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Jimmy Ernst, New Canaan, Conn. letter to Lawrence Arthur Fleischman, Detroit, Mich.

Creator:
Ernst, Jimmy, 1920-1984  Search this
Fleischman, Lawrence Arthur, 1925-1997  Search this
Subject:
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1956 August 1
Topic:
Art patrons  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)8932
See more items in:
Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers, 1837-1984, bulk 1935-1979
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_8932
Additional Online Media:

Jimmy Ernst papers, 1920-2007

Creator:
Ernst, Jimmy, 1920-1984  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Max  Search this
Topic:
Painters  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)16037
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)308599
AAA_collcode_ernsjimm
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_308599

Interview with Jimmy Ernst

Creator:
Ernst, Jimmy, 1920-1984  Search this
Roberts, Colette Jacqueline, 1910-1971  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1970
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)10779
See more items in:
Colette Roberts papers and interviews with artists, 1918-1971
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_10779

Interview with Jimmy Ernst

Creator:
Ernst, Jimmy, 1920-1984  Search this
Lynes, Russell, 1910-1991  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
1971 November 24
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)16028
See more items in:
Russell Lynes papers, 1935-1986
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_16028

Brooklyn Museum interviews of artists

Creator:
Brooklyn Museum  Search this
Names:
Listening to pictures (1968-1973: Brooklyn Museum)  Search this
Anderson, Lennart, 1928-  Search this
Antonakos, Stephen, 1926-2013  Search this
Arisman, Marshall  Search this
Barker, Walter  Search this
Baskin, Leonard, 1922-2000  Search this
Bauermeister, Mary, 1934-  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart, 1889-1975  Search this
Bishop, Isabel, 1902-1988  Search this
Brackman, Robert, 1898-  Search this
Butchkes, Sydney, 1922-  Search this
Casarella, Edmond, 1920-1996  Search this
Constant, George  Search this
Dash, Robert  Search this
De Creeft, José, 1884-1982  Search this
Dombek, Blanche, 1914-  Search this
Doyle, Tom, 1928-  Search this
Ernst, Jimmy, 1920-1984  Search this
Estern, Neil, 1926-  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Freilicher, Jane, 1924-  Search this
Goldin, Leon, 1923-  Search this
Goodman, Sidney  Search this
Graziani, Sante, 1920-  Search this
Greene, Balcomb, 1904-1990  Search this
Grillo, John, 1917-  Search this
Gropper, William, 1897-1977  Search this
Gross, Chaim, 1904-1991  Search this
Gussow, Roy, 1918-2011  Search this
Gwathmey, Robert, 1903-1988  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967  Search this
Jaffe, Nora  Search this
Jenkins, Paul, 1923-2012  Search this
Kawabata, Minoru, 1911-  Search this
Kienbusch, William, 1914-1980  Search this
Knaths, Karl, 1891-1971  Search this
Koch, John, 1909-1978  Search this
Kosama, Yayoi  Search this
Lam, Jennett, 1911-  Search this
Lang, Steven, 1944-1971  Search this
Laurent, Robert, 1890-1970  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Levine, Jack, 1915-2010  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Lipton, Seymour, 1903-1986  Search this
Margo, Boris, 1902-1995  Search this
Meyer, Ursula, 1915-  Search this
Moller, Hans, 1905-  Search this
Murch, Walter  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Odate, Toshio  Search this
Offner, Elliot  Search this
Ohlson, Douglas Dean, 1936-  Search this
Okada, Kenzo, 1902-1982  Search this
Palmer, Amanda, 1931-  Search this
Pereira, I. Rice (Irene Rice), 1902-1971  Search this
Peterdi, Gabor  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967  Search this
Richards, Bill, 1936-  Search this
Rivers, Larry, 1925-2002  Search this
Sanchez, Emilio, 1921-1999  Search this
Schrag, Karl  Search this
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Sopher, Aaron, 1905-1972  Search this
Soyer, Moses, 1899-1974  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Thon, William, 1906-2000  Search this
Weinberg, Albert  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite, 1887-1968  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966  Search this
Interviewer:
Jacobowitz, Arlene  Search this
Extent:
7 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Interviews
Date:
1965-1968
Summary:
Interviews of 72 artists, and transcripts for all but five, conducted by Arlene Jacobowitz, the Associate Curator for the Department of Painting and Sculpture at the Brooklyn Museum, between 1965 and 1968. The artists discuss their work in the museum collection. Also included are 38 edited excerpts of the interviews, approximately 2-3 min. in length, used as "audio-labels" in the 1968 "Listening to Pictures" installation at the museum.
Scope and Content Note:
Interviews of 72 artists, and transcripts for all but five, conducted by Arlene Jacobowitz, the Associate Curator for the Department of Painting and Sculpture, between 1965 and 1968. The artists discuss their work in the museum collection. Also included are 38 edited excerpts of the interviews, approximately 2-3 min. in length, used as "audio-labels" in the 1968 "Listening to Pictures" installation.

