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Meet The Artist: Christopher Schardt on “Nova” for “No Spectators: The Art of Burning Man”

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2018-08-23T18:09:57.000Z
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_2vk7uetkFm4

Electronic Home Controller

Maker:
Mastervoice, Incorporated  Search this
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 10 cm x 23 cm x 28 cm; 3 15/16 in x 9 1/16 in x 11 in
Object Name:
answering machine component
electronic home controller
Date made:
1986
Credit Line:
from Gus Searcy
ID Number:
1991.0079.01
Catalog number:
1991.0079.01
Accession number:
1991.0079
Serial number:
D05076-A00001
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Magnetic Recording
Communications
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1346929
Additional Online Media:

Playbill for The Bubbly Black Girl Sheds Her Chameleon Skin

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Playwrights Horizons, American, founded 1971  Search this
Subject of:
Cheryl Alexander, American, born 1955  Search this
Natalie Venetia Belcon, American, born 1969  Search this
Duane Boutte, American  Search this
Darius de Haas, American, born 1968  Search this
Angel Desai  Search this
Jerry Dixon  Search this
Jonathan Dokuchitz, American  Search this
Felicia Finley, American, born 1971  Search this
Robert Jason Jackson, American  Search this
LaChanze, American, born 1961  Search this
Josh Tower  Search this
Debra M. Walton  Search this
Myiia Watson-Davis  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/4 x 5 5/8 in. (22.2 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
2000
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Popular music  Search this
Rhythm and blues (Music)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.18ab
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.18ab
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Playbill for The Bubbly Black Girl Sheds Her Chameleon Skin digital asset number 1
Additional Online Media:

Oral history interview with Clifford Schorer, 2018, June 6-7

Interviewee:
Schorer, Clifford, 1966-  Search this
Interviewer:
Richards, Judith Olch, 1947-  Search this
Subject:
Art Collectors: A Project in Partnership with the Center for the History of Collecting in America at The Frick Collection  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)17575
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)394820
AAA_collcode_schore18
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_394820
Additional Online Media:

Grace Murray Hopper Collection

Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906- (mathematician)  Search this
Source:
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Former owner:
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Names:
Remington Rand.  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Technical notes
Date:
1944-1965
Scope and Contents:
The material includes technical notes, operating instructions and descriptions relating to projects which Hopper participated in at Harvard during and after World War II and later in the private sector. These projects involved the creation of the Navy's Mark I, II and III "mechanical calculators" (the fore runners of today's computers) and the UNIVAC and ENIAC civilian models. The photographs document both equipment and Hopper with her colleagues at work and on social occasions. There are numerous published articles and memoranda by Hopper and others on various technical aspects of computers. Clippings of newspaper and magazine articles relating to computers and their development are also included, as well as periodicals and brochures. A "humor file" contains jokes and anecdotes collected by Hopper.

Much of the material is annotated by Hopper, primarily through notations on 3 x 5 white slips of paper. Some of the annotations by Elizabeth Luebbert, who served as a summer research assistant in the Museum's Computer History Project.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eleven series.

Series 1: Technical Documents, 1944-1949

Series 2: Photographs of Mark II, 1948

Series 3: Photographs at Harvard, 1944-1945

Series 4: Reports and Articles, 1946-1948

Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, 1949-1965

Series 6: Compiling Routines, 1952-1954

Series 7: Press Clippings, 1944-1953

Series 8: Periodicals and Brochures, 1950-1953

Series 9: Humor file, 1944-1953

Series 10: Machine Tape, undated

Series 11: Audiovisual Materials, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992) obtained her Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 1934. She was an associate professor of mathematics at Vassar College when she joined the Women's Reserve of the United States Navy, Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) in 1944 and was assigned to the computing project at Harvard University. She served under Commander Howard H. Aiken as a Wave until 1946, and remained at Harvard's Computation Laboratory as a research fellow until 1949. In that year she joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation as a senior mathematician. When Eckert-Mauchly became a division of Remington Rand, Hopper remained as senior programmer, a title she retained until 1959. Subsequently, she served as systems engineer and director of automatic programming development (1959-1964) and staff scientist in systems programming (1964-1971) for the UNIVAC division of Sperry Rand Corporation. Hopper retired from UNIVAC in 1972, having returned to active service in the U.S. Navy from which she eventually retired with the rank of Rear Admiral.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Computer Oral History Collection (AC0196)

This collection contains five oral history interviews with Grace Murray Hopper conducted on: July 1, 1968; November 1, 1968; January 7, 1969; February 4, 1969; and July 5, 1972.
Provenance:
Grace Murray Hopper donated her materials to the National Museum of American History, Section of Mathematics in 1967 and 1968. The majority of the collection was donated through the Museum's Computer Oral History Project in 1972.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computer programming  Search this
Computer programmers  Search this
Mathematicians  Search this
Computers  Search this
Systems engineering  Search this
Univac computer  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Technical notes
Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0324
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0324
Additional Online Media:

Reel of Magnetic Tape with COBOL Compiler

Maker:
Remington Rand Univac  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 3/4 in x 8 in x 8 in; 1.905 cm x 20.32 cm x 20.32 cm
Object Name:
software
Place made:
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Date made:
1960
Credit Line:
Transfer from US Department of Defense
ID Number:
CI.317980.01
Catalog number:
317980.01
Accession number:
317980
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Computers
Computers & Business Machines
American Enterprise
COBOL
Exhibition:
American Enterprise
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1275870
Additional Online Media:

Mainframe Computer Component, Williams Tube Electrostatic Memory from the Ferranti Mark I Computer

Maker:
Ferranti Limited  Search this
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
plastic; glass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 70 cm x 33 cm x 29 cm; 27 9/16 in x 13 in x 11 7/16 in
Object Name:
mainframe computer component
Place made:
United Kingdom: England, Greater Manchester
Date made:
1954
Credit Line:
Gift of Ferranti, Ltd.
ID Number:
CI.334386
Catalog number:
334386
Accession number:
309902
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Computers
Computers & Business Machines
Exhibition:
History Highlights: My Computing Device
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1368485
Additional Online Media:

