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Blind Women In Front of Ezenzilini School

Creator:
Larrabee, Constance Stuart  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Larrabee, Constance Stuart  Search this
Extent:
1 Negative ((silver gelatin)., b&w, 6 x 6 cm.)
1 Photographic print ((contact print)., b&w, 6 x 6 cm.)
1 Photographic print ((dupe print)., b&w, 8 x 10 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographic prints
Place:
Africa
South Africa
Johannesburg (South Africa)
Date:
1948
Scope and Contents:
Blind Women In Front of Ezenzilini School, 1948. Several blind women, with their backs facing the camera, are sitting on the step in front of the Ezenzilini school building. There is a child standing nearby. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1948.
Constance Stuart took these series of photographs in a clinic and educational institution for blind Africans called Ezenzelini on the outskirts of Johannesburg. It was founded by Reverend and Mrs. Blaxall. The blind lived and worked at the institution getting medical treatment and learning crafts.
There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.
Local Note:
Original Constance Stuart Larrabee Number: 10-43
Contact Sheet Numbers: 332089-C5
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection, EEPA 1998-006, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1998-006, Item EEPA 1998-061454
See more items in:
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection / Series 1: Photographs / Photographs / Ezenzilini School for the Blind, Johannesburg, South Africa
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1998-006-ref1956

Blind People In Front of Ezenzilini School

Creator:
Larrabee, Constance Stuart  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Larrabee, Constance Stuart  Search this
Extent:
1 Negative ((silver gelatin)., b&w, 6 x 6 cm.)
1 Photographic print ((dupe print)., b&w, 8 x 10 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographic prints
Place:
Africa
South Africa
Johannesburg (South Africa)
Date:
1948
Scope and Contents:
Blind People In Front of Ezenzilini School, 1948. Several blind women, men and children are sitting and standing in front of the Ezenzilini school building. Some of the blind women sitting are wearing dark glasses. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1948.
Constance Stuart took these series of photographs in a clinic and educational institution for blind Africans called Ezenzelini on the outskirts of Johannesburg. It was founded by Reverend and Mrs. Blaxall. The blind lived and worked at the institution getting medical treatment and learning crafts.
There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.
Local Note:
Original Constance Stuart Larrabee Number: 10-44
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection, EEPA 1998-006, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1998-006, Item EEPA 1998-061455
See more items in:
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection / Series 1: Photographs / Photographs / Ezenzilini School for the Blind, Johannesburg, South Africa
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1998-006-ref1957

Blind Women In Front of Ezenzilini School

Creator:
Larrabee, Constance Stuart  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Larrabee, Constance Stuart  Search this
Extent:
1 Negative ((silver gelatin)., b&w, 6 x 6 cm.)
1 Photographic print ((contact print)., b&w, 6 x 6 cm.)
1 Photographic print ((dupe print)., b&w, 8 x 10 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographic prints
Place:
Africa
South Africa
Johannesburg (South Africa)
Date:
1948
Scope and Contents:
Blind Women In Front of Ezenzilini School, 1948. Several blind women, with their backs facing the camera, are sitting on the step in front of the Ezenzilini school building. There is a child standing among them. Photograph by Constance Stuart Larrabee, 1948.
Constance Stuart took these series of photographs in a clinic and educational institution for blind Africans called Ezenzelini on the outskirts of Johannesburg. It was founded by Reverend and Mrs. Blaxall. The blind lived and worked at the institution getting medical treatment and learning crafts.
There are no prints of this negative in the Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection. EEPA produced an 8x10 study print for reference purposes.
Local Note:
Original Constance Stuart Larrabee Number: 10-47
Contact Sheet Numbers: 332089-C5
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection, EEPA 1998-006, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.1998-006, Item EEPA 1998-061458
See more items in:
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection
Constance Stuart Larrabee Collection / Series 1: Photographs / Photographs / Ezenzilini School for the Blind, Johannesburg, South Africa
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1998-006-ref1960