The artists interviewed are: Lennart Anderson, Stephen B. Antonakos, Marshall Arisman, Walter Barker, Leonard Baskin, Mary Bauermeister, Thomas Hart Benton, Isabel Bishop, Robert Brackman, Sydney Butchkes, Edmund Casarella, George Constant, Robert Warren Dash, Jose DeCreeft, Blanche Dombek, Tom Doyle, Jimmy Ernst, Neil Estern, Philip Evergood, Helen Frankenthaler, Jane Freilicher, Leon Goldin, Sidney Goodman, Sante Graziani, Balcomb Greene, John Grillo, William Gropper, Chaim Gross, Roy Gussow, Robert Gwathmey, Grace Hartigan, Edward Hopper, Nora Jaffe, Paul Jenkins, Minoru Kawabata, William Kienbusch, Karl Knaths, John Koch, Yayoi Kosama, Jennett Lam, Steven Lang, Robert Laurent, Jacob Lawrence, Jack Levine, Jacques Lipchitz, Seymour Lipton, Boris Margo, Ursula Meyer, Hans Moller, Walter Murch, Louise Nevelson, Toshio Odate, Elliot Offner, Douglas Ohlson, Kenzo Okada, Amanda Palmer, Irene Rice Pereira, Gabor Peterdi, Ad Reinhardt, Bill Richards, Larry Rivers, Emilio Sanchez, Karl Schrag, Ben Shahn, Charles Sheeler, Aaron Sopher, Moses Soyer, Raphael Soyer, William Thon, Albert Weinberg, and William and Marguerite Zorach.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as a single series:

Series 1: Interviews, 1965-1968 (Box 1-7; 7 lin. ft.)
Historical Note:
The interview program at the Brooklyn Museum was begun by Arlene Jacobowitz in the spring of 1965 with artists whose works were on exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum. In 1968, excerpts from the interviews were incorporated into an exhibition entitled "Listening to Pictures," in which visitors could access the sound recordings using headphones while standing before the painting being discussed. The exhibition opened April 28, 1968, and was gradually disassembled, 1971-1973.
Related Material:
The Brooklyn Museum Archives houses the records of the Departments of European Painting and Sculpture, American Painting and Sculpture, Contemporary Art (1897-2005), which contain records relating to the work of Arlene Jacobowitz.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives of American Art by Dierdre Lawrence of the Brooklyn Museum in 1989.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Researchers may view the original reels for the archival notations on them, but original reels are not available for playback due to fragility.
Rights:
Authorization to quote or reproduce for purposes of publication requires written permission from the interviewee.
Topic:
Artists -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Art, American -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Interviews
Citation:
Interview between [artist's name] and [interviewer's name] from the "Listening to Pictures" program of the Brooklyn Museum. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.broomuse
See more items in:
Brooklyn Museum interviews of artists
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-broomuse

Jimmy Ernst: artist file, [photographs]

Artist:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Artist files
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Image number:
VFM VF000992
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_138501

Oral history interview with Jimmy Ernst, 1974 Sept. 20

Interviewee:
Ernst, Jimmy, 1920-1984  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-  Search this
Topic:
Painters  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Educators  Search this
Sound recordings  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13149
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212651
AAA_collcode_ernst74
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212651

Jimmy Ernst / text by Donald Kuspit ; introduction by Kurt Vonnegut with contributions by Louis Simpson ... [et al.]