HP-65 Pocket Instruction Card

Maker:
Hewlett-Packard Company  Search this
Physical Description:
plastic (programming cards; notebook cover material)
paper (sheets material)
metal (binder rings material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 cm x 11.5 cm x 14.8 cm; 1 9/16 in x 4 17/32 in x 5 13/16 in
Object Name:
documentation
Place made:
United States: California, Cupertino
Date made:
ca 1976
Credit Line:
Gift of Barry S. Berg
ID Number:
2012.3060.07
Nonaccession number:
2012.3060
Catalog number:
2012.3060.07
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Computers
Handheld Electronic Calculators
Computers & Business Machines
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1423420
Additional Online Media:

Puzzle, Instant Insanity

Maker:
Parker Brothers  Search this
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3.3 cm x 13.3 cm x 3.3 cm; 1 5/16 in x 5 1/4 in x 1 5/16 in
Object Name:
Puzzle
puzzle
Date made:
ca 1980
ca 1970
ca 1968
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Mathematical Recreations  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Dr. Judy Green
ID Number:
2012.0091.02
Accession number:
2012.0091
Catalog number:
2012.0091.02
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1425316
Additional Online Media:

Log Book With Computer Bug

Director:
Aiken, Howard Hathaway  Search this
Maker:
Harvard University  Search this
IBM  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
Aiken, Howard  Search this
Physical Description:
tape (overall material)
paper (overall material)
cloth (overall material)
ink (overall material)
biologicals (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1.5 cm x 48.4 cm x 29.5 cm; 9/16 in x 19 1/16 in x 11 5/8 in
Object Name:
log book
Place Made:
United States: Massachusetts, Cambridge
Date made:
1947
Subject:
Computer Bug  Search this
Credit Line:
Transfer from United States Department of Defense, Naval Surface Warfare Center
ID Number:
1994.0191.01
Catalog number:
1994.0191.1
Accession number:
1994.0191
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Computers
Military
Computers & Business Machines
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_334663
Additional Online Media:

Prototype "Butler In A Box"

Maker:
Mastervoice, Incorporated  Search this
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3.5 cm x 19 cm x 25 cm; 1 3/8 in x 7 1/2 in x 9 13/16 in
Object Name:
answering machine component
electronic home controller
Date made:
1985-04
Credit Line:
from Gus Searcy
ID Number:
1991.0079.03
Catalog number:
1991.0079.03
Accession number:
1991.0079
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Magnetic Recording
Communications
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1346931
Additional Online Media:

Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York

Series Collector:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1910-2014, undated
Scope and Contents:
This series contains documents, photographs, and personal ephemera produced and collected or produced by Joseph T. Barna (1949-2014), associated with his personal life and his position as board member of Heritage of Pride, New York, New York. Barna was born in Middlebury, Vermont and grew-up in Brandon, Vermont. His parents were teachers at Brandon High School and Otter Valley Union High School where Barna was a member of the debating team. While at Otter Valley he organized a group named The Stage Crew to assist with the lighting for dramatic productions. Barna graduated from Otter Valley Union High School in 1967. Barna graduated with a B.A. from Yale in 1971 and later went on to graduate with his M.F.A. from the Yale School of Dramatics in technical design and construction in 1981.

He occasionally taught a course on electrics at Yale as well as working as a computer programmer and later as a lighting designer for theatrical and dance productions in Oregon, New York, New York, and the New York City area. He was adjunct faculty for the Institute of Design & Construction (IDC). He was an amateur historian of wooden roller coasters. Barna died 2014 June 8 at the Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City from "a combination of illnesses."

Barna's association with Heritage of Pride (HOP), the producing organization for the annual New York Pride Parade, began in the 1980s. He was one of HOP's leading photographers up until his death in 2014. Heritage of Pride (HOP) is the successor organization to the Christopher Street Liberation Day Committee. HOP is a non-proft orgainzation that plans, coordinates, and sponsors the annual Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Pride week in New York City commemorating the Stonewall riots of June 1969. The HOP archives are housed at The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center, "The Center", in New York City. This series is divided into three subseries.
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Series Citation:
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1146, Series 15
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1271

Minutes

Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents  Search this
Extent:
8.70 cu. ft. (9 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (1 16x20 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Date:
1846-1995
Descriptive Entry:
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead. Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from 1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
Historical Note:
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the secretaries of State, War, Navy, Interior, and Agriculture; the Attorney General; and the Postmaster General. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877, and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and seven citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of Citizen Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead. The office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.

The Regents of the Smithsonian have included distinguished Americans from many walks of life. Ex officio members (Vice President) have been: Spiro T. Agnew, Chester A. Arthur, Allen W. Barkley, John C. Breckenridge, George Bush, Schuyler Colfax, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, George M. Dallas, Charles G. Dawes, Charles W. Fairbanks, Millard Fillmore, Gerald R. Ford, John N. Garner, Hannibal Hamlin, Thomas A. Hendricks, Garret A. Hobart, Hubert H. Humphrey, Andrew Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Walter F. Mondale, Levi P. Morton, Richard M. Nixon, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Theodore Roosevelt, James S. Sherman, Adlai E. Stevenson, Harry S. Truman, Henry A. Wallace, William A. Wheeler, Henry Wilson.

Ex officio members (Chief Justice) have been: Roger B. Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Nathan Clifford, Morrison R. Waite, Samuel F. Miller, Melville W. Fuller, Edward D. White, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F. Stone, Fred M. Vinson, Earl Warren, Warren E. Burger.

Regents on the part of the Senate have been: Clinton P. Anderson, Newton Booth, Sidney Breese, Lewis Cass, Robert Milledge Charlton, Bennet Champ Clark, Francis M. Cockrell, Shelby Moore Cullom, Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, George Franklin Edmunds, George Evans, Edwin J. Garn, Walter F. George, Barry Goldwater, George Gray, Hannibal Hamlin, Nathaniel Peter Hill, George Frisbie Hoar, Henry French Hollis, Henry M. Jackson, William Lindsay, Henry Cabot Lodge, Medill McCormick, James Murray Mason, Samuel Bell Maxey, Robert B. Morgan, Frank E. Moss, Claiborne Pell, George Wharton Pepper, David A. Reed, Leverett Saltonstall, Hugh Scott, Alexander H. Smith, Robert A. Taft, Lyman Trumbull, Wallace H. White, Jr., Robert Enoch Withers.

