. This correspondence deals with personnel questions, changes in specifications, customers' orders, and other routine matters. The vendor files are correspondence, catalogues, price quotations, and other information sent to A. W. Nordquist from various supply houses. Nordquist's miscellaneous files cover a variety of topics, including inventories of shipments made to the company's Central, S. C., plant; plans for plastic spray on key coverings; personnel notices; the safety program; plastic key production schedules; and other engineering issues. Also of interest is a file of drawings supplied to British Piano Actions, Ltd.

The PHOTOPRINTS, ca. 1880 1989, document Pratt, Read's factory sites, its connection with the African ivory trade, its employees, and its manufacturing procedures. While the majority of these photoprints are the originals assembled for Pratt Read's Ivory Museum, several are reproductions made from original photographs and negatives made available to the Archives Center by citizens of Ivoryton. A few of the photoprints were taken in 1988 1989, during the acquisition of the collection.

The photoprints are arranged by topic into fifteen groups: the Deep River factory site; the Ivoryton factory site; factory tours; bleach houses; Africa/ivory; ivory working; keyboard and action production; New Key Cap Program; piano actions; employee housing; company activities and events; employees; Charles Frederick Stein (technical consultant); exhibits; and miscellaneous. They are arranged chronologically within each group. Each photoprint has been assigned an individual number based upon the collection number, the series, and the order of the photoprint within that series (i.e., 320/3/1, etc.). A complete caption for most of the photoprints is provided in this finding aid. If a negative for a photoprint is on file with the Smithsonian's Office of Printing and Photographic Services, that negative number is provided along with the caption.

Photoprints of both the Deep River and Ivoryton factory sites show external and aerial views of the various factory buildings between 1881 and 1989. They document the changing size and shape of the Ivoryton factory especially well, as old buildings were torn down and new ones took their place. Photoprints of factory tours and "Open Houses" provide interior views of the factory buildings and show workers explaining various stages of the manufacturing process. Bleach house photoprints show the extent and number of bleach houses used by the company and show how the ivory was arranged for bleaching in the sun. Pratt, Read's connection with the African ivory trade is shown in several photoprints from 1904 1911 of and by Ernst D. Moore, an ivory buyer for Arnold, Cheney & Company, which supplied Pratt, Read with most of its ivory.

Manufacturing processes are shown in several groups of photoprints. Ivory activities include people posing with tusks, wagons, and trucks full of tusks; the ivory vault in the Ivoryton factory; the cutting and "junking" of tusks; the bleaching and matching of key "heads" and "tails"; and the laying of keys on piano keyboards. Similiar photoprints of keyboard and action production show workers in all stages of production, from cutting wood to polishing the finished product. Although six of these photoprints date from 1896, most date from 1947-1955. A series of photoprints shows the plastic keys introduced in the New Key Cap Program of 1965, while several photo albums document the company's innovative piano action designs.

Two of the many houses the company built for its employees in Deep River are shown in several photoprints taken during the archivist's 1989 site visit. Company activities and events include annual banquets and Christmas parties for workers' children, picnics, and award ceremonies for longtime employees. A large number of photoprints show employees, most of whom are unidentified. There are also photoprints of Charles Frederick Stein, Pratt, Read's noted technical consultant. The group of exhibits photoprints includes a copy of the company's sign from the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, and views of exhibits at various post World War II functions in Connecticut. Finally, the miscellaneous group includes copies of two cartoons by Clarence D. Batchelor that satirize changes in American society, using a piano metaphor. The PHOTONEGATIVES are of piano action models constructed for patent purposes, 1944-1945.

HISTORICAL & BACKGROUND MATERIAL, 1881-1989, consists primarily of news clippings and miscellaneous information about the history of Pratt, Read, the African ivory trade, the piano trade, Pratt Read's involvement in music education, and the Ivoryton area. Especially interesting are an unpublished "History of the Pratt Read Corporation" written by Curtiss S. Johnson, A History of Pratt, Read & Company of Deep River published by the Deep River Historical Society, and news clippings about the company from 1881-1882 and 1935-1986. The ivory trade is documented in news clippings from 1921-1989 and in two personal accounts of life in Zanzibar, one by Harriet Cheney Downing from 1942 and the other by Carlotta Welles from 1980. News clippings about the piano trade, the adoption of plastic for keys, and other developments are also found in this subseries. A reprinted 1899 Souvenir of Essex, Connecticut contains valuable information about the factory buildings, stores, the employees' bicycle club, and the company's central role in the community. Other news clippings cover the Ivoryton Inn, the Ivoryton Theatre, and the Ivory Museum established by the company in 1977.

PUBLICATIONS, 1930-1981, primarily comprise company catalogues dealing with plastics, felt making, organ supplies, and a publicity booklet from Ichabod T. Williams & Sons, importers of foreign and domestic woods. Also included are pamphlets about Pratt, Read's facilities and its relationship to the Vocaline Company of America.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records, 1839-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0320, Series 3
See more items in:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0320-ref68

Edison General Electric Works Photograph Album

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Butler, William H.  Search this
Edison General Electric Works. (Schenectady (N.Y.)  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Photograph albums
Photographs
Place:
Schenectady (N.Y.)
Date:
1892
Scope and Contents note:
An album entitled "With Edison in Schenectady". It contains captioned photographs of subjects such as building exteriors and interiors, staff members, the power station, generators, close-ups of machines, and scenes of the factory floor. It was compiled and published by William H. Butler.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Electrical product manufacturing company, established by Thomas A. Edison in Schenectady in 1886, consolidating all of Edison's electrical and power machinery interests.
Provenance:
Collection purchased from dealer, Keith D. DeLellis, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories -- 1890-1900  Search this
Electricity  Search this
Electrical manufacturing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 19th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Edison General Electric Works Photograph Album, 1892, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1077
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1077

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