Author:
Kuspit, Donald B (Donald Burton) 1935-  Search this
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920- Criticism and interpretation  Search this
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-  Search this
Physical description:
166 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 29 x 29 cm
Type:
Books
Interviews
Date:
2000
C2000
Call number:
N40.1.E699 K87 2000
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_619642

Cleve Gray papers

Creator:
Gray, Cleve  Search this
Names:
Berry-Hill Galleries  Search this
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
Connecticut. Commission on Arts, Tourism, Culture, History and Film  Search this
Jacques Seligmann and Co.  Search this
Neuberger Museum of Art  Search this
Pratt Institute  Search this
Princeton University  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design  Search this
Barzun, Jacques  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Davis, Jim, 1901-1974  Search this
Dillenberger, Jane  Search this
Duchanp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Ernst, Jimmy, 1920-  Search this
Gabo, Naum, 1890-1977  Search this
Grace, Louise N.  Search this
Gray, Francine du Plessix  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Villon, Jacques, 1875-1963  Search this
Weber, Nicholas Fox, 1947-  Search this
Extent:
8.8 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Poems
Articles
Photographs
Reviews (documents)
Notes
Illustrations
Notebooks
Sketches
Drafts (documents)
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Manuscripts
Paintings
Prints
Watercolors
Drawings
Lectures
Date:
1933-2005
Summary:
The Cleve Gray papers, 1933-2005, measure 8.8 linear feet. Papers include biographical material, alphabetical files, writings, artwork, audio/visual records, artifacts, printed material, and photographs. Extensive alphabetical files contain personal and professional correspondence as well as subject files relating to projects and interests. Especially well-documented are: Gray's involvement with the Vietnam protest movement; and Threnody, his best-known work composed of fourteen large panels lamenting the dead of both sides sides in Vietnam, commissioned by the Neuberger Museum of Art.
Scope and Content Note:
The Cleve Gray papers, 1933-2005, measure 8.8 linear feet. Papers include biographical material, alphabetical files, writings, artwork, audio/visual records, artifacts, printed material, and photographs. Extensive alphabetical files contain personal and professional correspondence as well as subject files relating to projects and interests. Especially well-documented are: Gray's involvement with the Vietnam movement; and Threnody, his best-known work composed of fourteen large panels lamenting the dead of both sides sides in Vietnam, commissioned by the Neuberger Museum of Art.

Among the biographical material are award and membership certificates, biographical notes, and personal documentation.

The alphabetical files contain Cleve Gray's personal and professional correspondence, as well as subject files relating to projects and interests. Correspondence is with friends and family, colleagues, publishers, museum curators and directors, art dealers, collectors, and fans. Among the correspondents of note are: Jacques Barzun, James E. Davis, Naum Gabo, Louise N. Grace, Hans and Fridel Richter, and Jacques and Gaby Villon. Other substantial correspondence includes: Berry-Hill Galleries, Betty Parsons Gallery, Connecticut Commission on the Arts, Jacques Seligmann and Co., Neuberger Museum of Art, Pratt Institute, Princeton University, and Rhode Island School of Design. Subject files mostly consist of correspondence, but include printed material and some photographs. Among the subject files are: Art Collection of Cleve and Francine Gray, Artist-Dealer Consignments and Visual Artists' Rights Act of 1989, Artists' Tax Equity Act of 1979, Promised Gifts to Museums, Threnody, Vestments, and Vietnam Protest. Of particular interest are files relating to the Estate of Hans Richter (Cleve Gray, executor), and Gray's research correspondence and illustrations for his Cosmopolitan article "Women-Leaders of Modern Art."