Regents on the part of the House of Representatives have included: Edward P. Boland, Frank T. Bow, William Campbell Breckenridge, Overton Brooks, Benjamin Butterworth, Clarence Cannon, Lucius Cartrell, Hiester Clymer, William Colcock, William P. Cole, Jr., Maurice Connolly, Silvio O. Conte, Edward E. Cox, Edward H. Crump, John Dalzell, Nathaniel Deering, Hugh A. Dinsmore, William English, John Farnsworth, Scott Ferris, Graham Fitch, James Garfield, Charles L. Gifford, T. Alan Goldsborough, Frank L. Greene, Gerry Hazleton, Benjamin Hill, Henry Hilliard, Ebenezer Hoar, William Hough, William M. Howard, Albert Johnson, Leroy Johnson, Joseph Johnston, Michael Kirwan, James T. Lloyd, Robert Luce, Robert McClelland, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., George H. Mahon, George McCrary, Edward McPherson, James R. Mann, George Perkins Marsh, Norman Y. Mineta, A. J. Monteague, R. Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton, Robert Dale Owen, James Patterson, William Phelps, Luke Poland, John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, B. Carroll Reece, Ernest W. Roberts, Otho Robards Singleton, Frank Thompson, Jr., John M. Vorys, Hiram Warner, Joseph Wheeler.

Citizen Regents have been: David C. Acheson, Louis Agassiz, James B. Angell, Anne L. Armstrong, William Backhouse Astor, J. Paul Austin, Alexander Dallas Bache, George Edmund Badger, George Bancroft, Alexander Graham Bell, James Gabriel Berrett, John McPherson Berrien, Robert W. Bingham, Sayles Jenks Bowen, William G. Bowen, Robert S. Brookings, John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Vannevar Bush, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Rufus Choate, Arthur H. Compton, Henry David Cooke, Henry Coppee, Samuel Sullivan Cox, Edward H. Crump, James Dwight Dana, Harvey N. Davis, William Lewis Dayton, Everette Lee Degolyer, Richard Delafield, Frederic A. Delano, Charles Devens, Matthew Gault Emery, Cornelius Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley, John B. Henderson, John B. Henderson, Jr., A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Gardner Greene Hubbard, Charles Evans Hughes, Carlisle H. Humelsine, Jerome C. Hunsaker, William Preston Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton, Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Topic:
Museums -- Administration  Search this
Museum trustees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 1, Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents, Minutes
Identifier:
Record Unit 1
See more items in:
Minutes
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0001
4 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Minutes digital asset number 1
  • View Minutes digital asset number 2
  • View Minutes digital asset number 3
  • View Minutes digital asset number 4
Additional Online Media:

Coders : the making of a new tribe and the remaking of the world / Clive Thompson

Author:
Thompson, Clive 1968- http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2013048590 http://viaf.org/viaf/305128672  Search this
Physical description:
436 pages ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2019
Topic:
Computer programmers  Search this
Computer programming--Social aspects  Search this
Computer programming--Psychological aspects  Search this
Interpersonal relations  Search this
Information technology--Social aspects  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1105790

[Trade catalogs from International Business Machines Corp. (IBM)]

Variant company name:
Armonk, NY ; White Plains, NY ; Rye Brook, NY  Search this
Company Name:
International Business Machines Corp. (IBM)  Search this
Related companies:
International Time Recording Co. of New York ; Emanon Corp. (Laborton, NY); Computing Tabulating and Recording Co. ; Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. ;  Search this
Notes content:
Typewriters: manual; electric; automatic carbon shift; Selectric (brand name) forms writing machine; carbon ribbon writing machine. Industrial controls, automatic programming of machine tools. Punch card accounting systems. Laboratory equipment: electrochemical instruments; liquid chromatography; variable wavelength detectors; digital plotters; automatic sample handler; data collection terminals. Time recording and regulating systems ; time recording clocks ; doctors' staff registering system; high-speed electronic sorters; dictating equipment; school sound system; cardatype; card punch; electronic statistical machine; alphabetical collator; scales; electric document originating machine; calculating punch ; includes business cards ; computers ; Payroll report for Emanon Corp. of Laborton, NY for week ending December 18, 1937 ; magnetic drum machine ; electronic typing calculator ; "Talking Terminal" (IBM 3278 Model 2 Display Unit with Audio Output Feature). "Computer Programmer Training for the Severely Physically Disabled" brochure ; COBOL reference cards ; FORTRAN reference cards ; ALGOL language reference book ; IBM 360 Operating System reference guide ; reference manuals ; "Electromatic News Flash" publication (Vol. 2, No. 1)
Includes:
Trade catalog, price lists, manual, samples, photographs and histories
Black and white images
Color images
Types of samples:
punch card ; samples of text on IBM Electromatic Typewriter ; text styles for IBM Memory Typewriters and IBM
Physical description:
347 pieces; 19 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
New York, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Clocks and watches (including clock-making and watch-making equipment)  Search this
Computers and computer equipment  Search this
Laboratories and laboratory supplies and equipment  Search this
Measuring; calculating and testing devices  Search this
Office equipment and supplies  Search this
Topic:
"Laboratories -- Furniture, equipment, etc."  Search this
Calculators  Search this
Clocks and watches  Search this
Computers  Search this
Measuring instruments  Search this
Office equipment and supplies industry  Search this
Optical equipment  Search this
Weighing instruments  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_20855
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_20855

