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Charles M. Kurtz papers

Creator:
Kurtz, Charles M. (Charles McMeen), 1855-1909  Search this
Names:
Albright Art Gallery (Buffalo, N.Y.)  Search this
American Art Association  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Exposition universelle internationale de 1900 (Paris, France)  Search this
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904: Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Saint Louis Exposition and Music Hall Association (1883-1902 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Southern Exposition (1885 : Louisville, Ky.)  Search this
World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893  Search this
Starkweather family  Search this
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 1852-1911  Search this
Avery, Samuel Putnam, 1822-1904  Search this
Cesnola, Luigi Palma di, 1832-1904  Search this
Clarke, Thomas B. (Thomas Benedict), 1848-1931  Search this
Hallowell, Sara  Search this
Hambidge, Jay, 1867-1924  Search this
Hasbrouck, Du Bois Fenelon, b.1860  Search this
Irwin, Benoni, 1840-1896  Search this
Ives, Halsey Cooley, 1847-1911  Search this
Kurtz, Davis Brook Kurtz, 1826-1906  Search this
Kurtz, Julia Stephenson  Search this
Reid, Alexander  Search this
Rhodes, Charles Ward, d. 1905  Search this
Richardson, Mary Curtis, 1848-1931  Search this
Sedelmeyer, Charles  Search this
Thum, Patty P., 1853-1926  Search this
Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922  Search this
Wickenden, Robert J.  Search this
Photographer:
Pluschow, Guglielmo  Search this
Extent:
27.74 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Menus
Photographs
Lithographs
Etchings
Address books
Engravings
Visiting cards
Diaries
Photogravures
Tempera paintings
Oil paintings
Sketches
Date:
1843-1990
bulk 1884-1909
Summary:
The papers of arts administrator, museum director, collector, dealer, and editor Charles M. Kurtz (1855-1909), measure 27.74 linear feet and date from 1843-1990 (bulk dates 1884-1909). The bulk of the collection consists of detailed chronological correspondence between Kurtz and his wife and family, friends, colleagues, and business associates that documents many notable exhibitions, galleries, museums, private collections, as well as cities, people, and events of the period. Also found in the collection are Kurtz's diaries, scrapbooks, printed materials, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The Charles M. Kurtz papers measure 27.74 linear feet and date from 1843 to 1990 with the bulk of the material dating from 1884 to 1909. The bulk of the collection consists of chronological correspondence between Kurtz and his family, most notably his wife, friends, colleagues, and business associates. Kurtz's letters are amazingly detailed and document many notable exhibitions, galleries, museums, private collections, as well as cities, people, and events of the period. The letters between Kurtz and his wife are most interesting for their descriptive commentary on late 19th century life and offer a complete picture of Kurtz's activities. Many of Kurtz's letters to Halsey C. Ives can be found in the Halsey C. Ives Papers. Some of the letters in the collection are illustrated. Also found in the collection are Kurtz's diaries, scrapbooks, printed materials, and photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into twelve series.

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1885-1931, undated

Series 2: Correspondence, 1843-1940, undated

Series 3: Circulars/Requests for Submissions of Works of Art, 1886-1905

Series 4: Legal Records, 1881-1928

Series 5: Financial Records, 1870-1989, undated

Series 6: Diaries, 1894-1901

Series 7: Notes and Writings, 1872-1980, undated

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1878-1909

Series 9: Printed Material, 1873-1990, undated

Series 10: Photographs, 1898-1990

Series 11: Photographs of Works of Art, undated

Series 12: Miscellany, undated
Biographical Note:
Charles M. Kurtz's name is known to many scholars and students of American art history. To some he is important for his critical writings, others are interested in his management of exhibitions for the Art Union and the American Art Association. Many are aware of him because of his publication of National Academy Notes, which continued for nine years. Still others are familiar with Kurtz in his role as an art administrator for late 19th century art exhibitions like those at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago and the St. Louis Fair, or for his accomplishments as the first director of the Albright Gallery in Buffalo, New York. Sometimes researchers have become familiar with his name through the sale catalogue for his considerable collection, which was sold at auction after his death in 1909. His career, which encompassed the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century, touched on virtually every aspect of art in America during that period.