Travel, Virgin Islands (see also oversized, Box 163)

Collection Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Container:
Box 7, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
January 1949
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection / Series 2: Military Career / 2.3: Materials Arranged by Posting / 2.3.9: Lockbourne AAB/AAF/AFB (Lockbourne, OH), Base Commander
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0023-ref1846
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Travel, Virgin Islands (see also oversized, Box 163) digital asset number 1

Clubs and Organizations, Taipei American School

Collection Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Container:
Box 12, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection / Series 2: Military Career / 2.3: Materials Arranged by Posting / 2.3.14: Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) (Taipei, Taiwan), Commanding Officer and Vice-Commander, Thirteenth Air Force
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0023-ref1928
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Clubs and Organizations, Taipei American School digital asset number 1

Outgoing correspondence

Collection Creator:
La Flesche, Francis, 1857-1932  Search this
Fletcher, Alice C. (Alice Cunningham), 1838-1923  Search this
Container:
Box 4A
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1889-1891
Collection Restrictions:
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.

Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers
MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers / Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers / 1.3: Correspondence on specific subjects / Nez Perce allotment:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4558-ref73
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Outgoing correspondence digital asset number 1

Rethinking "busing" in Boston

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 08 Dec 2016 20:35:11 +0000
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_1f1ea8975488d418b47d30813d64186d

Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870

Extent:
9 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1870
Summary:
This collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the nine rolls of microfilm described in NARA publication M1000. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870. The records consist of eight volumes and some unbound documents. The volumes include letters and endorsements sent and registers of letters received. The unbound documents consist primarily of letters and reports received.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1000.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Freedmen's Bureau, as the Bureau was commonly known, was established in the War Department by an act of March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507), and extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard, appointed Commissioner by the President in May 1865, served in that position throughout the existence of the Bureau. In January 1869, in accordance with an act of July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), Bureau operations in the States were terminated except for educational functions and the collection of claims. These activities were terminated June 30, 1872, as required by an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366).

Although the Bureau was part of the War Department, its work was primarily social and economic in nature. The Bureau cooperated with benevolent societies in issuing supplies to destitute persons and in maintaining freedmen's schools; supervised labor contracts between black employees and white employers; helped black soldiers and sailors collect bounty claims, pensions, and backpay; and attended to the disposition of confiscated or abandoned lands and property. In Tennessee, Bureau officials expended much time and effort seeking to protect freedmen from intimidation and physical violence at the hands of hostile whites.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of assistant commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the States. In July 1865, Brig. Gen. Clinton B. Fisk took command as the Assistant Commissioner in Tennessee with headquarters at Nashville. From July 1865 until June 1866 the Assistant Commissioner of Tennessee also had jurisdiction over the State of Kentucky and the northern part of Alabama.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant commissioners were instructed to designate an officer in each State to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These official were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865 a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the States when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867 Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities and was redesignated General Superintendent of Education.

The educational activity of the Bureau in Tennessee was under the direction of Brigadier General Fisk until the appointment of Lt. Col. Alexander M. York as Superintendent of Education on July 28, 1865. He was succeeded on August 23, 1865, by John Ogden, later President of Fisk University at Nashville, who served until May 1866. His successor, Rev. David Burt, served until April 1868, at which time Bvt. Lt. Col. James Thompson assumed the office. Thompson served concurrently as Assistant Commissioner of Tennessee until April 1869. In May 1869 Bvt. Lt. Col. Charles E. Compton, former Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina, became Superintendent of Education and served in that capacity until July 1870, when all Bureau educational activities in the State ceased. Information on educational matters during the tenures of York and Ogden may be found among the records of the Assistant Commissioner of Tennessee. There is very little documentation of educational efforts in the States prior to March 1866 in the records if the Superintendent of Education.

