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Menominee Tribe Code Talkers, United States, 2014

Maker:
United States Mint  Search this
Physical Description:
bronze (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: .7 cm x 7.7 cm; 9/32 in x 3 1/32 in
Object Name:
medal
Place made:
United States
Date made:
2014
Credit Line:
Transfer from the U.S. Mint
ID Number:
2016.0205.82
Accession number:
2016.0205
Catalog number:
2016.0205.82
See more items in:
Work and Industry: National Numismatic Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1814738

E. O. Richter & Co. 2330 Set of Drawing Instruments Sold by Frederik Preisler

Maker:
E. O. Richter & Co.  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
leather (overall material)
fabric (overall material)
german silver (overall material)
steel (overall material)
aluminum (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2.5 cm x 27 cm x 11.7 cm; 31/32 in x 10 5/8 in x 4 19/32 in
Object Name:
drawing instruments, set of
Place made:
Germany: Saxony, Chemnitz
Date made:
ca 1920
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Drafting, Engineering  Search this
Credit Line:
Transfer from Library of Congress, Exchange and Gift Division
ID Number:
1985.0909.01
Accession number:
1985.0909
Catalog number:
1985.0909.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Drawing Instruments
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1214582
Additional Online Media:

OUTGOING CORRESPONDENCE OF ALBERT WERNER, 1968-1975. ARRANGED CHRONOLOGICALLY.

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Moonwatch Division  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Note:
This series consists of the official outgoing correspondence of Albert Werner in his capacity as Moonwatch director, 1968-1975. The related incoming material will be found in Series 2 and Series 3. The letters in this series are addressed primarily to Moonwatch observers, but also to the public, NASA officials, and astronomers around the world. Topics include communications, equipment, monetary matters, current projects, and tracking and reporting procedures.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 255, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Moonwatch Division, Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 255, Series 1
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0255-refidd1e230

Aviation's newest aid--remarkable anti-fog invention guides Lieut. Doolittle's blind plane to safe landing. MITCHEL FIELD, L.I.--Photo shows Sergent Harry Dalton with the tiny radio transmitter used on Lieut. Doolittle's plane which had two-way communi...

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Dalton, Harry, Sgt.  Search this
Doolittle, James Harold, 1896-1993  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-1/2" x 3-3/4".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Long Island (N.Y.)
Mitchel
New York
Local Numbers:
RSN 18234
General:
This image forms a stereo pair with 0143.VDF 175560. Catalogued separately in error, then the following incorrect note was entered: "NOTE: THERE IS NO RSN 18235 IN FILE BOX [VIDEONUM 17560 IS BLANK]."
Currently stored in box 3.1.70 [227A].
Orig. no. A-14.
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Laborers -- New York  Search this
Radios -- New York  Search this
Transmitters -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.1: Underwood and Underwood Negatives / RSN Numbers 18165-18288
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref14667

[Four soldiers with heavy communications equipment in winding battlefield trench.] 14558 interpositive

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (+Size 2 1/4 x 5)
Type:
Archival materials
Stereoscopic photographs
Photographs
Local Numbers:
RSN 25396
General:
Company catalog card included.
Currently stored in box 3.2.43 [143].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
N-802
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Battlefields  Search this
Communications  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Trench warfare  Search this
War  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Stereographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereoscopic photographs
Photographs -- 1910-1920 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 25311-25432
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref23159

Aviation's newest aid--remarkable anti-fot invention guides Lieut. Doolittle's blind plane to safe landing. MITCHEL FIELD, L.I.--Photo shows Sergent Harry Dalton with the tiny radio transmitter used on Lieut. Doolittle's plane which had two-way communi...

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Local Numbers:
RSN 18235
General:
The catalg entry for RSN 18234 had an incorrect note, saying "THERE IS NO RSN 18235 IN FILE BOX [VIDEONUM 17560 IS BLANK]." This image forms a stereo pair with 0143.VDF 17559. Catalogued separately in error.
Currently stored in box 3.1.70 [227A].
Orig. no. A-204.
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.1: Underwood and Underwood Negatives / RSN Numbers 18165-18288
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref28097

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (869 boxes and 21 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-six series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Materials for Interfile (Series 1; Series 3; Series 13; Series 15-23; Series 25-26)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Additional Online Media:

Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records

Inventor:
Del Mar, Bruce  Search this
Source:
Del Mar Avionics Corporation  Search this
Former owner:
Del Mar Avionics Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Date:
1951-2011
Summary:
Collection documents the development of the Holter Monitor, a portable device for continuously monitoring heart activity for an extended period, through engineering logbooks, drawings, operator manuals, correspondence, photographs, sales brochures and catalogs, biographical information about the engineering staff who worked on the monitor, patents and trademarks, and marketing and sales materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes engineering logbooks, drawings, operator manuals, correspondence, photographs, sales brochures and catalogs, biographical information about the engineering staff who worked on the monitor, patents and trademarks, and marketing and sales materials documenting the development of the Holter Monitor, a portable device for continuously monitoring heart activity.

The records document the successful collaboration of an independent inventor and a manufacturing firm to identify problems, develop solutions and bring to market diagnostic technologies. Bruce Del Mar's role as an innovator and collaborator with Holter is especially important, because Del Mar's work spurred the development of an entire diagnostic industry. In addition, the records also chronicle how "Holter technology" was affected by progressive technological innovations in the industry, as vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors, as microprocessors gave way to microchips and circuit boards, and as analog recordings were replaced by digital formats.

