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European Computer Industry Survey

Collection Creator:
Grosch, Herbert R. J.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961-1963
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Use only as needed. For example: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Collection located off-site storage.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Herb Grosch Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0703, Subseries 3.2
See more items in:
Herb Grosch Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0703-ref101

State of the Computer Industry

Collection Creator:
Shaw, J. Clifford (John Clifford), 1922-1991  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946 - 1973
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
John Clifford Shaw papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0580, Series 3
See more items in:
John Clifford Shaw Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0580-ref17

Computer Industry, 1970-1971

Collection Creator::
National Museum of American History. Office of the Director  Search this
Container:
Box 98 of 108
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 334, National Museum of American History. Office of the Director, Subject Files
See more items in:
Subject Files
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0334-refidd1e46385

Grosch's Report on State of European Computer Industry, 1962

Collection Creator:
Grosch, Herbert R. J.  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Use only as needed. For example: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Collection located off-site storage.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Herb Grosch Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Herb Grosch Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0703-ref104

Computer Industries Incorporated

Collection Creator:
Gerber, H. Joseph  Search this
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company (Hartford, Conn.).  Search this
Container:
Box 54, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0929-ref767

Records

Creator::
National Museum of American History. Department of History of Science  Search this
Extent:
15.5 cu. ft. (31 document boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Date:
1923-1980
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of miscellaneous correspondence, fiscal records, annual reports, incoming and outgoing curatorial correspondence, personnel files, and records pertaining to the Computer History Project. Staff documented include Susan Faye Cannon.
Restrictions:
Box 30 contains materials restricted indefinitely; see finding aid; Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Computer industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession T90005, National Museum of American History. Department of History of Science, Records
Identifier:
Accession T90005
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fat90005

Computer Standards Collection

Creator:
International Standards Organization (ISO).  Search this
Bemer, Robert M.  Search this
Source:
Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
COBOL (Computer program language).  Search this
Former owner:
Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
4.6 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Reports
Business records
Correspondence
Pamphlets
Minutes
Date:
1958-1979
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, reports, publications, meeting minutes, and bulletins of standards committees relating to ALGOL, COBOL, and the International Standards Organization (ISO) subcommittee on character sets (ANSI X3L2). The ALGOL records include correspondence to the ALGOL Maintenance Subcommittee (Association for Computing Machinery) and information about the International Algebraic Language, XTRAN source language for FORTRAN, and the SHARE ALGOL 60 translator. The COBOL records (1960-1969) include material from CODASYL, the European Computer Manufacturer's Association, SHARE, and the American Standards Association. The ISO records (1959- 1979) relate exclusively to the standards for data formats and codes and includes material from other standards organizations.

Source

Bruce H. Bruemmer, Resources for the History of Computing: A Guide to U. S. and Canadian Records (Minneapolis, MN: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, 1987), pp. 30 31.]
Biographical / Historical:
This collection was put together by Robert W. Bemer during his involvement in setting language and data standards for the early computer industry. He accumulated a collection of material from organizations and individuals relating to computer standards.
Provenance:
This material was donated to the Smithsonian Institution in June 1979 by the compiler, Robert W. Bemer.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Standardization -- Computers -- 1950-1980  Search this
ALGOL (Computer program language)  Search this
Computer programming -- 1950-1980  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980  Search this
Computers -- History -- 1950-1980  Search this
Computers -- 1950-1980  Search this
Computers -- Standards -- 1950-1980  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports -- 1950-1980
Business records -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Pamphlets -- 1950-2000
Minutes
Citation:
Computer Standards Collection, 1958-1978, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0310
See more items in:
Computer Standards Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0310

From Mainframes to Smartphones: A History of the International Computer Industry. By Martin Campbell-Kelly and Daniel D. Garcia-Swartz

Author:
Ceruzzi, Paul E.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2015
Topic:
Flight  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Space sciences  Search this
Flight  Search this
Space sciences  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_138678

Data Processing Digest Collection

Source:
Mathematics, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Creator:
Data Processing Digest, Inc.  Search this
Milligan, Margaret  Search this
Former owner:
Mathematics, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Names:
Cohen, Michael C.  Search this
Naftaly, Stanley  Search this
Extent:
15.6 Cubic feet (48 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals)
Microfilms
Newspapers
Date:
1955-1974
Scope and Contents note:
Magazine and newspaper clippings (1955-1974) from various sources, on the development of the computer industry; six rolls of microfilm (1955-1966); and issues of Data Processing Digest, 1970-1974.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1, Clippings, 1955-1966

Series 2, Microfilm, 6 rolls, 1955-1966

Series 3, Data Processing Digest Issues, 1970-1974
Biographical/Historical note:
The Data Processing Digest regularly reviews periodicals and books for quick reference. Monthly publication dealing only with material related to the computer industry.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Data Processing Digest, 1968, 1972, 1976.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computer peripherals  Search this
Computer science  Search this
Computers  Search this
Mathematical instruments  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 1950-1980
Microfilms
Newspapers
Citation:
Data Processing Digest Collection,1955-1974, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0235
See more items in:
Data Processing Digest Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0235

Don C. Hoefler's Microelectronic News Collection

Creator:
Hoefler, Don C.  Search this
Information Technology and Communications, Div. of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Schreiner, Robert J.  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Newsletters
Date:
1975-1987.
Summary:
A collection of the weekly newsletter "Don C. Hoefler's Microelectronic News," covering developments in the world of corporate microelectronics. Most issues include "Manager's Case Book," a two-page editorial on various business and economics topics by Hoefler.
Scope and Contents note:
A collection of the weekly newsletter Don C. Hoefler's Microelectronic News, covering the ongoing developments in the world of corporate microelectronics. Included with most issues is "Manager's Case Book," a two-page editorial on various business and economic topics written by Hoefler. The collection is comprised of two series: Series 1: Newsletters and Series 2: State of the Art. The first series contains "Don C. Hoelfer's Microelectronic Newlsletters" dating from August 1975 to March 1986. The second series is a single CD-ROM with scanned images taken from the book State of the Art by Stan Augarten, published in 1983 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Newletters, 1975-1986