Space Shuttle Enterprise OV-101 Film Footage

Creator:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Names:
Enterprise (Space shuttle)  Search this
National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
2.18 Cubic feet ((2 records center boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
[ca. 1970s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following twenty-two 16mm films relating to the Space Shuttle Enterprise OV-101: 747/F-104 Shuttle Orbiter Launch Simulation; Orbiter/747 Separation (Wind Tunnel);Computer Programmer Graphics; NASA 747 Wake Vortex Tests; Mission Profile - Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests; Space Shuttle Free Flight #4; Space Shuttle Free Flight #5; Space Shuttle Free Flight #1: On Board; Space Shuttle Free Flight #2; Space Shuttle Free Flight #1; Space Shuttle Free Flight #3: Approach and Landing Test Chase Highlights; Approach and Landing Test: Tracking Cameras; Space Station Assembly #1; Space Station Assembly #1; Space Station Assembly #1; Space Shuttle Free Flight#5: On Board; Space Shuttle Free Flight #1; Space Shuttle Free Flight #4: On Board; Speech Support; Space Shuttle Free Flight #1; Space Shuttle Free Flight #2: On Board; and Space Shuttle Free Flight #3: On Board.
Biographical / Historical:
The first Space Shuttle, Enterprise (OV-101), was a test vehicle designed to operate in the atmosphere; it was not equipped for spaceflight. The Enterprise was rolled out at Rockwell International's assembly facility in Palmdale, California in 1976. In 1977, it entered service at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, for a nine-month-long approach and landing test program. The main role of the test vehicle Enterprise was to check the Shuttle's flight characteristics and performance. The vehicle was flown atop the Boeing 747 Shuttle carrier aircraft and also released for piloted free-flights and landings to check out all systems and performance characteristics. This test program was a necessary prelude to the first orbital flight by the Space Shuttle Columbia in 1981. In 1985, NASA transferred Enterprise to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Glen E. Swanson, NASA Johnson, Gift, 2000, 2000-0017, Public Domain
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Space shuttles  Search this
Manned space flight  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Identifier:
NASM.2000.0017
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2000-0017

Deafness in the Family Workshop: Radnor, William Ennis, Don Pettingill, Barbara Kannapell, Burke, John Mark Ennis, Sheila Grennell

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 sound recording
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1981 June 24
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1981 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1981, Item FP-1981-7RR-0235
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1981 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1981-ref291
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Deaf in a Hearing World Workshop - William Ennis, Barbara Kannapell

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 sound recording
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1981 June 25
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1981 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1981, Item FP-1981-7RR-0239
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1981 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1981-ref295
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Workshop: What is Deaf Folklore?: Carmel, Jones, Jan de Lap, Moore, Hathaway, Dietz (interpreter)

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 sound recording
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1981 July 3
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1981 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1981, Item FP-1981-7RR-0265
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1981 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1981-ref321
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Safko International, Inc. Records

Creator:
Safko, Lon S.  Search this
Extent:
12.6 Cubic feet (34 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Design drawings
Magnetic disks
Audiovisual materials
Financial records
Legal documents
Correspondence
Marketing records
Photographs
Business records
Floppy disks
Date:
1984 - 1996
Summary:
The records of Safko International, Inc., document an assistive computer technology company created by Lon S. Safko to produce and sell the environmental control systems he invented for the physically disabled, specifically quadriplegics. Through the use of a computer and alternative input devices, the physically disabled were able to overcome physical barriers which inhibited them from attaining an autonomous lifestyle.
Scope and Contents:
Spanning 1984 to 1998, the Safko International, Inc. Records are divided into seven series and consist of approximately 12.6 cubic feet. Collectively these series document the routine affairs of Safko International, Inc., a company created for the production and distribution of the assistive technology inventions of Lon S. Safko from its formation in 1986 to its dissolution in 1995. During the lifespan of this company there was a growing awareness of and sensitivity towards disability issues within American society. Two significant events associated with this change in American society, were the American with Disabilities Act, 1993, and Christopher Reeve's riding accident in 1995, documented within this collection. In addition to documenting the intersection of American society with the assistive technology field, this collection documents how one man's vision of society and that of his company, in conjunction with perseverance and sacrifices, can transform the lives of individuals such as Franklin Halwood and Liz Jimenez. Lastly, this collection documents the evolution of assistive technology devices to provide for the specific needs of the physically and cognitively disabled.

Executive Records, 1986-1998, is approximately 3.6 cubic feet of documents, the majority of which are correspondence and reports. Other documents include: business cards, faxes, form letters, printed emails, brochures, check stubs, invoices, photocopied newspaper and magazine clippings, blank applications, memoranda, license agreements, scrap paper notes, promotional materials, private placement memoranda, annual reports of other corporations, resumes, receipts, deposit slips, meeting notes, directories, press releases, stock listings, maps, non-disclosure covenants, organizational charts, airline ticket stubs, by-laws, stock certificates, and stock warrants. This series is subdivided into eight subseries, each documenting the operational affairs of Safko International, Inc.

Files within the first subseries, Corporate history and formation, provide background information on the incorporation of Safko International, Inc. and its reformation as Synosure, Inc. in 1996. Other files contain documents listing employees and their positions, biographical sketches, facts about the company and products produced, corporate structuring, and Safko International, Inc.'s by-laws. Files found within the second subseries, Administration, contain operational records, the majority of which deal with the company's relationship with its employees. The third subseries, Correspondence, also deals with operational issues, such as recycling and preparing for conferences. Note that correspondence is found throughout the collection, not just in this subseries. Safko filed most correspondence by names and topics, but correspondence found within this subseries was labeled general correspondence and arranged by year. The next subseries, Business plans, are of drafts and final copies of reports that were revised every two years providing information about officers, legal and financial advisors, descriptions of the SenSei system and its market potential, its business and marketing strategies, foreign business relations, cash flow, distribution, sales history, restructuring strategy, its reseller status of other computer products, and pilot projects. The fifth subseries, Minutes, is comprehensive in coverage except for the period between 1990 and 1992. The most information about company decisions and discussions made at these meetings can be found in the minutes spanning 1992 to 1995.

The next two subseries, Board of Directors and Personnel, are not comprehensive in coverage and contain very few documents. Also, files for some of the employees and Board of Directors are not found within these subseries. Employee files include: Founder, President, and Chief Executive Officer (Safko), SenSei Program Director (Martindale), Marketing Assistant (Montgomery), Computer programmer (Hirota), Chief Executive Officer and President after Safko resigned (Schembs), Vice President of Sales and Marketing (Zinn), Vice President of Sales and Marketing (Bowman), and Director of Sales (Owen). Within the two files about Safko is correspondence of a personal nature, his biographical sketch, and curriculum vitae. The final subseries, Business relationships, contains files about individuals and companies whose relationship to Safko International, Inc. was unclear or who had a relationship with the company that covered many areas of business. For instance, although Westinghouse Investment Management Company invested in other businesses, it had a "non-financial" interest in Safko International, Inc. Another example is the Apple Corporation, which provided technical support for Apple Computers that Safko International, Inc. resold, but it also marketed Safko's SenSei System in its Aisle 17 publication.

