Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
14 documents - page 1 of 1

knife, safety

Physical Description:
steel (blade material)
steel (handle material)
metal, white (clips material)
Measurements:
overall: 1/4 in x 3 1/4 in x 1/2 in; .635 cm x 8.255 cm x 1.27 cm
Object Name:
knife, safety
Object Type:
cutlery
Place made:
United Kingdom: England
Date made:
c. 1890-1920
Credit Line:
Wiebusch Gift
ID Number:
DL.59.0989F
Catalog number:
59.0989F
Accession number:
111627
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_316584

Florence Nightingale Levy papers, 1890-1947

Creator:
Levy, Florence N. (Florence Nightingale), 1870-1947  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
American art annual  Search this
Art historians  Search this
Art  Search this
Editors  Search this
Artists  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Church decoration and ornament  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8426
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210600
AAA_collcode_levyflor
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210600

newspaper clipping

Physical Description:
ink (overall material)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11 1/4 in x 10 1/4 in; 28.575 cm x 26.035 cm
Object Name:
Newspaper Clipping
Place made:
United States: California
Location where used:
United States: California
Associated date:
1890 - 1920
ID Number:
CL.299386.134
Accession number:
299386
Catalog number:
299386.134
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Domestic Life
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_661019

L. F. Foster Wild West Scrapbooks, Photographs, and Copy Negatives

Photographer:
Foster, L. F.  Search this
Collector:
Foster, L. F.  Search this
Names:
101 Ranch Wild West Show  Search this
Cody, Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Pawnee Bill  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- 1890-1920  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Clippings
Bills
Date:
1888-1921
bulk 1890-1910
Summary:
Collection documents Wild West Shows in Oklahoma and Washington, particularly the career of Lewis Frederick Foster who was known for his showmanship and skills.
Scope and Contents:
Consists of two scrapbook albums documenting Lewis Frederick Foster's career. Materials also relate to western shows and rodeos in general. Information can be found relating to f Buffalo Bill Cody, Pawnee Bill, and the 101 Ranch Wild West Show. Many other individual showmen, including American Indians, are also represented. There is an indication in the albums that Foster was an amateur photographer of a certain skill and some of the photographs may have been made by him. It is not clear whether he assembled the album himself or whether it was the work of relatives.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Lewis Frederick Foster was born in Newton, Middlesex, Massachusetts to James Foster and Elizabeth T. Frederick on September 19, 1861. He married Leona [Rosamond] Stockman on September 30, 1890 in Boston, Massachusetts. The Fosters had one daughter Leona Rosamond born in 1897. Foster performed on horseback at a number of shows across the West including the Wild West Show in Oklahoma, the Frontier Show in Cheyenne, Washington, and the 101 Ranch Wild West Show. He was known as a 'Rough and Fancy Rider' and a 'Revolver Expert'. Foster died on March 4, 1924 at the age of sixty- two in Modesto, Stanislaus County, California and is buried in Acacia Memorial Park.
Provenance:
Donated to the Smithsonian Institution in 1933 by Foster's sister, Louise T. Foster, and his brother, John H. Foster.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cowboys  Search this
Cowgirls  Search this
Western shows  Search this
Rodeos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albums
Photographs -- 1890-1910 -- Black-and-white photoprints
Clippings
Bills
Citation:
L.F. Foster Wild West Scrapbooks, Photographs, and Copy Negatives, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
The collection was processed by Sarah Gediman, intern; Julia Gibson, intern; and Savannah Hildre, intern; supervised by Vanessa Broussard-Simmons, archivist, 2019.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1289
See more items in:
L. F. Foster Wild West Scrapbooks, Photographs, and Copy Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1289

Seed Catalogue Clippings (listing Salvias)

Collection Owner:
Bedman, John  Search this
Bedman, James  Search this
Bedman, Joseph  Search this
Bedman, Frank  Search this
Bedman, Charles  Search this
Collection Founder:
Bedman, William  Search this
Collection Creator:
Bedman Brothers Rahway, New Jersey.  Search this
Bedman Brothers  Search this
William Bedman Seed Company (Rahway, New Jersey)  Search this
Collection Investor:
Thorburn, James  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
circa 1890-1920
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Bedman Brothers Company Records.
See more items in:
Bedman Brothers Company records
Bedman Brothers Company records / Series 4: Publications / 4.5: Newspaper and Catalog Clippings
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-bed-ref298

