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Fernando Sandoval Washington, D.C. Photoprints

Donor:
Sandoval, Fernando  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (2 boxes, 50 items)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Resin-coated paper
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- 1950-2000
Date:
ca. 1970s-2000, 2008.
Scope and Contents:
Fifty (50) black-and-white photographic prints on resin-coated paper, depicting scenes in Washington, D.C. Printed by the artist. New prints were made by the photographer for this donation.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Fernando Sandoval is a Washington-based studio and freelance photographer, whose photographs have been shown in many exhibitions in the Washington area. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in Visual Communications from American University.
Provenance:
Donated by Fernando Sandoval.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Photographer retains copyright; contact information on request.
Topic:
Buildings -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Resin-coated paper
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Fernando Sandoval Washington, D.C. Photoprints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1155
See more items in:
Fernando Sandoval Washington, D.C. Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1155
Additional Online Media:

[Ash tray with cigarettes, cigarette holder, cigarette lighter, and hand : black-and-white photoprint,]

Collector:
Adler, Solomon, 1901-1990  Search this
Creator:
Lowy Adv. Agency (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Adler, Solomon, 1901-1989  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 8" x 10".)
Container:
Box 5
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1951
Scope and Contents:
Black-and-white photograph, apparently retouched. "Lowy Adv. Agency, 41, Park Row, New York" on verso.
Local Numbers:
AC1157-0000010.tif (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Gloves required with unprotected photographs.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Smoking -- 1940-1990  Search this
Cigarettes -- 1950-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Solomon Adler Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Solomon Adler Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1157-ref715

Tupperware, A Household Word in Homes Everywhere! [brochure]

Creator:
Tupperware (Firm).  Search this
Collection Creator:
Damigella, Ann.  Search this
Damigella, Thomas  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 10" x 8.25".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Brochures
Advertisements
Date:
1957
Scope and Contents:
Page 30: "A Tupperware Career. Put Yourself in the Tupperware Picture." Page contains four reproductions of black-and-white photographs and one reproduction of a color photograph, with text. The pictures show women who sell Tupperware, and are arranged and captioned to look like a scrapbook page.
Local Numbers:
01058313.tif (AC Scan, p. 30 of brochure)
General:
In Box 1, Folder 1.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Most items have copyright and/or trademark restrictions. Tupperware films: Most duplication and use of films in commercial and non-commercial productions requires written permission from the Tupperware Corporation. See repository for details.
Topic:
Tupperware Home Parties -- 1950-1960  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Reproductions
Brochures -- 1950-2000
Advertisements -- 1950-1960
Collection Citation:
Ann and Thomas Damigella Collection, 1951-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Ann and Thomas Damigella Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0583-ref765

National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film

Creator:
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
28 Cubic feet (48 boxes)
224 motion picture films
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Motion picture films
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Slides (photographs)
Date:
circa 1945-1999, undated
Summary:
The collection consists primaily of photographs and films created by the National Cotton Council (NCC) to document cotton production and use and to support the advocacy and educational work of the organization.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of photographs, slides, and motion picture films created by the National Cotton Council to document cotton production and use and to support the educational and advocacy work of the organization. It is arranged into four series.

Series 1 contains black and white photographic prints dating primarily from the 1950s-1970s. These photographs document every aspect of cotton farming, from before the seed is even planted to the production of finished cloth. The photographs fall into four categories. The majority depict agricultural practices in all their variations, including land preparation, planting, bedding, plowing, harrowing, drainage, cultivation, stripping, and harvesting. Another large group depicts pests and infestations – boll weevils, fleas, mites, pink bollworm, hoppers - and the methods of countering them with insecticide and herbicide applications. A third group of photos documents more general topics, including the history of cotton, research programs, trading, foreign cotton farming, printing, spinning, and weaving. There are also a number of photographs of agricultural equipment manufactured by International Harvester. Finally, a small group of photographs consists of still shots from many of the movies produced by the National Cotton Council. The photographs were maintained in the order that was created by the National Cotton Council.

Series 2 includes slides and color photographs which date from the 1980s-early 2000s. Their value lies in the fact that most seem to cover the same agricultural and general topics as the photographic prints, just in a different format. Many of the groups of slides were obviously assembled for use in presentations. In addition, there are a large number of slides of individuals and activities from National Cotton Council Board meetings and conferences. Since most of these are not captioned and are of little intrinsic value anyway, they will need to be weeded out. In addition, there are a small number of color snapshots, housed in plastic sleeves, mixed in with the slide sheets. While these provide more modern photographic documentation, many of them also show meetings and are probably of little intrinsic value. The slide sheets were maintained in the order that the company used them.