The Superintendent of Education served under the Assistant Commissioner as a staff officer. Subordinate to both the Assistant Commissioner and the Superintendent of Education were subassistant commissioners (with headquarters at Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, and Pulaski) who commanded the five subdistricts into which the State was divided. Subassistant commissioners supervised all Bureau activities, including education, in their respective areas and reported on educational matters to both the Superintendent of Education and the Assistant Commissioner, The subdistricts were further subdivided into agencies, usually coinciding with counties. Among the more significant of these local offices were those headquartered at Columbia, Gallatin, Jackson, Lebanon, Murfreesboro, Springfield, and Trenton.

The schools maintained by the Bureau in Tennessee included day schools for children, night schools for adults, and Sabbath schools. Rudimentary education, including reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography, received primary emphasis in most Bureau schools. Teachers were recruited from the local white population, from among the freedmen themselves, and from the North by the freedmen's aid societies.

The Bureau's responsibility for education in Tennessee included establishment and maintenance of schools and the examination and appointment of teachers. Bureau funds were used to pay for construction and repair of school buildings, for rental of properties used for educational purposes, and for providing teachers with transportation. A number of schools established by local whites and freedmen were subsequently given direction and support by the Bureau. Teachers' salaries and cost of textbooks were provided by the aid societies and the freedmen.

The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder by volume number. Originally, no numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes; later, all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, the last set of assigned numbers are shown in parentheses and are useful as an aid in identifying the volumes. Numbered blank pages have not been filmed.
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1000
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1000
Additional Online Media:

Volume 2 (37)

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Aug. 26, 1868–July 15, 1870
Scope and Contents:
The three volumes of press copies of miscellaneous letters sent, February 26–May 8, 1866, September 26, 1866–July 15, 1870, are arranged chronologically, and each volume contains a name index. Letters sent to Howard prior to July 19, 1869, are included in the first two volumes of miscellaneous letters sent described above.

Most of the letters sent are either to officials of aid societies in the North or teachers and other Bureau officials on the field. Letters to the aid societies generally sought additional money and personnel, whereas correspondence with teachers and district superintendents dealt primarily with routine matters of forms, salaries, and repairs to school buildings. Occasionally, however, the Superintendent wrote to reprimand a teacher regarding the performance of duties. More frequently, he wrote letters to editors or other influential persons praising the work of Bureau teachers. Also included among the letters sent are numerous letters of transmittal and one lengthy report of David Burt, dated May 8, 1867, on education at Knoxville.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1000, Subseries 1.2
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 1: Press Copies of Letters Sent
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1000-ref5

Descriptive Name Index to Volume 3

Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
A separate descriptive name index to the third volume of letters sent, July 19, 1869–July 15, 1870, provides a brief one–line summary of each letter. Included in these volumes are copies of a few letters sent by J. H. Barnum, Assistant Superintendent of Education.

Most of the letters sent are either to officials of aid societies in the North or teachers and other Bureau officials on the field. Letters to the aid societies generally sought additional money and personnel, whereas correspondence with teachers and district superintendents dealt primarily with routine matters of forms, salaries, and repairs to school buildings. Occasionally, however, the Superintendent wrote to reprimand a teacher regarding the performance of duties. More frequently, he wrote letters to editors or other influential persons praising the work of Bureau teachers. Also included among the letters sent are numerous letters of transmittal and one lengthy report of David Burt, dated May 8, 1867, on education at Knoxville.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1000, File 1.3.1
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 1: Press Copies of Letters Sent / 1.3: Volume 3
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1000-ref6

Press Copies of Letters Sent to General Howard and Staff

Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
The volume of press copies of letters sent to General Howard, July 19, 1869–July 15, 1870, is arranged chronologically. A chronological listing at the beginning of this volume provides a brief one–line summary of each letter. Letters sent to Howard prior to July 19, 1869, are included in the first two volumes of miscellaneous letters sent described above.

