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Leo H. Baekeland Papers

Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Names:
Bakelite Corporation  Search this
Nepera Chemical Co.  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (49 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Professional papers
Clippings
Laboratory notes
Personal correspondence
Photographs
Notebooks
Diaries
Date:
1976
1863 - 1968
Summary:
The papers document Leo H. Baekeland, a Belgian born chemist who invented Velox photographic paper (1893) and Bakelite (1907), an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile plastic. The papers include student notebooks; private laboratory notebooks and journals; commercial laboratory notes; diaries; patents; technical papers; biographies; newspaper clippings; maps; graphs; blueprints; account books; batch books; formula books; order books; photographs; and correspondence regarding Baekeland, 1887-1943.
Scope and Contents:
Baekeland documented his life prolifically through diaries, laboratory notebooks, photographs, and correspondence. These constitute the bulk of the collection. The Bakelite company history is also incompletely documented in this collection through Baekeland's correspondence, the commercial laboratory notebooks, and some company ledgers.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Reference Materials, 1863-1868 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Biographical, 1880-1965

Subseries 1.2:Company History, 1910-1961

Subseries 1.3: Related Interests, 1863-1968 and undated

Series 2: Published and Unpublished Writings (by Leo H. Baekeland), 1884-1945

Series 3: Correspondence, 1888-1963 Subseries 3.1: Personal Correspondence, 1916-1943

Subseries 3.2: Charitable Donations, 1916-1938

Subseries 3.3: Family Correspondence, 1888-1963

Subseries 3.4: Clubs and Associations, 1916-1943

Series 4: Diaries, 1907-1943

Series 5: Reading and Lecture Notes, 1878-1886

Series 6, Laboratory Notebooks, 1893-1915

Series 7: Commercial Laboratory Notebooks, 1910-1920

Series 8: Bakelite Company, 1887-1945

Series 9, Patents, 1894-1940

Series 10: Bakelite Corporation Ledgers, 1910-1924; 1935; 1939

Series 11: Photographs, 1889-1950 and undated

Subseries 11.1: Photographs, 1889-1950 and undated

Subseries 11.2: Film Negatives, 1900-1941 and undated

Subseries 11.3: Photoprints, 1894-1941

Subseries 11.4: Stereographs, 1888-1902 and undated

Subseries 11.5: Film and Glass Plate Negatives, 1899-1900 and undated

Series 12: Audio Materials, 1976
Biographical / Historical:
Leo Hendrik Baekeland was an industrial chemist famous for his invention of Bakelite, the first moldable synthetic polymer, and for his invention of Velox photographic paper. Baekeland's career as an inventor and innovator was punctuated by an urge to improve existing technologies and a willingness to experiment both meticulously and daringly. Born in Ghent, Belgium in 1863, Baekeland was a distinguished chemistry student and became a young professor at the University of Ghent. He had a long standing interest in photography and sought to further photographic technology with his expertise in chemistry. In 1887 he obtained his first patent for a dry plate which contained its own developer and could be developed in a tray of water. With the support of a business partner/faculty associate, Jules Guequier, he formed a company named Baekeland et Cie to produce the plate, but the venture failed due to lack of capital.

On August 8, 1889, he married Celine Swarts, daughter of his academic mentor Theodore Swarts, Dean of the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Ghent. After his wedding he travelled to different countries using a traveling scholarship he had been awarded two years previously. His travels ended in the United States where he was offered a job researching chemical problems associated with manufacturing bromide papers and films with A. and H.T. Anthony and Company, a photographic supply producer. Leo and Celine Baekeland had three children: George, Nina and Jenny (1890-1895).

He left Anthony and Company in 1891 to be a consulting chemist. During that time he invented a photographic print paper using silver chloride which could be developed in artificial light instead of sunlight and thus offered more flexibility and consistency to photographers. In 1893, with financial support from Leonard Jacobi, a scrap metal dealer from San Francisco, he formed the Nepera Chemical Company in Yonkers, New York, to manufacture "gaslight" paper under the trade name Velox. The paper became quite popular and the company expanded its operations after its first three years. Finally, George Eastman bought the company for a reported $750,000 which afforded Baekeland the time to conduct his own research in a laboratory he set up on his estate, "Snug Rock," in Yonkers.