Writings are manuscripts and drafts, research materials, notes, and miscellaneous writings by Cleve Gray and other authors. Those by Gray include articles and catalog introductions on a wide range of art-related topics, as well as book and exhibition reviews. Also found are a book proposal, texts and notes for lectures and talks, miscellaneous notes, poems, political statements, and student papers. Of particular interest are autobiographical notes in the form of a chronology that his biographer, Nicholas Fox Weber, cited as an "autochronology."

Among the writings by other authors are pieces about Cleve Gray including Nicholas Fox Weber's manuscript Cleve Gray. A significant amount of material relates to three books edited by Gray: David Smith by David Smith: Sculpture and Writings, Hans Richter, and John Marin. Research material survives for an unpublished volume, Naum Gabo. Also included are notes relating to his translation of A l'Infinitif by Marcel Duchamp. Jane Daggett Dillenberger is represented by a lecture, "The Resurrection in Art." The remaining items by other authors are unsigned; of particular interest is a small notebook of reminiscences and notes about Jackson Pollock.

Artwork by Cleve Gray consists mostly drawings and sketches, and a small number of paintings, prints, and watercolors. Works by other artists consist are an unsigned mobile of paper cut-outs, possibly by Alexander Calder, and a pencil drawing signed Dick (probably Richard Avedon).

Audio recordings are a radio broadcast featuring Cleve Gray, several lectures by Gray on John Marin, and a lecture titled "Meaning in the Visual Arts." Other recordings are of Hans Richter and an interview with Jimmy Ernst conducted by Francine du Plessix Gray. Also found is a videocassette of "Glenville School Students at SUNY (Lincoln Center Activity)."

Artifacts are a Chinese scroll representative of those that hung in Cleve Gray's studio, two of his paintbrushes, Aberdeen-Angus Breeders' Association blue ribbon, and Neuberger Museum of Art Lifetime Achievement Award.

The vast majority of printed material - articles, clippings, exhibition catalogs and announcements, reproductions of art work, etc. - are about or by Cleve Gray. Miscellaneous items and publications mentioning Gray consist of annual reports, brochures, calendars, newsletters, programs, etc. Clippings about Vietnam and Vietnam protest memorabilia reflect his passionate involvement in the anti-war movement; a small number of these items mention Gray or were written by him.

Photographs are of artwork, events, people, places, and miscellaneous subjects. Most of the art work appearing in the photographs is by Cleve Gray and includes images of destroyed paintings. Also found is an original print of Photo Abstraction by Gray, circa 1934. Of particular note are photographs of Threnody, among them preparatory drawings and views of the work in progress. Photographs of artwork by other artists include Louise N. Grace, Jacques Lipchitz, John Marin, Hans Richter, and Jacques Villon.

Photographs of people are mainly portraits of Gray, and views of him with his wife and sons. Other individuals appearing in photographs are Hans Richter and some of Richter's descendants. Pictures of places consist of Gray's studio.

Events are an unidentified exhibition opening. Miscellaneous subjects are mostly exhibition installations. Illustrations consist of photographs published in David Smith by David Smith: Sculpture and Writings. Also found are small number of negatives and color transparencies.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1943-circa 2001 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 2: Alphabetical Files, 1936-2005 (Boxes 1-5, 9; 4.3 linear ft.)

Series 3: Writings, 1935-2000 (Boxes 5-6; 0.85 linear ft.)

Series 4: Artwork, circa 1933-1987 (Boxes 6, 9, OV 12; 0.45 linear ft.)

Series 5: Audio/Visual Records, 1971-1989 (Box 6; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 6: Artifacts, 1957-1999 (Box 6, RD 11; 0.45 linear ft.)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1933-2005 (Boxes 7-8; 1.25 linear ft.)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1934-2002 (Boxes 8-10; 1.15 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Abstract Expressionist painter, sculptor, and writer Cleve Gray (1918-2004) lived and worked in Connecticut where he was politically active in the Vietnam protest movement and other liberal causes.