Series 3 consists of office files icluding industry publications and reference materials.

Series 4 contains two hundred and fourteen films that were created by the National Cotton Council (NCC) and date from the 1960s-1980s. A few of the films document cotton farming;, they primarily document cotton's versatility and use in consumer goods. A consistent theme is that "ordinary cotton" could be quite fashionable. Sample titles include "5000 Years of Cotton Fashion," "Back to School Fashion," "Feed Bag Fashions," "Designer Showcase," "Cotton American Style," "Career Girl Fashion," "High Fashion in Venice," "Cotton: Nature's Food and Fiber Plant," "Pollution Fighters," "The Mattress that Wouldn't Burn," "Why Cotton in Home Furnishings," and "Wash and Wear Cottons."
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Black and White Photographic Prints, circa 1945-1970s, undated

Subseries 1.1, Cultivation and Production of Cotton, circa 1950s-1970s, undated

Subseries 1.2, Film Stills, 1956-1971, undated

Subseries 1.3, Subjects and Events, 1945-1965, undated

Series 2, Slides, circa 1979-1999, undated

Series 3, Office Files, 1954-1981

Series 4, Films, 1953-1980
Biographical / Historical:
The National Cotton Council of America (NCC) is the official trade association of the cotton industry. The NCC was founded in 1939 to promote the interests of cotton farmers, ginners, brokers, and manufacturers from the Southern, cotton-growing states. Its mission evolved over the years as new uses for cotton and its byproducts were found; as synthetic fibers were developed; as fashion tastes changed; as government regulation increased; and as foreign competition in farming and manufacturing grew. The National Cotton Council's website states that its current mission is "to ensure the ability of all United States cotton industry segments to compete effectively and profitably in the raw cotton, oilseed and United States-manufactured product markets at home and abroad." Throughout its existence, the NCC has been the contact point for industry issues affecting its members, legislators in Congress, allied agribusinesses, and consumers.

The National Cotton Council of America (NCC) initially gave this collection to the Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange early in 2008, during the move of the Memphis-based NCC's corporate offices into a much smaller facility. Calvin Turley, president of the Board of the Cotton Museum, accepted the materials with the understanding that he could do with them as he wished. Ultimately, he decided that the collection was outside the scope of the Cotton Museum's mission. Turley offered the collection to the National Museum of American History in the belief that this was "the best possible place in the whole world for it."
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Maid of Cotton Records (NMAH.AC.1176)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2009 by the Cotton Museum.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Cotton growing  Search this
Cotton picking  Search this
Cotton manufacture  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Cotton  Search this
Cotton farming  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Motion pictures (visual works)
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1177
See more items in:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1177

William G. Elliott Spectra-Span Records

Creator:
SpectraMetrics (Burlington, Massachusetts)  Search this
Elliott Laboratories (Andover, Massachusetts)  Search this
Elliott, William G., 1932-2014  Search this
Donor:
Elliott, Mark  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business records
Black-and-white photographs
Financial records
Correspondence
Lantern slides
Laboratory notebooks
Patents
Manuals
Reports
Printed materials
Writings
Date:
circa 1958-1988
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Elliott's work in developing the SpectraSpan Spectrometer and related technologies including the use of echelle gratings and argon plasmas with the spectrometer. It also documents his companies, SpectraMetrics, and Elliott Laboratories. The collection contains correspondence; photographs, including lantern slides; business and financial records; writings; laboratory notes; internal company reports; user's manuals; patents and patent-related papers; and publications and printed materials.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
William G. Elliott was an engineer who, in 1966, founded SpectraMetrics, which developed and marketed the SpectraSpan echelle spectrometer. He later sold SpectraMetrics, and founded Elliott Laboratories in 1972.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mark Elliott.
Restrictions:
UNPROCESSED COLLECTION.
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Spectrum analysis  Search this
Spectroscope  Search this
Spectrophotometry  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Spectrometer  Search this
Argon plasmas  Search this
Echelle gratings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white photographs -- 1950-2000
Financial records -- 1050-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Lantern slides
Laboratory notebooks -- 1950-2000
Patents -- 1950-2000
Manuals -- 1950-2000
Reports -- 1950-2000
Printed materials -- 1950-2000
Writings -- 1950-2000
Citation:
William G. Elliott Spctra-Span Records, ca. 1958-1988, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1361
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1361

Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Project Drawings

Creator:
Bigelow, Elizabeth Merkelson  Search this
Bigelow, Julian  Search this
Princeton University. Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (3 boxes, 1 folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Reports
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
1949-1961.
Summary:
Correspondence, personal notes, articles, drawings, photographs, and published reports documenting the IAS Electronic Computer Project.
Scope and Contents note:
Collection consists of correspondence, personal notes, articles, drawings, and published reports documenting the Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Project, 1949-1956. The bulk of the documentation dates from 1949 to 1954. The Office of Naval Research contracted with IAS to study and document the operation and engineering improvements on the electronic computer at IAS from July 1, 1952 to June 30, 1953. An earlier report by IAS on a study contracted for by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps is also included. This study ended July 1, 1952 and the published report is in two volumes. Many of the drawings are in pencil and have no date, but there is one near complete set of blueprints for the Electronic Computer (drawings #1298 to #1072). Drawings range in size from 17" x 22" to 27" x 36". There is one folder of undated, black and white photographs that appear to document certain aspects of the Electronic Computer. The collection is arranged into five series: Series 1: Correspondence, Series 2: Chapter Drafts, Series 3: Notes and Drawings, Series 4: Photographs; and Series 5: Articles and Reports.
Arrangement:
Divided into 5 series: 1) Correspondence; 2) Chapter Drafts; 3) Notes and Drawings; 4) Photographs; 5) Articles and Reports.
Historical:
The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey is an independent, private institution dedicated to the encouragement, support, and patronage of learning through fundamental research and definitive scholarship across a wide range of fields. IAS was founded in 1930 by Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld as a center for intellectual inquiry. During its existence, the institute has had in residence many of the most highly regarded thinkers of the twentieth century. Julian Bigelow joined the staff of IAS in April 1946 and worked on the Electronic Computer Project. The Electronic Computer Project was initiated in 1946 by John von Neumann, a mathematician who had been working on ballistics computations during World War II. Von Neumann used the first version of the Princeton computer to calculate the results of the thermonuclear reaction of the first H-bomb in 1950. The project was terminated following von Neumannn's death in 1957.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Computer Oral History Collection, 1969-1973, 1977 (NMAH.AC.0196)

Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project Records, 1950-1957 (NMAH.AC.0401)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Elizabeth Merkelson Bigelow and Julian H Bigelow on June 20, 2002.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Computer science  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Reports
Photographs -- 20th century
Drawings -- 20th century
Citation:
Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Drawings, 1949-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0815
See more items in:
Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Project Drawings
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0815

Naomi Huber Brown Papers (Documenting Duke Ellington's Concert Tour of Asia)

Creator:
Brown, Naomi Huber  Search this
Names:
Armstrong, Louis, 1900-1971  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Notes
Business records
Photographs
Place:
Asia -- Concerts -- 1960-1970
Date:
1960-1963.
Summary:
Records document the preparation and management of Duke Ellington's 1963 tour of Asia.
Scope and Contents:
The Naomi Huber Brown Papers contain black and white photographs, correspondence, business contracts, travel itineraries, list of band members, newspaper reviews, a concert program and Brown's personal diary documenting Duke Ellington's 1963 State Department tour of the Middle East and Asia. The material is arranged alphabetically. Of particular interest is a program from a November 1 and 3 Karachi, Pakistan concert, and photographs autographed by Ellington, Louis Armstrong, and Isaac Stern.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Naomi Huber Brown was the United States Foreign Service officer that was responsible for the administration of Duke Ellington's State Department tour of the Middle East and Asia in 1963. Her duties included scheduling travel and making arrangements for the members of the Ellington Orchestra, and the distribution of appropriate currencies to the band members as they toured each country.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Naomi Huber Brown, July 15, 1991.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz musicians -- 1960-1970 -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 1960-1970 -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes -- 1960-1970
Business records -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 1960-1970
Citation:
Naomi H. Brown Papers Documenting Duke Ellington's Concert Tour of Asia, 1963, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0429
See more items in:
Naomi Huber Brown Papers (Documenting Duke Ellington's Concert Tour of Asia)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0429

