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Atomic Clocks Reference Collection

Creator:
Forman, Paul  Search this
Extent:
11.25 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
undated
Provenance:
Materials were collected by curator Paul Forman as he researched atomic clocks and then transfered to the Archives Center in 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Atomic clocks  Search this
Citation:
Atomic Clocks Reference Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1265
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1265

Andrew Chi Atomic Clocks Collection

Creator:
Chi, Andrew  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
undated
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Atomic clocks  Search this
Citation:
Andrew Chi Atomic Clocks Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1264
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1264

Harold Lyons Atomic Clocks Collection

Author:
Lyons, Harold, Dr., 1913-1998  Search this
Donor:
Lyons, Sherrie  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Laboratory notebooks
Photographs
Diagrams
Correspondence
Technical notes
Articles
Patents
Date:
1935 - 1991
Summary:
Harold Lyons was a physicist whose primary interest was in atomic frequency standards and atomic clocks. The collection documents Lyons and his work with atomic clocks. The collection includes his research as manifested in published papers, presentations, reports, correspondence, laboratory notes, photographs and diagrams.
Scope and Contents:
The Harold Lyons Papers, 1935-1991, show his professional interests, especially his research from the 1950s, as manifested in published papers, presentations, reports, correspondence, laboratory results, and photographs. The bulk of the collection consists of papers and presentations of Lyons and others in the atomic physics field. Most of Lyons's work and the materials he collected address different aspects of microwave frequency.

Formats represented in the collection include published articles, typewritten and handwritten manuscripts, typewritten and handwritten personal correspondence, memorandums, photographs, diagrams, laboratory results, pamphlets, and newspaper clippings. The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1, Biographical Information, 1955-1965; 1973, contains copies of Lyons's curriculum vitae (circa 1955, 1962, and 1971) and his entries in Who's Who in America and Who's Who in The West. This series also has two folders with materials relating to two honors he received, the Franklin Institute Certificate of Merit, in 1958, and the U.S. Department of Commerce's 25th Commemorative Award in 1973.

Series 2, Papers and Presentations, 1947-1962; 1973-1974, contains the journal articles and papers authored by Lyons and the conference and special presentations he gave during his career, most of which address research for aspects of the atomic clock. Included are papers he authored published in the Journal of Applied Physics, American Scholar, Scientific American, and Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences and presentations given at the National Bureau of Standards for the anniversary of the atomic clock.

Series 3, Correspondence, 1949-1991, contains general correspondence for the years 1949-1966, 1978, 1987, and 1991, as well as correspondence with the following individuals: Dirk Brouwer, Paul Forman, Polykarp Kusch, Koichi Shimoda, Wilbert F. Snyder, Charles H. Townes, and Jerrold R. Zacharias. The bulk of this series is incoming correspondence addressed to Lyons, although he did retain some copies of outgoing correspondence.

Series 4, Research, 1947-1958; 1970-1991, contains laboratory results for deuterated ammonia (via strip chart recordings) and general cesium atomic beam experiments through calibration of magnetic fields, calculation of c-fields in the magnetic chamber, and atomic beam measurements. It also contains brief information on other research interests, such as the International Scientific Radio Union, and scattered promotional materials for natural health and electrical products. In addition, this series contains a copy of the patent granted to Lyons and Benjamin F. Husten in 1955 for the atomic clock and photographs and diagrams relating to Lyons's work on the atomic clock. Included are black and white photographs of Lyons and his colleagues with views of the clock as well as diagrams and charts included in published and unpublished work and presentations. Most of the photographs and diagrams are undated and unlabeled.

Series 5, Collected Background Research Materials, 1935-1982, contains papers and presentation materials focused on atomic physics, including papers published in journals, memoranda, technical reports, conference programs, and conference proceedings. One folder in this series has materials relating to the promotion of the atomic clock through pamphlets, speeches, papers, and one oversize item of reproduced newspaper clippings. A folder relating to a university course of lectures, most likely authored by Polykarp Kusch of Columbia University, on molecular beams is also included in this series. In addition, this series contains copies of two patents, one granted to Friedrich H. Reder in 1960 for molecular resonance devices, and the other, an Australian patent, applied for in 1958, for an invention dealing with a frequency selective method and system.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into five series.

