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Landor Design Collection

Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Names:
Mair, Francis M., 1916-1991 (commercial artist)  Search this
Extent:
146 Cubic Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Audiovisual materials
Business letters
Business records -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 20th century
Videotapes
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Date:
circa 1930-1994
Scope and Contents:
Collection documents the career of designer Walter Landor and the significant body of commercial imagery and packaging produced by Landor Associates design firm. Contains corporate and business records of Landor Associates, personal papers of Landor, oral history interviews, films, videotapes, and other audiovisual resources.
Arrangement:
Subgroup 1: Landor Associates Business Records

Series 1: Historical Background and Project Administrations Files

Series 2: Newsletter, 1978-84

Series 3: Scrapbooks

Series 4: Memoranda, 1956-1979

Series 5: News stories and Newsclippings

Series.6: Corporate Subject files

Series 7: Walter Landor reading files

Series 8: New Brochure

Series 9: International files

Series I0: Promo files

Series I 1: Conventions and seminars

Series 12: Awards

Series 13: Tours, presentations, parties

Series 14: Communication films (a Landor subsidiary)

Series 15: Client files

Series 16: The Ferryboat Klamath and the Museum of Packaging Antiquities

Subgroup 2: Walter Landor Papers

Series 17: Papers

Series 18: Trip files

Series 19: Speeches

Series 20: Corporate reference

SUBGROUP 3: Photographic and Other Audiovisual Materials

Series 2 1: Photographs

Series 22: Slides

Series 23: Publications

Series 24: Videos

Series 25: Films

Series 26: Speeches/interviews/discussion sessions on audiocassette

Series 27: Oversize materials

Subgroup 4: Landor Archives Project

Series 28: Associates files

Subseries 28.1: Lillian Sader

Subseries 28.2: Ed Scubic

Subseries 28.3: Other associates

Subseries 28.4: Audiovisual materials - client projects

Series 29: Oral History Interviews
Biographical / Historical:
Walter Landor, son of Jewish Bauhaus architect Fritz Landauer, came to the United States in 1938 with the design team for the British Pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City. He emigrated to the United States in 1941, launching a small design firm in San Francisco. Landor started out doing package design for a largely local and regional clientele (including many West Coast wineries and breweries), although he soon developed a client list that included some of the world's largest and most prestigious corporations. In addition to his own considerable design abilities, Landor had a gift for inspiring and organizing the creativity of a group of associates, and for developing lasting and productive relationships with his clients. The firm developed particular strength in its portfolio of airlines, financial institutions and consumer goods, and prided itself on a network of international clients. From the beginning, Landor linked design to research in consumer behavior, developing increasingly sophisticated methods for evaluating the effectiveness of his designs. This collection documents Walter Landor's remarkable career, the significant body of corporate identity, packaging and other commercial imagery produced by Landor Associates, and the interplay between industrial design and American consumer culture.
Provenance:
Personal papers donated to Archives Center in 1993 by Josephine Landor, widow of Walter Landor; business records donated to Archives Center in 1993 by Landor Associates.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
The Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.,Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Design, Industrial  Search this
advertising  Search this
Industrial designers  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiovisual materials
Business letters
Business records -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 20th century
Videotapes
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Citation:
Landor Design Collection, ca. 1930-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0500
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0500
Additional Online Media:

Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials

Manufacturer:
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company.  Search this
Collector:
Rangeloff, Evan  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business records
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
circa 1910-1991
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes thirty-eight punchboards, all unpunched and in very good to excellent condition, and featuring a range of products and imagery. The collection also includes two punchboard manufacturers' catalogs from the 1940s, which detail the money-making opportunities for jobbers and retailers.

The collection also contains correspondence, employment forms, promotional literature, photographs and sales training literature from Evan "Ding" Rangeloff=s early career as a sales representative and regional sales manager for Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. Of particular interest are sales training manuals which explore the psychology of selling in the 1950s, manuals which detail sales cigarette marketing strategies at military bases and on Indian reservations, and materials relating to Liggett & Myers sponsorship of Formula One car racing in the 1970s.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Business Records, circa 1954-1991