Most of the letters sent are either to officials of aid societies in the North or teachers and other Bureau officials on the field. Letters to the aid societies generally sought additional money and personnel, whereas correspondence with teachers and district superintendents dealt primarily with routine matters of forms, salaries, and repairs to school buildings. Occasionally, however, the Superintendent wrote to reprimand a teacher regarding the performance of duties. More frequently, he wrote letters to editors or other influential persons praising the work of Bureau teachers. Also included among the letters sent are numerous letters of transmittal and one lengthy report of David Burt, dated May 8, 1867, on education at Knoxville.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1000, Series 2
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1000-ref8

Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870

Extent:
18 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1870
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 18 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M822. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870. The records consist of 12 volumes and some unbound documents. The volumes include letters and endorsements sent, registers of letters received, and record books pertaining to schools, teachers, and educational expenditures of the Bureau. The unbound documents consist primarily of letters and reports received.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M822.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Freedmen's Bureau, as the Bureau was commonly known, was established in the War Department by an act of March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard, appointed Commissioner by the President in May 1865, served in that position throughout the life of the Bureau. The Bureau was twice extended by the acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). In January 1869, in accordance with an act of July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), its operations in the States were terminated except for educational functions and the collection of claims. Remaining activities were terminated June 30, 1872, in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366).

Although the Bureau was part of the War Department, its work was primarily social and economic in nature. It cooperated with benevolent societies in issuing supplies to destitute persons and in maintaining freedmen's schools; supervised labor contracts between black employees and white employers; helped black soldiers and sailors to collect bounty claims, pensions, and backpay; and attended to the disposition of confiscated or abandoned lands and other property. In Texas, much of the Bureau's time and effort was expended in protecting freedmen from persecution, intimidation, and physical violence at the hands of whites or other freedmen.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of assistant commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the States. In September 1865, Brig. Gen. Edgar M. Gregory took command as Assistant Commissioner in Texas. In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the assistant commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each State to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865 some centralized control was established over the educational activities of the Bureau in the States with the appointment of Rev. John W. Alvord as Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of the financial responsibilities and was redesignated General Superintendent of Education.

The educational activity of the Bureau in Texas began officially with the appointment of E. M. Wheelock as Superintendent of Schools in October 1865. Wheelock served until February 1867, when he became Inspector of Schools, a position he held until June 1867. In March 1867, Lt. I. P. Kirkman became Superintendent of Schools while simultaneously serving as Acting Assistant Adjutant General to the Assistant Commissioner in Texas. In October 1867, Lt. Charles Garretson, the Acting Assistant Adjutant General and Acting Assistant Quartermaster for the Bureau in Texas, also assumed the office then generally referred to as the Superintendent of Education. Wheelock again served as Superintendent from November 1867 to April 1868, when he was succeeded in office by Rev. Joseph Welch. E. C. Bartholomew was Acting Superintendent during Welch's frequent absences from office in 1869 and 1870. Following Louis Stevenson's tenure as Superintendent from March to July 1870, Bartholomew assumed the office and remained until all Bureau officers were withdrawn from Texas in December 1870.

The Superintendent of Education served under the Assistant Commissioner as a staff officer. Subordinate to both the Assistant Commissioner and the Superintendent of Education were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the local field offices into which the State was divided for administrative purposes. Subassistant commissioners supervised all Bureau activities, including education, in their respective areas and reported on educational matters to both the Superintendent of Education and the Assistant Commissioner. After January 1869, the subassistant commissioners were withdrawn from Texas in accordance with the act of July 25, 1868. Subsequently, a few local superintendents of schools (or assistant superintendents of education) were appointed to head the field offices. However, the majority of teachers, who had reported to the subassistant commissioners for their subdistricts before 1869, then reported directly to the Superintendent of Education.

The schools maintained by the Bureau in Texas included day schools for children, night schools for adults, and Sunday schools for both groups. The school regulations devised by the Office of the Superintendent of Education specified that reading, writing, and arithmetic were studies of greatest importance for freedmen; these subjects received the greatest emphasis in most Bureau schools. Teachers were recruited from the local white population, from among the freedmen themselves, and from the North by freedmen's aid societies. In 1867, Assistant Commissioner Joseph Kiddoo concluded an agreement with the American Missionary Association that would provide the schools with teachers in Texas.