Baekeland worked on problems of electrolysis of salt and the production of synthetic resins. He was hired as a consultant to work with Clinton P. Townsend to perfect Townsend's patented electrolytic cell. Baekeland's work there contributed to the success of the Hooke Electrochemical Company which began in operations in Niagara Falls in 1905.

Simultaneously, in 1902 Baekeland began researching reactions of phenol and formaldehyde, and by 1907 was able to control the reactions and produce a moldable plastic (oxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride) which he named Bakelite. Although the process was not perfected for another couple of years, Baekeland applied for a patent for Bakelite right away. He announced his discovery to the scientific community in 1909, and in 1910 formed the General Bakelite Company. Bakelite was a thermosetting resin that, unlike Celluloid became permanently solid when heated. It was virtually impervious to heat, acids, or caustic substances. It could be molded into a wide variety of shapes and was an excellent electric insulator that came to replace hard rubber and amber for electrical and industrial applications. It was also suitable for a wide variety of consumer products such as billiard balls, jewelry, pot handles, telephones, toasters, electric plugs, and airplane instrument knobs. Two companies challenged Bakelite with significant competition, Condensite Corporation of America and Redmanol Chemical Products Company. Bakelite finally merged with these two companies in 1922 to become the Bakelite Corporation. Union Carbide finally bought the corporation in 1939.

Baekeland sustained his interest in photography by taking numerous photographs throughout his lifetime. He also devoted much of his spare time to professional societies and received various honorary degrees and awards such as the Perkin Medal. He had several hobbies such as boating, wine and beer making, and, exotic plants. He also traveled extensively throughout the world, which is documented in his diaries and photographs.

Baekeland spent his final years mostly in his Coconut Grove, Florida home where he became increasingly eccentric until his mind failed him and he was institutionalized. He died in 1943 at the age of eighty.

Scope and Content: Baekeland documented his life prolifically through diaries, laboratory notebooks, photographs, and correspondence. These constitute the bulk of the collection. The Bakelite company history is also incompletely documented in this collection through Baekeland's correspondence, the commercial laboratory notebooks, and some company ledgers.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Albany Billiard Ball Company Records (AC0011)

Celluloid Corporation Records (AC0009)

J. Harry DuBois Collection on the History of Plastics (AC0008)

Materials at Other Organizations

The Hagley Museum and Library, Manuscripts and Archives Department in Delaware also several related collections including: the Directors of Industrial Research Records, 1929 -982; the Du Pont Viscoloid Company, Survey of the Plastics Field, 1932; The Society of the Plastics Industry, 1937-1987; the Roy J. Plunkett Collection, 1910-1994 (inventor of Teflon); and the Gordon M. Kline Collection, 1903.
Separated Materials:
The National Museum of American History, Division Medicine and Science has several artifacts associated with Baekeland including the original "Bakalizer" the apparatus in which Bakelite was first made. See accession numbers: 1977.0368; 1979.1179; 1981.0976; 1982.0034; 1983.0524; 1984.0138.
Provenance:
The bulk of the collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of Physical Sciences in November, 1981, by Celine Karraker, Leo H. Baekeland's granddaughter.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Phenolic resins  Search this
Travel -- Photographs  Search this
Chemists -- 1880-1970  Search this
Inventors -- 1880-1970  Search this
Plastics -- 1880-1970  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Professional papers -- 1880-1970
Clippings -- 1880-1970
Laboratory notes
Personal correspondence -- 1880-1970
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Notebooks -- 1880-1970
Diaries -- 1880-1970
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Nitrate -- 19th-20th century
Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0005
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0005
Additional Online Media:

Rubin Borasky Electron Microscopy Collection

Creator:
Borasky, Rubin, 1910-199?  Search this
Schaeffer, Asa Arthur  Search this
Borasky, Charlotte S., Mrs.  Search this
Names:
Electron Microscopy Society of America.  Search this
General Electric Company  Search this
Temple University.  Search this
United States. Department of Agriculture  Search this
University of Illinois.  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (16 boxes )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Photomicrographs
Electron micrographs
Correspondence
Date:
1930-1988
Scope and Contents:
This material was collected by Mr. Borasky over a long period during which he worked in the field of electron microscopy.