Documenting manufacturing developments (highs and lows) and marketing considerations is an important element in better understanding the invention process. Del Mar Avionics was the first to design and manufacture instrumentation for long-term monitoring of the human heart for the medical profession. Today, Holter Monitors continue to be an important diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of the heart.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1951-2010 and undated, consists of biographical materials for Bruce Del Mar, founder of Del Mar Avionics, company histories, copies of the Del Mar Avionics newsletter Pacemaker, employee information, newspaper clippings and ephemera, and photographs of some employees. The employee information contains a 1979 handbook, explaining company policies and the benefits of employment with Del Mar Avionics and a 1951 memo detailing overtime working hours for women, presumably from Douglas Aircraft, where Bruce Del Mar was employed.

Series 2, Del Mar Avionics Engineering, 1958-1976, is divided into three subseries, Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1965-1976; Subseries 2, Reports, 1964-1969; and Subseries 3, Drawings, 1958-1968. The documentation consists primarily of correspondence from the engineering department, 1965 to 1976, related to the development, design, budgeting, testing, and marketing of the Holter Monitor. The majority of the documentation is correspondence and is written by engineering staff members, but also included are quotation requests, trip reports, and technical reports. Correspondence between Holter and Del Mar about the development of the Holter Minotor is in Series 6. The drawings, 1958-1968, include six drawings (22" x 34" or smaller) for Avionics Research Products projects (panel assembly, chassis assembly, and battery chargers for model 602), and Electromation Company (degausser single coil).

Series 3, Patents and Trademarks, 1965-2002 and undated, consists of copies of patents by Norman J. Holter, W.E. Mills, and W.E. Thornton, Cliff Sanctuary. and Isaac Raymond Cherry related to the development of the Holter Monitor. Also included are lists of United States patents issued to Del Mar Avionics employees, as well as lists of registered trademarks and activities for Del Mar Avionics and copies of trademarks issued to the company.

Series 4, Product Literature, 1968-2010 and undated, consists of product literature for Del Mar Avionics products and some of its competitors. The product literature for Del Mar Avionics is arranged chronologically by model number, and the competitor literature is arranged alphabetically. All of the product literature is related to medical instrumentation with the exception of the Hydra Set, a precision load positioner which is the only product Del Mar Avionics sells today.

Series 5, Sales, 1967-1985, consists of price lists, price catalogs (both domestic and international) and sales objectives for medical instrumentation sold by Del Mar Avionics.

Series 6, Holter Monitor Materials, 1958-2005 and undated, is divided into three subseries, Subseries 1, Background Materials, 1958-2005 and undated; Subseries 2, Model 445, 1974-1978; and Subseries 3, Model 660, 1967-1978 and undated, and consists of materials documenting the relationship between Norman J. Holter, an inventor, and Del Mar Avionics.

Holter and Wilford R. Glassock were issued United States Patent 3,215,136 on November 2, 1965 for the Electrocardiographic Means. Dr. Eliot Corday introduced Holter to Bruce Del Mar, founder of the Del Mar Avionics Corporation in Irvine, California. Del Mar engineers developed the "electrocardiocorder" for clinical use, producing a commercially viable monitor which came to be known as the Holter Monitor Test. Further refinements led to the creation of a "minimonitor" in 1968 which was described by Holter as being the "size of a cigarette package." Commercial production of the Holter minimonitor, AVSEP, Jr., began in 1969. The Holter Research Foundation ultimately sold exclusive rights to their patents to Del Mar Engineering Laboratories.

The materials include biographical materials about Norman J. Holter, journal articles about the Holter Monitor, correspondence, engineering notebooks, a licensing agreement, product literature, reports, price lists, catalogs, operating manuals and specific information about the Dynamic Del Mar Avionics ElectroCardioCorder (Model 445), 1977, and the ElectroCardioScanner (Model 660), 1971. Both models were developed by Del Mar's medical device manufacturing staff. The licensing agreement and correspondence detail in chronological order the relationship between Norman Holter and Del Mar Avionics, specifically president Bruce Del Mar, in the rapid commercial marketing and development of Holter's electrocardiorecorder. Although Holter assigned exclusive rights to his patent to Del Mar Avionics, he was involved in the design and development process, albeit from a distance. The engineering staff at Del Mar kept Holter informed, and it is clear that Holter regularly visited the company.

The engineering notebooks relate to the models 445 and 660. The notebooks were maintained by engineering staff members D. Anderson, N. Mohammedi, Ray Cherry and Fike. The notebooks are handwritten, although in some instances memos and other information have been inserted. For example, N. Mohammedi's notebook documenting Model 445 contains black-and-white prints, magnetic tape samples, and recorder tape (EKG graph paper) samples with data from the monitor. The notebooks are bound and paginated, and individual pages are stamped sequentially.

Series 7, Slides, circa 1990s, consists of color slides used for presentations by Del Mar Avionics staff to discuss and promote the marketing of the Holter Monitor.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1951-2010 and undated

Series 2, Del Mar Avionics Engineering, 1958-1976

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1965-1976

Subseries 2, Reports, 1964-1969

Subseries 3, Drawings, 1958-1968

Series 3, Patents and Trademarks, 1965-2002 and undated

Series 4, Product Literature, 1968-2010 and undated

Subseries 1, Del Mar Avionics, 1968-2010 and undated

Subseries 2, Competitors, 1974 and undated

Series 5, Sales, 1967-1985

Series 6, Holter Monitor Materials, 1958-2005

Subseries 1, Background Materials, 1958-2005

Subseries 2, Model 445, 1974-1978

Subseries 3, Model 660, 1967-1978 and undated

Series 7, Slides, circa 1990s
Biographical / Historical:
Norman Jefferis "Jeff" Holter (1914-1983) was born in Helena, Montana, to a prominent Montana pioneering family. After attending public schools in Helena, he earned master's degrees in chemistry from the University of Southern California (1938) and physics from the University of California, Los Angeles (1940). During these years Holter also organized Applied Micro Sciences, a scientific photography business, and began working with Dr. Joseph A. Gengerelli of UCLA on nerve stimulation in frogs and brain stimulation in rats. Holter's interest in studying electrical activity in humans in their daily activities without touching them, spawned his lifelong pursuit to develop the Holter Monitor.