The Bureau's responsibility for education included the establishment and maintenance of schools and the examination and appointment of teachers. Bureau funds were used to pay teachers' salaries and provide for their transportation, for the construction and repair of school buildings, and for the rent of properties used for educational purposes. Private organizations and individuals were also involved in establishing and financing freedmen's schools in Texas. A number of these schools were established upon the initiative of local whites and freedmen, although subsequently they were given direction and support by the Bureau. The American Missionary Association provided some of the pay for teachers it recruited, and salaries were partially subsidized by contributions from the freedmen. Bureau policy dictated that, wherever possible, subscriptions be solicited from freedmen for establishing schools and that tuition be charged for each student in attendance.

GENERAL RECORDKEEPING PRACTICES

The Superintendent of Education reported to and corresponded with Commissioner Howard and General Superintendent Alvord in Washington and the Assistant Commissioner concerning educational progress and conditions in Texas. In addition, the Superintendent corresponded with and received reports from subordinate officers and teachers in the field. He also corresponded with aid societies, particularly the American Missionary Association, regarding their contributions to the educational effort in the state.

The correspondence of the Superintendent of Education was handled in accordance with typical 19th–century recordkeeping practices. Fair copies of outgoing letters were transcribed in letter books. Replies to incoming letters were frequently written on the letters themselves or on specially prepared wrappers. The replies, known as endorsements, were also copied into volumes; the endorsed letter was then returned to the sender or forwarded to another office. Incoming correspondence was also frequently entered in registers of letters received. In addition to a summary of the contents of the incoming letters, the registers usually included such relevant information as the name and sometimes the office of the writer, the date of receipt, the date of the communication, the place of origin, and the entry number assigned at the time of receipt. The registered letters were folded for filing, generally in three segments, and the information recorded in the registers was transcribed on the outside flap of the documents. Letters sent and registers of letters received were frequently indexed, although not usually by subject. The entries consist primarily of references to names of correspondents.

The volumes reproduced in this publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder in sequence by volume number. Originally no numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes; later all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office of the War Department after the records passed into its custody. In this microfilm publication the set of numbers last assigned are in parentheses and are useful as an aid in identifying the volumes. In some volumes there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M822
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m822
Additional Online Media:

State Superintendent of Education's Monthly School Reports

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan. 1866–May 1870
Scope and Contents:
The State Superintendent of Education's monthly school reports, January 1866–May 1870, are arranged chronologically. Evidently compiled from reports submitted by teachers and subassistant commissioners, they contain similar information consolidated for the state as a whole. The reports for January–May 1866, are narrative. For the period January–April 1869, there are also reports of schools, teachers, and buildings that were requested in Commissioner Howard's circular letter of October 6, 1868. These reports list the names of teachers and their patrons and the number of buildings and their owners. For the months of October and November 1868, December 1869, and January 1870, there are lists of teachers showing the locations of their schools and the owners of the school buildings. Filed at the end of the 1869 reports is a list of freedmen's schools that had been compelled to suspend their operations for lack of means.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M822, Subseries 4.2
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 4: Monthly Form Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m822-ref21

Monthly Reports of School Buildings

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
July 1869–Apr. 1870
Scope and Contents:
The monthly reports of school buildings, July 1869–April 1870, are arranged chronologically and contain information on both Bureau and non–Bureau edifices. The available data for each building consists of its location; physical composition, condition, and value; and the owner and value of the land upon which it was situated.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M822, Subseries 4.3
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 4: Monthly Form Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m822-ref22

Monthly Reports of Persons and Articles Hired

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
May 1869–June 1870
Scope and Contents:
The monthly reports of persons and articles hired, May 1869–June 1870, are arranged chronologically and were used to compile consolidated reports that were forwarded to Bureau headquarters in Washington. This series of reports pertains primarily to the leasing of school buildings and offices and the payment of civilian teachers, agents, officials, clerks, and contractors.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M822, Subseries 4.4
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Texas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 4: Monthly Form Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m822-ref23

Volume 1 (36)

Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
The three volumes of press copies of miscellaneous letters sent, February 26–May 8, 1866, September 26, 1866–July 15, 1870, are arranged chronologically, and each volume contains a name index. Letters sent to Howard prior to July 19, 1869, are included in the first two volumes of miscellaneous letters sent described above.