Series 2: State of the Art, 1983
Biographical/Historical note:
A journalist best known for coining the phrase, "Silicon Valley," Hoefler was the editor of the Microelectronic News newsletter. He died in 1986.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum by Robert J. Schreiner in 1999.
Collection donated by Robert J. Schreiner, 2005.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computer industry  Search this
Semiconductors  Search this
Microelectronics  Search this
Microelectronics industry -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newsletters -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Don C. Hoefler's Microelectronic News Collection, 1975-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Robert J. Schreiner.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0884
See more items in:
Don C. Hoefler's Microelectronic News Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0884

Herb Grosch Papers

Creator:
Grosch, Herbert R. J.  Search this
Names:
General Electric Company  Search this
International Business Machines.  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Personal papers
Passports
Lantern slides
Drawings
Correspondence
Clippings
Audiotapes
Diaries
Date:
1938-1998
Summary:
The Herb Grosch Papers, 1948-1998, cover the life and career of an early computer professional. It consists of correspondence, clippings, photographs, computer disks, reports, and other printed materials.
Scope and Contents:
The Herb Grosch Papers, 1948-1998, cover the life and career of an early computer professional. It consists of correspondence, clippings, photographs, computer disks, reports, and other printed materials. The collection is approximately 5 cubic feet and is divided into six series: Series 1, Personal Materials, 1938-1998; Series 2, General Electric (GE), 1955-1968, 1993-1995; Series 3, Control Data Corporation, 1961-1966; Series 4, Other Employment, 1945-1997; Series 5, Professional Interests, 1954-1993; and Series 6, Computer History, 1945-1996. The largest and most comprehensive series within the collection focuses on Grosch's employment, in various capacities, by General Electric. The Control Data material is of special interest due to its in-depth studies of the European computer market in the early 1960s.

Series 1, Personal Materials, 1938-1998, illustrates Grosch's personal life and consists of biographical sketches, identification and business cards, vaccination certificates, daily planners/diaries, flight logs, diplomas, a dissertation, correspondence, articles by and about him, photographs, and the manuscript of his autobiography, Computer,Bit Slices of a Life. The manuscript is of special interest, in that it is a description of Grosch's life up to the 1960s. Also providing personal descriptions of Grosch's life is an extensive chronology of employment written by Grosch. The bulk of the materials date from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s, with another smaller concentration of correspondence in the early 1990s.

Series 2, General Electric (GE), 1953-1968, 1993-1995, contains correspondence, clippings, photographs and printed materials related to Grosch's two tenures at GE. The series is divided into four subseries: General GE Materials, GE's Evandale plant, GE's Computer Department at Arizona State University, and GE's TEMPO think tank in Santa Barbara. The subseries about the Evandale plant and the Arizona Computer Department are most comprehensive, describing the projects from their inception until Grosch's departure. Also of interest to those studying GE history is the collection of letters between Grosch and his Arizona boss, H.R. Oldfield, discussing Oldfield's book about GE and its failure in the computer business.

Series 3, Control Data Corporation, 1961-1966, contains correspondence, reports and printed materials covering Grosch's consulting work with Control Data. The bulk of the material has to do with a survey of the European computer industry and market, undertaken by Grosch for Control Data. Included are over forty reports that Grosch composed from plant visits he made to various European computer companies. Also included is the overall summary of these individual reports.

Series 4, Other Employment, 1945-1994, contains correspondence, printed materials, clippings and photographs related to other employment pursued by Grosch. The series covers Grosch's work at IBM, the Corporation for Economic and Industrial Research (CEIR), and his editorial reign at Computerworld magazine. Of interest to IBM researchers are the photos of early IBM gatherings at Endicott, New York and early IBM machines at the Watson Scientific Computer Laboratory.

Series 5, Professional Interests, 1954-1996, consists of articles and other printed materials related to Grosch's scientific and technical interests. The majority of the series deals with Grosch's interest in computers, their applications and their effects upon society. A smaller set of material relates to other Grosch interests, notably astronomy and scientific standards.

Series 6, Computer History, 1949-1996, consists of clippings, reports, and correspondence illustrating Grosch's interest in the history of computing. Of special interest is a report from U.S. Department of Commerce that lists the technical specifications of a number of old computers. Also, in addition to many more famous computing pioneers, Grosch collected information on English mathematician, L.J. Comrie, including a biographical sketch, photographs and correspondence carried on with Comrie's widow and son.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Personal Materials, 1938-1998

Subseries 1.1, Biographical Materials, 1938-1996

Subseries 1.2, Correspondence, 1948-1998

Subseries 1.3, Travel and Chronology, 1959-1985

Subseries 1.4, Assorted Materials, 1947-1995, undated

Series 2, General Electric (GE), 1953-1968, 1993-1995

Subseries 2.1, General GE Materials, 1953-1966

Subseries 2.2, GE Evandale Plant, 1952, 1955-1956

Subseries 2.3, GE Computer Department, 1954-1958, 1993-1995

Subseries 2.4, GE TEMPO, 1963-1968

Series 3, Control Data Corporation, 1961-1966

Subseries 3.1, General Materials, 1961-1962, 1964, 1966

Subseries 3.2, European Computer Industry Survey, 1961-1963

Series 4, Other Employment, 1945-1997

Series 5, Professional Interests, 1954-1996

Series 6, Computer History, 1945-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Herb Grosch (1918-2010) was born in Saskatoon, Canada and became a United States citizen with his father's naturalization. He attended grade school in Ontario and Ohio and high school in Michigan. He attended the University of Michigan from 1934 to 1941, receiving his B.S. in 1938 and his PhD in 1942, both in astronomy. An outspoken and controversial figure, Grosch's professional career was marked with numerous jobs. In 1941-1942 he was an astronomer for the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. and later during World War II worked on fire control and optical engineering. Grosch's astronomical work required many calculations to be done by hand, thus he was well qualified to deal with the computational issues involved in early computer work. In 1945 he was hired by IBM for the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory in New York, first to do backup calculations for the Manhattan Project and then to help run the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC), an early computer. Grosch was fired in 1951 and moved on to MIT where he worked as a part of the design group for the WHIRLWIND II computer. In 1952 he joined General Electric (GE) and set up and oversaw computer operations in Ohio, Massachusetts, and Arizona. In 1958 he returned to IBM and was the manager of their space program, before being fired again in 1959. Following IBM he moved to Europe and began consulting, notably a survey of the European computer industry for Control Data in 1962-1963. He returned to the United States to work again for GE in 1965, heading the DEACON project at GE's TEMPO think tank. Grosch left GE again in 1967. From 1967 through 1970 he directed the Center for Computer Sciences and Technology for the National Bureau of Standards. From 1973 to 1976 he was the editor of Computerworld magazine. Since then Grosch has lived in both Europe and America and done both consulting work and writing. He wrote and published a autobiography, Computer: Bit Slices of a Life, that describes his rather tempestuous relationships with GE and IBM. Grosch is perhaps best known for Grosch's Law which says the computing power increases as a square of the cost, or more concretely, in order to perform a computation twice as cheaply you must do it four times as fast.
Related Materials:
Grosch was interviewed as a part of the Smithsonian computer oral history project and the taped interviews exist in Collection AC0196, the Computer Oral History Collection, in the Archives Center.
Provenance:
The materials in the collection were donated by Herb Grosch on October 13, 1999.