Archives Center 1968 Olympic Games Collection

Creator:
Olympic Games (19th : 1968) (Mexico City, Mexico)  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Articles
Audiocassettes
Black-and-white photographs
Diaries
Ephemera
Magazines (periodicals)
Letters
Memoranda
Maps
Passes
Periodicals
Photographs
Postcards
Programs
Schedules
Scorecards
Scrapbooks
Telegrams
Tickets
Place:
Mexico -- 1960-1970
Date:
1968
Scope and Contents:
This collection was created by the Archives Center to bring together materials relating to the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. Items relate to team members and include postcards, event programs, press guides, magazines, articles, and dining hall tickets.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
The 1968 Summer Olympics, (Games of the XIX Olympiad) were the first Olympic games held in Latin America and the first held in a Spanish-speaking country. They took place in October,1968, during a time of upheaval in Mexico as well as in the United States.
Provenance:
Initial donations to this collection were made by Tom Lough (Pentathlon) and Daniel Cantillon (Fending) in 2016. Addenda from Laurie Lewis Havel (Volleyball), Sharon Callahan McKniff (High jump) and John Ferris (Swimming) were added in 2017. Papers of Micki King (Diving), Vicki King (Swimming), and Jane Swagerty Hill (Swimming) were acquired in 2018.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Athletes  Search this
Divers  Search this
Fencers  Search this
Handbooks  Search this
Jumping  Search this
Identification cards  Search this
Olympics  Search this
Sports  Search this
Swimmers  Search this
Volleyball  Search this
Women athletes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 1950-2000
Audiocassettes
Black-and-white photographs
Diaries
Ephemera
Magazines (periodicals) -- 1960-1970
Letters
Memoranda
Maps
Passes
Periodicals -- 20th century
Photographs -- Color photoprints
Postcards -- 1960-1970
Programs -- 1960-1970
Schedules
Scorecards
Scrapbooks
Telegrams
Tickets
Citation:
Archives Center 1968 Olympic Games Collection, 1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1402
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1402

Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks

Photographer:
Nadel, Leonard, 1916-1990  Search this
Author:
Galarza, Ernesto  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Scrapbooks
Place:
Mexico
Texas -- 20th century
Texas
California
Date:
1950-2006
bulk 1956-1960
Summary:
Photographer Leonard Nadel's supplemental material relating to and photographs of the Mexican braceros (manual laborers). They were photographed in California, Texas, and Mexico for the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic during the late 1950s and early 1960s in support of a report entitled Strangers in Our Fields by Dr. Ernesto Galarza.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into three series. Each series is arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1950-1968, contains scrapbooks of clippings of magazine articles and newspaper stories written by Nadel and others as well as magazines and newspaper articles making use of his photographs. The material is from a variety of specialty and mainstream publications and varies in subject matter. The scrapbooks are not only focused on Nadel's work for the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic but also offer a broad sampling of his work throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Material in the scrapbooks are arranged in rough chronological order. There is also a sample custom cover from one of the scrapbooks.

Series 2: Photographs, 1956-1960, undated, contains photographs printed from his negatives of the braceros. This series also contains a complete run of 8" x 10" contact sheets from his negatives of the bracero. The negatives themselves are in this series but not available for research per donor request. There are photographs ranging in size from 8" x 10" to large format photographs (10 1/2" x 13 1/2") that are keyed to frames on the contact sheets for easy reference. Negatives are arranged chronologically and captions are keyed to the negative numbers. These images have been digitized and may be found by searching "Nadel" on the collections section of the National Museum of American History website or by contacting the Archives Center.

Series 3: Publications and Supplemental Materials, 1956-2006, undated, contains correspondence, copies of Strangers in Our Fields, the publication making use of Nadel's bracero photographs, and other publications citing Nadel's work or based on it. This series also contains correspondence and written material from Evelyn De Wolfe Nadel, wife of Leonard Nadel; material relating to Nadel's photographic archive and captions for a selection of the bracero photographs. There is a selection of assorted loose news clippings.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into three series:

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1950-1968

Series 2: Photographs, 1956-1960, undated

Series 3: Publications and Supplemental Materials, 1956-2006, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Primarily known as a freelance photographer and photojournalist, Leonard Nadel (1916-1990) was born in Harlem, New York to Austro-Hungarian immigrant parents. He attended the City College of New York. Entering the Army during World War II, he trained at the Army Signal Corps Photographic Center. During the war he served in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. After the war he returned to New York and received his master's degree in education from Teachers College, Columbia University. He moved to Los Angeles, California and studied at the Art Center College of Design.