Most of the letters sent are either to officials of aid societies in the North or teachers and other Bureau officials on the field. Letters to the aid societies generally sought additional money and personnel, whereas correspondence with teachers and district superintendents dealt primarily with routine matters of forms, salaries, and repairs to school buildings. Occasionally, however, the Superintendent wrote to reprimand a teacher regarding the performance of duties. More frequently, he wrote letters to editors or other influential persons praising the work of Bureau teachers. Also included among the letters sent are numerous letters of transmittal and one lengthy report of David Burt, dated May 8, 1867, on education at Knoxville.
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1000, Subseries 1.1
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870 / Series 1: Press Copies of Letters Sent
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1000-ref2

Englewood -- Pam's Garden

Provenance:
Garden Club of Englewood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Pam's Garden (Englewood, New Jersey)
United States of America -- New Jersey -- Bergen County -- Englewood
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, photocopies of articles, plant lists, and other information.
General:
With time, energy and talent a steep one-third acre suburban lot was transformed into a private, leafy sanctuary terraced on three levels with stone steps, a brick patio, rambling walkways, three reflecting pools with a waterfall between two of them, and a distinctive collection of ericaceous ( acid-loving) shrubs, including some rhododendrons hybridized by the owner. The garden was overgrown and Norway maples, ashes, mulberries and other weed trees had to be cleared out before the transformation could begin. The grading was done by hand, with the owners moving soil in wheelbarrows. A brick patio was built directly behind the house and ground covers, rhododendrons, azaleas and mountain laurels were planted. Native rocks were gathered on excursions to the country, flagstones were reaped when the town replaced its sidewalks, and stone capstones were salvaged from an old school building that was to be demolished. The owners used the rocks to build the walls that define the terraces, built steps from the flagstones, and used the capstones as pedestals. Eventually they built and planted their first reflecting pool on the lowest level. A redwood tree was planted to disguise a telephone pole and English and American ivies were grown over chain link fencing as living borders that kept dogs out of the garden.
A long narrow driveway connects the house to the street and the bed running along one side was planted with spring bulbs, flowers, and shrubs. The rest of the perimeter of the property was planted with evergreen hemlock, rhododendrons, yew and English holly for privacy. There was a small patch of grass planted on each level of the garden that acted as a breathing space between dense foliage plantings. Since the soil was acidic most of the flowering in this garden was early in the season as rhododendrons, foxgloves, and other shrubs, bulbs, and trees bloomed sequentially from April until July. In the heat of summer the garden was a shady, green compilation of shapes and textures.
The owner built a Nearing frame for propagation of hybrid rhododendrons. The frame stays closed so the seedlings are kept warm and moist. Some grew to size and were planted in the garden. Evergreens and other trees were pruned up to let in light for under-plantings. Plants that thrived in Pam's Garden grew in mostly shady and acidic conditions, although heath did not survive the heat of the New Jersey summers.
Persons associated with the garden include Harden (former owner, 1940s-1956); Pamela and James Proctor (former owners, 1956-2010).
Related Materials:
Pam's Garden related holdings consist of 2 folder (34 35mm slides (photographs) + 19 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- New Jersey -- Englewood  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File NJ152
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / New Jersey
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref20070
Additional Online Media:

Litchfield -- Howe Memorial Garden

Former owner:
Reeve, Tapping, 1744-1823  Search this
Collection Creator:
Adams, Molly, 1918-2003  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Howe Memorial Garden (Litchfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Litchfield County -- Litchfield
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, photocopies of images of the site, and other information.
General:
The first law school in the United States was founded in 1774 by Judge Tapping Reeve, whose home adjoined the one-room school building. At some point the law school building was moved from its original site near South Street toward the back of the property and its direction seemingly reversed. The Howe Memorial Garden, a formal "colonial" garden with elaborate brick walks, was developed between the school building and the fence that then separated the entire property from South Street. This garden was removed in 1976 when the law school building was moved back to its original site, which was in the center of the garden site. Molly Adams's images pre-date this move. One of the images associated with this series, CT332002, may be questionable in its direct relation to this site, although it is likely to have been taken in Litchfield. The Tapping Reeve House and Litchfield Law School building now belong to the Litchfield Historical Society.
Persons associated with the garden include: Tapping Reeve (former owner, ca. 1774-1823).
Related Materials:
Howe Memorial Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (6 safety film negatives)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Litchfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Maida Babson Adams American garden collection.
Identifier:
AAG.ADM, File CT332
See more items in:
Maida Babson Adams American garden collection
Maida Babson Adams American garden collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States of America / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-adm-ref558

[Howe Memorial Garden]: view of the garden, with the law school building in the center rear.

Photographer:
Adams, Molly, 1918-2003  Search this
Collection Creator:
Adams, Molly, 1918-2003  Search this
Extent:
1 safety film negative (black-and-white, 120 mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Safety film negative
Safety film negatives
Place:
Howe Memorial Garden (Litchfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Litchfield County -- Litchfield
Date:
[between 1960 and 1976]
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Litchfield  Search this
Formal gardens  Search this
Shrubs  Search this
Trees  Search this
Houses  Search this
Walkways, brick  Search this
Edging, brick  Search this
Hosta  Search this
Perennials  Search this
Schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Safety film negatives
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Maida Babson Adams American garden collection.
Identifier:
AAG.ADM, Item CT332001
See more items in:
Maida Babson Adams American garden collection
Maida Babson Adams American garden collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States of America / Connecticut / CT332: Litchfield -- Howe Memorial Garden
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-adm-ref559

Records of the Texas Field Offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870

Extent:
28 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1870
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 28 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1912. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Texas Field Offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870, including previous unfilmed records of the Office of the Assistant Commissioner, and records of the office of staff officers and subordinate field offices. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, including letters received and endorsements, monthly school reports, and other records relating to freedmen's complaints and contracts.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of endorsements sent and received, registers of letters received, press copies of letters sent, letters sent, special orders issued, registers of complaints, and registers of contracts. The unbound documents consist of letters received, registered letters received, receipts, accounts, affidavits and settlements, reports of persons and articles hired, and miscellaneous records. Note: The single letter comprising the series Letters Received from Houston, for January 1865, is missing.

Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers in that period. For example, 4.36.2.1, Endorsements Sent from Richmond, vol. 1 (146), also contains a register of complaints and a register of contracts. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the finding aid to make full use of these records.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Texas:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices for Texas. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.

AUSTIN

Oct. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Byron Porter

Feb. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Oakes

Apr.–June 1868 and Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Clarence Mauck

June–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Ebenezer Gay

BASTROP

Feb. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Byron Porter

May–Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Horton

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner David S. Beath

BEAUMONT

June 1867–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Archer

BELTON

July–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Mathew Young

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles C. Stiles

BOSTON

July 1867–Oct. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner William G. Kirkman

BRENHAM

Apr.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. P. Wood

BROWNSVILLE

Apr.–Aug. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles H. Morse

Aug. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Joseph J. Reynolds

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner R. S. Mackenzie

BRYAN

June–Dec. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner N. H. Handlett (at Courtney)

Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner De Witt Brown (at Navasota)

May 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner N. H. Handlett (at Anderson)

Mar.–May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner N. H. Handlett

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Gillette

CENTERVILLE

Mar.–July 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Fred W. Reinhard

July 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Bradford

Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Edwin Turnock

CLARKSVILLE

Dec. 1867–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner (See Marlin)