Financial Records 1987-1998, is approximately 1.3 cubic feet of documents, the majority of which are spreadsheets and reports about the company's financial status and correspondence with companies and individuals about investment opportunities. Other documents include: form letters, faxes, financial charts, resumes, memoranda, confidential summary memoranda, executive summaries, photocopied checks, photocopied newspaper clippings, handwritten notes, financial spreadsheets, stock warrants, agendas, private offering memoranda, confidential summary memoranda, drafts and final copies of financial statements, deposit slips, and business cards. This series is subdivided into four subseries, each documenting the fiscal difficulties that Safko International, Inc. encountered and its strategy for overcoming these difficulties.

The first subseries, Bookkeeping, includes records of liabilities, assets, expenses, inventories, payroll, stock transaction history, plans for preventing bankruptcy, and auditing procedures. The other three subseries deal specifically with the pursuit of Safko International, Inc. for financial assistance. The distinction between the third and fourth subseries is significant. The third subseries, Investors, documents individuals and companies that invested in Safko International, Inc. through loans or purchases of stock. The fourth subseries, includes files of individuals and companies from whom Safko requested financial assistance, but either rejected Safko's plea outright or never responded. It may be that some of these files are of companies and individuals that did in fact invest in Safko International, Inc., but there is no documentation within the files themselves to identify these individuals and companies as investors.

Legal Records, 1986-1997, is approximately 1.5 cubic feet of documents, the bulk of which is correspondence. Other documents in this series include: reports, licenses, payment vouchers, receipts, court summons, memoranda, photocopied newspaper clippings and magazine articles, newsletters, business proposals, faxes, promotional flyers for other products, brochures, meeting minutes, agreements, business cards, thirteen 5.25" computer diskettes, fourteen 3.5" computer disks, and phone messages. This series is divided into five subseries, each documenting the attempts of Safko International, Inc. to protect itself and its product.

The first subseries, Poor mans' patents, are packets of certified mail that Lon S. Safko sent to himself from 1986 to 1994 to provide proof of his status as the inventor of SoftVoice and other assistive technology devices. The second subseries, Legal documents, provide background information about the SenSei trademark and copyright application process. It also includes proof for the status of Safko International, Inc. as a legitimate and registered company having been granted the authority to conduct business. The third subseries, Legal representation and counsel, are files of documents created in the course of business between Safko International, Inc. and its various legal representatives pertaining to specific issues including: advice about copyrights and compliance with the American with Disabilities Act, capitalization, liability insurance program, loan and stock agreements, personal service agreements, pledge agreements, a prospective business venture with the Saudi Amoudi Group, articles of incorporation, and dissolutions. Most of the issues discussed within this subseries are administrative or financial.

The fourth subseries, Disputes, deals with legal battles that do not appear to have reached litigation. Documentation can be found about the contractual relationship with the Austin McDaniel Corporation and its subsequent dissolution, a challenge to the intellectual property copyright to "SenSei," Safko International, Inc.'s payment in arrears to other businesses, and the attempt of a board member to seek financial compensation from the company. The final subseries, Research file, is background research into the legal ramifications of the American with Disabilities Act, possible copyright infringements by other companies, copyright status of companies such as Microsoft, Apple and Motorola and their relationship to Safko International, Inc., information on how to deal with software licenses, and incoming and outgoing correspondence with software creators asking for their permission to incorporate their inventions as a part of the SenSei system.

Research Development, and Production Records, 1984-1996, is approximately one cubic foot of documents. It includes: correspondence, promotional materials, catalogs, drawings, photocopied newspaper clippings and magazine articles, manuals, circuit board diagrams, receipts, newsletter, brochures, six 3.5" computer disks, seventeen 5.25" computer floppy diskettes, invoices, faxes, business cards, agreements, photographs, fact sheets, and labels. This series is divided into five subseries, each documenting the revisions and adaptations of SoftVoice and the SenSei System for marketability purposes.

The first subseries, SoftVoice, consists of seventeen 5.25" computer floppy diskettes and some documents. The only documents found within this subseries are in two files, the majority of which are in the SoftVoice telephone file. In contrast, the second subseries, SenSei, consists mostly of documents and only one 3.5" computer disk. Among this subseries are files providing information on other complimentary products that Safko resold as a part of the SenSei System, instructions for installers and users of the system, adaptations of the system to meet particular needs, and information on suppliers, unit costs and suggested retail prices. As a part of the third subseries are five 3.5" computer disks. The strength of this subseries is its documentation of the Siptroller. The fourth subseries, Proprietary relationships, documents the pursuit of and/or actual relationship between Safko International, Inc. and other companies involved in selling, manufacturing, and/or distributing assistive technology devices. Depending on the individual needs of the client, Safko International, Inc. offered and sometimes sold these hardware devices and software programs as a part of the SenSei System. Ways in which the system was or could have been adapted through proprietary relationships include: establishing fire alarm and medical alert systems, programming languages, graphics, European modifications, word prediction software, iconic keyboards, and alternative input devices. The final subseries, Research concerning product development, is like the aforementioned subseries, but there is no documentation to prove that the companies contained within this subseries ever had a proprietary relationship with Safko International, Inc. In fact, within this subseries are files about companies that competed with Safko International, Inc. in the field of voice recognition and imitation. A third aspect of this subseries is that it contains research on technologies, like virtual reality, which were ways in which the SenSei system could be enhanced. This subseries contains documentation of Safko International, Inc.'s involvement in pilot studies to assess how assistive technology devices and systems like SenSei can make a difference in the work field.

Marketing, Publicity, and Sales Records, 1986-1996, is approximately 3.1 cubic feet of documents, including: correspondence, faxes, memoranda, drafts and final copies of agreements, reports, press releases, advertisements, fact sheets, agendas, photocopied newspaper clippings and magazine articles, transcripts, photographs, award applications, diagrams, annual reports, business cards, presentation outlines, notes, delivery slips, invoices, inventory lists, and diagrams. This series is divided into twelve subseries, each documenting an important part Safko International, Inc's. efforts to sell and create public awareness of their products. Also documented is that Safko International, Inc's. marketing to hospitals, rehabilitation facilities and consultants, nursing homes, insurance companies, government agencies, and individuals through mailings, advertisements, telephone calls, and personal relationships.