Borasky's correspondence with many of the major figures in the field is included. Much of this correspondence was initiated by Borasky as a means of documenting the history of electron microscopy that he attempted to write over many years. The question of priority of invention and the many steps in development of these instruments are prominent elements of the correspondence.

The collection includes documentation of early events in the development and use of the electron microscope. Numerous reprints of articles, some by pioneers in the field, are supplemented by micrographs (photos) of various materials.

As part of the collection, more than 70 audio tapes were made by Mr. Borasky, recording interviews and lectures relating to microscopy and other matters. The quality of these recordings is generally not satisfactory, however.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Personal, 1948-1987

Series 2: Surveys of Colleagues and Responses, 1959-1982

Series 3: Other Correspondence, 1940-1988

Series 4: Electron Microscopy Societies, 1942-1974

Series 5: Development and Applications of Electron Microscopy, 1935-1986

Series 6: Early History of Electron Microscope (draft material; correspondence), 1942-1987

Series 7: Scientific Publications, 1930-1985; 8. Audio Tapes, 1971-1977
Biographical / Historical:
Rubin Borasky (1910- ) was born in Philadelphia, PA and was educated at Temple University (AB in 1932, AM in 1936, Ph. D. in 1950). He was employed as a teaching assistant at Temple 1932 1934 and as a teacher in Philadelphia secondary schools 1934-1939. Later he worked as a biologist and chemist in U. S. Department of Agriculture, as senior scientist (electron microscopy) for the General Electric Company and as electron micographer at the University of Illinois. He was a member of the Electron Microscopy Society of America and other professional societies in the field of electron microscopy.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Charlotte S. Borasky, August 1, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electron microscopy  Search this
Electron microscopes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Photomicrographs
Electron micrographs
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Rubin Borasky Microscopy Collection, 1930-1988, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0452
See more items in:
Rubin Borasky Electron Microscopy Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0452

Garfield & Company Records

Creator:
United States. War Production Board.  Search this
Garfield & Co.  Search this
Source:
Science, Medicine and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Former owner:
Science, Medicine and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (17 boxes, 11 oversized folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Ledgers (account books)
Correspondence
Sales records
Tax records
Date:
1909-1969
Summary:
The collection documents Garfield and Company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer in New Jersey during the twentieth century. Garfield and Company, founded by Isidor Z. Garfield (1863-1951), made Seidlitz Powder, a commonly known medication composed of tartaric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium sodium tartrate that was used as a mild cathartic by dissolving it in water and then drinking it. Materials include customer files, invoices, correspondence, advertising and packaging materials, calendars, posters, financial records, and an oral and video history with Julius Garfield, son of Isidor Z. Garfield.
Scope and Contents:
The Garfield Company Records are divided into seven series: Series 1, Historical Background; Series 2, Customer Materials; Series 3, Correspondence, 1937-1952; Series 4, Financial Records, 1918-1950; Series 5, Advertising and Packaging Materials, 1923-1968 and undated; Series 6, Drawings/Diagrams, 1958; and Series 7, Photographs, circa 1950s. The collection documents Garfield and Company, a pharmaceutical manufacturer in New Jersey during the twentieth century. Garfield and Company made Seidlitz Powder, a commonly known medication composed of a mixture of tartaric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium sodium tartrate that was used as a mild cathartic by dissolving it in water and then drinking it. The records include customer files, correspondence, advertising, packaging, audio visual materials, photographs, packaging, advertising and financial records. The collection provides good insight into the company during the World War II period and the hardship conditions under which they operated, such as delays in receiving raw materials and difficulty with labor.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1915-1969 and undated, consists of newspaper clippings and articles, corporate identity pieces (letterhead and envelopes), correspondence, and audio visual materials about Garfield and Company. The majority of the correspondence relates to machinery companies and their ability to provide equipment and expertise to manufacture powders and handle packaging issues. Other correspondence relates to advertising agencies and the State of New Jersey Division of Employment Security. The correspondence with Seil, Putt and Rusby, Inc., documents an analytical, consulting and research chemists firm that conducted testing for Garfield. The audio visual materials contain an oral history with Julius Garfield, son of Isidor Garfield on ½" VHS video footage (OV 820.1-2) and a demonstration of how Seidlitz powders are manufactured. The video footage, of which there are two copies, is approximately one hour in length and is divided into two segments. The first segment features the manufacturing equipment producing Seidlitz powders and the second segment features an informal interview with Julius Garfield discussing his father's background and his father's automation of the process of packaging Seidlitz powders. The audio cassettes (OTC 820.1-2) contain a more detailed oral history with Julius Garfield. He provides additional information about his father's background, his brother's (especially George's) background, and the history of the company. Curator Ray Kondratus, of the Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History, conducted the oral history interview, circa 1970s.