Series 2: Photographs, circa 1920-1970

Series 3: Sales Training Literature, circa 1955-1957, 1974, 1979

Series 4: Punchboards, circa 1910-1970
Historical:
During and after his employment as a salesman and regional sales manager with Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Duluth, Minnesota, Mr. Rangeloff began collecting the gambling and sales promotion devices known as punchboards. In 1999-2000, he donated a large and representative selection of punchboards to the Archives Center. The term "punchboard" (or in some cases "punch board," "push board," "punchcard," or "pushcard") refers to a gambling device popular in the United States from roughly 1910 until 1970. Punchboards could be used for fundraising, sales promotion and gambling--sometimes all at once. Punchboards were typically found in places where men gathered socially, such as bars, pool halls, barber shops, and men's clubs. Punchboards also could be found in beauty parlors, drug stores, and other small retail establishments. With their promise of easy money, punchboards enjoyed great success during the Depression, and continued to enjoy popularity during and after World War II. According to Scarne's Complete Guide to Gambling (New York, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster, 1961), approximately 30 million punchboards were sold between 1910 and 1915. Scarne estimated that 50 million punchboards were sold in 1939 alone, at the peak of their popularity. Punchboard sales declined significantly after WWII, and by the mid-1970s the boards had been outlawed in most states.

Punchboards trace their lineage to 18th century lottery game boards. These handmade boards, with the winning ticket placed by the operator, offered no safeguards against corruption, however, and their misuse may have contributed to the game=s waning popularity. In 1905, C.A. Brewer and C.G. Scannell patented a new version of the traditional game. By 1910, modern manufacturing techniques, including the invention of board stuffing machines and ticket folding machines, contributed to the reinvigoration of the punchboard. The new punchboards were constructed out of cardboard, with a sheet of paper or foil covering both front and back of the board. This covering was intended to prevent the operator from discovering where the winning tickets were or otherwise tampering with the board. Cheap, portable, disposable, and offering a ready vehicle for advertising, punchboards are an exuberant, if ephemeral, expression of 20th century mass culture.

A modern punchboard typically consists of a square or rectangular piece of pressed wood or cardboard (from 2 inch to one inch in thickness) in which hundreds or thousands of holes have been drilled in a regular pattern, then loaded with tiny slips of rolled or folded paper. Each slip of paper had a number or symbol printed on it. Both front and back of the board were covered with a foil or paper seal. The front of the board typically featured some form of attention-getting commercial imagery and a chart listing the winning number or combination of numbers and symbols, along with the prizes or cash amounts to be awarded to the winners. The boards were sold with a metal stylus or "punch" for the players to use.

A player paid the punchboard's operator a set amount of money (typically a nickel, dime, or quarter) for a chance to use a metal stylus to break the seal on the hole of his choice, and punch one of the slips of paper out of the board. If the number or symbols found on the slip of paper matched one of the pre determined winning combinations, the player was awarded the corresponding prize.

Punchboard manufacturers sold the boards blank or preprinted. Blank boards were sold to "jobbers" or salesmen who then added their own imagery or advertisement, and many surviving punchboards feature advertisements for products that were inexpensive and had mass appeal, such as peanuts, candy and cigarettes. Some of these boards offered the advertised product as the prize; these came to be known as prizeboards. Some prizeboards were constructed with a shadow box meant to contain prizes such as rhinestone sunglasses, wristwatches, Bowie knives, or even handguns. Punchboard manufacturers also sold the board pre-printed with various kinds of commercial imagery--sports, gambling, and patriotic imagery were well-represented, as were folk figures, racial and ethnic stereotypes, and the ubiquitous pin-up girls. Most of these boards were played for cash.
Provenance:
Gift of Evan Rangeloff, October 1999.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Probable copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Cigarettes -- 1950-2000  Search this
Tobacco -- Marketing -- 1950-2000  Search this
Sales personnel -- 1950-2000  Search this
Gambling  Search this
Cigarette industry -- 20th century  Search this
Punchboards  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0716
See more items in:
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0716

Untitled

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution, Traveling Exhibition Service  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Summary:
Symbols of America: Commercial Imagery and the Making of a Consumer Society, 1990-1991
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 95-161, Smithsonian Institution, Traveling Exhibition Service, Exhibition Records
See more items in:
Exhibition Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa95-161-refd1e5826

Binney & Smith, Inc. Records

Creator:
Binney & Smith, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Binney, Edwin  Search this
Smith, Harold  Search this
Extent:
24 Cubic feet (64 boxes and 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Catalogs
Color charts
Annual reports
Price lists
Newsletters
Photographs
Date:
1897-1998
Summary:
Collection documents Binney & Smith, Inc. creators and manufacturers of Crayola crayons. Includes documentation on 20th century advertising, commercial packaging, commercial imagery, and retail merchandising: newsletters, annual reports, research and development records, color charts, advertising materials, and product information, including catalogs and price lists.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Historical Background, 1956-1994, contains documentation on the corporate history of Binney and Smith, and general background on how crayons are made. The Story of the Rainbow, (editions 1947, 1956, and 1961), provide corporate historical highlights and a history of the company. See also Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995 for information about the company.