Born Cleve Ginsberg in New York City (the family changed its name to Gray in 1936), he attended the Ethical Culture School and at a young age developed a fascination with color and paint. At the urging of friends, Cleve's parents allowed him to accompany a school friend for lessons with George Bellows' student Antonia Nell. She encouraged and inspired the young artist, and a still life he painted in her class was shown at the National Academy of Design's 1932 annual exhibition. Miss Nell also introduced him to Louise N. Grace, an artist who became a good friend and had a lasting influence on him. While a student at Phillips Academy, Cleve studied painting with Bartlett Hayes and aspired to paint in France. Upon his graduation in 1936, he was awarded the Samuel F. B. Morse Prize for most promising art student.

Gray's mother was always supportive of his career choice. His businessman father, who didn't understand his son's desire to be an artist, insisted on a college education. Cleve chose Princeton, where he majored in art and archaeology, and studied painting with James E. Davis. His senior thesis was on Chinese landscape painting; both Eastern philosophy and art were long-term influences on Gray's work and outlook. He graduated summa cum laude in 1940, and then spent several months painting while living at the farm of a family friend in Mendham, New Jersey.

When a doctor suggeted that a dry climate might relieve sinus and asthma problems, Gray moved to Tucson, Arizona. Once settled in the desert, he contacted Louise N. Grace, whom he had met as a young teenager through his art instructor. Miss Grace, an artist and daughter of the founder of W. R. Grace and Co., was a highly cultured and independent woman older than his parents. The summer before Gray entered Phillips Academy, she had hired him to brush ground color onto canvases for murals she was painting for "Eleven Arches," her home in Tuscon then under construction. Miss Grace invited Gray to visit "Eleven Arches" to see the completed murals, and despite the substantial age difference, their friendship deepened; Gray found in her intellectual and spiritual guidance that was lacking in his own family. He remained in Tucson until enlisting in the U. S. Army in 1942, and they corresponded frequently during the the war. When a stroke in 1948 prevented Miss Grace from participating in the extensive tour of Europe she was arranging for a small group of friends, including Gray, she provided sufficient funds and insisted he make the trip on his own. Another stroke, suffered while Gray was traveling, left her in a coma; he was not permitted to see her again. Upon her death in 1954, Gray inherited "Eleven Arches."

Between 1943 and 1946, Gray was stationed in England, France, and Germany, serving in Army Signal Intelligence. Most of his work was performed at night, and he spent his free time drawing. While in London, Gray produced many colored pencil drawings of buildings that had been bombed. In France, a Red Cross volunteered to introduce him to Jacques Villon; although unfamiliar with the artist, Gray knew of Villon's brother, Marcel Duchamp, and accepted the invitation. Jacques and Gaby Villon lived near Gray's billet and he became a frequent visitor. Their friendship was important to his development as an artist. After being discharged from the Army in 1946, Gray remained in France to work with Villon who introduced him to the study of color and the concept of intellectual quality in painting. Gray also studied informally with André Lhote, Villon's former teacher. "American Painters in Paris," an exhibition presented in 1946 at Galerie Durand-Ruel, included work by Cleve Gray.

He returned to New York City in 1946. In the tight post-war rental market Gray managed to find a small room upstairs from a grocery store on East 106th Street for use as a studio. He commenced painting the London Ruins series based on drawings he had made during the war, and began thinking about exhibiting in New York. Gray secured introductions to Pierre Matisse, Curt Valentin, and Dorothy Miller. They encouraged him, but no opportunities came his way until Germain Seligmann, whose gallery was expanding its scope to include contemporary art, followed the advice of Curt Valentin and looked at Gray's work. Gary's first solo exhibition, held at Jacques Seligmann and Co., included selections from the London Ruins series, paintings done in Maine and Arizona, and a few portraits. The New York Times called it "an auspicious first," and one of the London Ruins series was selected by Edward Alden Jewell for the "Critic's Exhibition" at Grand Central Gallery.