In Los Angeles, Nadel photographed both the Pueblo del Rio and Aliso Village housing projects. He was also hired by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA) to document living conditions in the city's slums and their new post-World War II housing projects. Nadel continued his employment with HACLA until 1953, when he resigned because his HACLA colleague, Frank Wilkinson, was blacklisted by the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) and forced to resign.

Between 1953 and 1980 Nadel worked as a freelance photographer for such publications as the Los Angeles Times, Harvester News, Life, Business Week, and other major publications. His work with the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic resulted in his work documenting the bracero program. These photographs were taken by Leonard Nadel in connection with a survey of braceros done by Ernesto Galarza for the Fund for the Republic in 1956 in support of the publication, Strangers in Our Fields. During World War II, the United States and Mexico entered an agreement to alleviate the US labor shortage created by the war by importing Mexican workers. This arrangement outlasted the end of the war and by the time of Nadel's photographs nearly half a million Mexican contract workers, in the common vernacular of the time known as "drybacks," were legally imported to the United States annually working on short term labor contracts predominately in agriculture. These workers were also known as braceros, in Spanish translated as "manual laborer".

Nadel wrote of his work with the braceros, "I covered 5,000 miles during a circuit that took me from California to Mexico to Texas. It would have been easy enough just to turn over to the Fund the finished collection of photographs from the 2,000 images I took in attempting to accurately document the story of Strangers in Our Fields. But the conditions I had witnessed stirred me deeply. I felt that it was as much my responsibility to help 'sell' the picture story."

Nadel's photographs were the subject of the National Museum of American History (NMAH) exhibition, "Bittersweet Harvest: The Bracero Program, 1942-1964" in 2009-2010. Nadel's photographs are featured in NMAH's "America on the Move" exhibit. This quote from the "America on the Move" exhibition website gives the history of the photographs as well as the bracero program.

"In 1956, Leonard Nadel was hired by the Fund for the Republic, an anti-McCarthy liberal spin off of the Ford Foundation, to document the Bracero Program. In the 1990s, the Smithsonian Institution acquired the Nadel images. The collection contains 64 captioned photographic prints and 1730 original 35mm negatives (with corresponding contact sheets). The images document life in Mexico, men's experiences of crossing the border, and work and life in the US.

"The Bracero Program came into existence in 1942. Growers argued that labor shortages in the United States resulting from World War II required the recruitment of Mexican nationals. Mexico saw the program as a contribution to the war effort. Although the program began as a temporary war measure, it became a fixture of agricultural work landscape until it was finally terminated in 1964.

"Over the course of its lifetime, the Bracero Program became the largest and most significant U.S. labor guest worker program of the 20th century. In all, over 4.5 million contracts were awarded through the twenty-two years of the program. Despite the well-intentioned contracts, the program did not escape controversy. Some point out the widespread abuses of many of the contract's protective provisions and the violation of the legal rights and civil liberties of the braceros while others describe the program as an opportunity for Mexican nationals to make a living and improve the conditions of their families. Regardless of one's opinion of the program, it had a profound effect on Mexican American settlement patterns in the U.S. and numerous Latino families have ancestors who were involved in the Bracero Program."

Nadel married Los Angeles Times staff writer Evelyn De Wolfe in August 1961. She was Brazilian by birth and after their marriage she resigned from the Times and collaborated with Nadel on many projects that covered both national and international subjects. Nadel died in 1990.
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

The collections of the Los Angeles Public Library and the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research each contain photographic images made by Leonard Nadel during the time he worked for The Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA). The Photo Collection of the Los Angeles Public Library contains approximately 290 copy negatives and corresponding black-and-white copy prints made from original materials held by HACLA. The Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Photograph Collection, held at the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research, contains 225 black-and-white photographs produced by HACLA, forty-two of which were taken by Nadel.