During World War Two, Holter served as a senior physicist for the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Ships, conducting research into the behavior of ocean waves in preparation for wartime amphibious operations. After the war, in 1946, Holter headed a staff of oceanographic engineers at Bikini Atoll during Operation Crossroads, the first postwar atomic bomb tests, measuring wave actions and underwater disturbances caused by the explosions.

Because of demands of his family's business affairs, Holter returned to Helena in 1947 to continue his research activities. In 1947 he formed the Holter Research Foundation, with a laboratory originally located in the rear of the Holter Hardware Company building. From 1956 to 1971 the laboratory facilities were located in the Great Northern Railroad depot building in Helena. The foundation was initially funded by Holter and other members of his family, but in 1952 Holter began to receive grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Holter continued his collaboration with Dr. Gengerelli of UCLA in attempting to transmit information, primarily brain waves, by radio. Holter turned his attention from the brain to the heart because the heart's greater voltage made the electronics easier, and because heart disease was far more prevalent than cerebral disease. Holter's introduction to Dr. Paul Dudley White (1886-1973), a renowned physician and cardiologist, helped convince him to focus his research on recording electrical activity from the heart. Holter's goal was to radio broadcast and record the more obvious electrophysiological phenomena occurring in humans while carrying on their normal activities, rather than having to lie quietly on a couch.

The first broadcast of a radioelectrocardiogram (RECG) took place circa 1947 and required eighty to eighty-five pounds of equipment, which Holter worn on his back while riding a stationary bicycle. This was not practical and in no way could be worn by a patient. The initial transmitter and receiver required that the subject remain in the general area of the laboratory, so a portable and lighter RECG receiver-recorder had to be developed.

Next, Holter created a briefcase-like device that could be carried by a patient. By using very thin magnetic recording tape, twenty-four hours of RECG could be captured on a reel five inches in diameter. The initial method of examining the voluminous records from the tape recordings developed by Holter was called Audio-Visual Superimposed ECG Presentation (AVSEP). AVSEP made it possible to examine twenty-four hours of RECGs in twenty minutes, with signals being presented visually on an oscilloscope and audibly through a speaker.

With the development of transistors, radioelectrocardiography was made obsolete, and it became possible for the amplifier, tape recorder, temperature-control circuits, motor speed control circuits, and batteries to be placed in a single unit small enough for a coat pocket or purse. In 1952, Holter succeeded in creating a small unit that weighed 1 kilogram. Wilford R. Glassock, a senior engineer working with Holter, traveled to Cedars of Lebanon Hospital (now Cedars-Sinai Hospital of Los Angeles) in 1962 to demonstrate the Holter monitor system and discuss making it more practical. At Cedars, Dr. Eliot Corday observed the practicality of the system and not only embraced the technology, but collaborated with Holter's team and was an early promoter of the technology to both industry and physicians. Holter and Glassock were issued US Patent 3,215,136 on November 2, 1965 for the Electrocardiographic Means.

As articles describing the foundation's invention of these devices began to appear in the professional literature, there was considerable demand from doctors and hospitals for the equipment. Dr. Corday introduced Holter to Bruce Del Mar, founder of the Del Mar Avionics Corporation in Irvine, California. Del Mar engineers developed the "electrocardiocorder" for clinical use, producing a commercially viable monitor which came to be known as the Holter Monitor Test. Further refinements led to the creation of a "minimonitor" in 1968, which was described by Holter as being the "size of a cigarette package." Commercial production of the Holter minimonitor, AVSEP, Jr., began in 1969. The Holter Research Foundation ultimately sold exclusive rights to their patents to Del Mar Engineering Laboratories.

Later known as Del Mar Avionics, a team of engineers diverted their attention from successful manufacturing of military weapons training devices to focus on improving the speed and accuracy of computerized ECG analysis and they became the acknowledged leader in Holter monitoring technology for over 40 years. In 1969, because of the increased amount of required paper work and red tape, Holter canceled the grant funding his foundation had been receiving from NIH. He was also in constant conflict with the Internal Revenue Service over the foundation's non-profit status, rights to patents, and commercial production of equipment. The foundation continued to maintain a laboratory and conduct varied scientific work, but on a much smaller scale. The Holter Research Foundation, Inc. was dissolved in 1985, two years after Holter's death.

Del Mar Avionics was founded on January 9, 1952, as Del Mar Engineering Laboratories in Los Angeles, California by Bruce Del Mar, who led the development of aircraft cabin pressurization systems. Del Mar was born in Pasadena, California in 1913. An engineer, inventor, entrepreneur and businessman, Del Mar graduated from the University of California, Berkeley (1937) with a Bachelor of Science degree. Del Mar worked for Douglas Aircraft (1933-1951) as a research engineer on many projects before founding Del Mar Engineering Laboratories. In 1938, Del Mar married Mary Van Ness. The couple had two daughters, Patrica Jean Parsons and Marna Belle Schnabel.