Gray found New York City too frenetic. In 1949 he bought a large, old house in Warren, Connecticut, and lived and worked at "Graystones" for the remainder of his life. Half of a 6-car garage was converted to a studio; many years later, his studio moved to a barn, its renovation and design planned by sculptor and architect Tony Smith.

He married Francine du Plessix in 1957. Always interested in literature and philosophy, in the 1960s Francine du Plessix Gray began contributing articles to The New Yorker and is still affiliated with the magazine. Her reviews and articles appeared in prominent publications, and she wrote several award-winning novels and biographies. Their sons, Thaddeus and Luke (now a painter), were born in 1959 and 1961. Francine's mother, Tatiana du Plessix (the hat designer Tatiana of Saks), and step-father, the sculptor Alexander Liberman (also former art director of Vogue and later editorial director of Condé Nast publications) became Cleve Gray's closest friends.

The paintings and drawings of Cleve Gray - first consisting of figures and portraits, and then abstract compositions - were often produced in series. The earliest series, London Ruins, grew from the colored pencil drawings made while stationed in London during World War II. Travels to France, Italy, Greece, Morocco, Hawaii, Spain, Egypt, Japan, and Czechoslovakia, inspired many series, among them: Etruscan, Augury, Ceres, Demeter Landscape, Hera, Morocco, Hawaii, Ramses, Perne, Hatshepsut, Roman Walls, Zen, and Prague. His hometown, the Holocaust, and musicians inspired other series: Warren, Sleepers Awake!, Bela Bartok, and Four Heads of Anton Bruckner. Some series were works on paper, others were collage canvases, and a few series later spawned prints. Gray began using acrylics in the 1940s. Although the medium offered many benefits, he did not always like its appearance and frequently returned to oils. Around 1966 Gray was painting almost exclusively with acrylic, and eventually developed a technique of thinning the paint and applying successive layers of color (sometimes by pouring or with a sponge) on cotton duck rather than traditional canvas.

Gray was attracted to sculpture, too, working in that medium at different points in his career. His first sculpture, in plaster, was completed in 1959. In the early 1960s he visited a commercial sand-casting foundry and became excited about learning to cast in bronze. He made about a dozen sculptures to cast in sand, but due to too much undercutting, their casting became too difficult a problem. Lava flows seen while in Hawaii during 1970 and 1971 inspired a return to sculpture. This time, he used wood, papier maché, and metal. Gray then decided these pieces should be cast in bronze, and he was determined to do it himself. Friends taught him the lost wax process and he began working at the Tallix Foundry in Peekskill, New York where, over the next year, he cast about forty bronzes.

Gray's best known work is Threnody, a lament for the dead of both sides in Vietnam. In 1972, Gray received a commission to fill a very large gallery of the soon-to-open Neuberger Museum of Art (State University of New York, College at Purchase) designed by Philip Johnson. Friends of the Neuberger Museum paid his expenses and Gray, who was enormously excited about the project he considered a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, donated his time. Developing plans for the execution of Threnody consumed most of his time during 1972 and 1973. Composed of a series of fourteen panels, each approximately twenty feet square, the piece presented a number of technical challenges. It was constructed and painted in situ during the summer and early fall of 1973. Since then, Threnody has been reinstalled at the Neuberger Museum of Art on several occasions.

Gray was commissioned to design liturgical vestments for two Episcopal churches in Connecticut in the 1970s. A chasuble, stoles, and a mitre were commissioned by the Episcopal Diocese of Connecticut in 1984.

He won the "Outdoor Art at the Station Competition," for Union Station, Hartford, Connecticut. His very large porcelain enamel tile mural, Movement in Space, was installed on the façade of the transportation center in 1988.