Helen May Butler Collection

Creator:
Young, Helen May Butler  Search this
Source:
Musical Instruments, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Names:
Helen May Butler's Ladies Military Band.  Search this
United States. Senate -- 1930-1940  Search this
Butler, Helen May, 1873-19??  Search this
Former owner:
Musical Instruments, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes, one oversize folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Programs
Scrapbooks
Sheet music
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Postcards
Posters
Clippings
Photographs
Place:
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1890-1920
Boston (Mass.)
Charleston (S.C.)
Buffalo (N.Y.)
Date:
1899-1937
bulk 1902-1902
Scope and Contents:
The materials cover the career of a woman bandmaster with an all women's traveling military band from 1898-1913, with the bulk of the material ca. 1902. Contents include clippings, photographs, programs, sheet music, hand noted music, posters, post cards, advertising fliers, letters, telegram, biographical article announcing candidacy for U.S. Senate seat in 1936, and "The Flood of 1937" section of the Cincinnati Post, February 13, 1937. Bands included Helen May Butler's Ladies Military Band, Talma Ladies Orchestra, U.S. Talma Ladies Military Band.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Helen May Butler, woman bandmaster, directed an all-women traveling military band from 1898 to 1913. "Music for the American people, by American composers, played by American girls" was one of the band's mottoes. Born in New Hamphire in 1873, she pursued a variety of musical studies and became an accomplished performer in both violin and cornet. She announced candidacy for a U.S. Senate seat in 1936.
Provenance:
Collections donated by Helen May Butler Young, June 1962.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Women musicians -- 1890-1920  Search this
Bands (Music) -- 1890-1920  Search this
Bandmasters -- 1890-1920  Search this
advertising  Search this
Music -- Performance -- 1890-1920  Search this
Musicians -- 1890-1920  Search this
Floods  Search this
Brass bands -- 1890-1920  Search this
Genre/Form:
Programs
Scrapbooks
Sheet music
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Advertising fliers -- 1890-1920
Postcards
Posters -- 1880-1900
Clippings -- 1890-1920
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Helen May Butler Collection, 1899-1937, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0261
See more items in:
Helen May Butler Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0261
Additional Online Media:

Alfred Vance Churchill papers regarding Lyonel Feininger

Creator:
Churchill, Alfred Vance, 1864-1949  Search this
Names:
Feininger, Lyonel, 1871-1956  Search this
Extent:
0.9 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sketches
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1888-1944
Summary:
This small collection of Alfred Vance Churchill papers regarding Lyonel Feininger measures 0.9 linear feet and dates from 1888 to 1944. Found here are 36 letters from Feininger, a painter and illustrator, to his friend Churchill and a scrapbook compiled by Churchill containing 117 sketches by Feininger, a photograph of Feininger, clippings, and 47 sketches and reproductions by Churchill. There are also additional loose clippings, an exhibition catalog, and three photographs of Feininger.
Scope and Content Note:
This small collection of Alfred Vance Churchill papers regarding Lyonel Feininger measures 0.9 linear feet and dates from 1888 to 1944. Found here are 36 long and detailed letters from Feininger, a painter and illustrator, to his friend Alfred Churchill (many letters from 1890 are illustrated), and a scrapbook compiled by Churchill containing 117 sketches by Feininger, a photograph of Feininger, clippings, and 47 sketches and reproductions by Churchill. There are also additional loose clippings and magazines, an exhibition catalog, three photographs of Feininger and one of his children.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 4 series:

Series 1: Letters to Alfred Churchill, 1890-1920 (Box 1; 5 folders)

Series 2: Printed Material, 1895-1898, 1917-1944 (Box 1; 6 folders)

Series 3: Scrapbook of Artwork, 1888-1913 (Box 1-3; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Photographs, circa 1890, 1911, 1926 (Box 1; 2 folders)
Biographical Note:
Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), also known as Léonell Feininger, was born in New York City in 1871 to German violinist Karl Feininger and American singer Elizabeth Feininger. He spent his childhood in New York City and became interested in art at a young age. Although born in New York, Lyonel Feininger lived and worked mostly in Germany.

In 1887 Feininger's parents took him to Germany to study violin, but he began taking drawing classes at the Hamburg Kunstgewerbeschule (College of Arts and Crafts) and subsequently moved to Berlin to study art at the Königliche Akademie under Ernst Hancke. During this time he met and befriended a fellow art student, Alfred Vance Churchill, who later became an art historian and curator. They would exchange letters and artwork for many years. For a brief time Feininger studied at the College St. Servais in Liège and with Filippo Colarossi in Paris, but returned to Berlin to study at the Akademie der Kunste with Karl Schlabitz.

Feininger's career as cartoonist started in 1894. He was working for several German, French and American magazines and illustrated two comic strips "The Kin-der-Kids" and "Wee Willie Winkie's World" for the Chicago Tribune. During this period he married Clara Fürst and they had two daughters, Lore and Marianne. He also exhibited drawings at the annual Berlin Secession and the Great Berlin Art Exhibition.

Feininger separated from his wife after starting an affair with Julia Borg. He and Julia traveled to Paris where he became greatly influenced by the French avant-garde. When they returned to Berlin in 1908, he gave up illustration in favor of painting. He and Julia were then married and they had three sons, Andreas, Laurence, and Theodore Lux.