In 1958, Del Mar formed a wholly-owned subsidiary, Electromation Inc., which manufactured tape recording and communication equipment. He later established, Aeroplastics Corporation to manufacture plastic products and Avionics Research Products Corporation to develop and produce biomedical instrumentation. By the mid-1960s, the company had become a leading U.S. Defense Department prime contractor in the development and production of aerial tow target systems for weapons training and instrumented ground targets for scoring air-to-ground automatic weapons delivery. It also produced helicopter target drones and helicopter flight trainers for the U.S. Army.

In 1961, the company entered the growing medical instrumentation market with the development of the first long-term ambulatory monitoring systems.

In 1965, the company introduced the Hydra Set Load Positioner that controls the precise vertical positioning of loads up to 300 tons (272,000 kg) in increments as small as 0.001 inch (0.025mm). This unique product, mounted between the load and the crane (or hoist), permits precise mating and de-mating of critical components, thus eliminating unforeseen damage to valuable loads. Hydra Set Load Positioners are in use worldwide in the aerospace, military/commercial aviation, nuclear and fossil fuel power generating industries and in various industrial applications. In 1975, the company, then re-named Del Mar Avionics, moved to its current location in Irvine, California.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Project Bionics Artificial Organ Documentation Collection [videotapes], 2002 (AC0841) documents the invention and development of artifical internal organs through oral history interviews with scientists and others involved.

The James A. E. Halkett and Sigmund A. Wesolowski, M.D., Papers, 1948-1951 (AC0200) documents Halkett and Wesolowski's experiments on an early mechanical heart. Halkett and Wesolow(ski) materials show the process of technological innovation through laboratory protocols.

The George Edward Burch Papers, 1984-1986 (AC0316) documents Burch's pioneering work in clinical cardiology and research through technical notes, diagrams, and correspondence regarding laboratory work on the "2-pump heart model," 1984-1986.

Wilson Greatbatch Innovative Lives Presentation, 1996 (AC0601) documents the invention of the implantable cardiac pacemaker in 1958.

The Ronald J. Leonard Papers, circa 1980-1997 (AC1109) documents Leonard's development of pumps and oxygenators used in cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery.

Materials in the Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History

The Division of Medicine and Science holds two monitors: the Dynamic and the Del Mar Avionics ElectroCardioCorder (Model 445), 1977 and the ElectroCardioScanner (Model 660), 1971. Both were developed by Del Mar's Medical Device Manufacturing staff. See accession #: 2011.0196.

Materials at the Montana Historical Society Research Center, Archives

Holter Family papers, 1861-1968

Includes documentation about the Holter Research Foundation, Inc.

Holter Research Foundation, Inc. records, 1914-1985

The Holter Research Foundation, Inc. was a private, non-profit, scientific research foundation started in Helena, Montana, in 1947 by Norman J. "Jeff" Holter. Records (1914-1985) include correspondence, financial records, laboratory records, subject files, photographs, etc. Also included are subgroups for N.J. Holter; his work in the U.S. Navy on bombs and waves; his work as assistant chancellor at University of California, San Diego; and the Society of Nuclear Medicine.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Del Mar Avionics through Bruce Del Mar, President on September 12, 2011.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Patents  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1249
See more items in:
Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1249
Additional Online Media:

Edgar S. Gorrell Collection

Creator:
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Names:
Air Transport Association of America  Search this
United States. Army. American Expeditionary Forces  Search this
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Extent:
3.59 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Date:
1893-1943
Summary:
This collection contains documents relating mainly to Gorrell's activities as president of the Air Transportation Association of America. The materials include copies of Gorrell's addresses and Congressional testimony, as well as press clippings concerning Gorrell's activities. The collection also includes albums of World War I vintage photographs collected by or presented to Gorrell.
Scope and Contents:
The Edgar S. Gorrell Collection is largely comprised of material relating to Gorrell's career as president of the Air Transport Association of America. The material includes his correspondence and speeches, the Congressional hearings and reports for the bills he advocated, and publications and newspaper articles about him and his career. Also in the collection are several photographs and photograph albums from World War I and other miscellaneous material.
Arrangement:
Arranged into two series:

Series 1: GENERAL. This series contains correspondence, addresses delivered by E.S. Gorrell, and publications and newspaper articles, some written by Gorrell. There are also Congressional hearings and reports, and some miscellaneous material. The documents are arranged in chronological order.

Series 2: PHOTOGRAPHS/ALBUMS. This series contains photographs and photo albums. Many of these are aerial photographs of trenches taken c. 1916 --1918, but there are also many photographs of aerial and land transport equipment.
Biographical/Historical note:
Colonel Edgar S. Gorrell (1891-1945) was a pilot and an advocate for aviation safety. He graduated from West Point in 1912 and then spent two years as an infantryman in Alaska before transferring to the Signal Corps, where he joined the 1st Aero Squadron, serving under Gen. John J. Pershing in Mexico. On one of his flying missions in Mexico, Gorrell ran out of gas and was stranded in the desert for several days before being rescued. Upon returning to his unit, he began to criticize the poor equipment US pilots were forced to use, both in terms of actual aircraft components and the signals and communication equipment used on land. In 1917 he was promoted to Captain, and in World War I he became the Chief Engineering Officer for the Air Service, and eventually the Chief of Staff for the Air Service, with the rank of Colonel. After the war, Gorrell remained in Europe representing the US at conferences and peace talks.