Series 2, Customer Materials, 1909-1952, includes materials about customers who had a business relationship with Garfield and Company. The materials are divided into two subseries, Subseries 1, Index Card Files, 1909-1939 and Subseries 2, Customer Files, 1949, 1951-1952.

Subseries 1, Index Card Files, 1909-1939, contains customer names, addresses, and order history from 1909 to the 1920s. They are arranged geographically by city and alphabetically by customer name. They adhere to a color coding schema. Department stores are designated yellow; wholesalers pale blue; second jobbers buff; and chain drug stores are pink. The cards are annotated revealing information about the customer's personality, job information, and the specific salesman for that account.

Subseries 2, Customer Files, 1949, 1951-1952, is arranged alphabetically by customer name. The files contain invoices/receipts for companies, department stores, drug stores, and other organizations that ordered Seidlitz powder from Garfield and Company. The receipts include the name and address of the company and the cost for each order. Also included are bills of lading documenting where the shipment was sent and who received it.

Series 3, Correspondence, 1937-1952, is arranged alphabetically and consists of letters to and from other companies, individuals, and the War Production Board. Some general subject files are also here. The War Production Board correspondence contains information about the use and salvage of raw materials in the factory; requests to purchase certain types of materials; and compliance with quarterly requests for inventory, purchases, and usage of certain foods and materials. Included in the general subject files is documentation about insurance and workers compensation claims for employees of Garfield and Company. The documentation includes primarily State of New York Department of Labor Workers Compensation forms and accident/injury reports. The reports provide detailed information on the nature of the accident/injury, hourly wage and demographic information about the employee.

Series 4, Advertising and Packaging Materials, 1923-1968 and undated, and is divided into four subseries, Subseries 1, Advertising Materials, 1923-1968 and undated; Subseries 2, Posters, 1940s and undated; Subseries 3, Radio Broadcasts, 1951-1964, and Subseries 4, Packaging Materials, 1953 and undated.

Subseries 1, Advertising Materials, 1923-1968 and undated, contains primarily proofs of advertisements for Garfield Seidlitz powders, merchandising reports, price lists, metal printing plates for two advertisements, and calendars. The advertising proofs are in color, black-and-white, and pencil on tracing paper and were prepared by firms such as F.M. Advertising Agency, Inc. There are some pin-up calendars advertising Clairol, Inc., products, 1943, and other pin-ups advertising Garfield and Company Seidlitz powders, 1950-1951.

Subseries 2, Posters, 1940s and undated, consists of posters for Garfield and Company Seidlitz powders and war posters created from woodcuts by Frances "Fran" O'Brien Garfield and Ernest Hamlin Baker. Garfield and Baker designed the posters for the Putnum County Defense Council of New York. Garfield and Company distributed the posters.

Subseries 3, Radio Broadcasts, 1951-1964, contains two 5" inch reel-to-reel audio tapes of radio broadcasts for Garfield and Company products and four audio discs (33 rpm and 87 rpm) of radio broadcasts.

Subseries 4, Packaging Materials, 1953 and undated, consists primarily of labels for Seidlitz powders and cardboard carton packages for transporting and displaying Seidlitz powders. The labels are paper and primarily two and one half by four inches. They feature standard language about the Seidlitz powders. They are imprinted with the name of a specific drug company, such as Hazeltine and Perkins Drug Company or Gill Brook Laboratories. There are some labels that have been imprinted on aluminum sheets. The cardboard cartons are for Seidlitz powders, cough syrups, laxatives, rhinitis tablets, diarrhea remedies, and toothpaste. Packaging specific to a company/manufacturer is arranged alphabetically under the name of the company.