The Archives Center received an addendum of .50 cubic feet in March 2010 from Ella Doyle.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Use only as needed. For example: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Collection located off-site storage.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Computer industry  Search this
Computation laboratories  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 1950-2000
Passports
Lantern slides
Drawings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Diaries -- 20th century
Citation:
Herb Grosch Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0703
See more items in:
Herb Grosch Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0703
Additional Online Media:

John Clifford Shaw Papers

Topic:
JOHNNIAC computer
JOSS (Electronic computer system)
Creator:
Shaw, J. Clifford (John Clifford), 1922-1991  Search this
Names:
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)  Search this
Association for Computing Machinery.  Search this
Dartmouth College  Search this
Digital Equipment Corporation  Search this
IBM (International Business Machines)  Search this
Massachusetts General Hospital  Search this
UCRL (University of California Radiation Lab)  Search this
Extent:
20.5 Cubic feet (59 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Technical reports
Diagrams
Notes
Memorandums
Place:
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Santa Monica (Calif.) -- 1950-1980
Cambridge (Mass.)
Date:
1933-1993
bulk 1950-1971
Summary:
The John Clifford Shaw papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.
Scope and Contents:
The John Clifford Shaw Papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memoranda, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.

Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971, documents Shaw's most significant work. The subseries are arranged by specific projects and illustrate his pioneering work on programming languages, interactive time-sharing systems, heuristic problem solving, logic programming, stored programs, and artificial intelligence. This work included his role in the development of the JOHNNIAC computer and programs such as the Logic Theorist (LT), General Problem Solver (GPS), and the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS).

The materials include technical reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, coding sequences, and system tests. In addition, there are reports documenting the collaborative nature of the NSS team's work on human problem solving, computer simulation of human thinking, and complex information processing. The subject files in Series 1 document the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) role in the JOSS research and other work done by Shaw.

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986, is arranged into three subseries containing technical reports that document other computer related research being conducted at RAND during Shaw's tenure. These materials are not directly related to his work, including reports documenting defense related research. The series contains memoranda and correspondence illustrating the internal workings and daily operations at RAND from 1950 to 1971 and various sets of annual reports, progress reports, and newsletters from 1960 to 1971. In addition, there are historical materials commemorating RAND anniversaries, profiles of the company, and indexes to RAND publications and abstracts.

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973, consists of printed matter that documents developments at other institutions and companies engaged in artificial intelligence and programming research. The printed matter includes reports, manuals, brochures, and reprints of articles about research by other institutions, companies, and individuals. Also, there are materials from trips, conferences and seminars attended by Shaw.

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990, comprises Shaw's work after he left RAND in 1971. It consists of reports and reprints from companies and institutions for which Shaw worked or from those he saw as potential clients. Of particular interest are the research notes, on note cards and 8.5" x 11" paper that illuminate Shaw's ideas and thoughts regarding artificial intelligence and programming languages during this period.

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993, consists of printed matter regarding Shaw's life and accomplishments. It contains resumes, list of publications and lectures, salary history, and the outline for a book on JOSS. Material on Shaw's personal life includes information about his family, personal correspondence with Herbert Simon, Allen Newell and his wife, Marian, Chuck Baker, Edward Feigenbaum, and correspondence from authors requesting information or comment on future publications. Additionally, there are reprints and clippings that reveal Shaw's personal interests in political issues such as the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, the making of the hydrogen bomb, and Star Wars Defense Technology.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into five series.

Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971

Subseries 1.1: JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968

Subseries 1.2: Logic Therorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963

Subseries 1.3: General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967

Subseries 1.4: Chess Program, 1954-1973

Subseries 1.5: Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.), 1953-1972

Subseries 1.6: Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977

Subseries 1.7: JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977

Subseries 1.8: Subject Files, 1954-1971

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986

Subseries 2.1: Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972

Subseries 2.2: Reports and Papers—General, 1949-1971

Subseries 2.3: RAND Material, 1948-1988

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993
Biographical / Historical:
John Clifford Shaw (1922-1991) was born in Southern California. Shaw went to Fullerton High School, the same high school as Richard Nixon. Shaw's English teacher was Nixon's high school debate team coach. Shaw attended Fullerton Junior College from 1939 until February 1943. At the same time, he worked as a timekeeper at the Douglas Aircraft Company, where he was responsible for time-card calculations and reports. He served in the Army Air Force for three years during World War II as a navigation instructor and then aircraft navigator in the 4th Emergency Rescue Squadron in Iwo Jima, Japan. Shaw returned to California in 1947 and began working for the Beneficial Standard Life Insurance Company as an assistant to the actuary, compiling actuarial calculations of premium rates, reserve liabilities, and annual reports. Shaw and his wife Marian had four children: Doug (b. 1948), David (b. 1950), Donna (b. 1952), and John (b. 1962). By 1948, Shaw received his Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from UCLA and in 1950 joined the newly formed RAND Corporation as a mathematician.

The RAND Corporation evolved during the years after World War II amidst the escalating Cold War. Project RAND was originally carried out under a contract with the Douglas Aircraft Company. RAND was incorporated in May 1948. RAND, a California nonprofit corporation, was one of the earliest Cold War "think tanks" that functioned as an interdisciplinary research and development facility; it received large sums of money from the Air Force and Atomic Energy Commission. Throughout the 1950s, other agencies such as the Department of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solicited scientific and foreign policy research from RAND. During Shaw's tenure (1950-1971), money flowed into RAND and enabled many scientists and researchers, including Shaw and his colleagues in the Math and Numerical Analysis Department, to explore new avenues of discovery.

