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Control Panel, Bell Telephone Laboratories Model 5 Computer

view Control Panel, Bell Telephone Laboratories Model 5 Computer digital asset number 1
Maker:
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
glass (tubes material)
Measurements:
overall: 224 cm x 76 cm x 22 cm; 88 3/16 in x 29 15/16 in x 8 11/16 in
Object Name:
computer component
electromechanical computer component
Place Made:
United States: New Jersey, New Providence, Murray Hill
Date made:
1947
Description:
This control panel is a small part of a very large programmable calculator built by Bell Telephone Laboratories of New York for the U.S. Army. By the mid-twentieth century, improving communications required complicated calculations. In order to improve the clarity and range of long distance voice signals, George Stibitz, a research mathematician at Bell Labs, needed to do calculations using complex numbers. Stibitz and Bell Labs engineer Sam Williams completed a machine for this purpose in 1939–it later was called the Bell Labs Model I. With the outbreak of World War II, Stibitz and Bell Labs turned their attention to calculations related to the aiming and firing of antiaircraft guns. Stibitz proposed a new series of relay calculators that could be programmed by paper tape to do more than one kind of calculation. The BTL Model 5. was the result. The machine consisted of 27 standard telephone relay racks and assorted other equipment. It had over 9000 relays, a memory capacity of 30 7-digit decimal numbers, and took about a second to multiply 2 numbers together. Two copies of the machine were built. This one was used by the U.S. Army for ballistics work at Aberdeen, Maryland and then at Fort Bliss, Texas. Machines that used relays were reliable, but slower than those using vacuum tubes, and soon gave way to electronic computers.
Location:
Currently on loan
Subject:
Mathematics
Credit Line:
Gift of Bell Telephone Laboratories
ID Number:
1987.0821.01
Accession number:
1987.0821
Catalog number:
1987.0821.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Computers & Business Machines
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

The science of sound [sound recording] / produced by the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc

view The science of sound [sound recording] / produced by the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc digital asset number 1
Producer:
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Physical description:
1 phonograph record : analog, 33 1/3 rpm ; 12 in
Type:
Phonograph records
Date:
1960
Notes:
Program notes (6 p.) inserted in container.
This is a shorter version of FX 6007.
Topic:
Music--Acoustics and physics
Science
Sounds
Nature sounds
Local number:
FW06136
Folkways 6136
See more items in:
Folkways Records Collection 1948-1986
Data Source:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
Additional Online Media:

Transistor Samples

view Transistor Samples digital asset number 1
Maker:
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
metal (overall material)
felt (overall material)
germanium (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 in x 2 1/2 in x 2 1/4 in; 2.54 cm x 6.35 cm x 5.715 cm
Object Name:
transistor
Date made:
ca 1948
Description (Brief):
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a revolutionary device in 1947: the transistor. Using a semiconductor like germanium, transistors could transmit or amplify electrical currents more reliably and using far less power than vacuum tubes. The Bell Telephone Company provided most of the telephone service in the U.S. at that time but worried about anti-trust regulations should they try to monopolize the transistor invention. So for a licensing fee or $25,000 any company could gain access to transistor technology. This 1948 sample case contains two germanium point-contact transistors “for experimental use only.”
Related Publication:
Sewer, Andy; Allison, David; Liebhold, Peter; Davis, Nancy; Franz, Kathleen G.. American Enterprise: A History of Business in America
Credit Line:
from Gordon Hull, Jr.
ID Number:
2003.0231.17
Accession number:
2003.0231
Catalog number:
2003.0231.17
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
American Enterprise
Energy & Power
Exhibition:
American Enterprise
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Additional Online Media:

Model, Communications Satellite, Telstar

view Model, Communications Satellite, Telstar digital asset number 1
Manufacturer:
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Materials:
Resin
Plastic
Aluminum
Copper Alloy
Paint
Adhesive
Steel
Dimensions:
Overall: 35.6 x 30.5cm (14 x 12 in.)
Storage: 40.6 x 40.6 x 40.6cm (16 x 16 x 16 in.)
Type:
MODELS-Unmanned Spacecraft & Parts
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Summary:
Launched on July 10, 1962, Telstar 1 was the world's first active communications satellite. Developed by Bell Telephone Laboratories for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), Telstar received a signal from the Earth, processed it onboard, and then resent to another location below (an "active" satellite). AT&T used the satellite to test basic features of communications via space, including the feasibility of transmitting telephone and television signals and the effect of Van Allen belt radiation on spacecraft components.
During its operational life, Telstar 1 facilitated over 400 telephone, telegraph, facimile and television transmissions. Soon after launch, Telstar enabled the first transatlantic television transmission, linking the United States and France. In November 1962, the satellite's electronics failed, damaged by Van Allen Belt radiation. Telstar 2, which incorporated radiation resistant electronics, launched in May 1963, continuing AT&T's research effort.
This artifact is a one third scale model of the Telstar satellite, donated to the Museum by David Kosakoff in 1982.
Credit Line:
Gift of David Kosakoff
Inventory Number:
A19820211000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Additional Online Media:

The science of sound [sound recording] / produced by the Bell Telephone Laboratires, Inc

view The science of sound [sound recording] / produced by the Bell Telephone Laboratires, Inc digital asset number 1
Producer:
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Physical description:
2 phonograph records : analog, 33 1/3 rpm ; 12 in
Type:
Phonograph records
Date:
1958
Notes:
Program notes (12 p.) inserted in container.
Topic:
Music--Acoustics and physics
Science
Sounds
Nature sounds
Local number:
Folkways 6007
See more items in:
Folkways Records Collection 1948-1986
Data Source:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections

Lester Halbert Germer (1896-1971)

view Lester Halbert Germer (1896-1971) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Germer, Lester Halbert 1896-1971
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Physical description:
Gelatin silver prints
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Summary:
Lester Halbert Germer (1896-1971), physicist, Bell Telephone Laboratories.
Cite as:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 90-105, Science Service Records, Image #SIA2008-1896
Topic:
Physics
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-1896]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

George Ashley Campbell (1870-1954)

view George Ashley Campbell (1870-1954) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Campbell, George A (George Ashley) 1870-1954
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
July 17, 1935
Summary:
George Ashley Campbell (1870-1954), Bell Telephone Laboratories, was a pioneer in applying mathematical methods to long-distance telegraphy and telephony.
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Topic:
Telegraph
Mathematics
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-0633]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Calvin Souther Fuller (1902-1994)

view Calvin Souther Fuller (1902-1994) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Fuller, Calvin S (Calvin Souther) 1902-1994
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Physical description:
Gelatin silver prints
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1954
4-25-1954
Summary:
Calvin Souther Fuller (1902-1994), chemist at Bell Telephone Laboratories, holding a tube used to prepare silicon for the Bell solar battery.
Cite as:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 90-105, Science Service Records, Image #SIA2008-1750
Topic:
Solar batteries
Solar energy
Chemistry
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-1750]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

John Renshaw Carson (1887-1940)

view John Renshaw Carson (1887-1940) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Carson, John Renshaw 1887-1940
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Summary:
John Renshaw Carson (1887-1940) was a mathematician at Bell Laboratories, 1925-1940.
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Topic:
Electrical engineering
Mathematics
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-0391]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Trimline

view Trimline digital asset number 1
Designer:
Donald M. Genaro, American, b. 1932
Client:
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Manufacturer:
Western Electric Manufacturing Company, USA, founded 1881
Medium:
Compression-molded plastic, electronic components, metal
Type:
appliances & tools
Decorative Arts
Telephone
Object Name:
Telephone
Manufactured in:
Atlanta, Georgia
Date:
ca. 1970
Description:
White telephone with handset with flat touch tone dial and base with modular plug
Credit Line:
Gift of Donald M. Genaro
Accession Number:
2015-43-1
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Additional Online Media:

Paul P. Cioffi (1895-1989)

view Paul P. Cioffi (1895-1989) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Cioffi, Paul P. d. 1989
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Summary:
Physicist Paul P. Cioffi (1895-1989) worked at Bell Laboratories for 40 years. Caption reads: "P.P. Cioffi of the Bell Laboratories with the apparatus he has invented capable of measuring changes as small as a billionth of an inch in the length of a wire."
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Topic:
Physics
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-0107]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Trimline

view Trimline digital asset number 1
Designer:
Henry Dreyfuss, American, 1904–1972
Firm:
Henry Dreyfuss Associates, New York, New York, USA, founded 1929
For:
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Project Head:
Donald M. Genaro, American, b. 1932
Medium:
Plastic, metal, electronic components
Type:
industrial design
Decorative Arts
Telephone
Object Name:
Telephone
Designed in:
USA
Date:
1968
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
Arched rectangular body, dial handset, and coiled cord made of transparent plastic with electronic components visible.
Credit Line:
Gift of Henry Dreyfuss
Accession Number:
1972-88-179-1
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Model 500