In March 1920, he resigned his commission in the Army and joined the automobile business. He served as the vice president of Marmon Motor Car Company until 1925. Then he became vice president, director, and general manager, and later president, of the Stutz Motor Car company of America. In January 1936, Gorrell again switched fields when he was elected the first president of the Air Transport Association of America, shortly after its conception. It was with this organization that he was known for his role in promoting safety in civil aeronautics. He was a strong advocate for the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 which provided government control and regulation of civil aeronautics, and he provided testimony before congressional committees several times. Gorrell continued to support civil aeronautics, especially through his role as president of the Air Transport Association of America, until his death, in 1945.
Provenance:
No donor information, gift, unknown, XXXX-0057
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Publications
Citation:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection, Acc. XXXX-0057, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0057
See more items in:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0057
Additional Online Media:

Minutes

Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents  Search this
Extent:
8.70 cu. ft. (9 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (1 16x20 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Date:
1846-1995
Descriptive Entry:
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead. Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from 1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
Historical Note:
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the secretaries of State, War, Navy, Interior, and Agriculture; the Attorney General; and the Postmaster General. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877, and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and seven citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of Citizen Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead. The office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.

The Regents of the Smithsonian have included distinguished Americans from many walks of life. Ex officio members (Vice President) have been: Spiro T. Agnew, Chester A. Arthur, Allen W. Barkley, John C. Breckenridge, George Bush, Schuyler Colfax, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, George M. Dallas, Charles G. Dawes, Charles W. Fairbanks, Millard Fillmore, Gerald R. Ford, John N. Garner, Hannibal Hamlin, Thomas A. Hendricks, Garret A. Hobart, Hubert H. Humphrey, Andrew Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Walter F. Mondale, Levi P. Morton, Richard M. Nixon, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Theodore Roosevelt, James S. Sherman, Adlai E. Stevenson, Harry S. Truman, Henry A. Wallace, William A. Wheeler, Henry Wilson.

Ex officio members (Chief Justice) have been: Roger B. Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Nathan Clifford, Morrison R. Waite, Samuel F. Miller, Melville W. Fuller, Edward D. White, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F. Stone, Fred M. Vinson, Earl Warren, Warren E. Burger.

Regents on the part of the Senate have been: Clinton P. Anderson, Newton Booth, Sidney Breese, Lewis Cass, Robert Milledge Charlton, Bennet Champ Clark, Francis M. Cockrell, Shelby Moore Cullom, Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, George Franklin Edmunds, George Evans, Edwin J. Garn, Walter F. George, Barry Goldwater, George Gray, Hannibal Hamlin, Nathaniel Peter Hill, George Frisbie Hoar, Henry French Hollis, Henry M. Jackson, William Lindsay, Henry Cabot Lodge, Medill McCormick, James Murray Mason, Samuel Bell Maxey, Robert B. Morgan, Frank E. Moss, Claiborne Pell, George Wharton Pepper, David A. Reed, Leverett Saltonstall, Hugh Scott, Alexander H. Smith, Robert A. Taft, Lyman Trumbull, Wallace H. White, Jr., Robert Enoch Withers.

Regents on the part of the House of Representatives have included: Edward P. Boland, Frank T. Bow, William Campbell Breckenridge, Overton Brooks, Benjamin Butterworth, Clarence Cannon, Lucius Cartrell, Hiester Clymer, William Colcock, William P. Cole, Jr., Maurice Connolly, Silvio O. Conte, Edward E. Cox, Edward H. Crump, John Dalzell, Nathaniel Deering, Hugh A. Dinsmore, William English, John Farnsworth, Scott Ferris, Graham Fitch, James Garfield, Charles L. Gifford, T. Alan Goldsborough, Frank L. Greene, Gerry Hazleton, Benjamin Hill, Henry Hilliard, Ebenezer Hoar, William Hough, William M. Howard, Albert Johnson, Leroy Johnson, Joseph Johnston, Michael Kirwan, James T. Lloyd, Robert Luce, Robert McClelland, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., George H. Mahon, George McCrary, Edward McPherson, James R. Mann, George Perkins Marsh, Norman Y. Mineta, A. J. Monteague, R. Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton, Robert Dale Owen, James Patterson, William Phelps, Luke Poland, John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, B. Carroll Reece, Ernest W. Roberts, Otho Robards Singleton, Frank Thompson, Jr., John M. Vorys, Hiram Warner, Joseph Wheeler.

Citizen Regents have been: David C. Acheson, Louis Agassiz, James B. Angell, Anne L. Armstrong, William Backhouse Astor, J. Paul Austin, Alexander Dallas Bache, George Edmund Badger, George Bancroft, Alexander Graham Bell, James Gabriel Berrett, John McPherson Berrien, Robert W. Bingham, Sayles Jenks Bowen, William G. Bowen, Robert S. Brookings, John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Vannevar Bush, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Rufus Choate, Arthur H. Compton, Henry David Cooke, Henry Coppee, Samuel Sullivan Cox, Edward H. Crump, James Dwight Dana, Harvey N. Davis, William Lewis Dayton, Everette Lee Degolyer, Richard Delafield, Frederic A. Delano, Charles Devens, Matthew Gault Emery, Cornelius Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley, John B. Henderson, John B. Henderson, Jr., A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Gardner Greene Hubbard, Charles Evans Hughes, Carlisle H. Humelsine, Jerome C. Hunsaker, William Preston Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton, Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Topic:
Museums -- Administration  Search this
Museum trustees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 1, Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents, Minutes
Identifier:
Record Unit 1
See more items in:
Minutes
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0001
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Additional Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from American Telephone and Telegraph Co.]