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995, consists of annual and corporate reports, by-laws, minutes, correspondence, annual reports, stockholder materials and the attempted merger of Binney & Smith by Cheeseborough-Ponds in the early 1970s and the Kellogg Co., ca. 1979.

Series 3: Financial, Sales, and Marketing Records, 1902-1990, consists primarily of sales information and statistics for crayons and other products. The correspondence, 1913-1931, includes documentation on monthly sales with explanations and analysis. Binney & Smith created comparative data on a yearly basis for products and salesmen. The salesmen data, 1919-1932, contains the amount of sales, expenses, percentages, time periods, and increases and decreases in business. Specific salesmen are cited in reports. All of the sales information should be consulted as there is considerable overlap.

Series 4: Employee/Personnel Records, 1917-1993, contains payroll rate books, employee reports and miscellaneous documentation. The payroll rate books include the names of employees and the rate at which they were paid per hour. In some instances it is noted if the employee left the company.

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995, include newsletters and other publications produced by Binney & Smith, Inc. Arranged alphabetically, this series contains publications intended for both internal distribution such as the Rainbow Insider and external distribution such as the Art Educationist and Drawing Teacher. This series provides valuable information on the history of the company, how it operates, the types of products produced, and the employees. The Art Educationist, formerly known as the Drawing Teacher, which began publication in 1926, was a publication for art teachers that promoted the value of art in schools. It contains editorials, comments from teachers, and suggested art activities.

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987, includes a wide variety of materials documenting the Research and Development Department. The bulk of the materials include crayon formulas. Other formulas for products such as chalk exist.

Series 7: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1918-1998, contains several subseries with the bulk of the material beingdocumentation on labeling and packaging. The advertising accounts are arranged chronologically and then within each year, alphabetically by the name of the journal or magazine in which Binney & Smith advertised. The cards provide the name, address, date of contract, date of expiration, space allotted, rate, subject of the ad, and remarks if applicable. Information on distribution and "specials" is available for some years. The promotional materials consist of licensing information, press kits, and printed literature, particularly Promotional Plans which describe the details of each promotion offered for each product along with suggestions for merchandising activities.

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995, and Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1995, are arranged alphabetically by division within Binney & Smith, Inc. Both series provide documentation on the types of products available to the consumer and costs associated with each product.

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1995, consists of printed literature on a variety of products produced by Binney & Smith, Inc. The series is arranged alphabetically. The product inventories, 1920-1925, are arranged by product number in sequential order. There are three distinct inventories--those arranged by product number (#1-#7026); those arranged alpha-numerically (#04-#04Y); and those arranged alphabetically.

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992, contains published catalogs and advertising of crayon competitors. There is a scrapbook of competitors advertising contains correspondence, product information, advertisements, and newspaper clippings for the American Crayon Co., Art Crayon Co., Botts Mfg., Eberhard Faber Co., Ferst Brothers, Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Milton-Bradley Co., and National Crayon Co.

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997, includes several subseries documenting buildings and office spaces, displays, employees and machinery, products, portraits, photo albums, and oversized. The oversized photographs contain some panoramic shots of Binney & Smith company "annual outings." The photograph albums consist of several albums including the Middletown Township Workshop, 1952, an art workshop sponsored by Binney & Smith, Inc. Three albums contain photographs of various construction and expansion projects from the 1960s to 1975. Of note is the photo album containing photographs and newspaper clippings from the 1959 California Pacific Crayon Company fire. Also, there are Binney & Smith company albums, 1949-1976, that document a variety of activities within the company. Each album was photographed by W. H. Milliken, Jr., and specified the location, date, and number of photographs in the album. The albums cover topics such as art shows, trade shows, suppers, dinner parties, office shots, employee anniversaries, and retirement parties. The scrapbooks span the years 1962-1975, and contain both newspaper clippings and some black and white photographs documenting various company activities and its employees.