Feininger became a member of the Berlin Secession and exhibited his paintings, primarily landscapes inspired by French cubism. Around 1912, Feininger became affiliated with the German expressionist groups Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter, and the Novembergruppe in 1918, where he met Walter Gropius. When Gropius established the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany in 1919, Feininger became the master artist in charge of the printmaking workshop. He taught there and continued to develop his painting, and in 1925 he formed the Blue Four with Alexei Jawlensky, Paul Klee, and Vasily Kandinsky. When the Bauhaus moved to Dessau in 1926 he became an artist-in-residence and stayed there until it closed in 1933.

After the Nazi's declared Feininger's work "degenerate" in 1937, he moved to California where he taught at Mills College. He settled permanently in New York and had great success exhibiting his work in the United States, which culminated in a joint retrospective in 1944 with Marsden Hartley. Lyonel Feininger died in 1956 at the age of 84.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art also has several collections related to Lyonel Feininger, including Letters to Beatrice Lippincott (Garvan) from Lyonel and Julia Feininger available on microfilm reel 4909, and a 1939 letter from Feininger to Alfred Neumeyer, available on reel 2804. The archives also has additional collections of loaned papers available only on microfilm: Lyonel Feininger papers loaned for microfilming by Feininger's friend, H. Francis Kortheuer and available on reel D5 and D29, and Sketches by Feininger loaned for microfilming by Fred Werner and available on reel D5.

The most complete Lyonel Feininger Archive, donated by the Feininger family, is located at Harvard University. The Alfred Vance Churchill papers, 1828-1948, are located at Smith College Archives.
Separated Material:
The Alfred Vance Churchill papers regarding Lyonel Feininger included approximately 23 photographs of works of art by Feininger. These items were removed from the collection upon receipt and added to Photographs of Works of Art, Collection One, and microfilmed on reel 468.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1956 by Mrs. Alfred (Marie) Churchill.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Alfred Vance Churchill papers regarding Lyonel Feininger are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Graphic arts -- Germany  Search this
Painters -- Germany  Search this
Cartoonists -- Germany  Search this
Graphic artists -- United States  Search this
Cartooning -- United States  Search this
Graphic arts -- United States  Search this
Cartooning -- Germany  Search this
Expressionism (Art) -- Germany  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Germany  Search this
Printmakers -- Germany  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Alfred Vance Churchill papers regarding Lyonel Feininger, 1888-1944. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.churalfr
See more items in:
Alfred Vance Churchill papers regarding Lyonel Feininger
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-churalfr
Additional Online Media:

William Preston Phelps and Ina Phelps Hayward Papers

Collection Creator:
Phelps, W. P. (William Preston), 1848-1923  Search this
Extent:
1.1 Linear feet (Box 1, OV 2, Boxes 3-4)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1849-2000
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence includes letters from William Preston Phelps to John I. Coggeshall, posthumous letters to Ina Phelps Hayward from various people and institutions regarding Phelps exhibitions, and Karl Gabosh's correspondence relating to his interest in, and research on, Phelps. One letter written in reply to Gabosh encloses a photograph taken by Phelps of Mount Monadnock.

Correspondence and legal records related to the Phelps estate include correspondence with auctioneers J. E. Conant and Co., and with Phelps's attorney; payments and receipts kept by Ina Phelps Hayward documenting her work done on behalf of her father's estate and payments she made to him such as allowances and expenses; legal documentation of Phelps Hayward being appointed her father's guardian; and records of her attempts to protect the integrity of his estate prior to, and after, the 1917 estate sale. Phelps Hayward's notes for the estate sale catalog provide biographical information about her father and lists of his paintings and exhibitions.

A scrapbook contains news clippings primarily about Phelps, two family letters, an invitation to Phelps's studio, an announcement for the exhibition of Phelps's Grand Canyon painting, a catalog of his paintings for sale in 1878, and a loose copy of "A Painter of Monadnock" by Charles E. Hurd, reprinted from The New England Magazine.

A sketchbook, labeled "W. P. Munchen" is attributed to William Phelps and contains figure sketches and sketches of rural and city scenes in pencil. Twelve sketches in pencil and watercolor are by Ina Phelps Hayward and her son, Roger Hayward. Printed material consists primarily of photocopies of articles about Phelps, and scattered exhibition invitations. Of note are a copy of a 1900 exhibition catalog of Phelps's work with prices, and a copy of the estate sale catalog. Later news clippings document posthumous interest in Phelps's work up to 2001.

Photographs include two studio portraits of Phelps and a photograph of him reclining in his orchard. Also found are photos of an unidentified woman and a baby; a print made from a negative of the Phelps estate sale; photos of Phelps's Chesham home, studio, and surrounding landscape; and photos of his paintings.