Series 1, Biographical Information, 1955-1965; 1973

Series 2, Papers and Presentations, 1947-1962; 1973-1974

Subseries 1, Publications, 1947-1948; 1950-1953; 1957; 1959-1960; 1962; undated

Subseries 2, Presentations, 1946-1958; 1973-1974

Series 3, Correspondence, 1949-1991

Series 4, Research, 1947-1958; 1970-1991

Subseries 1, Laboratory Findings, 1952-1954; undated

Subseries 2, Other Research Interests, 1947-1957; 1970-1991

Subseries 3, Photographs and Diagrams, 1957; undated

Series 5, Collected Background Research Materials, 1935-1982
Biographical / Historical:
Harold Lyons was born February 16, 1913 in Buffalo, New York, and attended the University of Buffalo, graduating summa cum laude with a B.S. in Physics in 1933. After obtaining a Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics from the University of Michigan in 1939, he worked at the Naval Research Laboratories for two years and then joined the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in 1941. In 1944, he was appointed chief of the Microwave Standards Section of an Interservice Radio Propagation Laboratory (IRPL) established at the NBS during World War II. He continued in that position after the war when the IRPL, in 1946, was reconstituted as the Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (CRPL).

Lyons's work on microwave frequency standards led directly to his interest in atomic frequency standards and atomic clocks. On his initiative a substantial program of research and development was pursued in the Microwave Standards Section from 1948-1951. There under his direction the first operative atomic clock, based on the absorption of microwaves of ammonia, was constructed in 1948 and announced in early 1949.

Lyons remained with the CRPL after it was moved to Boulder, Colorado, in 1954, but left a year later to work in Hughes Aircraft Company's Culver City, California, research labs. Here he continued his atomic physics research, particularly applications for the atomic clock, including satellite technology, and expanding to development work in lasers. He continued his work on lasers at Electro-Optical Systems Quantum Physics Division from 1960-1962. In the late 1960s and during the 1970s, he was an independent physics consultant and conducted research through an association with the University of California, Los Angeles.

Harold Lyons died March 23, 1998 in Los Angeles, California.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968 (AC0547), contains related archival materials, principally on the development of the first commercial atomic clock, the Atomichron.

Materials in the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry, formerly the Division of Information, Technology and Communication, holds the first operative atomic clock, constructed under Lyons's direction at the National Bureau of Standards in 1948.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Harold Lyons's daughter, Sherrie L. Lyons, in January, 2000.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Atomic frequency standards  Search this
Atomic clocks  Search this
Time -- Systems and standards  Search this
Physics  Search this
Atomic absorption spectroscopy  Search this
Genre/Form:
Laboratory notebooks
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-1960
Diagrams
Correspondence -- 1940-2000
Technical notes
Articles -- 20th century
Patents
Citation:
Harold Lyons Atomic Clocks Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0701
See more items in:
Harold Lyons Atomic Clocks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0701
Additional Online Media:

National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records

Creator:
Bagnall, James  Search this
Orensberg, Arthur  Search this
NATCO, Inc. (National Company, Inc.)  Search this
Mainberger, Walter  Search this
Lerner, Louis C.  Search this
Holloway, Joseph  Search this
Grant, Eugene  Search this
George, James  Search this
Daly, Richard Timothy, Jr.  Search this
Bovarnick, Michael  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (16 boxes, 3 oversize folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Blueprints
Technical drawings
Reports
Manuals
Photographs
Date:
1955 - 1968
Summary:
The records document the development of the first commercial atomic clocks by the National Company, Inc., (NATCO) of Malden, Massachusetts, a company known for producing specialized electronic equipment. The records include blueprints, technical drawings and schematics, technical and research reports, instruction manuals, photographs, and marketing materials.
Scope and Contents:
The National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968, documents the development of the first commercial atomic clocks. Materials were generated by the National Company, Inc. (NATCO) of Malden, Massachusetts which produced the clocks under contract for military branches of the U.S. government and also marketed them on a retail basis. The collection consists of blueprints, technical drawings and schematics, technical and research reports, instruction manuals, photographs, marketing materials, and a stock offering prospectus for NATCO. If one blueprint, drawing or parts list had two or more models listed, it is included under the first model cited.