Shaw's early work at RAND involved administrative matters, such as improving the processes of company management through automation of the computation and calculation techniques. This work included collaboration with Allen Newell on a radar simulator. In the mid-1950s, Newell and Shaw, and later Dr. Herbert Simon of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, formed the team known by the mid-1950s in the artificial intelligence field as NSS (Newell, Shaw, and Simon). The NSS team broke much ground in the field of artificial intelligence, programming languages, computer simulation of human problem solving, and man-machine communication. The radar simulator project involved studying how humans made decisions and whether one could design a program that could simulate human decision-making. While Newell and Simon concentrated on the human behavior aspect, Shaw focused on creating a programming language that would implement Simon and Newell's concepts.

When Shaw began working in 1950, RAND was using six IBM 604 calculators to satisfy its scientific computing needs. In the early 1950s, RAND decided that it needed more computational power to accomplish projects for the Air Force and decided to build a Princeton-type computer named JOHNNIAC, after computer designer John von Neumann. The Princeton Class computer was considered state-of-the-art and was running at RAND by the first half of 1953. William Gunning was the project leader and Shaw worked on the selection of the instruction set and the design of the operator's console. The JOHNNIAC became the basis for Shaw's work on conversational time-sharing in the 1960s.

During the early 1950s, the dynamic of the innovative process was at work as Shaw and Newell in California, and Simon in Pittsburgh, were theorizing about human decision making, programming languages, and how computers could be manipulated to process information more productively. Air Force funding enabled Shaw and his colleague's considerable intellectual and academic freedom to explore various hypotheses. In the mid-1950s, NSS began forming the theoretical basis for what they called Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.). C.I.P was the basis for the three main computer programs developed by NSS: the Chess Program, Logic Theorist (LT), and the General Problem Solver (GPS). By 1954, Shaw's focus was on utilizing the power of the JOHNNIAC to develop a viable language that could simulate human behavior.

In early 1954, Newell left RAND for Pittsburgh to work with Simon; Shaw remained at RAND. The NSS team focused on creating programs that would enable a machine to exhibit intelligent behavior and "think" like a human. Chess and the Logic Theorist (LT) were the first programs that evolved from their work. Shaw dealt with the programming aspects, as Simon devoted his time to human thinking processes for chess, logic, and problem solving. Newell, who was still employed by RAND, was the middle man who worked both in programming and human behavior. He flew back to California every couple of months in 1954 and 1955 to confer with Shaw. Because of language limitations, the chess program was temporarily put aside as NSS decided to finish the LT. Known as IPL (Information Processing Language), the language developed by Shaw was one of the first list processing languages. Through experimentation with assemblers, compilers, and interpreters, Shaw developed list processing sequences that allowed the computer to arrange and store data more effectively. The effectiveness stemmed from links that formed the lists. From a storage point of view, lists were inefficient. Shaw translated Simon and Newell's ideas into IPL. The IPL interpreter was able to compile and translate higher level language statements into machine language. The interpreters process the statements and carry out the indicated operations without generating machine code which must then be executed. Although not specifically programmed so, one of LT's innovative characteristics was that it proved mathematical theorems from Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica, including a proof from Theorem 2.85 that the authors had missed. This was the most fascinating aspect of the program because LT was not programmed to find alternative proofs.

The NSS team's work on the LT was completed by the end of 1955, and it perfected the program language in the winter and spring of 1956. LT was one of the earliest programs to investigate the use of heuristics in problem solving. It was capable of discovering and working out proofs for theorems in symbolic logic. In the summer of 1956, NSS presented the LT program to the artificial intelligence community at the Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference. Relatively unknown at the time, NSS excited the conference with the LT and the possibilities it opened in the study of programming languages and artificial intelligence.

The NSS team continued to focus on developing artificial intelligence. By 1957, NSS had constructed the General Problem Solver (GPS) program that attempted to demonstrate various human thinking processes in a variety of environments. At RAND and Carnegie Tech, studies were conducted that had human subjects think aloud in hopes of identifying human problem solving techniques and simulating them in GPS. NSS codified some human problem solving techniques such as means-end analysis, planning, and trial and error. Through the end of the 1950s, NSS produced improved versions of the IPL language and studied heuristic methods of decision making.

By 1960, when the JOHNNIAC was of insufficient computing power to support the level of computation needed, and IPL had been reprogrammed for the IBM 7090, List Processing (LISP), a high-level programming language had overtaken IPL as the language of choice for Artificial Intelligence research. Shaw's interests had shifted towards attempting to simplify the use of computers for all types of computer users. Simon and Newell continued to study how they could simulate human cognitive processes on a computer. Until this point, a user would have to be adequately trained in programming or need assistance from a programmer to use a computer like JOHNNIAC. Shaw was interested in programming the JOHNNIAC so RAND staff could utilize the computer for small as well as large scientific computations. The JOHNNIAC was available for experimental research projects because RAND owned a newer IBM 7090 (acquired in 1960) which handled the bulk of RAND's production computing load. Although JOHNNIAC was no longer state-of-the-art by this time, its major appeal was its reliability and capability for experimentation.

These factors were the impetus for the initiation of the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS) project in November 1960. JOSS was intended to be an easy to use, on-line, time sharing system. The JOSS research, conducted under the Information Processor Project, was formalized in 1959 as part of the RAND Computer Science Department and was heavily funded by the Air Force. The innovative character of JOSS was in the ease of use for the non-programmer, its remote access capabilities, the establishment of an interactive environment between user and computer, and the capability for RAND scientists and engineers to use the computer without an intermediary programmer. It was hoped that the JOSS project would bridge the communication gap between man and machine. JOSS's user language achieved this goal. It featured a small set of English verbs and algebraic symbols which did not need a programmer as intermediary between user and computer. During 1961-1962, Shaw selected the character set that would be used to write JOSS programs, its syntax, and grammar. The conversational environment included a Model B IBM Electric Typewriter. Tom Ellis and Mal Davis directed the hardware configurations and Ike Hehama, Allen Newell, and Keith Uncapher participated in the project discussions with Shaw.