Glass plate negatives include two portraits of Phelps and thirty-six negatives of his paintings.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The William Preston Phelps and Ina Phelps Hayward papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
William Preston and Ina Phelps Hayward papers, 1849-2001, bulk 1890s-1920s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.phelw, Series 1
See more items in:
William Preston Phelps and Ina Phelps Hayward papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-phelw-ref57

Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray Family papers

Creator:
Mowbray, H. Siddons (Harry Siddons), 1858-1928  Search this
Names:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
Pierpont Morgan Library  Search this
United States. Commission of Fine Arts  Search this
University Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
McKim, Charles Follen, 1847-1909  Search this
Mead, William Rutherford, 1846-1928  Search this
Mowbray, Florence Millard  Search this
Mowbray, George Mordey, d. 1891  Search this
Mowbray, George S.  Search this
Mowbray, Helen Amelia, d. 1910  Search this
Sherwood, Herbert F. (Herbert Francis), 1872-  Search this
Extent:
7.5 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Prints
Sketches
Etchings
Diaries
Place:
Larz Anderson Park (Brookline, Mass.)
Date:
1872-1976
Summary:
The papers of painter and muralist Harry Siddons Mowbray (1858-1928) and the Mowbray family measure 7.5 linear feet and date from 1872 to 1976. The papers document Mowbray's career as a painter and decorative muralist as well as his activities with the Commission of Fine Arts, the American Academy in Rome, and the Sculpture Commission of Connecticut. The papers include biographical materials, scattered correspondence, nineteen diaries, personal business records, commission files, organization files, writings and notes, printed materials, three scrapbooks, photographs, and artworks. There are scattered family papers of Helen Mowbray, Florence Mowbray, George Mowbray, and George Siddons Mowbray.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter and muralist Harry Siddons Mowbray (1858-1928) and the Mowbray family measure 7.5 linear feet and date from 1872 to 1976. The papers document Mowbray's career as a painter and decorative muralist as well as his activities with the Commission of Fine Arts, the American Academy in Rome, and the Sculpture Commission of Connecticut. The papers include biographical materials, scattered correspondence, nineteen diaries, personal business records, commission files, organization files, writings and notes, printed materials, three scrapbooks, photographs, and artworks. There are scattered family papers of Helen Mowbray, Florence Mowbray, George Mowbray, and George Siddons Mowbray.

Biographical material includes biographical sketches, certificates, obituaries and estate records, and school material. Also found are printed materials from memorial dedications, ceremonies, and dinners held in Washington, D.C., such as menus, invitations, and admission tickets.

Correspondence is scattered and consists of letters from family, professional colleagues, artists, and architects including Charles McKim and William R. Mead. Florence Mowbray's correspondence includes thank you notes and condolences.

Diaries include seventeen written by Harry Siddons Mowbray, one by Helen Mowbray, and one by Florence Mowbray. Harry Siddons Mowbray's diaries date from 1876 to 1927 and reference a trip to the Azores, current events, his career and works of art, and his service with the Commission of Fine Arts.

Writings and notes consist of Mowbray's handwritten autobiography, school writings, lists, and a biography of Mowbray by Herbert Sherwood.

Personal business records consist of a French military sponsorship, gift acknowledgements and receipts.

Commission files include correspondence, printed materials, and writings relating to Mowbray's works of art at: Larz Anderson House, Appellate Court in New York City; Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio; Gunn Memorial Library in Washington, CT; the Life of Christ Series; Madison Square Church in New York City; Morgan Library in New York City; St. John's Church in Washington, CT; University Club in New York City; and F. W. Vanderbilt House in Hyde Park, New York.

Organization files document Mowbray's participation with the American Academy in Rome, the Commission of Fine Arts, and the Sculpture Commission of Connecticut. Files generall include organizational history, correspondence, printed material, writings, reports, meeting minutes, and printed material. Of note are materials relating to the standardization of the flag of the United States.

Printed material includes blank stationery and postcards, clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and an issue of Collector's News.

Photographs include two photo albums complied by the Mowbray family, portraits of Mowbray, snapshots with colleagues and friends, and photos of works of art.

One scrapbook compiled by Harry Siddons Mowbray relates to his travels in Rome in 1903-1904. Annother documents his artwork and career, and the third contains clippings concerning his chemical inventions.

Artworks include sketches, prints, and etchings by Harry Siddons Mowbray and others.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 11 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1872-1965 (0.4 linear feet; Box 1, 13, 15)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1873-1957 (0.4 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Diaries, 1876-1929 (1.2 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, circa 1870-circa 1930 (0.2 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 5: Personal Business and Financial Records, 1877-1966 (3 folders; Box 3)

Series 6: Commission Files, 1896-1979 (0.4 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 7: Organization Files, 1904-1928 (0.7 linear feet; Box 3-4, 13, 15-16)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1876-1976 (0.2 linear feet; Box 4, 16)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1874-circa 1928 (4.7 linear feet; Box 4-14, 17-18)

Series 10: Scrapbooks, circa 1890-1920 (0.3 linear feet; Box 5, 13-14)

Series 11: Artwork, 1870-1910 (3 folders; Box 5, 13)
Biographical / Historical:
Harry Siddons Mowbray (1858-1928) was a painter, muralist, and public servant who was active in New York, Connecticut, and Washington, D.C..