Series 1, National Company, Inc., (NATCO), 1957-1959, consists of a stock offering prospectus, 1959, which describes the organization of NATCO, its executives and Board of Directors, financial condition, and products. Located in this series is a bound volume of photographs which accompanied NATCO's contract bids. This volume contains photographs of a state-of-the-art machine shop and electronics laboratory of the late 1950s and early 1960s. A blueprint for a radio receiver— the product on which NATCO had built its reputation—is here.

Series 2, Atomichrons, 1955-1968, contains blueprints, original technical drawings and schematics, instruction manuals for setup and operation, technical and research reports, photographs and marketing materials arranged by Atomichron model from the National Atomic Frequency System (NAFS) prototype through the NC3701 and NC3702. The NC1001, the first commercial atomic clock, is fully documented. Technical Memoranda and proposals (TM-) related to particular models have been included with them. Other Technical Memoranda and proposals are in Series 3, Components, 1955-1957, and Series 5, Technical Memoranda and Reports, 1956-1957.

Series 3, Components, 1955-1967, contains materials related to the development of NATCo's Cesium Beam Tube and other parts of the Atomichrons. It includes Technical Memoranda (TM-), blueprints and original drawings, original notes and computations, parts lists, and photographs. Also included in this series is material related to the Production Engineering Measure (PEM), 1962-1967. This was a piece of equipment designed and built by NATCO to measure the accuracy of each Cesium Beam Tube as it was produced.

Series 4, Collision Avoidance System, 1962-1967, consists of material related to James J. Bagnall's patented Collision Avoidance System, using the Cesium Beam Frequency Standard. It includes his research report, the patent assigned to NATCO, and proposals and reports from NATCO representatives to Air Transportation Association conferences and meetings for 1967.

Series 5, Technical Memoranda and Reports, 1956-1967, consists of bound and numbered (TM-) technical memoranda. These are research reports and proposals for future research or products. Other technical memoranda are in Series 2, Atomichrons and Series 3, Components, 1955-1967.

Series 6, Reprints from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 1953-1955, contains a bound volume of reprinted or photocopied papers which document research developments in Cesium Beam Frequency Standards at the time NATCO was establishing itself as a commercial producer.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: National Company, Inc., (NATCO), 1957-1959