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner George Sharkley

CLINTON

Apr. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Hiram Clark

COLUMBIA

Jan. 1866–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Hutchison

May–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner John F. Stokes

June–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner P. F. Duggan

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. F. N. Rolfe

Jan.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Arthur B. Honer

COLUMBUS

Apr.–July 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. Ernest Goodman

Nov. 1866 and Jan. 1867–Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Enon M. Harris

Feb.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Louis W. Stevenson

COTTON GIN

Apr.–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. F. Manning

June–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles E. Culver

Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James T. Hill

Jan.–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Robert P. Wilson

Aug.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner David S. Beath

Oct.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. M. K. Smith

CROCKETT

May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Louis H. Jacobs

Aug.–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. W. Reinhard

Sept.–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner D. S. Hunsaker

Sept.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Henry C. Lacy

Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Gilchrist

GALVESTON

Jan.–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. Doubleday

June–July 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Henry Norton

Aug. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. J. Kratz

Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner E. M. Wheelock

Nov. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner G. M. Bascom

May–Aug. and Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner George H. Cram

HALLETTSVILLE

May–June 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. Albert Saylor

Oct. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Hiestand

May 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Phineas Stevens

HOUSTON

Oct.–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Provost Marshal I. C. De Gress

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner George Gladwin

Jan.–Sept. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Byron Porter

Sept. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner H. H. Edlefron

Oct.–Dec. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner I. C. De Gress

Jan.–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Walter B. Pease

June–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. D. O'Connell

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner William M. Van Horn

Jan.–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Walter B. Pease

Mar.–June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner William M. Van Horn

June–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner M. E. Davis

HUNTSVILLE

Oct. 1866–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James C. Devine

June 1867–May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James P. Butler

LIBERTY

Aug. 1866–Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. H. Mayer

Mar.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. H. Cox

LOCKHART

June–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Baker

MARLIN

Jan.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. B. Sturgis

Aug.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand (at Gilmer)

Dec. 1867–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand (at Clarksville)

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand

MARSHAL

Dec. 1866–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand

May 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Adam G. Malloy

Apr.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. M. K. Smith

Sept.–Oct. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner H. Sweeney

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner E. C. Henshaw

MATAGORDA

May–Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner William Garretson

MERIDIAN

Jan. 1866–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Philip Howard

NACOGDOCHES

Oct.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. M. K. Smith

May–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Alex Ferguson

PALESTINE

Dec. 1868–Jan. 1869 -- Subassistant Commissioner Alfred Hedberg

RICHMOND

Jan.–July 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Sam C. Sloan

Oct.–Nov. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles C. Hardenbrook

Aug.–Oct. 1866 and Dec. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner William H. Rock

SAN ANTONIO

June–Sept. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Joseph Ferguson

Nov. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. B. Sturgis

Mar.–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Edward W. Whittemore

May 1867–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner John S. Mason

Sept.–Oct. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. W. Eckles

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. R. Fitch

SEGUIN

Jan.–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner George W. Smith

Oct. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Whittemore

June–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C. C. Raymond

STERLING

Sept. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Lemuel K. Morton

Apr. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. L. Randall

SUMPTER

Sept.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner H. S. Johnson

Apr.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles Schmidt

TYLER

Mar. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner David L. Montgomery

Mar.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Gregory Barrett, Jr.

Oct.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. T. Hartz

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Horace Jewett

WACO

Jan.–Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. F. Manning

Feb.–Mar. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Edwin Mauck

Mar.–Apr. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. W. Evans

Apr.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Jay

Dec. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Emerson D. F. Stiles

Mar.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles Haughn

WHARTON

Jan.–July 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. W. McConaughy

Nov. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand

Dec. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Horton

Apr.–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner De Witt Brown

June 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Ira H. Evans

Feb.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Nesbit B. Jenkins
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1912
See more items in:
Records of the Texas Field Offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1912
Additional Online Media:

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