The first subseries, Product and company information, contains documents that are similar to those in the first subseries of Executive Records. The main difference is that these files are not the master copies. Also, very few files of this subseries actually focus on company history; the majority are documents created to assist individuals, other businesses, and company employees in providing background information about the product, finding funding to purchase a system, and understanding how the SenSei System works. The second subseries, Sales records, provides information on sales transactions. Some of the delivery slips and invoices within this subseries are also located in client files. The third subseries, Marketing agencies and agents, documents the relationship Safko International, Inc. had with public relations agencies. Of all the subseries, this is the one with the majority of information. It reveals the techniques the company and its public relations agents used in trying to initiate contact with other individuals and companies. For instance, there is detailed information about the construction of promotional materials along with timelines and progress reports assessing the work of the marketing agents in meeting the needs of Safko International, Inc. The fourth subseries, Promotional materials, contain documents whose purpose was to sell the Sensei system and other assistive technology inventions created by Lon S. Safko. Unlike the first subseries, Product and company information, the purpose of these documents was to persuade prospective customers. The fifth subseries, Advertisements and publicity, records publicity garnered through magazines, newspapers, video, television, and radio. The sixth subseries, Awards, documents publicity of a different sort. It documents the recognition Lon S. Safko and his inventions received for benefiting society. Within this subseries, one of the files documents the creation of a museum display at the Arizona Science Center. In addition to creating public awareness of the SenSei System, this series documents the training of sales representatives, sales transactions, and distribution.

The seventh subseries, Sales representatives' materials consist of documents used to assist in training the representatives. The eighth subseries, Sales representatives, is of files organized according to the name of the representative. Besides invoices for sales transactions, these files also contain agreements outlining responsibilities, a listing of who to go to for answers to legal questions, information on conventions, and definitions of pertinent medical terms necessary for a sales representative to know. Note that not all files are comprehensive or provide the same kinds of information. The ninth subseries, Conferences and demonstrations, are of presentations given by Safko International, Inc. to inform others about their products and to build relationships with other companies. Representatives of Safko International, Inc. attended to learn from other companies. One such conference was an Innovative Thinking Conference, in which the attendees were involved in brainstorming new marketing ideas.

The tenth subseries, Distribution, documents the expansion of the SenSei System into domestic and foreign markets. Included is background information about various companies and markets, agreements made with other companies, and the process for buying back equipment that distributors were unable to sell. The eleventh subseries, Prospective clients and business contacts, are files for which there is no definitive relationship built with Safko International, Inc. Within these files are letters to prospective clients asking to give them a demonstration, or letters of appreciation for a demonstration given, but no evidence of a follow-up.

Some of the files are of contacts initiated with marketing agencies or distributors that do not appear to have developed into an actual relationship. The last subseries, clients, is composed mostly of invoices and correspondence pertaining to the purchase or lease of SenSei Systems by school districts, individuals, churches, hospitals, and rehabilitation facilities. Information about: who the product was shipped to, the cost, representatives or distribution companies responsible for the sale, notes of adaptations to the system for individual needs, assessments by consultants, brief history of some of the individuals who purchased the systems, installation notes, and problems they encountered are found here. Like other files found elsewhere, this subseries is not comprehensive. Many files only include the invoices, but others include more information.

Photographs and Scrapbooks, 1987-1995, is approximately 0.9 cubic feet. Contained are: photographs, negatives, pins, thank you notes, photocopied newspaper clippings, agendas, programs, calendars, memoranda, correspondence, mailers, exhibitor ribbons, stickers, and newsletters. This series is divided into two subseries, each documenting the routine affairs of Safko International, Inc. and the individuals involved.

The first subseries, Photographs and negatives, is mostly promotional photographs of the products or individuals using the products. The second subseries, Scrapbooks, are mostly photographs, but includes other types of documents, and some artifacts. Most photographs found in the scrapbooks are not found elsewhere, but there is some overlap with the first subseries. Photographs in this subseries document board meetings, employees at work, assembling the mass mailings, wall hangings, inside and outside of Safko International, Inc.'s offices, Austin McDaniel Corporation offices, attorney's offices, meetings with TeleNova and InfoLogics, an investment reception, products Safko International, Inc. sold, system modifications, computer screens, the packaged product, setup for taking promotional photographs, setup for presentations, demonstration in a hospital setting, conferences, television interviews, Franklin Halwood, and unidentified individuals. In both subseries, very few of the photographs are captioned.

The seventh series, Audiovisual Materials, 1986-1996, is approximately one cubic foot of materials, encompassing twenty-nine 1⁄2" VHS tapes and four standard audio cassette tapes. Accordingly this series is divided into two subseries, Audio cassettes and Audio visual tapes, both documenting the marketing of the SenSei System. Additionally the second subseries also documents presentations given by Safko International, Inc. representatives and instruction manuals showing how to use the SoftVoice and SenSei systems.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Executive Records, 1986-1998