Company Name:
American Telephone and Telegraph Co.  Search this
Related companies:
AT&T ; American Bell Telephone ; AT&T National Special Needs Center (Parsippany, NJ) ; Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Co. ; AT&T Long Lines (Bedminster, NJ)  Search this
Notes content:
heavily illustrated ; four-number dialer ; telecaption decoder ; two-way voiceless communications ; AT&T National Special Needs Center informational pamphlet ; special needs communication equipment: hearing and speech amplification handsets ; teletypewriters ; signaling devices ; emergency call systems ; cordless phones ; motion impairment telephones ; speaking aids, etc. ; "Long Lines" publication of Long Lines Department, February 1939 ; "Early Corporate Development of the Telephone"
Includes:
Trade catalog and histories
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
106 pieces; 4 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
New York, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Telephone; telegraph and telecommunications equipment and supplies  Search this
Topic:
Telecommunication systems  Search this
Telephone  Search this
Telephone supplies industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10138
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10138

National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Extent:
1,900 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
Ongoing
Scope and Contents note:
The Technical Reference Files comprise an artificial collection that currently contains 1,900 cubic feet of aviation and space related materials, organized in 22 subject series. File materials include photographs, press releases, clippings, correspondence, reports, and brochures, on individuals, organizations, events, and objects.
Arrangement note:
List of Series

Organized in 22 subject series

Aircraft (240 cubic feet)

Heavier-than-Air (180 cubic feet)

Human-carrying, heavier-than-air craft which are supported primarily by dynamic lift, including airplanes (powered fixed-wing aircraft), gliders and hang gliders (unpowered, fixed-wing aircraft), helicopters (powered-rotor rotorcraft), and autogiros (unpowered-rotor rotorcraft). Also included are unmanned vehicles that were originally designed as man-carrying aircraft. (Aircraft designed from the start as unmanned vehicles can be found in the Space History reference files with missiles and rockets.)

Lighter-than-Air (LTA)(60 cubic feet)

History, science, and art of airships and balloons from the 18th century to the present.

Propulsion (175 cubic feet)

Engines

Air-breathing engines. (Other power plants for aircraft (including rocket motors) are filed under the Space Propulsion subseries.)

Accessories Accessories and components which support air-breathing engines; also fuels, coolants, and lubricants.

Propellers Specific models, listed by designer or manufacturer; also general topics.

Space Propulsion

All methods of spacecraft propulsion (even "passive" concepts such as the Solar Sail), spacecraft power sources (such as solar batteries and fuel cells), all rocket motors (including those used to power aircraft and other vehicles), and all accessories and components.

Biographical (261 cubic feet)

Information on specific people involved in the history of aviation and space exploration listed alphabetically by name.

Organizations (27 cubic feet)

Aviation and space related organizations.

Corporations (15 cubic feet)

Basic information about aviation and space corporations.

Air Transport (105 cubic feet)

General

Broad air transport topics such as air cargo; economics; insurance; refueling and maintenance; regulation; salvage; and statistics.

Airlines

Specific regularly scheduled passenger and/or cargo carrying airlines.

By Region or Nation Materials covering air transportation topics within specific world regions.

Airports

Specific U. S. and foreign airports; also general topics such as airport equipment, planning, and security.

Air Mail

Basic history of air mail services, foreign and domestic.

Electronics and Communications (24 cubic feet)

General

Electronics and communications equipment; also related topics such as air traffic control, navigational aids, and radar.

Avionics

Avionics equipment by manufacturer.

Education (42 cubic feet)

Type Recognition

Aircraft recognition training programs and materials, both U. S. and foreign (predominantly World War II). Includes various aircraft spotter's guides and information on WWII's National Model Building Program.

Schools

General topics; also specific aviation schools (predominantly U.S.) Training Guides Documents used for training.

Events, Air Expositions, Meets, Races, and Shows (42 cubic feet)

By Date and Location

Information organized by date (1868 to the present) and location of event; includes assorted ephemera such as brochures, programs, advertisements, and tickets.

By Subject

Information dealing with broad categories of flights or events, for example: transatlantic, around-the-world, and altitude attempts.

Awards and Trophies (12 cubic feet)

Specific awards and trophies by name; also general topics pertaining to many awards.

Equipment (54 cubic feet)

General

Assorted aviation-related general equipment topics; includes the Brodie System, specialized tractors and trucks, and general information on markings, insignia and camouflage.

Clothing, Flight Gear, and Insignia

Information on clothing and related flight gear, and the insignia used on them (both U.S. and foreign). Does not include pressure suits and g-suits, which appear in a separate subseries below.

Oxygen

Information on oxygen equipment.

Parachutes

Information on the history of parachutes; also some specific types.

Pressure Suits and G-Suits

Information on pressure suits and g-suits.

Instruments

Instruments by type (altimeter, compass, air speed indicator, etc.) and by manufacturer. Also includes general topics such as instrument illumination, lubrication, and testing.

Space History (270 cubic feet)

Topics related to space exploration, astronomy, missiles, rocketry, or remotely piloted vehicles. Also includes technologically related programs and vehicles that were designed to function entirely within the Earth's atmosphere.

General Aviation (12 cubic feet)

Non-scheduled civil aviation.

General

General topics such as aerial refueling, aerobatic flying, and business aviation.

Regional

General aviation by state; also some information on general aviation in other countries.

Uses of Aircraft

Agriculture, advertising, fire fighting, insect control, meteorology, and tourism.

Government (12 cubic feet)

National and international government agencies and regulations.

Arts and Literature (12 cubic feet)

Aviation and space exploration as depicted in art, literature, motion pictures, radio, and television; also includes aircraft nose art.

Military (84 cubic feet)

International

Military aviation by country (non-U.S.); includes general information on aces.

USA

U.S. military aviation, including selected Air Force bases and units, basic information on aircraft carriers, and military flight demonstration teams.

Armament

Guns, bombs and bombing, bombsights, ammunition, gun mounts, gun turrets, gun sights, chemical warfare, anti-aircraft guns and accessories.

Wars (12 cubic feet)

Aviation's role in various wars and conflicts, from the 1914 Mexican Punitive Expedition through Desert Shield/Desert Storm.