Born in Alexandria, Egypt in 1858, Harry Siddons was orphaned at an early age. He was sent to live with his mother's sister Annie and uncle, George Mowbray, whose name he adopted. Harry Siddons Mowbray attended West Point Military Academy but left to pursue a career as a painter. Upon moving to Paris, Mowbray enrolled at the Atelier Bonnant where he studied under Léon Bonnat. Mowbray received attention for his decorative murals thoughout the East Coast of the United States. His commissions included the J.P. Morgan Library, F. W. Vanderbilt house, Larz Anderson house, Appellate Courthouse of New York City, St. John's Church in Washignton Connecticut, and the Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio. Later in his career, Mowbray returned to painting and completed theLife of Christ series of works.

In addition to painting, Mowbray served on public commissions and committees. He was a member of the federal Commission of Fine Arts from 1921 until his death in 1928. During this time, he was involved in the planning of many Washington, D.C. memorials and public works including the standardization of the flag of the United States of America. He served as director of the American Academy in Rome from 1903-1904.

Harry Siddons Mowbray married Helen Amelia Millard in 1888. They had one child, George Siddons Mowbray. After his wife's death, Mowbray married her sister, Florence in 1915. Together, Florence and Mowbray had two children. He died in 1928. After her husband's death, Florence Mowbray was active in publishing her husband's autobiography.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 2895) including Mowbray's letters to his son George, travel diaries of Helen Mowbray, writings, artworks, and a photograph. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers were donated in multiple accretions by Mrs. Henry S. Mowbray, Mowbray's widow, Hugh McKittrick Jones, Jr., Mowbray's son in law, and Mrs. Helen M. Rogers from 1979-1983. Mrs. Helen M. Rogers also loaned materials for microfilming in 1983.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Flags -- United States  Search this
Painters -- Connecticut  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Prints
Sketches
Etchings
Diaries
Citation:
Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers, 1872-1976. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.mowbharr
See more items in:
Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mowbharr
Additional Online Media:

Scrapbooks

Collection Creator:
Mowbray, H. Siddons (Harry Siddons), 1858-1928  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Linear feet (Box 5, 13-15)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1890-1920
Scope and Contents:
This series consists of three scrapbooks, two of which were compiled by Harry Siddons Mowbray and the other likely compiled by George Mowbray. One scrapbook by Harry Siddons Mowbray contains clippings and some printed material, photographs, and invitations relating to his time spent in Rome with the American Academy in Rome. The other scrapbook by Mowbray contains clippings relating to his career and artworks. The George Mowbray scrapbook contains clippings concerning his chemical inventions.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers, 1872-1976. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.mowbharr, Series 10
See more items in:
Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-mowbharr-ref178

Clippings Scrapbook, Compiled by George Mowbray

Collection Creator:
Mowbray, H. Siddons (Harry Siddons), 1858-1928  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1900-1920
Scope and Contents:
Oversized items housed in Box 14
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers, 1872-1976. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-mowbharr-ref181

Clippings Scrapbook, Compiled by Harry Siddons Mowbray

Collection Creator:
Mowbray, H. Siddons (Harry Siddons), 1858-1928  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1890-1920s
Scope and Contents:
Oversized material housed in Box 14
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray family papers, 1872-1976. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harry Siddons Mowbray and Mowbray Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-mowbharr-ref182

Eskimo Pie Corporation Records

Creator:
Eskimo Pie Corporation.  Search this
Nelson, Christian Kent, 1893-1992  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (31 boxes, 19 folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Sheet music
Posters
Photographs
Business records
Legal records
Clippings
Date:
1921-1996
Scope and Contents:
Printed advertisements, photographs (including negatives and slides), sales presentation materials and packaging; patent and legal information, clippings, posters, scripts for radio commercials, sheet music for jingles, etc. Also includes personal papers (correspondence) of Christian Nelson, inventor of the Eskimo Pie.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.
Biographical / Historical:
Eskimo Pie, America's first chocolate covered ice cream bar, was invented by Christian Kent Nelson in his home laboratory in 1920. Nelson patented his invention and the ice cream bar quickly rose in popularity in America. By 1922, Nelson was earning $2000 per day in royalties on his product.