Series 2: Atomichrons, 1955-1968

Subseries 2.1, National Atomic Frequency System (NAF), 1956

Subseries 2.2, NC1001, 1955-circa 1959

Subseries 2.3, NC1001, Polaris, 1956-1958

Subseries 2.4, NC2001, Militarized, 1956-1961

Subseries 2.5, NC3001, Airborne, 1956-1961

Subseries 2.6, NC1200, 1959

Subseries 2.7, Missileborne Atomichron, 1959-1960

Subseries 2,8, NC1501, 1958-1964

Subseries 2.9, NC1601, Economy, 1958-1964

Subseries 2.10, Tactical Frequency Standard Drawings, 1959

Subseries 2.11, Tri-Service CBFS, circa 1965

Subseries 2.12, NC3501, circa 1965, 1967

Subseries 2.13, NC3601, Aerospace, circa 1965

Subseries 2.14, NC3701, Commercial, 1964-1968

Series 3: Components, 1955-1967

Series 4: Collision Avoidance System, 1962-1967

Series 5: Technical Memoranda and Reports, 1956-1967

Series 6: Reprints from MIT, 1953-1955
Biographical / Historical:
An atomic clock is a cesium-based frequency standard. It operates by exposing cesium atoms to microwaves at one end of their resonant frequencies and then counting their corresponding cycles as a measure of time. In 1955, Louis Essen of Britain's National Physical Laboratory and William Markowitz of the U.S. Naval Observatory collaborated to produce the first measurement of what is now called the atomic second. In 1967, the 13th general Conference of Weights and Measures formally redefined the atomic second as 9,192,631,770. The atomic second became the internationally accepted unit of time. Atomic clocks are the most accurate of all clocks. The first clock in 1949 was based on the microwave resonances of the ammonia molecule. It was patented by Harold Lyons and Benjamin F. Husten. The first commercial atomic clocks were developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Research Laboratory of Electronics under J.R. Zacharias, a protégé of I.I. Rabi's, circa 1955-1956 and were manufactured by the National Company, Inc. (NATCO) of Malden, Massachussets. NATCO, founded in 1914, was a well-respected company known for producing specialized electronic equipment in short runs. Prototype clocks bore the working name National Atomic Frequency Standard (NAFS). When the first commercial product was unveiled on October 3, 1956, it bore the trade name "Atomichron" and the model number NC-1001. Between 1956 and 1960, fifty Atomichrons were made and sold to military agencies, government agencies, and universities. Nine other models followed with refinements in size, portability and accuracy. The most radical design departure began with the NC3001 when the beam tube was placed in the horizontal position. Prices ranged from $10,000 to $50,000.

Patents covering NATCO's frequency standards include: 2,960,663, 2,972,115, 2,991,389, 3,258,713, 3,305,290. In 1965, James J. Bagnall was assigned patent 3,167,772 for a Collision Avoidance System to NATCO. It never reached production.

Although supported by research contracts by all three military branches, especially the Army Signal Corps, NATCO failed to achieve a lasting profitability. It was liquidated, and its patents were acquired by Frequency Electronics in 1969.

Sources

1. PEM Drawing C43767, 1967, PEM Drawings (C38037-C43767), 1964-1967, Series 3, Components, 1955-1967, Atomic Clock Collection, Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History.

2. Forman, Paul. "Atomichron: The Atomic Clock from Concept to Commercial Product," in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 73, p. 1181-1204, 1985.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Artifacts related to this collection are located in the Division of Work and Industry.

Materials at Other Organizations

Materials related to MIT staff and departments who were involved in NATCO's Atomic Clock projects also can be found in the Historical Collections at the MIT Museum (http://web.mit.edu/museum/) and in the Institute Archives and Special Collections (http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/) of the MIT Libraries in Cambridge, Mass.
Provenance:
Materials in this collection were donated to the Division of Electricity and Modern Physics by Louis C. Lerner in December 1984. The bulk of the blueprints were purchased from Robert Reeves in August, 1991.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Atomic clocks  Search this
Airplanes -- Collision avoidance -- 1950-1970  Search this
United States -- Air defenses -- Military -- 1950-1970  Search this
Inventions -- 1950-2000  Search this
Frequency standards -- 1950-1970  Search this
Cold War -- 1950-1970  Search this
Clocks and watches -- 1950-1970  Search this
Military-industrial complex -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge  Search this
Patents -- 1950-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints -- 20th century
Technical drawings
Reports -- 1940-1970
Manuals -- 1950-1970
Photographs -- 1940-1970
Citation:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0547
See more items in:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0547
Additional Online Media:

Send Atomic Clocks to Space to Find Gravitational Waves

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 19 Feb 2015 16:04:45 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_3c5d28f7fea2f3ca13b2652b2f360615

Paul Davidovits (b. 1935)

Subject:
Davidovits, Paul  Search this
Boston College  Search this
Columbia Radiation Laboratory  Search this
Columbia University  Search this
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1965
Topic:
Atomic clocks  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Masers  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-0877]
Restrictions & Rights:
All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Contact SIA Reference Staff for further information (email OSIAREF@si.edu)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_296804

World’s Newest Atomic Clock Loses 1 Second Every 50 Billion Years

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 30 May 2013 16:38:02 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_7b6a28b4ea05b980d62e761f1385ba14

Atomic Clocks

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Container:
Drawer OA, Folder 720000-01
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Documents
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Archives Reading Room at the Museum in Washington, DC. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Reference Desk.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref3764