The very limited JOSS experiments on the JOHNNIAC began in May 1963, with five consoles, one connected to the JOHNNIAC and four others located in the offices of various RAND staff. By June, a schedule of operations was in place and by January 1964, JOSS was fully implemented. The use of JOSS by RAND staff was higher than expected as users taught other users how to run the system. However, Shaw and the other designers worried that JOHNNIAC's hardware placed limitations on speed and storage which might taint the evaluation of JOSS. In July 1964, a second version of JOSS was proposed on a more powerful computer. C.L. Baker was named project head, and Shaw focused on developing the programming language for JOSS II.

After accepting numerous bids to replace JOHNNIAC, a contract was signed with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) promising the installation of a PDP-6 computer and thirty consoles at RAND. The installation was completed by October 31, 1965. At the Fall Joint Computer Conference in Las Vegas in December 1965, the first demonstration of remote use of JOSS II was given. JOHNNIAC was retired on February 18, 1966, with Willis Ware delivering a eulogy and Shaw loading a final JOSS I program. By the end of 1966, JOSS II was available to users 24 hours a day, seven days a week on the new PDP-6/JOSS computer, which had thirty times the speed and five times the storage capacity as the JOHNNIAC version. In April 1967, the maintenance and improvement of JOSS II was transferred from the development group to a small staff under G.W. Armending. In 1971, at age 49, Shaw left the RAND Corporation.

In 1971, Shaw took a one-year appointment as a Research Associate in the Information Science Department at the California Institute of Technology. In 1972, he began working as a consultant which he continued for the rest of his professional career. Much of his work in the 1970s and 1980s consisted of formulating new ideas on operations research, video games, man-machine interfaces, interactive computer systems, time-sharing, information architecture design, and artificial intelligence. During the 1980s, Shaw also became more involved in church-related activities.

Shaw's work on creating the Information Processing Language in the 1950s and the JOSS program in the 1960s were the two major contributions he made to the fields of programming and artificial intelligence. His IPL-I programming language is one of the earliest examples of list processing languages now in widespread use. The JOSS program was one of the first easy-to use, remotely accessible, interactive programs that allowed non-programmers to utilize the power of a computer.
Related Materials:
Material in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Computer Oral History Collection, AC0196

Material in Other Institutions

Charles Babbage Institute

L.A. County Museum

For RAND reports see www.RAND.org
Provenance:
The collection was donated by John Clifford Shaw's eldest son, Doug Shaw, March 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mathematicians  Search this
Computer programmers  Search this
Computers -- military applications  Search this
Decision making -- Mathematical models  Search this
System analysts  Search this
Online data processing  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980 -- United States  Search this
Computational linguistics  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980 -- Soviet Union  Search this
Mathematical models  Search this
Programming languages (electronic computers) -- 1950-70  Search this
Iph (Computer Program Language)  Search this
List processing (Electronic computers)  Search this
Job Control Language (Computer program language)  Search this
GPS (General Problem Solver)  Search this
Problem solving -- Data processing  Search this
Logic machines  Search this
Time-sharing computer systems  Search this
Heuristic programming  Search this
Logic programming  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Technical reports -- 1950-1980
Diagrams
Notes -- 1950-1980
Memorandums -- 1950-1980
Citation:
John Clifford Shaw papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0580
See more items in:
John Clifford Shaw Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0580
Additional Online Media:

West of Eden : the end of innocence at Apple Computer / Frank Rose

Author:
Rose, Frank  Search this
Subject:
Apple Computer, Inc History  Search this
Physical description:
356 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1989
Topic:
Computer industry--History  Search this
Call number:
HD9696.C64A867 1989X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_375049

Digital State: The Story of Minnesota's Computing Industry, by Thomas J. Misa

Author:
Ceruzzi, Paul E.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2014
Topic:
Flight  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Space sciences  Search this
Flight  Search this
Space sciences  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_127520

Joseph D. Mountain Collection

Creator:
Mountain, Joseph D., 1902-1970  Search this
Names:
Arabian American Oil Company  Search this
Mountain, Joseph D., 1902-1970  Search this
Extent:
1.57 Cubic Feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Diaries
Correspondence
Maps
Photographs
Publications
Place:
Saudi Arabia
Date:
1916 - 1970
Summary:
This collection follows Mountain's aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection follows Joseph Mountain's aviation career and includes photographic negatives and prints, diaries and flight log books, reports, and maps. Mountain's photographs from his service in Saudi Arabia are of particular interest --taken not long before the great oil discoveries at Dammam in 1938, they capture the desert kingdom at the very edge of the tremendous changes that the oil economy brought to the Gulf. The images are a fascinating record of traditional Saudi Arabian life, crafts and architecture. Highlights include portraits of dancers at Eid al-Fitr celebrations, market scenes in Hufuf and the Old Town of Al Jubail, camel caravans, Saudi hunters with their hawks, and pearl fishermen and their dhows. Mountain also extensively photographed members of the CASOC team at work and interacting with their Saudi workers and acquaintances.

Joseph Mountain's negatives are stored in the Archive Division's cold vault and are not available to researchers. Scans of the negatives may be viewed in the Archives Division reading room, or through the Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS) web site at http://bit.ly/dL2zDs.
Arrangement:
No series - arranged by materials: Documents, oversize and images
Biographical/Historical note:
Joseph Dunlap Mountain was born on October 24, 1902 in Cherryvale, Kansas. He joined the U.S. Army Air Service in 1919; he was awarded his wings and commissioned a second lieutenant in 1921. Mountain continued to fly after leaving the Air Service and also took up photography.

In 1928, Mountain was employed by the Continental Air Map Company in the aerial mapping of the state of California. In 1934-1935, he served as a pilot, aerial photographer, darkroom technician and mechanic for the California-Arabian Standard Oil Company (CASOC; in 1944 renamed the Arabian American Oil Company --Aramco, now Saudi Aramco) expedition to Saudi Arabia; Mountain logged over 221 hours of reconnaissance and mapping flights for CASOC. In 1936-1937, Mountain contracted with the Saudi Arabia Mining Syndicate to make an aerial survey of the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia.

From 1937-1947, Mountain was a pilot for Trans World Airlines. During World War II, Mountain returned to active duty with the U.S. Army Air Forces as a training officer in the Air Transport Command. He was awarded the Bronze Star while serving in the China-Burma-India Theater and supervising supply missions over "The Hump" --the dangerous air route over the Himalaya Range. In 1945 he was promoted to full Colonel and appointed executive officer of the Committee for Air Navigation and Traffic Control.