view Model 500 digital asset number 1
Designer:
Henry Dreyfuss, American, 1904–1972
Firm:
Henry Dreyfuss Associates, New York, New York, USA, founded 1929
Client:
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Manufacturer:
Western Electric Manufacturing Company, USA, founded 1881
Medium:
Molded plastic, metal, rubber
Type:
appliances & tools
Decorative Arts
Telephone
Object Name:
Telephone
Manufactured in:
USA
Date:
1953
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
Black rectangular plastic body with sloping top; circular clear plastic dial in center, surrounded by white numbers 1 to 0, the letters A to Y, and the word "OPERATOR", all arranged in a circle around the dial, their positions corresponding to fingerholes in dial. Barbell-shaped handset of black plastic sits in cradle on top of body; coiled black wire at one end of handset plugs into telephone body.
Credit Line:
Transfer from Exhibitions Department
Accession Number:
2009-50-1-a/c
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Additional Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.]

Company Name:
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.
Notes content:
"A tunable vacuum-contained triode oscillator" from Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers ; SNOBOL4 Programming Language (2nd Ed) book ; description of new quartz crystal clock
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
2 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
New York, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Clocks and watches (including clock-making and watch-making equipment)
Radios and radio equipment
Computers and computer equipment
Topic:
Clocks and watches
Computers
Optical equipment
Radio supplies industry
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_36228
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Walter Brattain (1902-1987)

view Walter Brattain (1902-1987) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Shockley, William 1910-
Bardeen, John
Brattain, Walter H (Walter Houser) 1902-1987
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Summary:
Physicist Walter Brattain (1902-1987) worked at Bell Laboratories and shared a Nobel Prize in 1956 with John Bardeen (1908-1991) and William Bradford Shockley (1910-1989).
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Topic:
Nobel Prizes
Physics
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2007-0359]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Thomas Augustus Watson (1854-1934)

view Thomas Augustus Watson (1854-1934) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Watson, Thomas Augustus 1854-1934
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Summary:
Thomas Augustus Watson (1854-1934). The inventor, an MIT graduate, had worked with Alexander Graham Bell, 1874-1878, and then for Bell Telephone until 1881.
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Topic:
Inventors
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2010-0779]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Thomas Augustus Watson (1854-1934)

view Thomas Augustus Watson (1854-1934) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Watson, Thomas Augustus 1854-1934
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Summary:
Thomas Augustus Watson (1854-1934). The inventor, an MIT graduate, had worked with Alexander Graham Bell, 1874-1878, and then for Bell Telephone until 1881.
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Topic:
Inventors
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2010-0780]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Princess

view Princess digital asset number 1
Designer:
Henry Dreyfuss, American, 1904–1972
Henry Dreyfuss Associates, New York, New York, USA, founded 1929
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Manufacturer:
Western Electric Manufacturing Company, USA, founded 1881
Client:
AT&T
Medium:
Molded plastic, metal
Type:
appliances & tools
Decorative Arts
Telephone
Object Name:
Telephone
Made in:
USA
Date:
Designed 1959; this example manufactured 1960
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
White plastic form consisting of oval body, the handset cradled horizontally across top above clear plastic rotary dial; white coiled cord on left connects handset to body.
Credit Line:
Gift of Elaine Evans Dee
Accession Number:
1990-1-1
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

(left to right): Clinton Joseph Davisson (1881-1958) and Lester Halbert Germer (1896-1971)

view (left to right): Clinton Joseph Davisson (1881-1958) and Lester Halbert Germer (1896-1971) digital asset number 1
Subject:
Davisson, Clinton Joseph 1881-1958
Germer, Lester Halbert 1896-1971
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Summary:
Physicists Clinton Joseph Davisson (1881-1958) (at left) and Lester Halbert Germer (1896-1971) (at right), shown here with a vacuum tube used in their electron diffraction experiments, worked at Bell Laboratories. Davisson was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1937, jointly with George Paget Thomson [SIA Digital No. 2009-4148] for their independent discovery of the wave nature of electrons.
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Topic:
Nobel Prizes
Electrons
Physics
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-0898]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Richard M. Bozorth (1897-1981)

view Richard M. Bozorth (1897-1981) digital asset number 1
Creator:
Bachrach Studio
Subject:
Bozorth, R. M (Richard M.)
Naval Ordnance Laboratory (White Oak, Md.)
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Summary:
Richard M. Bozorth (1897-1981) worked for Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1923-1961, and then at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory, 1961-1970; his research focused on magnetism.
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Topic:
Ferromagnetism
Physics
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2007-0329]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

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