Gray began writing occasional articles and exhibition reviews in the late 1940s. His concern with rational structure in art led him to question Abstract Expressionism and write "Narcissus in Chaos." This article, published in 1959 by The American Scholar, drew considerable attention. In 1960, Cosmopolitan published "Women - Leaders of Modern Art" that featured Nell Blaine, Joan Brown, Elaine de Kooning, Helen Frankenthaler, Sonia Gretchoff, Grace Hartigan, Ethel Magafan, Louise Nevelson, and Georgia O'Keeffe. Between 1960 and 1970, Gray was a contributing editor of Art In America, producing numerous articles (a few co-authored with Francine) and reviews for the periodical. He edited three books, David Smith by David Smith: Scupture and Writings, Hans Richter, and John Marin, all published by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, and translated Marcel Duchamp's A l'Infinitif.

During the early 1960s, Gray became intensely focused on the situation in Vietnam. His first artistic response came in 1963 with Reverend Quan Duc, painted to commemorate a Buddhist monk who had immolated himself. Francine, too, felt strongly about the issue and over time the couple became increasingly active in the anti-war movement. They joined a number of organizations and helped to found a local chapter of Clergy and Laymen Concerned about Vietnam. The years 1968 and 1969 were an especially intense and active period for the Grays. They protested, wrote and spoke out against the war, raised funds to support anti-war political candidates, and on a few occasions were arrested and jailed. Writing for Art in America, editing the book series, and anti-war activities left little time for his art. In 1970 Gray refocused his attention on painting.

Beginning in 1947, Gray was always represented by a New York Gallery: Jacques Seligmann and Co. (1947-1959), Staempfli Gallery (1960-1965), Saidenberg Gallery (1965-1968), Betty Parsons Gallery (1968-1983), Armstrong Gallery (1984-1987), and Berry-Hill Galleries (1988-2003). He was represented by galleries in other cities, as well, but not as consistently or for such long periods.

He exhibited extensively in group and solo exhibitions throughout the United States and internationally. In addition to numerous solo exhibitions presented by the dealers who represented Gray, there were retrospective exhibitions at: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Brooklyn Museum, Columbus Museum of Art, Krannert Art Museum (University of Illinois, Champaign), Princeton University Art Museum, Rhode Island School of Design, and Wadsworth Atheneum.

Many museums' permanent collections include the work of Cleve Gray, among them: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Butler Institute of American Art, Columbus Museum of Art, Neuberger Museum of Art (SUNY, College at Purchase), the Museum of Modern Art (New York), Newark Museum, Oklahoma City Museum of Art, Phillips Collection, Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Smithsonian Institution, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art, and Yale University Art Gallery.

Cleve Gray served as artist-in-residence at the Oklahoma City Museum of Art in 1963 and at the Honolulu Academy of Arts in 1970, both sponsored by Ford Foundation programs. In 1980, he was appointed an artist-in-residence at the American Academy in Rome, where Francine concurrently served as a writer-in-residence; they returned for shorter periods during each of the subsequent seven years. Cleve Gray was presented the Connecticut Arts Award in 1987, and the Neuberger Museum of Art Lifetime Achievement Award in 1999. He was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Hartford in 1992, and was elected a member of The American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1998. In addition, he was a trustee of the Neuberger Museum of Art, New York Studio School, Rhode Island School of Design, and Wadsworth Atheneum.

Cleve Gray hit his head and suffered a massive subdural hematoma after falling on ice outside of his home. He died the following day, December 8, 2004.
Separated Material:
Exhibition catalogs and announcements and two scrapbooks donated to the Archives in 1967 and 1968 were microfilmed on reels D314-D315. Items on reel D315, transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum Library in 1975, are not described in this finding aid.
Provenance:
The Cleve Gray papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by Mr. Gray in 1967 and 1968. The bulk of the collection was given by his widow, Francine du Plessix Gray, in 2007 and 2008.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordigs with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Cleve Gray papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Women artists -- Photographs  Search this
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Protest Movements -- United States  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Designers  Search this
Painters  Search this
Genre/Form:
Poems
Articles
Photographs
Reviews (documents)
Notes
Illustrations
Notebooks
Sketches
Drafts (documents)
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Manuscripts
Paintings
Prints
Watercolors
Drawings
Lectures
Citation:
Cleve Gray papers, 1933-2005. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.grayclev
See more items in:
Cleve Gray papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-grayclev