In 1947, Mountain entered the computer industry with International Telephone and Telegraph. Later, he founded Mountain Systems, a digital computer manufacturing company, and Mountain Datasystem, a data processing firm. During the Korean War, he served as an Air Force liaison officer with the Bell Telephone Laboratories. After the war, he returned to civilian life and continued to work in the computer industry. Joseph Mountain died on November 25, 1970 at the age of 68.
Provenance:
Isabel Mountain, gift, 1991, 1991-0079, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at http://airandspace.si.edu/permissions
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Cartography  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Correspondence
Maps
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Joseph D. Mountain Collection, Acc. 1991-0079, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0079
See more items in:
Joseph D. Mountain Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0079
Additional Online Media:

SHARE Records

Creator:
Bernstein, Maurine  Search this
Oswald, Alison  Search this
Bernstein, Morton I.  Search this
Strong, Jack  Search this
Wagner, Frank  Search this
Armer, Paul, 1924- (computer technician)  Search this
Author:
SHARE (Association)  Search this
Extent:
20.5 Cubic feet (57 boxes including audiocassettes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Audiocassettes
Date:
1955-1986
Summary:
SHARE, the first organized user group in the computer industry, was established by a group of IBM 704 users in the Los Angeles area in 1955. The records document the SHARE group through proceedings of minutes, technical reports, by-laws, policies, projects, and subject files.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the SHARE group through proceedings of minutes, technical reports, by-laws, policies, projects, and subject files.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into six series:

Series 1, Proceedings of Meetings, 1958 1986

Series 2, Share Secretary Distributions (SSD), 1958 1986

Series 3, Corporate Organization, 1970 1973

Series 4, Computer Measurement & Evaluation Project, 1967 1984

Series 5, Committee on Graphic Requirements, 1965-1967

Series 6, Subject Files, 1955 1979
Biographical / Historical:
SHARE (Society to Help Avoid Redundant Effort), the first organized user group in the computer industry, was established by a group of IBM 704 users in the Los Angeles area in 1955. After IBM announced the introduction of the 704 in early 1955, MM installations recognized the need for a cooperative effort to prepare for the onset of new hardware. A similar group, the Project for the Advancement of Coding Techniques (PACT), had been formed in 1954 to improve computer productivity of the IBM 701. The spark for the creation of SHARE was a seminar conducted by the MM Applied Science on the new IBM 704. At the seminar, many users realized that they were more informed about IBM hardware than the IBM seminar instructors. After lunch on the day of the seminar, Jack Strong and Frank Wagner of North American Aviation, Lee Amaya of Lockheed, and Paul Armer of the Rand Corporation placed calls to all known 704 customers from a phone booth in Los Angeles to plan a meeting. The meeting was to bring together all 704 users for the purpose of cooperative planning for 704 installations. During the week of August 22, 1955, the first SHARE meeting (SHARE I) was held in the basement conference room of the RAND Corporation. Forty-six people, representing seventeen IBM 704 installations, were at the first meeting.

From the beginning SHARE's primary goals were to foster joint research and development, provide a forum for the exchange of ideas pertaining to computer science, facilitate the development of data processing standards and for dialogue with IBM hardware and software users, and promote the exchange of programs. During the ensuing years, SHARE held meetings biannually and various organizational policies and trends were established. SHARE III established basic rules of procedure and definition of membership. SHARE V, held in May 1956, established the practice of having smaller workshops at the meeting. At SHARE VII, members from Canada, France, and England were included and a formal set of by laws was created establishing SHARE as a formal organizational structure. In addition, SHARE VII initiated Standing Committees and an Executive Board. At SHARE IX, the hardware emphasis was combined with a focus on programming languages, translators, commercial data processing, and application packages. In April 1964, IBM announced the availability of the new System 360 and the next several years were focused on the OS/360, new time sharing technology, and absorbing new members with application interests varying from the original SHARE members.

During 1968 and 1969, SHARE was planning for a merger with another user group, GUIDE. GUIDE was an IBM user group concerned with the 705 and the 7080. In 1969, the merger was voted down and this prompted a major restructuring of SHARE. An administrative office with full time help was established, the by laws were redrawn, and SHARE in its original form was dissolved and renamed SHARE Inc. The name change was completed at SHARE 34 in Denver, Colorado in March 1970. In practice, SHARE continued to function in the same way but with more precise definition of behavior and larger recognition of the information processing marketplace.

By 1986, members of SHARE represented the mainstream of the world's computer usage development. A substantial percentage of major users of high speed digital computing equipment now belong to SHARE. SHARE continues to provide users with a forum to gain knowledge from formal proceedings and informal conversations with colleagues having similar concerns. SHARE provides IBM with documented user requirements for developing new products and for modifying present hardware and software systems. SHARE has produced formal specifications to further define these requirements. Through SHARE procedures for establishing such requirements and evaluating their relative costs and merits, IBM has received concise information about user needs.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Computer Oral History Collection (AC0196)

Share Numerical Analysis Project Records (AC0498)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Morton and Maurine Bernstein, October, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use: Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Computers -- 1950-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Citation:
SHARE Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0567
See more items in:
SHARE Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0567

Division of Information and Technology Computer Oral History Collection

Sponsor:
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (14 boxes )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1987-2003
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of oral history interviews conducted between 1993 and 2006 with individuals in the computing industry.
Biographical / Historical:
The Monticello Memoirs Program captured for posterity the story of the information technology revolution in the words of the men and women who are leading it. In private conversations and in public discussions at Thomas Jefferson's home at Monticello, on the grounds of the University of Virginia and at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the information revolution reflected on its progress to date and their vision of the future. Captured for the research collections of the National Museum of American History, the dialogues of the Monticello Fellows will encourage others to follow in their footsteps, to learn from their mistakes and to emulate their innovative spirit and achievements.

The 1996 Monticello Memoirs Fellows included: Seymour Cray, founder Cray Research; Gordon Moore, co-founder, Intel Corporation; Gordon Bell, inventor of the minicomputer; Jay Forrester, system dynamics visionary; and Robert Metcalfe, founder, 3Com. The topics were explored in private conversations at Monticello and in public discussions on the grounds of the University of Virginia -- which Mr. Jefferson founded, designed and built.