Museums (144 cubic feet)

General

Non-Smithsonian aviation and space museums around the world, by name.

Smithsonian

Basic information on the National Air and Space Museum, and related past and present Smithsonian Institution facilities and exhibits. Researchers seeking detailed information on the history of the Museum or its past exhibits should contact the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Models (9 cubic feet)

Various types of scale aircraft models and related topics; also wind tunnel test models.

Safety (15 cubic feet)

Includes basic information on topics such as accident investigation, safety equipment, medicine, rescue, survival training, noise abatement, and windshear.

Miscellaneous (33 cubic feet)

General

Very small subseries of miscellaneous topics such as natural flight (birds and insects), preservation of air- and spacecraft, sonic booms, and toys.

National or Regional Histories

Documents regarding aviation history within specific regions.

Navigation

Air navigation history, equipment, and systems.

Photography

Aerial photography history and equipment.

Engineering

Engineering related to specific types of aircraft systems, such as landing gear, rotors, materials, tires, seats, and wings. Also information on wind tunnels.
Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Archives Reading Room at the Museum in Washington, DC. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Reference Desk.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.1183
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Charles Rangel, American, born 1930  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Avon, founded 1886  Search this
Vice President Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, American, 1908 - 1979  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Sovereign Military Order of Malta, founded 1099  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Universal Network Television, American, founded 1950  Search this
Freedom National Bank, American, 1964 - 1990  Search this
Jarobin Gilbert Jr., American, born 1946  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Roscoe C. Brown, American, 1922 - 2016  Search this
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), International, founded 1844  Search this
New York Yankees, American, founded 1901  Search this
Reggie Jackson, American, born 1946  Search this
The Doll League, Inc., American, founded 1958  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Morehouse Alumni Association, American, founded 1900  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Business League, American, founded 1900  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
The Salvation Army, American, founded 1865  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Written by:
Anti-Bakke Decision Coalition, American, founded 1977  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 7/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Sag Harbor, Southampton, Suffolk County, New York, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1979
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Radio  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
United States--History--1969-2001  Search this
United States--Social life and customs  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.13
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.13

Tracking and Data Relay Satellites System (TDRSS) Documentation

Creator:
Contel Federal Systems, Fairfax, VA  Search this
Names:
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Extent:
0.9 Cubic feet ((2 letter document boxes, 1 slim letter document box))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Lists
Specifications
Reports
Diagrams
Date:
1976-1979
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains TDRSS documentation from the years 1976 through 1979. Materials include: a Pricing Manual, a Program Acronym List, Program Space Segment Specifications, a Baseline Report, Project Plans, a Proposal Kickoff Package, the Proposal Preparation, a Test Plan, the Review Boards Notebook, a Shuttle User Draft, Contracts, a System Design Report, Performance Specifications, a Statement of Work, and Flow Diagrams.
Biographical / Historical:
Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) are the largest, most advanced privately developed communications satellites. TDRS provide global coverage of Earth-orbiting spacecraft. In the past, spacecraft could communicate with Earth only when they were in sight of a ground tracking station, typically less than one fifth of the time. The TDRS system enables spacecraft to communicate with Earth for about 85 to 100 percent of the orbit by having a system of orbiting telecommunication satellites operated from a single ground terminal link. The first TDRS was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 4, 1983. TDRS is owned and operated by the Technical Services Division of Contel Federal Systems, Fairfax, VA. However, its services are being leased to NASA for a ten-year period.
Provenance:
Daniel K. Elliot, Gift, 2002
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Tracking and Data Relay Satellites System (TDRSS)  Search this
Artificial satellites  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Space vehicles  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lists
Specifications
Reports
Diagrams
Citation:
Tracking and Data Relay Satellites System (TDRSS) Documentation, Accession 2002-0046, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2002.0046
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2002-0046

Travel Air D4D

Manufacturer:
Travel Air Company  Search this
Materials:
Fuselage - steel tube, fabric-covered
Wings - spruce spars, spruce and plywood ribs, fabric covered
Landing gear - all-metal
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 9.3 m (30 ft 5 in)
Length: 7.3 m (24 ft 1 in)
Height: 2.4 m (8 ft 11 in)
Weight, empty: 891 kg (1,968 lb)
Weight, gross: 1,200 kg (2,650 lb)
Top speed: 209 km/h (130 mph)
Engine: Wright J-6-7 (R-760-ET), 240 hp
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Date:
1929-2000
Credit Line:
Gift of the Pepsi-Cola Company
Inventory Number:
A20010091000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20010091000
Additional Online Media:

Headset, Lightweight, Armstrong, Apollo 11

Astronaut:
Neil A. Armstrong, 1930 - 2012  Search this
Manufacturer:
Pacific Plantronics, Inc.  Search this
Materials:
Earphones: Plastic, foam, communications equipment
Connecting Frame: Fabric-covered steel
Dimensions:
Approximate: 1 in. deep x 9 in. long x 9 in. wide (2.54 x 22.86 x 22.86cm)
Type:
PERSONAL EQUIPMENT-Communications Gear
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from NASA -Johnson Space Center
Inventory Number:
A19791737000
Restrictions & Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19791737000
Additional Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from Harris-Intertype Corp.]