Jimmy Ernst; Gemälde, Gouachen : 17. Mai bis 23. Juni 1963 / Kölnischer Kunstverein

Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984-  Search this
Kölnischer Kunstverein  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Physical description:
[13] p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1963
Call number:
ND237.E7 A4 1963
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_792552

Jimmy Ernst : 14 avril-12 mai 1972

Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984-  Search this
Waldberg, Patrick  Search this
Galerie Lucie Weill  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-  Search this
Physical description:
[15] p. : illus., port. 22 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1972
Call number:
ND237.E7 A4 1972
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_792586

Jimmy Ernst (1920-84) ; "Lines Through Time", March 20 - May 2, 1994

Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Philharmonic Center for the Arts  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920- Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
20 p. : chiefly col. ill., port. ; 22 cm x 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1994
C1994
Call number:
ND237.E7 A4 1994
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_636112

Jimmy Ernst : trials of silence, works 1942-1983 : [exhibition] September 11-November 13, 1994, Tampa Museum of Art

Title:
Trials of silence, works 1942-1983
Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Dreishpoon, Douglas  Search this
Sawin, Martica  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920- Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
46 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1994
C1994
Call number:
N40.1.E699 T36 1994
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_508291

Jimmy Ernst : exposition du 8 novembre au 28 novembre 1990 / textes, Edouard Jaguer, Irving Sandler, Eric Max Ernst

Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Sandler, Irving 1925-  Search this
Jaguer, Edouard 1924-  Search this
Ernst, Eric 1956-  Search this
Galerie 1900-2000 (Paris, France)  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-  Search this
Physical description:
12 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1990
[1990]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1029110

Jimmy Ernst / with an essay by Martica Sawin

Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Sawin, Martica  Search this
Weinstein Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Physical description:
80 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
2010
2010?]
Call number:
ND237.E7 A4 2010b
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_952518

Recent paintings by Jimmy Ernst ; [Sculpture by Willi Gutmann / exhibition] The Arts Club of Chicago : December 17, 1968 to January 25, 1969

Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Gutmann, Willi 1927-  Search this
Arts Club of Chicago  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Gutmann, Willi 1927-  Search this
Physical description:
[10] p. : ill., (some col.) ; 26 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1968
[1968?]
Call number:
ND237.E7 A4 1968
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_724032

Jimmy Ernst : I am an American painter / Ausstellung und Katalog, Dallas Ernst, Ulrich Krempel ; Übersetzung, Ute Wrede

Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Ernst, Dallas  Search this
Krempel, Ulrich  Search this
Sprengel Museum Hannover  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Physical description:
69 p. : ill. (mostly col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1999
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_759306

Jimmy Ernst (1920-1984) : the sea of grass series and beyond / essay by Jennifer Hardin

Title:
Sea of grass series and beyond
Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984-  Search this
Hardin, Jennifer  Search this
Museum of Fine Arts (Saint Petersburg, Fla.)  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-  Search this
Physical description:
24 p. : col. ill. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1998
Call number:
ND237.E7 A4 1998
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_623477

Jimmy Ernst : a survey, 1942-1983 : Guild Hall Museum, East Hampton, New York, July 21-September 15, 1985 / consultant curator, Helen A. Harrison ; introduction, Diane Waldman ; essay, Frank Getlein

Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984  Search this
Getlein, Frank  Search this
Guild Hall of East Hampton  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920- Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
47 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 22 x 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1985
Call number:
ND237.E7 A4 1985
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_646043

Jimmy Ernst : b shadow to light : paintings, 1942-1982 : exhibition / curated by Stanley I. Grand ; essays by Donald Kuspit, Stanley I.Grand

Title:
Shadow to light
Author:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920-1984-  Search this
Kuspit, Donald B (Donald Burton) 1935-  Search this
Grand, Stanley I. 1945-  Search this
Sordoni Art Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Ernst, Jimmy 1920- Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
43, [5] p. : col. ill. ; 22 x 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1997
Call number:
N40.1.E699 G7 1997
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_525694

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