Christian K. Nelson was born on March 12, 1893, in Gunstrup, Denmark, to Pedar Nelson and Margerethe Madesen Nelson. While Nelson was an infant, the seven Nelson children and their parents emigrated to the United States. The dairy farming family settled in Illinois, Wisconsin, and finally in Iowa in 1903. In Onawa, Iowa, Nelson opened a small confectionery shop near the high school where he worked as a teacher. The inspiration for the invention of Eskimo Pie was a boy's indecision in Nelson's confectionery store in 1920. A boy started to buy ice cream, then changed his mind and bought a chocolate bar. Nelson inquired as to why he did not buy both. The boy replied, "Sure I know--I want 'em both, but I only got a nickel." For weeks after the incident, Nelson worked around the clock experimenting with different methods of sticking melted chocolate to frozen ice cream until he found cocoa butter to be the perfect adherent.

Immediately, he produced 500 ice cream bricks with a chocolate candy coating. The "I-Scream Bars" were a hit at the local village fireman's picnic and Nelson began searching for companies to manufacture his new product.

On July 13, 1921, Nelson and chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement to market and produce the product. It was decided the name would change from Nelson's "I-Scream Bar" to "Eskimo Pie". In the hand-written agreement composed the same day the two met for the first time, the entrepreneurs agreed to "coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally." They decided to sell the manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold.

Nelson and Stover began their business venture with an advertising campaign in Des Moines, Iowa. The first 250,000 pies produced were sold within 24 hours. By spring 1922, 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day. On January 24, 1922, the United States granted patent number 1,404,539 for the Eskimo Pie. Nelson's patent applied to any type of frozen material covered with candy. Nelson also had the name "Eskimo Pie" trademarked. Initially, even the word "Pie" in a brand name frozen treat was covered by this trademark. The breadth of the patent was detrimental to Eskimo Pie because of growing legal costs associated with its defense.

Russell Stover sold his share of the company in 1922. Because of the cost of litigation, high salaried salesmen, and difficulties in collecting royalties, the company was sold in 1924. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of United States Foil Company, the supplier of the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Headed by R.S. Reynolds, Sr., the company later became known as Reynolds Metals Company.

In 1925, dry ice was invented. Nelson was eager to find a way to make buying Eskimo Pie as easy as buying another snack from a vendor. Nelson began to market thermal jugs with dry ice supplied with Eskimo Pies to vendors without access to a freezer. This increased visibility and distribution and made Eskimo Pie an "impulse" item.

The patent litigation continued until October 3, 1929, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower courts declared that the 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention." Eskimo Pie resembled an earlier product that also called for ice cream with cocoa butter dipped in chocolate. The judge declared that Nelson had merely changed the shape for an existing product. Even his trademark on the work "pie" was invalidated, as the judge said the word had a wide variety of use.

Nelson retired to California and assigned his royalties to his wife, Myrtle Skidmore "Skid" Nelson. However, Nelson, reportedly "bored," came out of retirement in 1935 to rejoin Eskimo Pie and work on new products. Nelson continued to create ice cream innovations such as ice patties and colored ice cream holiday centers within Eskimo Pie products. In 1955, Nelson was awarded a patent for his Eskimo Machine. The machinery squeezed out ice cream of the correct dimensions which was then cut into bars. This process was faster than the older method of molding the ice cream bar. After a decline in sales during the Great Depression, Eskimo Pie received a boost from sales to the United States armed forces during World II. Rising commodity prices in the post war era forced the company to reduce the size of the product. However, the distinct foil wrapper remained the same. Nelson officially retired from Eskimo Pie in 1961 as vice-president and director of research. Surviving his wife by one year, he died March 8, 1992.

In 1992, Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals. The company continues to market dozens of shapes, sizes, and types of frozen treats. The brand name Eskimo Pie continues to have strong consumer recognition and has appeared in cartoons, movies, and even in Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary.

Sources

"He Made Kids Scream for Ice Cream," 1959, manuscript from collection Nelson-Stover Agreement, July 13, 1921, manuscript from the collection U.S. Patent 1,404,539 January 24, 1922, manuscript from the collection

Scope and Content Note

The Eskimo Pie Collection consists primarily of materials relating to the advertising, business, and packaging of its ice cream products. The collection includes numerous photographs, printed advertisements, and packaging materials. It also contains company annual reports and newsletters, business history, information on machines and equipment used in manufacturing the product, and the history of the invention of Eskimo Pie. The formulas and directions for creating many of the Eskimo Pie products are included.

Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992 - Contains personal information on the inventor of Eskimo Pie, Christian Nelson, including his correspondence and financial information. Most of the correspondence is business related. Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988 - These materials include tax information, bank account information, and a few documents related to his personal life. Not many documents of a personal nature are in the collection. Most details of his life are found in magazine and newspaper clippings in Series 2, Subseries 4. Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946 - This subseries contains Nelson's business correspondence previously arranged alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence only dates from 1944-1946. Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990 - Arranged chronologically by decade, this correspondence consists of letters on various topics that were scattered throughout the collection. Most of these letters are business related but many have personal notations within them. Not all letters include Nelson.

Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992 - This series includes any information that helps to narrate the story of the invention of Eskimo Pie and the company that sold the product. It contains company scrapbooks of specific years, important historical documents regarding Eskimo Pie history, and newspaper clippings and magazine articles that summarize the detailed history of the company. Subseries 1: Background Information on Company, 1921-1992 - This information includes company scrapbooks that contain articles, letters, promotions and/or advertisements for a particular year. The scrapbooks often relate the history of Eskimo Pie in past years as well as representing the year of the scrapbook. Other materials such as the Eskimo Pie patent, and information on Christian Nelson and Russell Stover with their original agreement are included. Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987 - This material contains annual reports and the company publications of Reynolds Aluminum which supplied the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of Reynolds (then known as US Foil Company) in 1924. Other companies whose products are related to Eskimo Pie are also included. Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965 - Important legal documents of the Eskimo Pie business are arranged in this subseries by type of document. The patents include many of Nelson's patents as well as other patents of invention related to ice cream. Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990 - Most articles in the subseries are related to the history or business of Eskimo Pie, although a few are not. Cartoons that use the Eskimo Pie name are included.

Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1990 - This series documents the machinery and equipment used to produce, package, and freeze the ice cream. It also includes the specific formulas of Eskimo Pie products with ingredients and directions for their preparation. Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1990 - This series is comprised of catalogues, plans, and brochures on general types of machines used to create ice cream along with very specific types of machines with specific names (such as the Eskimo Machine). It also includes video footage of a 1990 production line. Some photographs of equipment are included in the catalogues but other photographs of machinery can be found in Photographs under Series 5, Subseries 1. Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963 - Formulas and specifications to create certain Eskimo Pie products make up this series. The formulas and directions were sent to franchise manufacturers and field personnel and state how to use the machinery to create the desired product. The folders labeled with product numbers include booklets of formulas and the folders labeled with formulas of specific products are loose pages or additions to the booklets. Other formulas and directions for specific products can be found in some of the promotional brochures in Series 7 Subseries 4.

Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995 - The company records in this series are comprised of Annual Company Reports and Company Newsletters. Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1995 - The Annual Reports include financial information as well as the names of the directors, officers, and management personnel for that particular year. Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979 - These monthly newsletters function as a company information tool for employees. They include company news along with general interest features such as cartoons, news of the company sports teams, announcements of vacations and birthdays, etc.

Series 5: PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 - This series consists of photographs and negatives of various subject matter. Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990 - These photographs are arranged by subject matter. Some of the main subject categories of the photographs include machinery and equipment, advertising, promotions, and pictures of Christian Nelson at company events. Subseries 2: Photograph Negatives and Slides, 1928-1990 - This subseries includes many negatives of the photographs already contained in Subseries 1. Only one folder in this subseries is slides.

Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990 - This series consists of any records pertaining to the business of the Eskimo Pie company including finances, marketing, sales, promotions, personnel information, packaging, and publications. It does not include advertising. Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990 - Business information that did not fit into any particular business category comprises this series. Each folder's information is very specific to its own particular topic and is arranged chronologically. Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996 - This series includes any marketing information that attempts to sell Eskimo Pie to the consumer. This information does overlap with some aspects of advertising and packaging, as they also function as marketing tools to promote increased buying. It also includes promotional materials for the film AWho's Minding the Mint?" which featured an Eskimo Pie ice cream man as a character. The information is organized by specific years or time periods. Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970 - This subseries includes general information such as personnel lists and phone lists but also includes incentive campaigns for employees. These incentive campaigns were directed towards salesmen, particularly route driver salesman, and propose prize rewards for sales. The booklets in box 31 include the ads for incentives to be sent out to the salesmen throughout the year. Along with the ads are explanations of the incentive and the company's reasoning behind its approach to the salesmen in that particular ad. The prizes to be awarded are not specifically listed but are displayed in pictures in many of the incentive ads. Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990 - Information on premiums in which consumers save wrappers and send them to Eskimo Pie for goods as well as special promotions are included in this subseries. Lists of goods that can be purchased with the corresponding number of wrappers are included. Other promotions include prizes for contests or special offers with Eskimo proofs of purchase. This subseries includes promotional brochures that explain the new promotions. Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990 - Any business information pertaining to Eskimo Pie's finances, sales, and\or profits is included in this subseries. It also includes U.S. Foil Royalty Reports that report the number of wrappers shipped and manufactured of different businesses including those of Eskimo Pie (Eskimo Pie was a subsidiary of U.S. Foil). The U.S. Foil reports are addressed to Myrtle Nelson. Bank information of Frozen Products, Inc., which manufactured Eskimo Pie and Eskimo confections, is also included. Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954 - This subseries consists of actual boxes, wrappers, lids, and sticks that were used in packaging Eskimo Pie products. The materials are organized by types of packaging and the dates of the materials are generally unclear. Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990 - Listed in chronological order, these publications provide information on the ice cream, dairy, and chocolate industries in a specific time frame. These publications generally do not mention Eskimo Pie products.

Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992 - The advertising materials included in this series mainly consist of the actual advertisements. Little written information on specific advertising campaigns is included with the print, radio, and television advertisements. The promotional brochures do include some written information on the product the company is promoting. Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989 - This subseries includes a range of types of advertisements. Some ads include printed ads in magazines and newspapers while many are proofs of advertisements that will go to print. Other types of advertisements include banners, decals, and railstrips which appear to be point of purchase displays for vending machines, ice cream stands, ice cream carts or trucks, or even the grocery store. Although the scrapbooks mainly consist of advertisements, they also include packaging, machinery, and marketing information. Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985 - This small subseries includes scripts for radio announcements and advertisements. The sheet music for the radio jingles, "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream," "Oh My, Eskimo Pie,"and "New Eskimo Pie on a Stick" are included here. Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992 - The television materials included consist of story boards, scripts for television advertisements with corresponding still photographs, television commercials, and little written information on television campaigns. Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964 - This subseries consists of materials pertaining to new products or special occasion items (e.g. Christmas, Halloween). The brochures were probably sent to vendors, distributors and /or ice cream producers. The brochures intended for vendors and distributors contain samples of advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays and in some instances, inexpensive premiums to be awarded to consumers. The brochures for ice cream manufacturers contain some of the same material as well as the formula and directions for the product, a list of equipment required, and a price list for rental of that equipment. The material, contained in the boxes has been organized alphabetically where possible.

Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979 - This series includes materials found in the collection with no apparent relation to Christian Nelson or Eskimo Pie. Random materials that display the Eskimo Pie logo are also included.

Provenance

The Eskimo Pie collection was donated on May 10, 1996, to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center.

Related Collections The Division of Cultural History has several objects which are also part of the Eskimo Pie Collection.

The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including: #58 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (see Dairy)

#78 Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection, 1880-1995 (see waffle cone machine)

#112 Famous Amos Collection, 1979-1983

#300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980 (see Ice Cream)

#451 Good Humor Collection, 1930-1990

#588 Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989

#594 Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records, 1937-1997
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts housed in the Division of Culture and the Arts.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dave Clark, Eskimo Pie Corporation, July 12, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Polar bear in art  Search this
Ice cream industry -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Sheet music -- Advertising
Posters
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Legal records
Clippings
Citation:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records, 1921-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0553
See more items in:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0553
Additional Online Media:

Winton-Anderson Scrapbook Collection

Topic:
Gordon Bennett Race
Bullet No. 2 (automobile)
Collector:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Kitteredge, Blanche Anderson  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Donor:
Nyland, Gretchen  Search this
Nyland, Gretchen  Search this
Names:
Gordon Bennett Company  Search this
Winton Motor Carriage Company  Search this
Anderson, Harold B.  Search this
Kitteredge, Lewis Harris  Search this
Winton, Alexander  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Place:
Ireland -- 1900-1910
Cleveland (Ohio) -- 1890-1930
Date:
1890s-1920s
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a photograph album and two scrapbooks compiled by Blanch Anderson Kitteredge, wife of Harold B. Anderson, and Lewis Harris Kitteredge. The photographs depict Alexander Winton; employees of the Winton Co. and their families; the Winton touring car; the Winton Bullet No. 2 (including being shipped in 1903 to Ireland for fourth Gordon Bennett Race, views of the car in Ireland, and during the race); other racing cars; family travels; steam yachts; homes; friends and relatives; and leisure activities. The scrapbooks contain programs, ribbons, news clippings, and other ephemera related to leisure activities and life of the Winton and Anderson families in Cleveland from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Winton was a builder and driver of early racing cars. His third racing car, called the "Bullet No. 2", was one of the first automobiles to use an 8-cylinder, in-line engine. Winton and Harold B. Anderson, chief engineer of Winton Motor Carriage Company, built this automobile for the fourth Gordon Bennett road race, held in Ireland in 1903. The car was forced out of the race due to mechanical problems. A good account of the automobile, which is in the Smithsonian's transportation collections, can be seen in Donald H. Berkebile and Smith Hempstone Oliver's book, The Smithsonian Collection of Automobiles and Motorcycles, City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Gretchen Nyland, 1984, October 12, 1984 November 6.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. The leather photograph album is in poor and fragile condition. The leather is deteriorated and some of the black paper pages are loose.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobile engineers -- 1890-1930  Search this
Automobile racing drivers -- 1890-1930  Search this
Automobiles, Racing -- 1900-1910  Search this
Leisure -- 1890-1930  Search this
Yachts and yachting -- 1890-1930  Search this
Travel -- 1890-1930  Search this
Family -- 1890-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Scrapbooks -- 1890-1930
Citation:
Winton-Anderson Scrapbook Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0122
See more items in:
Winton-Anderson Scrapbook Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0122

Modify Your Search






or


Narrow By