Variant company name:
Westerly, RI ; Poughkeepsie, NY ; New York, NY ; London, England ; Los Angeles, CA ; Ft. Lauderdale, FL ; Walnut Creek, CA ; Quincy, IL ; Winchester, VA  Search this
Company Name:
Harris-Intertype Corp.  Search this
Related companies:
Cotrell Co. ; Fairvew Foundry, Inc. ; Gates Radio Co. ; Harris Auto Press Co. ; Harris-Intertype, Ltd. ; Harris-Seybold Co. ; Intertype Co. ; Intertype Ltd. ; International Typesetting Machine Co. ; Lithoplate, Inc. ; Macey Co. ; PRD Electronics, Inc.; Premier & Potter Printing Press Co. ; Harris Semiconductor ; Datacraft Corp.  Search this
Notes content:
Catalogs ; company information ; sales bulletins "Integram" (1934-54, incomplete) ; technical info ; typefaces ; 1974 Harris Semiconductor product bulletin ; wide range programmable operational amplifier ; computer reference manuals ; broadcast transmitters ; audio equipment ; high frequency transmitters ; communication transmitters ; broadcasting equipment ; recording equipment ; communication equipment ; matrices
Includes:
Trade catalog and samples
Black and white images
Color images
Types of samples:
matrices
Physical description:
759 pieces; 45 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Bookbinding  Search this
Computers and computer equipment  Search this
Electrical apparatus and equipment  Search this
Industrial equipment or mechanical machinery (including supplies and components)  Search this
Printing; publishing; paper and bookselling (including type specimens)  Search this
Radios and radio equipment  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Book industries and trade  Search this
Bookbinding  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Computers  Search this
Electric apparatus and appliances  Search this
Industrial equipment  Search this
Machinery  Search this
Optical equipment  Search this
Printing machinery and supplies  Search this
Publishers and publishing  Search this
Radio supplies industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_19550
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_19550

Revista Aérea Collection

Creator:
Revista Aérea Latinoamericana  Search this
Extent:
61.8 Cubic Feet
158 boxes
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1937-2003
Summary:
The subject reference files of Revista Aérea Latinoamericana regarding aviation in Latin America during 1937-2003.
Scope and Content Note:
This collection consists of reference files from the Spanish-language monthly periodical Revista Aérea Latinoamericana. This collection is a virtual time-capsule of the evolution of aviation in Latin America over the 66-year period of publication, 1937-2003. The files include information on hardware and aircraft systems, as well as documentation on aeronautical educational enterprises in Latin America, aero clubs, sport aviation, military and naval aviation, indigenous manufacturing enterprises, and air transport. The material in the collection includes black-and-white and color photographs; color slides; domestic and foreign aerospace trade literature; speeches and lectures; news releases; and drawings.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized by subject and designated in parallel to the NASM Archives' Technical Reference Files as follows:

Series A: -- Aircraft (Boxes 1-86; aircraft / lighter-than-air; each section by manufacturer and model)

Series B: -- Propulsion (Boxes 87-101; engines / other propulsion equipment, each section by manufacturer and model)

Series C: -- Biography (Boxes 102-111; by name, last name first)

Series D: -- Organizations (Box 112; by name)

Series E: -- Corporations (Boxes 113-133; by name)

Series F1: -- Airlines (Boxes 134-135; by name)

Series F4: -- Airports (Boxes 136; by name)

Series G: -- Electronics and Communications (Boxes 137-143; navigation equipment / radar systems / communications equipment; each section by manufacturer and model)

Series H: -- Education (Boxes 144-145; by name)

Series J1: -- Events (Box 146; airshows and exhibits; by name)

Series J2: -- Events (Box 146; flights; by name)

Series K: -- Awards (Box 146; by name)

Series M: -- Equipment (Box 147; by manufacturer and model)

Series O: -- Space History (Box 148-150; spacecraft and systems / UAVs; by manufacturer and model)

Series P: -- General Aviation (Box 151; by country)

Series R: -- Art and Literature (Box 151; by country)

Series S: -- Military (Box 152; by country)

Series S2: -- Armament (Box 153-154; by manufacturer and model)

Series U: -- Museums (Box 155; by country)

Series Y: -- Misccellaneous (Box 155)

Series Y1: -- Miscellaneous National History (Box 155)

Series Y3: -- Miscellaneous Photography (Box 155)
Historical Note:
Revista Aérea Latinoamericana was created in 1937 as a Spanish-language version of the highly regarded US monthly Aero Digest aimed at the Latin American market. This region was seen as a rich potential market for export sales of aircraft, engines, and associated technology, and advertisers came to rely heavily on this publication to help promote their line in this lucrative market. When Aero Digest ceased publication in 1956 Colombian businessman Maximillian Garavito purchased Revista Aérea Latinoamericana and took over as editor and publisher. Upon his death in 1979 Elaine Asch-Root assumed control, dropping "Latinoamericana" from the title and expanding into the Spanish and Portugeuse markets. In 2010 Revista Aérea began publishing a Portugeuse language edition as well as a revamped on-line version. In addition to its original role of communicating the latest in aviation technology to potential buyers, the magazine also highlights aviation-related news and events in Latin America and promotes aviation education and humanitarian aviation operations.
Provenance:
Elaine Asch-Root, gift, 2003, 2003-0028
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Citation:
Revista Aérea Collection Collection, Acc. 2003-0028, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0028
See more items in:
Revista Aérea Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0028
Additional Online Media:

Alenia MAGICS command and control system

Collection Creator:
Revista Aérea Latinoamericana  Search this
Extent:
1 folder
Container:
Box 143, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Arrangement:
photos
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Revista Aérea Collection Collection, Acc. 2003-0028, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Revista Aérea Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2003-0028-ref11092

CASA FITS tactical system

Collection Creator:
Revista Aérea Latinoamericana  Search this
Extent:
1 folder
Container:
Box 143, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Arrangement:
photos
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Revista Aérea Collection Collection, Acc. 2003-0028, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Revista Aérea Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2003-0028-ref11095

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