The 1997 Monticello Memoirs Fellows included Eric Andersen, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers; Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web; Danny Hillis, a pioneer of parallel processing; F. William Hoffman, Managing Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers; Anita Jones, Director of Defense Research Engineering, U.S. Department of Defense; Henning Kagermann, Executive Board Member, SAP AG; Robert Kahn, co-creator of the Internet protocol; Roland Moreno, inventor of the smart card; Jacques Stern, an early pioneer in real-time computing; and Paul Wahl, President and Chief Executive Officer, SAP America Inc.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

In some instances reference (viewing) copies do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
Division of Information and Technology Computer Oral History Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1303
See more items in:
Division of Information and Technology Computer Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1303

West Coast Computer Faire Collection

Collector:
Jones, Ernie  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Handbills
Date:
1980
1977
Summary:
Collection contains product literature, newsletters, and other hand-outs collected from exhibitors by Ernie Jones, a faire attendee. The First West Coast Computer Faire was held in San Francisco, California on April 15-17, 1977, and the Fifth West Coast Computer Faire was held on March 14-16, 1980.
Scope and Contents:
Collection is divided into two series: 1977 Faire Materials and 1980 Faire Materials. In some instances, the dates associated with the materials are recorded. Otherwise, all materials are dated 1977 or 1980. The 1977 and 1980 Faires were held at the San Francisco Civic Auditorium and Brooks Hall. The programs for the faires include the schedule at a glance, list of sessions, advertisements, lists of exhibitors and booth, and the conference proceedings from previous fairs. The materials contain product literature for computer hardware and software, publications, newsletters, journals, advertisements, and other computer-related information. The fairs included papers, talks, demonstrations, and exhibits.
Arrangement:
The collection organized into two series.

Series 1: 1977 Faire Materials

Series 2: 1980 Faire Materials
Biographical / Historical:
The West Coast Computer Faire was an annual computer industry conference and exposition that was often held in San Francisco. The first faire was held in 1977 at the San Francisco Auditorium and Brooks Hall. It was organized by Jim Warren and Bob Reiling. At the time it was the biggest computer show in the world, intended to popularize the personal computer in the home. However, Apple stopped exhibiting at the West Coast Computer Faire, refusing to exhibit at any show other than COMDEX that also had PC based exhibits. In 1983, Warren sold the rights to the Faire for US$3 million to Prentice Hall, who later sold it to Sheldon Adelson, the owner of Interface Group and COMDEX. In total, sixteen shows were held, with the last in 1992. The Fifth West Coast Computer Faire was held from March 14-16, 1980 in San Francisco and its focus was intelligent machines for home, business and industry.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Ernie Jones on October 20, 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Exhibitions -- 1960-1990  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Handbills
Citation:
West Coast Computer Faire Collection, 1977, 1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1118
See more items in:
West Coast Computer Faire Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1118
Additional Online Media:

Gordon D. Goldstein Collection

Creator:
Goldstein, Gordon D.  Search this
Names:
ENIAC.  Search this
Electrical Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC).  Search this
Remington Rand.  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Technical manuals
Design drawings
Date:
1948 - 1957
Summary:
Papers relate to Gordon D. Goldstein, a computer engineer and frequent seminar speaker and participant, especially in the fields of linguistics and machine translation.
Scope and Contents:
The Goldstein Collection documents an interesting and important period in the development of the early computer industry. Many of the items in the collection are technical in nature; others, however, provide an interesting perspective on the development of post-war American culture. Items in the collection include design and training materials, operational manuals, professional literature, advertisements and promotional items, photographs, business and office documentation, and conference and seminar materials.

The collection is divided into five series. The first three series correspond to Goldstein's employment history; the fourth series includes notes and minutes from UNIVAC and computer conferences attended by Goldstein; and the fifth series contains general computer publications and computer advertisements. Of particular interest in the last series is a copy of the 1954 Report to the Association for Computing Machinery: First Glossary of Programming Terminology. This item was edited by Grace Murray Hopper.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series.

Series 1, National Bureau of Standards, Electronic Computers Section/Standards Eastern Automatic Computer, 1948-1953

Series 2, U.S. Navy/Applied Mathematics Laboratory, 1950-1957

Series 3, UNIVAC-Remington Rand Corporation/Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, 1948--956

Series 4, UNIVAC Conferences, 1950-1956

Series 5, Publications and Competitor Materials, 1950-1955
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1917, Gordon D. Goldstein graduated from Clarkson College of Technology with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. In 1941, Goldstein took a job with the Army Signal Corp as a civilian inspector of radio and navigation equipment. After leaving the Army Signal Corp, Goldstein took a job as development engineer at the Washington Institute of Technology where he was employed until 1950. From 1950 to 1951 he worked as chief engineer with computers for the Census Bureau in Philadelphia.

In 1951, Goldstein left the Census Bureau and took a job with the Navy Department. During his tenure there, Goldstein worked in three offices or divisions: the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (electronics scientist), the David Taylor Model Basin's Applied Mathematics Laboratory, and the Office of Naval Research (ONR), Information Systems Program where he was involved with applications of UNIVAC I. Goldstein worked in the Office of Naval Research from 1956 until his retirement in 1980.

Sources

Berkeley, Edmund C., ed. Who's Who in Computers and Data Processing 1971: A Biographical Dictionary of Leading Computer Professionals. New York: The New York Times Book and Educational Division, 1971.

Gordon D. Goldstein Papers, 1950-1979. Charles Babbage Institute: Center for the History of Information Processing.