Series 5, Financial Records, 1918-1950, is divided into four subseries: Subseries 1, Invoices, 1918-1941; Subseries 2, Sales Books and Ledgers, 1939-1947 and undated; Subseries 3, Receipts, 1948-1952; and Subseries 4, Tax Materials, 1936-1950 and consists primarily of tax information for the company and specific employees, sales ledgers and invoices and receipts.

Subseries 1, Invoices, 1918-1941, contains invoices issued by Garfield and Company to companies, department stores, drug stores, and other organizations for purchases of Seidlitz Powders. Included are bills of lading. The subseries are arranged alphabetically. See also Series 2, Customer Files, 1949, 1951-1952.

Subseries 2, Sales Books and Ledgers, 1939-1947 and undated, documents order information about the number of tins, carts, and packs of Seidlitz powder sold to specific companies.

Subseries 3, Receipts, 1948-1952, is arranged alphabetically by name of company and contains documentation on products and services that Garfield and Company purchased and used. For example, they purchased soda bicarbonate from the American Cyanamid Company and used the Bronx Haulage Company for rubbish removal.

Subseries 4, Tax Materials, 1936-1950, contains employee wage records, tax returns, employee withholding exemption certificates, and invoices for Samuel Markowitz, an accountant. Some of the records detail the name of the employee, time worked (days and hours), wages, deductions, and wage paid.

Series 6, Drawings/Diagrams, 1958, contains one line drawing for hot water at the Garfield Company, December, 1958, and pencil sketches and diagrams for wiring of the tins and cartons machinery, 1958.

Series 7, Photographs, circa 1950s, contains black-and-white photographs of Isidor Garfield, employees operating packaging machinery, an exterior view of the manufacturing facility, and a store display.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1915-1969 and undated

Series 2, Customer Materials, 1909-1952

Subseries 1, Index Card Files, 1909-1939

Subseries 2, Customer Files, 1949, 1951-1952

Series 3, Correspondence, 1937-1952

Series 4, Financial Records, 1918-1950

Subseries 1, Invoices, 1918-1941

Subseries 2, Sales Books and Ledgers, 1939-1947 and undated

Subseries 3, Receipts, 1948-1952

Subseries 4, Tax Materials, 1936-1950

Series 5, Advertising and Packaging Materials, 1923-1968 and undated

Subseries 1, Advertising Materials, 1923-1968 and undated

Subseries 2, Posters, 1940s and undated

Subseries 3, Radio Broadcasts, 1951-1964

Subseries 4, Packaging Materials, 1953 and undated

Series 6, Drawings/Diagrams, 1958

Series 7, Photographs, circa 1950s
Biographical / Historical:
Garfield and Company of Edison, New Jersey, was the largest manufactures of Seidlitz Powders in the United States. Garfield and Company was founded by Isidor Z. Garfield (1863-1951), a New York pharmacist, who began manufacturing powders in 1908. Garfield was born in Russia and graduated from the University of Moscow with a degree in chemistry. He came to the United States in 1888 with his wife Frances and their first-born son, Louis. Three other sons, George, Julius, and Henry, were born in the United States. Garfield developed an automated process to package reactive ingredients (US Patent 1,091,568) in March, 1914. The process separately packaged the powders in moisture-proof wrappers so druggists no longer had to mix the compounds. In 1916, Garfield patented a machine for measuring and compressing powders (US Patent 1,177,854). Both of Garfield's patents were assigned to Samuel Loewy of New York City. After Garfield died, his sons, Julius and George Garfield inherited the business. The New Jersey manufacturing plant closed in 1980.
Related Materials:
Packaging equipment used by Garfield and Company is located in the Division of Medicine and Science. See Accession #1979.1144.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Julius and George Garfield in 1979.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Stored off-site. Arrangements must be made with the Archives Center staff two-weeks prior to a scheduled research visit. Reference copies of audio visual materials must be used.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Antacids  Search this
Packaging  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Correspondence -- 20th century
Sales records
Tax records
Citation:
Garfield and Company Records, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0820
See more items in:
Garfield & Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0820