The Getty Research Institute, Special Collections, Los Angeles, California, contain 8.75 linear feet (14 boxes) of Leonard Nadel photographs and other material relating to housing and urban redevelopment in Los Angeles, 1947-1998. The collection is described as, "Consisting primarily of photographic material by Leonard Nadel from 1947 to 1957, the collection records early efforts by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA) to promote integrated public housing for the city's growing multi-ethnic population, and also documents several areas of the city that the Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) had targeted for commercial revitalization. Nadel's black-and-white negatives, contact prints and two unpublished photographic books form the bulk of the collection, supplemented by handwritten notes and related documents."
Provenance:
The collection was purchased with funds from the Jackson Fund in 2000. All rights were transferred to the National Museum of American History in 2000-2001.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use. Photographic negatives are not available for research at the donor's request, but contact sheets of the negatives are available in the collection. Some images are restricted for publication, but may be viewed in the Archives Center's reading room.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farmers -- Mexico  Search this
Agriculture -- Research  Search this
Agriculture -- Photographs -- 20th century  Search this
Labor  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs  Search this
Documentary photography -- United States  Search this
Photographers -- 1950-1980  Search this
Bracero Program  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white photographs
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1313
See more items in:
Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1313

S. Newman Darby Windsurfing Collection

Creator:
Darby, S. Newman, 1928-2016 ((inventor))  Search this
Darby, Kenneth  Search this
Darby, Naomi  Search this
Names:
Mistral, Inc.  Search this
Windsurfing International, Inc.  Search this
Drake, Jim  Search this
Schweitzer, Hoyle  Search this
Extent:
2.65 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Sketches
Photographs
Rigging plans
Sail plans
Legal files
Blueprints
Film (performing arts)
Illustrated periodicals
Correspondence
Design drawings
Drawings
Videotapes
Place:
Falls (Pa.) -- 1950-1990
Susquehana River -- 1950-1990
Date:
1944-1998
Summary:
The collection documents S. Newman Darby's development of the sailboard, which became known as the windsurfer through sketches, mechanical drawings, plans, patent specifications, legal documents, photographs, correspondence, notebooks, clippings, periodicals, and an 8mm film.
Scope and Contents:
The S. Newman Darby Windsurfing Collection, 1946-1998, documents the body of Newman Darby's inventive output as well as the development of the windsurfing industry. It consists of sketches, mechanical drawings, plans, patent specifications, legal documents, photographs, correspondence, notebooks, clippings, periodicals, an 8mm film and a videocassette. The collection is particularly rich in the material related to the development of the sailboard, including Darby's personal memoirs. It contains U.S. and foreign patents related to windsurfing as well as records and reports related to Darby's testimony in litigation and the recognition of the priority of his invention. the collections research value lies in the documentation of the invention of the windsurfer and the industry and culture it spawned. It documents the processes of invention and marketing of new devices. It is evidence of the full range of S. Newman Darby's imagination, life and career.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Biographical materials, 1969-1982

Series 2: Inventions and designs, 1953-1990

Series 3: Darby Industries, 1982-1983

Series 4: History of windsurfing, 1944-1998

Series 5: Photographs, 1946-1997

Series 6: Audio-Visual materials, 1965-1997
Biographical / Historical:
S. Newman Darby is recognized as the first person in the United States to conceive of connecting a hand-held sail rig fastened with a universal joint to a floating platform for recreational use. He called it sail boarding in 1965, when he published his designs in Popular Science Monthly magazine. Although he and his brothers Ronald and Kenneth began manufacturing the boards through their company Darby Industries, they never applied for a patent.

S. Newman Darby (1928-2016) was born in West Pittston, Pennsylvania. He graduated from West Pittston High School in 1946. A sign painter and artist, like his father Sidney Darby, he studied drafting at the Pennsylvania State University extension school where he took chemistry, business, art, and photography courses for one year. His first invention, the Darby Dory, a folding rowboat dates from 1953. The sailboard developed out of Darby's experiments with a personal pontoon catamaran, each hull being big enough for one foot and designed to be operated with a hand-held sail and no rudder. By 1964 he had designed a universal joint that connected a mast to a flat bottom sailing scow. This board had a centerboard, tail fin and kite shaped free sail. Early tests were conducted on Trailwood Lake and the Susquehanna River, near West Pittston.