Born in 1853 to Davis Brook Kurtz (1826-1906), an attorney, and Julia Wilder, Charles Kurtz enjoyed a genteel upbringing. The Kurtz family originated in Darmstadt, Germany, and migrated to America in the eighteenth century. D.B. Kurtz, a leading member of the Lawrence County bar, was also a vice-president of the National Bank of Lawrence County, Pennsylvania. As a local representative of many important railroad and business interests, he accumulated assets estimated at one million dollars by the time of his death, just three years before that of his son, Charles, the eldest of his five children. Unlike his brothers Louis, who also became an attorney, and Edward, a professor at Columbia University, Charles eschewed a professional career to enter the art world, as did his sisters Emily, an artist, and Catherine, a musician.

After his graduation from Washington and Jefferson College in Washington, Pennsylvania, Kurtz visited the Centennial Exposition, held in 1876 in Philadelphia, before coming to New York to study art at the National Academy of Design. These two activities foreshadowed the direction that his career would eventually take. As the chronology indicates, his early efforts revolve around writing for a variety of publications, most notably, his own National Academy Notes. In 1881 he took what was to be the first of many trips abroad to survey the art scene in Europe. Later in his career, his fascination with foreign art and his own entrepeneurial interests led him to become an outspoken opponent of tariffs on imported art.

Kurtz's personal life changed significantly in 1884 when he met Julia Stephenson, a physician's daughter and fledging art student from Harrodsburg, Kentucky. Throughout their courtship and after their marriage the couple was frequently separated. Consequently, they wrote lengthy letters which document not only their personal relationship but also Kurtz's aspirations and activities in the art world.

With his appointment as one of Halsey C. Ives's (1847-1911) chief assistants of the Fine Arts Department of the World's Columbian Exposition in 1891, Charles Kurtz's career achieved international stature. Among the most notable European artists he introduced into this country through circulating exhibitions were the Glasgow School, the Danish School, the Hungarian artist, Mihaly Munkacsy, and the subject of his final exhibition, the Spanish artist, Sorolla.

Throughout his life, Kurtz was plagued by health problems and, in 1899, illness forced him to resign as Assistant Director of Fine Arts for the United States for the Paris Exposition of 1900. Throughout the following decade, his work was increasingly interrupted by ill health. His death in 1909 at the age of 54, while sudden, was not entirely unexpected. However it most certainly cut short a cosmopolitan career that encompassed virtually every aspect of the art world and the pertinent issues of the day.

Kurtz is remembered for his editorial work with the National Academy of Design; as Art Director for the Southern Exposition, 1883-1886, and the St. Louis Exposition, 1894-1899 (where he introduced the Glasgow School of Painting); and as Assistant Chief/Director for the World's Columbian Exposition, the 1900 Paris Exposition, and the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. He was also director of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy.

1855 -- Charles McMeen Kurtz born

1876 -- receives B.S. degree from Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pennsylvania

1876-78 -- studies at the National Academy of Design, N.Y. with Lemuel Wilmarth and William Morgan; writes a column, "New York Letters," for The Courant published in New Castle, Pennsylvania

1878 -- edits a small daily paper published during a "National Camp Meeting for the promotion of Holiness" held that summer in New Castle, Pa.; its critical stance resulted in his public denouncement and earned him a reputation as a journalist in western Pennsylvania; receives M.A. from Washington and Jefferson College

1878-79 -- becomes the local editor of The Guardian of New Castle

1879 -- publishes The Daily Reporter, a financial success

1881 -- publishes the first issue of National Academy Notes; travels in Europe, spending time in England, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France (Paris)

1881-82 -- prepares Illustrated Notes for Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibition

1882 -- writes "Art Notes" in The New York Tribune and resigns Dec. 23rd

1882-83 -- accepts position to write for Music and Drama, a new daily paper

1883 -- becomes the general manager of the American Art Union; exhibits a large collection of Art Union paintings in Buffalo, N.Y. and Louisville, Ky., where they became part of the Southern Exposition's first great art display

1883-86 -- accepts offer to become Director of the Art Department, Southern Exposition, Louisville, Kentucky

1884 -- edits Art Union magazine until December; applies for position to head the Art Department of the New Orleans World's Fair in September

1884-86 -- accepts a position offered by the American Art Association; terminates uncongenial relationship in March, 1886

1885 -- writes catalogues for the sale of the George Seney Collection and for the Watts exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; October 1, marries Julia Stephenson (1861-1931), daughter of Dr. A. T. Stephenson of Harrodsburg, Kentucky; they had two daughters who survived them: Julia Wilder Kurtz (1889-1977), and Isabella Starkweather Kurtz (1901-1991); another daughter, Elizabeth Stephenson Kurtz (1886-1897), predeceased them

1886 -- terminates employment with the Art Association; daughter, Elizabeth Stephenson Kurtz, born