Subseries 1.1: Corporate history and formation, 1986-1997

Subseries 1.2: Administration, 1988-1996

Subseries 1.3: Correspondence, 1988-1995

Subseries 1.4: Business plans, 1989-1996

Subseries 1.5: Minutes, 1987-1997

Subseries 1.6: Board of Directors, 1988-1992

Subseries 1.7: Personnel, 1988-1998

Subseries 1.8: Business relationships, 1986-1998

Sub-subseries 1.8.1: Apple Corporation, 1986-1996

Sub-subseries 1.8.2: Consultants, 1989-1994

Sub-subseries 1.8.3: Professional contacts, 1987-1995

Sub-subseries 1.8.4: National, 1987-1996

Sub-subseries 1.8.5: International, 1988-1998

Series 2: Financial Records, 1986-1998

Subseries 2.1: Bookkeeping, 1986-1996

Subseries 2.2: Bookkeeping, 1988-1996

Subseries 2.3: Investors, 1987-1998

Subseries 2.4: Investors, 1987-1998

Series 3: Legal Records, 1986-1997

Subseries 3.1: Poor man's patents, 1986-1994

Subseries 3.2: Legal documents, 1987-1994

Subseries 3.3: Legal representation and counsel, 1988-1995

Subseries 3.4: Disputes, 1987-1997

Subseries 3.5: Research file, 1986-1995

Series 4: Research, Development and Production Records, 1984-1996

Subseries 4.1: SoftVoice, circa 1986

Subseries 4.2: SenSei, 1987-1995

Subseries 4.3: Other inventions, 1988-circa 1992

Subseries 4.4: Proprietary relationships, 1986-1996

Subseries 4.5: Research concerning product development, 1984-1995

Series 5: Marketing, Publicity, and Sales Records, 1986-1996

Subseries 5.1: Product and company information, 1986-1995

Subseries 5.2: Sales records, 1987-1995

Subseries 5.3: Marketing agencies and agents, 1989-1995

Subseries 5.4: Promotional materials, 1987-1995

Subseries 5.5: Advertisements and publicity, 1986-1995

Subseries 5.6: Awards, 1987-1996

Subseries 5.7: Sales representatives' materials, 1990-1995

Subseries 5.8: Sales representatives, 1988-1996

Subseries 59: Conferences and demonstrations, 1987-1995

Subseries 5.10: Distribution, 1986-1996

Subseries 5.11: Prospective clients and business contacts, 1987-1996

Subseries 5.12: Clients, 1986-1996

Series 6: Photographs and Scrapbooks, 1987-1995

Subseries 6.1: Photographs and negatives, 1987-1995

Sub-subseries 6.1.1: Administration, circa 1988-1995

Sub-subseries 6.1.2: Promotional, 1987-1995

Sub-subseries 6.1.3: Demonstrations and trade shows, 1988-1995

Sub-subseries 6.1.4: SoftVoice and SenSei System, 1988-1995

Subseries 6.2: Scrapbooks, 1986-1994

Series 7: Audiovisual Materials, 1986-1996

Subseries 7.1: Audio cassettes, 1991-1994

Subseries 7.2: Audio visual tapes, 1986-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Founded by Lon S. Safko in 1987, Safko International, Inc. was formed in response to the encouragement Safko received from demonstrating SoftVoice, his environmental control system. At first, Safko was merely fulfilling a promise to help a quadriplegic, Herb Smith, regain control of his environment. As Safko encountered the many difficulties of adapting existing voice recognition software to communicate with hardware devices, such as lamps, he understood that the only way to fulfill his promise was to invent his own system. Shortly after his first demonstration, on March 3, 1986, he was so inspired at the success of his invention that he decided to continue his work. In October of that year, Safko was contacted to install a system for Leon Mutch, a man who had lost his will to live after being paralyzed from an automobile accident. After installing the system, Safko heard nothing for a few weeks. Then after being telephoned to retrieve the system, he was surprised to find that Mutch had in fact regained some arm mobility, and more importantly, Mutch had regained the hope that he had lost. Less than six months later, on March 6, 1987, Safko International, Inc. was formally incorporated in Kennewick, Washington, to develop, produce, market, sell, and distribute Safko's inventions, primarily SoftVoice and its successor, the SenSei System.

Although Safko International, Inc. was officially incorporated in 1987, the company did not fully develop until its relocation to Chandler, Arizona, in 1989. During 1987 and 1988, Lon Safko continued to work in the computer retail business and as Senior Systems Engineer for the United States Department of Energy, under Westinghouse Electric Company, to produce an Artificial Intelligence computer system. From August to November, 1987, Lon Safko was repeatedly contacted by Debra Purcel, a physical therapist who wanted to purchase the system for one of her patients, a sixteen year old girl with a spinal tumor whose last request was to communicate her thoughts and feelings to others who were suffering from similar circumstances. Safko was reluctant to sell her the system because the girl was using a respirator and therefore would be unable to speak clearly enough for a computer to recognize her voice. Eventually, Safko realized the solution was to modify his system through the use of alternative input devices. He created HeadMouse, an input device modified from an existing model. He named the modified system SoftVoice II. In August, 1987, Safko's environmental control system was renamed the SenSei System. After modifying the system to provide for the needs of the young girl and its successful demonstration, Safko decided to give the system free of charge to her. Unfortunately when he returned to surprise her, he was too late. Her life support systems had been unplugged two days before.

Shortly thereafter, in March of 1988, Safko returned to Safko International, Inc. with a greater determination to reach those individuals trapped by circumstances beyond their control. Also in 1988, Safko International, Inc. was given office space in which to continue research and development of Safko's assistive computer technology systems through the assistance of Westinghouse Electric Company. As of 1988 Safko was President and Chief Executive Officer of the company, Stan Colson was Vice President and on the Product Development team, Bruce Jorgenson was the Secretary and Treasurer in charge of the Finance and Administration division, Bob Hennig was on the Product Development team, and Keith Fischer served as Director of Engineering. The Marketing and Sales division was composed of Roger McDowell and Melanie Strege.

During 1988, Safko International, Inc. began clinical testing at hospitals and rehabilitation facilities. In addition, the company signed a contract with Boyd Fricke of the Austin McDaniel Corporation granting an exclusive international sales and marketing rights to Safko International, Inc.'s products in exchange for financial assistance. Later, Austin McDaniel Corporation attempted to coerce Safko International, Inc. through financial pressure to give up product rights. In 1990 Safko regained sales and marketing rights of the SenSei System. In May of 1988 there was also an attempt to merge with Datex Inc, but the merger did not succeed.

On June 15, 1989, the company officially moved the corporate headquarters, along with the engineering and manufacturing division, to Chandler, Arizona. Also in 1989 the company signed Value Added Reseller agreements with computer companies such as Apple Computer, Inc. and Computerland/ DataPhaz of Phoenix, Arizona.

In the following year, Safko International, Inc. expanded from domestic to international markets. The company built relationships with TeleNova AB, a subsidiary of the Swedish Telecom Group of the Swedish government and InfoLogics, an artificial intelligence computer division. Through the marketing and distribution efforts of TeleNova and its president Tommy Naslund, Safko International, Inc. was able to install SenSei systems in Sweden. In 1990 Lon Safko traveled to Sweden to help InfoLogics translate the SenSei computer system software into Swedish.

In 1991 Safko International, Inc. acquired contracts to construct interfaces which correspond with hospital beds. In particular, the Borg Warner Electronic Hospital Bed interface was created on the behalf of the Veterans Administration Hospital and the Smith and Davis Electronic Hospital Bed interface on the behalf of the Rusk Institute. Additionally, the Environmental PAL was developed in 1991. In regards to corporate structuring Richard L. Bourke became Vice President and Chief Financial Officer and John B. Zinn was Vice President of Marketing.