Atomic Clocks

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Archives Reading Room at the Museum in Washington, DC. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Reference Desk.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-1183-o-ref3763

"Atomic Clocks"

Collection Author:
Lyons, Harold, Dr., 1913-1998  Search this
Collection Donor:
Lyons, Sherrie  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1957
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Harold Lyons Atomic Clocks Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harold Lyons Atomic Clocks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0701-ref35

"Atomic Clocks"

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Office of Telecommunications  Search this
Container:
Box 21 of 25
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Restrictions pertaining to the use of these materials may apply (based on contracts/copyright). Access restrictions may also apply if listening copies are not currently available. Listening copies can be made for a fee. Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 590, Smithsonian Institution. Office of Telecommunications, Productions
See more items in:
Productions
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0590-refidd1e7959

National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks trip reports

Collection Creator:
Bagnall, James  Search this
Orensberg, Arthur  Search this
NATCO, Inc. (National Company, Inc.)  Search this
Mainberger, Walter  Search this
Lerner, Louis C.  Search this
Holloway, Joseph  Search this
Grant, Eugene  Search this
George, James  Search this
Daly, Richard Timothy, Jr.  Search this
Bovarnick, Michael  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1967
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0547-ref181

8230128, Atomic Clocks, 9/8/1982

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Office of Design and Construction  Search this
Container:
Box 2 of 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 84-055, Smithsonian Institution. Office of Design and Construction, Project Files
See more items in:
Project Files
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa84-055-refidd1e788

Atomic Clocks - 1979-1982 (3 folders)

Collection Creator::
National Museum of American History. Office of the Director  Search this
Container:
Box 12 of 29
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 99-152, National Museum of American History. Office of the Director, Subject Files
See more items in:
Subject Files
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa99-152-refidd1e6367

U.S. Department of Commerce 25th Commemorative Award

Collection Author:
Lyons, Harold, Dr., 1913-1998  Search this
Collection Donor:
Lyons, Sherrie  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1973
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Harold Lyons Atomic Clocks Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Harold Lyons Atomic Clocks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0701-ref26

National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks proposals and reports

Collection Creator:
Bagnall, James  Search this
Orensberg, Arthur  Search this
NATCO, Inc. (National Company, Inc.)  Search this
Mainberger, Walter  Search this
Lerner, Louis C.  Search this
Holloway, Joseph  Search this
Grant, Eugene  Search this
George, James  Search this
Daly, Richard Timothy, Jr.  Search this
Bovarnick, Michael  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1967
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0547-ref180

Reprints and photocopies of articles about Atomic Clocks

Collection Creator:
Bagnall, James  Search this
Orensberg, Arthur  Search this
NATCO, Inc. (National Company, Inc.)  Search this
Mainberger, Walter  Search this
Lerner, Louis C.  Search this
Holloway, Joseph  Search this
Grant, Eugene  Search this
George, James  Search this
Daly, Richard Timothy, Jr.  Search this
Bovarnick, Michael  Search this
Container:
Box 14, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1953 - 1955
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0547-ref202

Timekeepers - Sun Dials to Atomic Clocks Booklet and Illustrations, 1977

Collection Creator::
National Museum of American History. Office of the Director  Search this
Container:
Box 99 of 108
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 334, National Museum of American History. Office of the Director, Subject Files
See more items in:
Subject Files
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0334-refidd1e46843

The quantum beat : the physical principles of atomic clocks / F.G. Major

Author:
Major, F. G (Fouad G.)  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 475 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1998
C1998
Topic:
Atomic clocks  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_558960

Beam Tube Assembly Manual

Collection Creator:
Bagnall, James  Search this
Orensberg, Arthur  Search this
NATCO, Inc. (National Company, Inc.)  Search this
Mainberger, Walter  Search this
Lerner, Louis C.  Search this
Holloway, Joseph  Search this
Grant, Eugene  Search this
George, James  Search this
Daly, Richard Timothy, Jr.  Search this
Bovarnick, Michael  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1957
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records, 1955-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Company (NATCO) Atomic Clocks Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0547-ref37

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