Today sail boarding is known as windsurfing. It adopted its name from Windsurfer International, a company Hoyle Schweitzer and Jim Drake established on the basis of a patent granted to them in 1970 for a "wind-propelled apparatus." In all essential qualities, their claims duplicated Newman Darby's earlier work.

After Schweitzer bought out Drake's share in 1973, he energetically promoted the sport and licensed manufacturing rights to more than 20 companies around the world. Schweitzer forcefully prosecuted patent infringements he perceived among windsurfer manufacturers and he threatened to sue the 1984 Olympic Committee should it authorize a board produced by a manufacturer not licensed by Windsurfer International. Although he was aware of the growth of the sport and the profits flowing into Windsurfer International through its licensing activities, Darby was unable to mount a legal challenge to Schweitzer. His priority in the invention of the sport was overlooked and almost forgotten.

In the late 1970's, Mistral, a Swiss manufacturer sued by Windsurfer International in Germany, located Darby and presented his "prior art" as a defense. In the early 1980's, courts in the United States were asked to rule on the validity of the Windsurfer International patent. Newman Darby's prior art was at the center of the controversies. The court voided Windsurfer's original patent and Schweitzer was forced to apply for a reissue based on severely limited claims. He lost the use of "windsurfer" as a trademark. Schweitzer retained the reissued patent through further challenges until it expired in 1987. The example of Newman Darby has become a textbook case of the importance of thorough searches for "prior art" for patent attorneys.

Following completion of the patent litigation Darby designed original sail rigs for Mistral in Europe and Horizon in the United States. In 1982 Newman entered into a new partnership with his brothers Ronald and Kenneth and formed NRK, Inc., to design and manufacture windsurfing boards, training devices and to produce written and video documentaries of his contributions to the history of the sport.

Naomi Albrecht Darby, Newman's wife, sewed the first sails for the boards and participated in their testing and marketing. She documented Darby's inventions through the years in photographs and moving images. Over the years, Darby has worked on numerous inventions--most of them related to wind propulsion. Like many independent inventors, Newman Darby conceives of his ideas, executes all of the mechanical plans, builds his own prototypes and tests them. Darby continues to research improvements in windsurfing and to teach courses in boat building and design.
Related Materials:
An original sailboard, rig, mast and daggerboard from the same period are also housed in the Pennsylvania State Museum at Harrisburg.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts holds artifacts relating to S. Newman Darby and his invention of the windsurfer, including an original board, boom and mast, and sail dating from 1964. See accessions #1998.0086 and #1998.0323.
Provenance:
Most of the collection was donated to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History by S. Newman Darby and his wife Naomi on February 3, 1998.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sporting goods industry -- 1950-1990  Search this
Sailboats -- 1950-1990  Search this
Patent law and legislation -- 1950-1990 -- United States  Search this
Patent licenses  Search this
Patents (international law) -- 1950-1990  Search this
Boatbuilders -- 1950-1990  Search this
Boats and boating -- 1950-1990  Search this
Boats and boating -- Designs and plans -- 1950-1990  Search this
Inventors -- 1950-2000  Search this
Inventions -- 1950-2000  Search this
Aquatic sports -- 1950-1990  Search this
Darby simulator  Search this
Windsurfers -- 1950-1990  Search this
Windsurfing -- Inventions -- 1950-1990  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 1950-2000
Sketches -- 1950-1990
Photographs -- 20th century
Rigging plans -- 1950-1990
Sail plans -- 1950-1990
Legal files -- 1950-1990
Blueprints -- 1950-2000
Film (performing arts) -- 1950-1990
Illustrated periodicals -- 1950-1990
Correspondence -- 1940-1990
Design drawings -- 1950-2000
Drawings -- 1950-1990
Videotapes
Citation:
S. Newman Darby Windsurfing Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0625
See more items in:
S. Newman Darby Windsurfing Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0625
Additional Online Media:

Navroze Contractor Photographs

Creator:
Contractor, Navroze  Search this
Names:
Keystone Korner (San Francisco, Cal.).  Search this
Bang, Billy (musician)  Search this
Bridgewater, Cecil (musician)  Search this
Hill, Calvin (musician)  Search this
Jarrett, Keith (musician)  Search this
Knepper, Jimmy (musician)  Search this
Mangelsdorf, Albert (musician)  Search this
Moore, Eddie (musician)  Search this
Roach, Max (musician)  Search this
Rollins, Sonny (musician)  Search this
Shaw, Woody (musician)  Search this
White, Michael (musician)  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
California -- San Francisco
Date:
1978-1995
Summary:
Black-and-white photographic prints depicting jazz musician Eddie Moore and musicians who played in tribute to Moore that include Billy Bang, Cecil Bridgewater, Calvin Hill, Keith Jarrett, Jimmy Knepper, Albert Mangelsdorf, Max Roach, Sonny Rollins, Woody Shaw, and Michael White. Many of the photographs were taken at San Francisco's Keystone Korner, a popular jazz venue in the United States during the 1970s and early 1980s.
Scope and Contents note:
The Navroze Contractor Photograph Collection consists of twenty-three black and white photographic prints depicting jazz drummer Eddie Moore (1940-1989) performing in California and India, musicians who played with Moore, and musicians who performed a 1995 tribute concert to Moore in Oakland, California. In addition there are photographs of Moore=s family that were taken at their Farallones Street home in San Francisco, California.

The collection contains unmounted 16x20 photographic prints. Interesting musicians in this collection include Eddie Moore, Max Roach, Sonny Rollins, and Woody Shaw. Other photographs of interest are those taken in San Francisco at Keystone Korner, which was one of the most important Awest coast@ jazz venues in the United States during the 1970s and early 1980s. The photographs are organized in alphabetical order by performers last name.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series. Arranged alphabetically by subject.
Biographical/Historical note:
Navroze Contractor is a highly acclaimed cinematographer and photographer. He studied painting and photography at the Faculty of Fine Arts, M.S. University, Baroda, film direction at the Film & Television Institute of India, Pune, cinematography under master director of photography, Laszlo Kovacs, at Rockport, Maine, and video production at Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Contractor=s feature film credits include Duvidha (1972, directed by Mani Kaul), 22nd June, 1897 (1979, directed by Nachiket Patwardhan), Percy (1989, directed by Pervez Merwanji), Hun Hunshi Hunshilal (Love In The Time Of Malaria) (1991, directed by Sanjiv Shah) and Devara Kadu (1992, directed by Pattabhi Rama Reddy). In addition to his professional interests, Contractor is an avid aficionado of jazz performed in both the United States and India.
Provenance:
Collection donated by DEN Productions, through Navroze Contractor, February 1, 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves required with unprotected photographs.
Rights:
Copyright restrictions; contact staff for information.
Topic:
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 1970-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Navroze Contractor Photographs, 1978-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0569
See more items in:
Navroze Contractor Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0569
Additional Online Media:

Mallie Ivie WAF Collection

Creator:
Ivie, Mallie J., 1930-1975  Search this
Names:
Women's Air Force (WAF)  Search this
Extent:
0.47 Cubic Feet ((1 flat box))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Yearbooks -- 1950-2000
Date:
bulk 1948-1951
Scope and Contents:
This donation includes a scrapbook and two yearbooks, one from Lowry Air Force Base in 1949 and the other from Barksdale Air Force Base in 1950. The scrapbook was compiled by Corporal Ivie and relates to her time with the WAFs, including both service-related and social activities. Included in the scrapbook are numerous newspaper clippings related to the WAFs, as well as personal correspondence (including letters from her brother who served in the Marines and from her future husband, Ray Botello), and black and white photographs of her fellow airmen. There is also various memorabilia from her social activities.
Biographical / Historical:
Mallie J. Ivie (1930-1975) was born in El Paso, TX. On 6 October 1948, she became the second woman to join the armed forces in Texas after they began a recruiting drive on 27 September of the same year. She had just graduated from Austen High School that May. She enlisted in the Women's Air Force (WAF) for a three year term, although she left before her third year was completed. She served as a reconnaissance technician at Lowry Field in Denver, CO before she was transferred to Forbes Air Force Base in Topeka, KS on 6 August 1949. On 24 October 1949 she was again transferred, this time to Barksdale Air Force Base near Shreveport, LA where she was promoted to Corporal.
Provenance:
Mallie Irene Ramona "Mona" (Botello) White, Gift, 2004
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Women and the military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Yearbooks -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Mallie Ivie WAF Collection, Accession 2004-0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2004.0052
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2004-0052

Tabasco and the war against bland military meals

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Interviews
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 29 Apr 2015 21:25:24 +0000
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_dc6b8d31cf0ae522a1d0391ca40ae890

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