On February 24, 1992, Safko International, Inc. became an official Arizona corporation. Also during this year, the portable Safko Server and Power Now System were created.

In May 1993, Allen J. Emsley became Secretary and Treasurer of the company and then became Chief Financial Officer from November 1993 until August 1994. In November of 1993 the research and development office was moved from Chandler to Tempe, Arizona.

In January 1994 Safko International, Inc. was acquired by Safko Industries Inc., of Wyoming and Safko Sales International was formed. By 1994 Safko International, Inc. had sales representatives covering Arizona, Florida, Tennessee, Washington, Illinois, California, and New York. Reflected in the company's active marketing campaign and its significant increase of personnel, from 1994 to1995 Safko International, Inc. was at its peak in terms of corporate growth.

In 1995 Safko International, Inc. received Veterans Administration and Medicare approval. In the research and development division the company enhanced the SenSei System to be functional for the visually disabled and blind. As of 1995 Sakfo, Bowman, Emsley, Fischer, Honacker, and Hirota remained at the company. New employees included: Teresa Caldwell, Michael Montgomery (Marketing Assistant), Kahn Beal (contract employee), Jill Lund (Secretary), Carl E. McKowan (Vice President Financial), Marjory Bain (Administrative Assistant). Due to financial difficulties, in October of 1995 the entire staff was laid off and only Safko, Bowman, and Fischer continued to work for the company. Conditions only got worse and in November of 1995 Safko, Bowman, and Fischer were forced to leave their office space and work out of their cars and homes.

On May 28, 1996 Lon S. Safko officially resigned from the company and shortly thereafter the company shut down. Immediately following Safko International, Inc.'s closure, Synosure, Inc. was formed and given all rights, copyrights, and trademarks to the Safko International, Inc. products. One of the significant aspects about the company during this time was its attempt to finalize distribution plans with Great Britain, but the momentum was lost. Synosure, Inc. only lasted a year. On June 23, 1997 it dissolved.

Lawrence "Lon" S. Safko was born on August 1, 1955, in Yonkers, New York. He completed his General Equivalency Diploma (G.E.D.) in 1976 and graduated from Westchester College in 1978 with a three year advanced degree in Civil Engineering. Safko also took courses at Mercy College, Pace University and Hofstra University.

In the spring of 1982, Safko began his entrepreneurial career by forming Civil Consultants, a firm to provide the first ever engineering services using computers. The company specialized in surveying, coordinate geometry, earthworks, highway and transportation design, traffic analysis, and hydrologic computations. In 1985, Safko sold Civil Consultants and relocated to the Pacific Northwest. Wanting to work more closely with computers, he became the general sales manager for two Apple Computer, Inc. retail outlets.

That same year, Safko designed a voice activated environmental control system for the disabled called SoftVoice Computer System. On March 6, 1986, Safko founded Safko International, Inc. and began field testing the SoftVoice Computer System. During 1987, Safko designed an artificial intelligence computer system for the United States Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Electric Company, on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, in Washington State. This system compiled thousands of reports developed by the five uranium and plutonium production companies on the nuclear reservation, analyzed this information, and reported to the operator any signs of potentially hazardous patterns that could result in a nuclear disaster. In 1988, Safko began research and development of a Macintosh-based SenSei Computer System for the Disabled.

Safko holds United States Patent # 7,072,949 for a, "System and method for providing paper models over a wide area computer network," and several copyrights and trademarks. Currently, Safko is a professional speaker, trainer, and consultant for Better Homes Seminar and Innovative Thinking, L.L.C. He also is President and founder of Paper Models, Inc., providing corporate specialty advertising and educational paper models.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The Computer History Museum in Mountain View, CA holds several artifacts related to Lon Safko. Accession Lot # X3342.2006 contains:

First RCA TV Sip Controller

First Hospital Bed Nurse Call

Sip Puff IR Controller

Production Version Sip Puff Controller

Smith & Davis Electric Hospital Bed Controller

Sip Puff Modified Mouse

Computer Controlled Telephone

HeadMouse

First SenSei Server (Mac)

Prototype SenSei Server (Mac)

Sip Puff IR Controllers

Sip Puff Accessory Pack

Final SenSei Server Production Model

Final SenSei Server Production Model

SyQuest SenSei Software Back Ups First CD SenSei Software Back Ups
Separated Materials:
The Division of Information, Technology, and Society holds 18 artifacts related to this collection as accession number 2005.0291 including:

1 Computer, with detached cord

Apple II cpu/keyboard

External Drive, "Apple Disk II"

External Drive, "Distar"

Magnavox computer monitor 80

4 Diskettes, "SoftVoice"

Super Disk Demo 1

Super Disk Demo 2

SoftVoice Trainer

1 PC Daughter Board, "Speech Recognition for Apple II"

1 Mouse Emulator, "Head Master," with parts and manual in shipping box made by Prentke Romich Company

1 Trackball, "Kensington TurboMouse"

1 Siptroller Case, Prototype, "Safko International Inc."

1 Puff Stick Base, "Gravis" with a hand piece and a chin piece only

1 Production Sensei Server, "Version 2.0 Safko International Inc."

1 Nurse Call Box

2 Remote Chimes, X-10 Powerhouse, Model SC546

2 Modules: 1 for a lamp and 1 for an appliance

1 Headset, "MicroMint"

1 Phone with appliance module, "DuoFone 102, Electronic Telephone Amplifier System" (appliance module, "Model no. X10-Am286")
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lon S. Safko, 2006.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Home automation  Search this
Social medicine -- Sweden  Search this
Assistive computer technology  Search this
User interfaces (Computer systems)  Search this
Computers -- 1950-2000  Search this
Computerized self-help devices for people with disabilities  Search this
Rehabilitation technology  Search this
People with disabilities  Search this
Genre/Form:
Design drawings -- 1950-2000
Magnetic disks
Audiovisual materials
Financial records -- 20th century
Legal documents
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Marketing records
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Floppy disks
Citation:
Safko International, Inc. Records, 1984-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0911
See more items in:
Safko International, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0911
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