Series 13: Audio-Visual Materials, circa 1980s-1998, contain two 1/2" VHS tapes documenting the 40th anniversary of the Crayola 64 box and Silly Putty.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Historical Background

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995

Series 3: Financial, Sales, and Marketing Records, 1902-1990

Series 4: Employee/Personnel Records, 1917-1993

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987

Series 7: Advertising and Promotional Records, 1918-1998

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995

Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1925

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1925

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997

Series 13: Audiovisual Materials, circa 1980-1998.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1864, Joseph W. Binney (1836-1898), began a small chemical works in Peekskill, New York. He ground and packaged hardwood charcoal and manufactured small quantities of lamp black from whale oil. In 1880, he opened a New York City office taking on his nephew, C. Harold Smith (1860-1931) as a salesman. Later, Joseph Binney's son, Edwin Binney (1866-1934), joined the business. The organization was known as the Peekskill Chemical Co. Joseph W. Binney retired and in May 1885, Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith formed a partnership, Binney & Smith. Their early products included red oxide pigment used in barn paint and carbon for black tires. In 1900, the company began producing slate school pencils in its Easton, Pennsylvania mill. With the assistance of John Ketchum, the owner of a talc mine in North Carolina, Binney began combining old slate waste with cement and the talc supplied by Ketchum to produce slate pencils. Two years later, Binney & Smith introduced their white dustless blackboard chalk, "Au-Du-Septic" and in 1903, the company produced a box of eight crayons, which sold for a nickel. The word "Crayola" coined by Edwin Binney's wife, Alice, comes from "craie" the French word for chalk, and "ola," from oleaginous, meaning oily or pertaining to oil. Binney & Smith's best known product is Crayola crayons. However, its product line now includes: tempera, washable, and fabric paints, Liquitex acrylic paints, Magic Marker, chalk, clay, and Jazzy fashion and craft accessories. Binney & Smith acquired Silly Putty in 1977 and in 1984, became a subsidiary of Hallmark Cards, Inc. Products are still manufactured in Easton, Pennsylvania (world headquarters), as well as Mexico, and Indonesia and are available in twelve languages. In 2007, the company changed its name to Crayola LLC.

Scope & Content

The Binney & Smith Inc. Records, document twentieth century advertising, commercial packaging, commercial imagery, and retail merchandising. They are a major source for research on American consumer culture. This collection is divided into thirteen (13) series: Series 1: Historical Background, 1956-1990s; Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995; Series 3: Financial, Sales and Marketing Records, 1902-1990; Series 4: Employee and Personnel Records, 1917-1993; Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995; Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987; Series 7: Advertising and Promotional Records, 1918-1998; Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995; Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1995; Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1995; Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992; Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, c. 1900s-1997; and Series 13: Audio-Visual Materials, c. 1980-1998.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts were donated to the National Museum of American History, Division of Cultural History on November 18, 1997 and March 15, 1998. The artifacts consist of more than 150 objects, including 79 boxes of Crayola crayons from the 1900s to 1998; 24 boxes of chalk from the 1890s to 1998, 18 art kits; 10 sets of EDU-CARDS from the 1960s and 1970s; and 10 packages of Silly Putty from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on November 18, 1997, by Binney & Smith through Patrick Morris. Additional materials were donated in March 1998, by Binney & Smith through Tracey Muldoon Moran and in February 2000 through Stacy Gabrielle.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Chalk -- 1910-2000  Search this
Crayons -- 1910-2000  Search this
Packaging -- 20th century  Search this
Paint -- 1910-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Catalogs -- 1910-2000
Color charts -- 1910-2000
Annual reports -- 20th century
Price lists
Newsletters -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Binney & Smith, Inc., Records, 1897-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0624
See more items in:
Binney & Smith, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0624
Additional Online Media:

Clarice Smith Distinguished Lecture: critic Christopher Knight

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2015-10-08T00:22:59.000Z
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_U0sKw5Sh1L8

Archives Center Business Americana Collection

Creator:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Ravnitzky, Michael  Search this
Extent:
29 Cubic feet (55 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Calendars
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Advertising cards
Trade catalogs
Print advertising
Commercial imagery
Photographs
Letterheads
Maps
Place:
Europe
Puerto Rico
Date:
circa 1900-present
Summary:
This collection contains a variety of business ephemera similar to that found in the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana. The material in the Business Americana Collection is newly acquired ephemera received from many sources including curatorial units, the public, and Smithsonian Institution staff.
Scope and Contents:
An artificial collection of material organized with the same subject headings as the Warshaw Collection, i.e., generally by product type. Additional subject headings will be added as needed. New material, much of it from the second half of the twentieth century, is added regularly to this collection. This collection is sometimes informally called "Warshaw Junior" by the staff and researchers.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by subject categories.
Biographical / Historical:
This collection contains miscellaneous business ephemera. The material is similar to that found in the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, but no new material is incorporated into the Warshaw Collection. The material in the Archives Center Business Americana Collection is newly acquired ephemera received from many sources, including curatorial units, the public, and Smithsonian staff.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Collection (AC1146)