Williams, Michael R. A History of Computing Technology. Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997.
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

The Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing houses the Gordon D. Goldstein Papers, 1950-1979, http://special.lib.umn.edu/findaid/xml/cbi00068.xml

Archives Center, National Museum of American History houses the Computer Oral History Collection, 1969-1973, 1977 http://invention.smithsonian.org/resources/fa_comporalhist_index.aspx
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Gordon D. Goldstein on December 13, 1978.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Seac computer  Search this
Systems engineering  Search this
Univac computer  Search this
Computers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Design drawings
Citation:
Gordon D. Goldstein Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0554
See more items in:
Gordon D. Goldstein Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0554
Additional Online Media:

Daniel Henderson Portable Electronic Devices Documentary Collection

Creator:
Henderson, Daniel  Search this
Hashimoto, Kazuo  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (9 boxes, 1 oversized folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Press releases
Technical notes
Articles
Patents
Manuals
Photocopies
Date:
1968-2002
Summary:
The collection consists of photocopied American, Japanese, German, and French patents; photocopied articles, advertisements, news releases, user manuals, buyer's guides, company analyses, technical references, and an oversize timeline documenting the history and development of cellular phones and related wireless devices.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of photocopied American, Japanese, German, and French patents; photocopied articles, advertisements, news releases, user manuals, buyer's guides, company analyses, technical references, and an oversize timeline. The collection provides documentation for 79 artifacts—including telephone answering machines, cellular phones, and related wireless devices—which Henderson donated to the museum's Electrical Collections holdings. Compiled by Henderson to accompany the artifacts, the materials document the history and development of cellular phones and related wireless devices. The materials are arranged into twelve series and reflect the original order in which Henderson created them. Henderson assembled books/binders of material with numeric dividers. There is no index nor is there a key to the four-letter alphabetical acronyms used in books four, eight and nine.

Series 1, Book One, 1977-1994; Series 2, Book Two, 1978-1995; and Series 3, Book Three, 1978-1995, contain photocopied American patents.

Series 4, Book Four, 1992-2002, is comprised of photocopied American patents divided into two separate arrangements: numerically from 300 to 363, and by four-letter code from DDTQ-DDUE.

Series 5, Book Five, 1979-2002, is comprised of photocopied American, French, German, and Japanese photocopied patents.

Series 6, Book Six, 1990-1995, consists of photocopied materials that include a Magic Cap catalog, a General Magic information pamphlet, English and Japanese articles, advertisements, press releases, buyer's guides, Telecomworldwire news releases, Telocator Network Paging Protocall (October 20, 1993), and Telocator Data Protocall (June 12, 1993).

Series 7, Book Seven, 1992-1995, includes a Telocator Alphanumeric Protocall (July 21, 1994), several technical references, articles, user's manuals, advertisements, Telecomworldwire news releases, and technical references.

Series 8, Book Eight, 1981-2002, is divided into sections according to four-letter codes. In the attached container listing, the files are arranged and listed according to Henderson's original order. Materials include photocopied articles, news releases, advertisements, and user manuals.

Series 9, Book Nine, 1991-2002, is divided into sections according to four-letter codes. In the attached container listing, the files are arranged and listed according to Henderson's original order, followed by unlabeled materials. The first two folders have coded labels; the last three do not. Records in Book Nine are comprised of photocopied articles, news releases, and buyer's guides, in addition to company analyses for WORLDCOM and Sprint.

Series 10, Book Ten, 1991-2002, is comprised of unlabeled materials including articles, advertisements, and news releases, in addition to a photocopy of US patent # 3,727,003.

Series 11, Book I-II, 1968-2002, is divided into sections according to four-letter codes which are dated and arranged chronologically. In the attached container listing, the files are arranged and listed according to Henderson's original order. Materials are comprised of color computer prints of significant people and devices; and photocopies of patents, articles, and advertisements. CD-ROM 875.3 contains some of the articles in PDF format.

Series 12, Timeline, 1968-2002, consists of the Converged Wireless Communications / Computing Device Development timeline which traces the chronological development of portable electronic devices. The oversized chart measures 90" by 50" and begins with the first answering machine and ends with "Smart Phones." The timeline includes scanned images of inventors, patents, advertisements, devices, and textual information. Copies of the time line in PDF format are available on CD ROMS 875.1-2.

Information from the above historical note came primarily from the PhoneTel Communications website located at http://www.phonetel.com.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twelve series.

Series 1, Book One, 1977-1994

Series 2, Book Two, 1978-1995

Series 3, Book Three, 1978-1995

Series 4, Book Four, 1992-2002

Series 5, Book Five, 1979-2002

Series 6, Book Six, 1990-1995

Series 7, Book Seven, 1992-1995

Series 8, Book Eight, 1981-2002

Series 9, Book Nine, 1991-2002

Series 10, Book Ten, 1991-2002

Series 11, Book I-II, 1968-2002

Series 12, Timeline materials, 1968-2002
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Kazuo Hashimoto, widely recognized as the father of the modern answering machine, was an inspired technologist who developed thousands of advancements in the field of telephony. Hashimoto registered over 1000 patents throughout the world, over 800 of which are related to the telephone answering device. In 1993, inventor Daniel Henderson became an apprentice of Hashimoto and worked with him on licensing, management issues, and infringement analysis. After Hashimoto's death in August 1995, Henderson turned his attention to ensuring that Hashimoto's work would be respected in the telecommunications and computer industries. In 1996, Henderson and Hashimoto's widow co-founded PhoneTel Communications, a company dedicated to protecting the patent portfolios of inventors including Hashimoto. By successfully licensing with nearly every telecommunications and computer company, Henderson made sure Hashimoto's work was respected and rewarded.

Henderson has broad experience in the creation, management, and licensing of intellectual property. He also holds numerous patents in telephony and communications. Henderson was formerly with IBM Corporation and received the "Distinguished Alumnus Award" from Southern Oregon University. Henderson worked with Jack Kilby, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2000 for the invention of the world's first integrated circuit (IC) chip. At the time this collection was donated, Henderson presided over several companies including PhoneTel Patent Services, PhoneTel Communications, and Pinpoint Incorporated. Henderson's many ties to the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) include establishing the PhoneTel IE Inventions and Patents Fund, the PhoneTel Endowed Graduate Fellowship Fund, and involvement in creating a new course entitled "Inventions and Patents." He was the commencement speaker when NJIT first presented the Hashimoto Prize in 1998.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry (formerly the Division of Information, technology and Society) holds artifacts, such as telephone answering machines, cell phones and related wireless devices related to this collection. See accession # 2003.0095.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Daniel Henderson on April 25, 2003.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Telephone answering and recording equipment industry  Search this
telephone -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
telephone -- History  Search this
Cellular telephone equipment industry  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 1950-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Press releases
Technical notes
Articles
Patents -- 20th century
Manuals
Photocopies
Citation:
Daniel Henderson Portable Electronic Devices Documentary Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0875
See more items in:
Daniel Henderson Portable Electronic Devices Documentary Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0875

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