1886-87 -- manages the circulation of Mihaly Munkacsy's Christ Before Pilot for Charles Sedelmeyer to American venues: New York, Boston, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Nashville, Phildelphia, Indianapolis; tour generates $90,000 in ticket receipts

1889-91 -- February 24, appointed art critic ("Art Notes") and book reviewer for New York Daily Star; later literary and art editor of the Sunday Star

1890 -- writes for the Sunday edition The Press, a New York paper

1891 -- writes for The World; art editor for The New York Recorder; contributes to the New York Truth

1891-93 -- contributes to Chicago Evening Post ; writes artist biographies for The Chicago Graphic, a regional magazine; appointed Assistant Chief of the Department of Fine Arts of the World's Columbian Exposition

1894 -- contributes column, "Art at the Exposition" to St. Louis Life

1895 -- tours Denmark, Scotland, and France during the summer on behalf of the St. Louis Exposition

1894-99 -- appointed Director of the Art Department of the St. Louis Annual Exposition

1896 -- elected member of The Japan Society, London

1897 -- daughter, Elizabeth (Daisy), dies

1898 -- receives a diploma and medal "in recognition of valuable services in connection with the Fine Arts Exhibit" from the directors of the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition, Omaha

1899 -- appointed Assistant Director of Fine Arts for the United States Commission to the Paris Exposition of 1900; resigned in July due to ill health

1901-04 -- appointed Assistant Chief of the Department of Art of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, August

1901 -- daughter, Isabella Starkweather Kurtz, born

1902 -- receives honorary Ph.D from Washington and Jefferson College "in recognition of distinguished ability and services as an art critic and writer"

1905 -- receives the cross of the Order of Merit from Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria; appointed Director, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, in January; exhibits Glasgow paintings at Albright Art Gallery from November until the following April

1906 -- writes Academy Notes, a bulletin pubished by the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and the Albright Art Gallery; father, D.B. Kurtz, dies in Newcastle, Pennsylvania

1907 -- accused of importing German pictures free of duty for exhibition purposes and then selling some for profit

1908 -- Honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree conferred by Washington and Jefferson College

1909 -- Charles M. Kurtz dies in Buffalo, New York on March 21

1910 -- Sale of the private collection of Charles M. Kurtz at auction, Fifth Avenue Art Galleries, February 24-25

1931 -- Widow, Julia Stephenson Kurtz dies October 30

1977 -- Daughter, Julia Wilder Kurtz, dies

1991 -- Daughter, Isabel Starkweather Kurtz, dies in Buffalo, N.Y.; remaining Charles M. Kurtz Papers bequeathed to the Archives of American Art and the National Academy of Design, New York
Related Material:
The St. Louis Exposition/Halsey C. Ives papers in the Archives of American Art contain material relating to Charles M. Kurtz.

Additional Charles Kurtz papers, 1870-1910, including 340 letters which discuss exhibitions, sales of art, patronage, atelier visits, and submissions to publications, and letters to his parents in which he discsses the art market and art world new; as well as manuscripts, notebooks, a diary, and printed ephemera relating to exhibitions and publications, are available at the Getty Research Institute, Research Library, Los Angeles, California.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 4912) including Charles Kurtz's Glasgow painting diary. The loaned diary was returned to the lender and can now be found at the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven, Connecticut. This material is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
For many years, the Kurtz Papers were thought to have been destroyed in a fire. Isabel Kurtz, a school teacher who lived with her older sister in Buffalo, New York, was vague when initially approached about her father's papers by Archives Regional Director, Robert Brown in the mid-1980s. However upon her death in 1991, her will revealed that the papers were indeed in her house in Buffalo and the bulk of them were bequeathed to the Archives of American Art. Paintings and a diary relating to the Glasgow School were given to the Yale Center for British Art. That diary has subsequently been duplicated on microfilm and is now also available in the Archives. Scorch marks on some of the papers and also on the paintings given to Yale suggest that there was indeed a fire. The material that was not bequeathed to the Archives included duplicates of printed documents along with books from the Kurtz library and a coin collection, all of which were dispersed in an estate auction that was held in Buffalo in 1991.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
With the exception of material filmed on Reel 4912 the Charles M. Kurtz papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws. Permission from Yale University is required to quote, publish or reproduce from papers filmed on Reel 4912.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Editors -- United States  Search this
Glasgow school of painting  Search this
Exhibitions -- United States  Search this
Art, Scottish  Search this
Art -- Private collections  Search this
Art criticism  Search this
Art museums -- Buffalo (N.Y.)  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art critics -- United States  Search this
Museum directors -- New York (State) -- Buffalo  Search this
Arts administrators -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Menus
Photographs
Lithographs
Etchings
Address books
Engravings
Visiting cards
Diaries
Photogravures
Tempera paintings
Oil paintings
Sketches
Citation:
Charles M. Kurtz papers, 1843-1990 (bulk 1884-1909). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kurtchar
See more items in:
Charles M. Kurtz papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kurtchar
Additional Online Media:

Clyde H. Burroughs letters and photographs from artists, 1915-1937

Creator:
Burroughs, Clyde H. (Clyde Huntley), 1882-1973  Search this
Subject:
Reyneau, Betsy Graves  Search this
Rader, Isaac  Search this
Ritschel, William  Search this
Parshall, D.W.  Search this
Clark, Frank Scott  Search this
Kendall, William Sergeant  Search this
Troubetzkoy, Pierre  Search this
Fournier, Alexis Jean  Search this
Benson, Frank Weston  Search this
Pancoast, Henry Boller  Search this
Olinsky, Ivan G. (Ivan Gregorewitch)  Search this
Morgan, Arthur C.  Search this
Melchers, Gari  Search this
Rolshoven, Julius  Search this
Lopez, Carlos  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Art museums directors  Search this
Art museums  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5787
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208626
AAA_collcode_burrclyd
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208626

Holger Cahill papers, 1910-1993, bulk 1910-1960

Creator:
Cahill, Holger, 1887-1960  Search this
Subject:
Abbott, Berenice  Search this
Morris, Carl A.  Search this
Knaths, Karl  Search this
Weisenborn, Rudolph  Search this
Miller, Dorothy Canning  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor  Search this
De Rivera, José Ruiz  Search this
Ward, Lynd Kendall  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor  Search this
Brown, Samuel Joseph  Search this
Scaravaglione, Concetta Maria  Search this
Segal, George  Search this
Hopkins, Harry Lloyd  Search this
Speck, Walter Edward  Search this
Rowan, Edward Beatty  Search this
Olds, Elizabeth  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Federal Music Project (U.S.)  Search this
Federal Art Project (U.S.)  Search this
Treasury Relief Art Project  Search this
Federal Theatre Project (U.S.)  Search this
American Council of Learned Societies  Search this
Cartoonists Guild  Search this
Index of American Design  Search this
Shakers  Search this
The Design Laboratory (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
American Artists' Congress.  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Prints
Government records
Drawings
Slides (photographs)
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Public officers  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Federal aid to the public welfare  Search this
United States  Search this
New Deal, 1933-1939  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6730
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208855
AAA_collcode_cahiholg
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Government Sponsorship of the Arts
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208855
Additional Online Media:

Andrew Carnduff Ritchie papers, 1907-1983

Creator:
Ritchie, Andrew Carnduff, 1907-1978  Search this
Subject:
Namuth, Hans  Search this
Roszak, Theodore  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Afro  Search this
Ritchie, Jane  Search this
Chatzes, Demetres  Search this
Lynes, Russell  Search this
Paolozzi, Eduardo  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
College Art Association of America  Search this
Yale University.Art Gallery  Search this
Allied Forces.Supreme Headquarters.Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Art thefts  Search this
Cultural property  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Authors  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8152
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210323
AAA_collcode_ritcandr2
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210323
Additional Online Media:

Mary K. McGuigan and John F. McGuigan, Jr. artists' letters collection, 1794-1938

Creator:
McGuigan, Mary K.  Search this
McGuigan, John F. (John Fuller)  Search this
Subject:
Rosenthal, Toby Edward  Search this
Stillman, William James  Search this
Jones, Hugh Bolton  Search this
Benson, Eugene  Search this
Peale, Rembrandt  Search this
Whittredge, Worthington  Search this
Boughton, George Henry  Search this
McGuigan, John F. (John Fuller)  Search this
Tanner, Henry Ossawa  Search this
Hunt, William Morris  Search this
Bierstadt, Albert  Search this
Kensett, John Frederick  Search this
Beard, W. H. (William Holbrook)  Search this
Inness, George  Search this
White, Stanford  Search this
Stillman, Marie Spartali  Search this
Neagle, John  Search this
French, Daniel Chester  Search this
West, Benjamin  Search this
Kurtz, William  Search this
Carey, Mathew  Search this
Harding, Chester  Search this
Sartain, William  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson  Search this
Inman, Henry  Search this
Falconer, John M.  Search this
Cox, Kenyon  Search this
Hassam, Childe  Search this
Healy, G. P. A. (George Peter Alexander)  Search this
Palmer, Erastus Dow  Search this
Low, Will Hicok  Search this
Copley, John Singleton  Search this
Huntington, Daniel  Search this
Darley, Felix Octavius Carr  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter  Search this
Tuckerman, Henry T. (Henry Theodore)  Search this
Claghorn, James Lawrence  Search this
Church, Frederic Edwin  Search this
Morse, Samuel Finley Breese  Search this
Peale, Rubens  Search this
Colman, Samuel  Search this
Greenough, Horatio  Search this
Cropsey, Jasper Francis  Search this
Topic:
Artists  Search this
Art critics  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Historians  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5972
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)228068
AAA_collcode_mcgumary
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Collectors
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_228068
Additional Online Media:

Regina Stewart papers, 1959-2010, bulk 1989-2010

Creator:
Stewart, Regina Serniak, 1942-  Search this
Subject:
Kennedy, Edward M. (Edward Moore),  Search this
Stewart, Jack Thomas  Search this
McMurtry, Larry  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Sara Mazo  Search this
Candell, Victor  Search this
Facci, Domenico Aurelio  Search this
Blackburn, Robert Hamilton  Search this
New York Artists Equity Association  Search this
Type:
Sketches
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Collagists  Search this
Painters  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Costume designers  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15834
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)292285
AAA_collcode_stewregi
Theme:
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_292285
Additional Online Media:

Jan van der Marck papers, 1942-2010

Creator:
van der Marck, Jan, 1929-2010  Search this
Subject:
Lipchitz, Jacques  Search this
Christo  Search this
Pepper, Beverly Stoll  Search this
Segal, George  Search this
Indiana, Robert  Search this
Arman  Search this
O'Doherty, Brian  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Journals (accounts)
Interviews
Topic:
Curators  Search this
Bookbinding  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15990
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)305480
AAA_collcode_vandjan
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_305480
Additional Online Media:

Oral history interview with Adele S. Brown and William H. Calfee, 1995 January 11

Interviewee:
Brown, Adele Smith, 1910-2001  Search this
Interviewer:
Kirwin, Liza, 1957-  Search this
Subject:
Noland, Kenneth  Search this
Crosby, Caresse  Search this
Cross, Bernice  Search this
Taylor, Prentiss  Search this
Acheson, Alice  Search this
Phillips, Marjorie  Search this
West, Hal  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Knaths, Karl  Search this
Groves, George  Search this
Gates, Robert Franklin  Search this
Watkins, Law Bradley  Search this
Phillips, Duncan  Search this
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Phillips Studio House  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art schools  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Painters  Search this
Art teachers  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13083
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216198
AAA_collcode_brown95
Theme:
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_216198

Thomas Hess papers, 1939-1978

Creator:
Hess, Thomas B., 1920-1978  Search this
Subject:
Noguchi, Isamu  Search this
Newman, Barnett  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Smith, David  Search this
Rosenberg, Harold  Search this
Campbell, Lawrence  Search this
Schapiro, Meyer  Search this
Bess, Forrest  Search this
Thiel, Philip  Search this
Schuyler, James  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph  Search this
Milles, Carl  Search this
Rivers, Larry  Search this
Guston, Philip  Search this
Kline, Franz  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Still, Clyfford E.  Search this
Mark Rothko Foundation  Search this
Type:
Cartoons (humorous images)
Illustrated letters
Drawings
Greeting cards
Sound recordings
Collages
Photographs
Topic:
Editors  Search this
Artists  Search this
Art critics  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7104
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209238
AAA_collcode_hessthom
Theme:
Art Movements and Schools
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209238
Additional Online Media:

Joseph S. Trovato papers, [ca. 1945-1980]

Creator:
Trovato, Joseph S., 1912-1983  Search this
Subject:
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Soby, James Thrall  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute. Museum of Art  Search this
Hamilton College (Clinton, N.Y.)  Search this
International Exhibition of Modern Art (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Armory Show 50th anniversary exhibition  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Photographs
Works of art
Slides (photographs)
Topic:
Museum administrators  Search this
Art  Search this
Painters  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9254
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211449
AAA_collcode_trovjose
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211449