Cincinnati Boss Company Records, 1900-1990 (AC0741)
Provenance:
This collection was compiled by the Archives Center from many sources including curatorial units, the public, and Smithsonian Institution staff.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Possible copyright and/or trademark restrictions on material in collection. Consult repository.
Topic:
Aged -- Care  Search this
Buildings -- Maintenance  Search this
Alternative medicine  Search this
Franchises (Retail trade)  Search this
Freight and freightage  Search this
Abrasives industry  Search this
Disabilities  Search this
Easter  Search this
Ecology  Search this
Storage and moving trade  Search this
Vegetarianism  Search this
Weight loss  Search this
Computers  Search this
Credit  Search this
Children's clothing  Search this
People with disabilities  Search this
Mental health  Search this
Parades  Search this
Internet  Search this
Interior decoration  Search this
Halloween  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Advertisements
Calendars
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Advertising cards
Trade catalogs
Print advertising
Commercial imagery
Photographs -- 20th century
Letterheads
Maps -- 20th century
Citation:
Archives Center Business Americana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0404
See more items in:
Archives Center Business Americana Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0404
Additional Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Afro-Americana

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1.43 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 1 oversize folder, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1754-1963
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Afro-Americana forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents note:
This material consists primarily of information relating to significant events in the history of African Americans in the United States. Most of the materials relate to the issue of slavery, race relations and the Civil Rights Movement. Images of African Americans created for commercial use also comprise a large portion of these materials. There is a small amount of information relating to events in France. Although most of the materials are about African Americans, there are only a few created by them.

Materials are arranged by topic to include slavery, abolition, colonization, Reconstruction, the Civil War, and the Civil Rights Movement. The earliest materials relate to slavery and consist primarily of receipts for truces paid on property, advertisements announcing the sale of slaves, passes, promissory notes and speeches questioning slavery.

Late nineteenth century materials relate to organizations created by African Americans in an effort to improve their quality of life. Such organizations include hospitals, homes for orphans, schools, and political associations. These materials aid in our understanding of African Americans as active members of society rather than as victims.

In contrast the largest amount of material from this time period consists of commercial images created by advertisers. Such commercial art reflects the political, social, economic and psychological concerns of the time. The perceptions and fears of the wider society were depicted primarily on advertising cards. Such advertising cards used stereotypical images of African Americans to sell products. These products often included soap, stove polish, tobacco, cosmetics, whiskey, cereal, flour, greeting cards, coffee, baking soda, blacking, bluing, paint, varnish, and music. Often there appears to be no connection between image and product. In those instances African Americans were used to supply the humor. Occasionally there was logic between the image and the product. The logic between the product and the image of African Americans generally was a reference to skin color or lack of education and or social skills.

There are also a number of advertisements portraying African Americans from magazines. These images differed from the ones used on advertising cards which is probably due to the national character of magazines. African Americans were generally portrayed as servants such as Ratus "Cream of Wheat", Aunt Jemima and Uncle Ben.

Twentieth century materials cover events and organizations formed during the Civil Rights Movement. Ephemera from C.O.R.E., S.C.L.C. and N.A.A.C.P. represent types of materials that were circulated during the period. There is little or no commercial imagery from this time period.
Arrangement note:
Materials in box one through two are arranged by topic. Part of box two contains images of African Americans consisting of engravings, chromolithographs, photographs and a few commercial images not associated with a product.

Box three contains photocopies of stereotypical images of blacks used to sell specific products. The originals are found in the subject category that it represents.

History Topics

Miscellaneous Material

Images of African Americans
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Afro-Americana is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Afro-Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Afro
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Afro-Americana
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-afro
Additional Online Media:

Photocopies of commercial imagery

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Afro-Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Afro-Americana
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-afro-ref48

Christopher Williams : the production line of happiness / Mark Godfrey, Roxana Marcoci, Christopher Williams, and Matthew S. Witkovsky

Title:
Production line of happiness
Author:
Godfrey, Mark (Mark Benjamin)  Search this
Marcoci, Roxana  Search this
Williams, Christopher 1956- Works Selections  Search this
Witkovsky, Matthew S. 1967- Learning from Los Angeles  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Whitechapel Art Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Williams, Christopher 1956-  Search this
Physical description:
190 pages : color illustrations ; 27 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
2014
Topic:
Photography, Artistic  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1018788

The long march of pop : art, music, and design, 1930-1995 / Thomas Crow

Author:
Crow, Thomas E. 1948-  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 412 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
History
Date:
2014
20th century
Topic:
Pop art  Search this
Art and music--History  Search this
Arts and society--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1039678

gee dad, modern design, huh?

Creator:
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 09 May 2017 13:00:01 +0000
Topic:
Design  Search this
See more posts:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Data Source:
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_36d1332e8d342fe6fd4464f643eaa5b1

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