Elaine M. Kilbourne Scrapbooks

Creator:
Kilbourne, Elaine Margretta, 1923-2014  Search this
Names:
American Chemical Society  Search this
Extent:
0.06 Linear feet (1 box, scrapbooks, certificates, photographs, )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Certificates
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1924-2014
Summary:
This collection, which dates from 1924-1992, documents the career of high school chemistry teacher, Elaine Margretta Kilbourne (1923-2014). Materials include three scrapbooks compiled by Ms. Kilbourne and two folders, which contain aspects of her personal life, photographs, awards, correspondence, and a 2014 tribute booklet created by her former student, Ysabel L. Lightner to commemorate her passing.
Content Description:
This collection of Elaine Margarette Kilbourne Scrapbooks (1923-2014) and documents measure 6 linear feet and dates from 1924 to 2014 with the bulk of material dating from 1924 to 1992. Included are three scrapbooks and two folders that contain aspects of her personal life, photographs,awards,and correspondence. The first scrapbook dates from 1924 to 2014 with the bulk of materials dating from 1924 to 1992 and includes snapshots and studio portraits of Ms. Kilbourne and her family. There are images of graduation, prom, and vacation, and snapshots of family gatherings. Also present are records relating to her education, including her high school diploma from Eastside High School, Bachelor of Arts degree from Montclair Teachers College in New Jersey, and her Columbia University's Masters of Arts degree. Also present are photographs with her husband Charles Kilbourne, Ms. Kilbourne in the classroom, and snapshots with former students after her retirement. The scrapbook features correspondence from various public schools and students. Certificates and awards are present as well.

The second scrapbook dates from 1955 to 1966 and contain mostly correspondence, newspaper clippings, awards, and samples of her U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Administration chemistry projects. Photographs in the book document Ms. Kilbourne's tenure at Anacostia High School.

The third scrapbook dates from 1966 to 1967 and documents Ms. Kilbourne's professional achievements including being one of six national recipients of the American Chemical Society's James Bryant Conan Award for High School Chemistry teaching. Letters of congratulations from the Smithsonian Institution, General Electric, and Du Pont Company are included in the book, in addition to clippings, photographs, and other memorabilia.
Biographical Note:
Elaine Margretta Kilbourne, was born January 14, 1923, and grew up in Patterson, New Jersey, one of two children of Max and Emily Stecher. She graduated from Eastside High School in 1940, received her B.A. in Physical Sciences from Montclair State Teachers College in 1944 and completed a M.A. degree in Student Personnel Administration at Columbia University in 1947. Her marriage to Charles Kilbourne ended in divorce.

Ms. Kilbourne taught chemistry at Anacostia High School in Washington, DC from 1948 to 1968. Throughout her long and distinguished career, she earned a local and national reputation for excellence in her teaching methods. In 1955, she received a special award from the Chemical Society of Washington for her excellence in teaching. In 1958 and 1963, Ms. Kilbourne received Principal Awards for Excellence in Science Teaching by the District of Columbia. The American Chemical Society recognized her contribution to the STEM field with numerous awards, including receiving the Second District James Bryant Conan Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

While serving as Science Education Specialist for the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Ms. Kilbourne created a series of national curricula for high school chemistry seniors. She also worked as a Teaching Associate in the chemistry department at the University of Maryland, and for the National Science Foundation's summer program for chemistry teachers.

Her passion for teaching students led to an appointment at Thomas S. Wootton High School in Rockville, Maryland where she taught for 16 years until her retirement. Throughout her long career, Ms. Kilbourne found inspiration in the "intrinsic challenge [of teaching chemistry] and the enthusiasm of the students—above all, witnessing their later successes in life." Elaine Margretta Kilbourne passed away peacefully at the age of 91 at Paul Spring Retirement Community in Alexandria, VA., on June 14, 2014.
Provenance:
Donated by Guy A. Toscano in 2017.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at ACMarchives@si.edu
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Women chemists -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Certificates -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence)
Citation:
Elaine M. Kilboroune Scrapbooks, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Guy A.Toscano.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-105
See more items in:
Elaine M. Kilbourne Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-105
Additional Online Media:

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