Sally Kent Gorton papers and records of The Rockwell Kent Legacies, 1970-1983

Creator:
Gorton, Sally Kent, 1915-2000  Search this
Subject:
Kent, Rockwell  Search this
Jones, Dan Burne  Search this
Gorton, John  Search this
Rockwell Kent Legacies  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6678
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216001
AAA_collcode_gortsall
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_216001

Burt Chernow papers, 1930-2002

Creator:
Chernow, Burt, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Avery, Milton  Search this
Peterdi, Gabor  Search this
Johnson, Lester Frederick  Search this
Arman  Search this
Hendricks, Barkley L.  Search this
Christo  Search this
Zúñiga, Francisco  Search this
Jeanne-Claude  Search this
Woodham, Jean  Search this
Westport-Weston Arts Council (Westport, Conn.)  Search this
Housatonic Museum of Art  Search this
Westport Schools Permanent Art Collection  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Video recordings
Interviews
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Topic:
Authors  Search this
Art critics  Search this
Educators  Search this
Art historians  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6021
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)235373
AAA_collcode_cherburt
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_235373
Additional Online Media:

Sidney S. Lawrence letters from Abram Lerner, 1985-2006

Creator:
Lawrence, Sidney Smith, 1948-  Search this
Lerner, Abram, 1913-2007  Search this
Subject:
Murphy, Catherine  Search this
Ripley, S. Dillon (Sidney Dillon),  Search this
Thiebaud, Wayne  Search this
Kainen, Jacob  Search this
Bearden, Romare  Search this
Rivers, Larry  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15915
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)296966
AAA_collcode_lawrsidn2
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_296966

Oral history interview with Olga Burroughs, 1964 October 25

Interviewee:
Burroughs, Olga  Search this
Interviewer:
McChesney, Mary Fuller, 1922-  Search this
Subject:
Kingman, Dong  Search this
Oldfield, Otis  Search this
Bufano, Beniamino  Search this
Sacramento Art Center  Search this
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12874
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213346
AAA_collcode_burrou64
Theme:
New Deal
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213346

Oral history interview with Joseph A. Danysh, 1964 December 3

Interviewee:
Danysh, Joseph A., 1906-1982  Search this
Interviewer:
Ferbrache, Lewis  Search this
Subject:
Gaskin, William  Search this
Adams, Ansel Easton  Search this
Zakheim, Bernard Baruch  Search this
Bufano, Beniamino  Search this
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
Group f.64  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Art criticism  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12708
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213392
AAA_collcode_danysh64
Theme:
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213392

Oral history interview with William Gaskin, 1964 Feb. 28

Interviewee:
Gaskin, William, 1892-1968  Search this
Interviewer:
Ferbrache, Lewis  Search this
Subject:
Kingman, Dong  Search this
Hiler, Hilaire  Search this
Bufano, Beniamino  Search this
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Arts administrators  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13031
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213560
AAA_collcode_gaskin64
Theme:
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213560

Oral history interview with Albert Landa, 1998 Feb. 26

Interviewee:
Landa, Albert W., 1927-2008  Search this
Interviewer:
Polcari, Stephen  Search this
Subject:
Benton, Thomas Hart  Search this
New School Art Center (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12629
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)229605
AAA_collcode_landa98
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_229605
Additional Online Media:

Oral history interview with Susanne Ghez, 2011 Jan. 25-26

Interviewee:
Ghez, Susanne, 1937-  Search this
Interviewer:
Richards, Judith Olch, 1947-  Search this
Subject:
Spector, Buzz  Search this
Enwezor, Okwui  Search this
Flood, Richard G.  Search this
Paschke, Ed  Search this
Rorimer, Anne  Search this
Reid, Katharine Lee  Search this
University of Chicago. Renaissance Society  Search this
David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art  Search this
Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Curators  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15916
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)297010
AAA_collcode_ghez11
Theme:
Women
Chicago's Art-Related Archival Materials: A Terra Foundation Resource
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_297010

Oral history interview with Clark Richert, 2013 August 20-21

Interviewee:
Richert, Clark, 1941-  Search this
Interviewer:
Auther, Elissa, 1966-  Search this
Subject:
Kallweit, Richard  Search this
DeFeo, Jay  Search this
Bernofsky, Gene  Search this
Sands, Nick  Search this
Brown, Joan  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert  Search this
Kaprow, Allan  Search this
Conner, Bruce  Search this
Fleming, Linda  Search this
McClure, Michael  Search this
Fudge, John  Search this
Fleming, Dean  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster),  Search this
University of Kansas  Search this
Rocky Mountain College of Art and Design  Search this
Stoddard-Fleischman History of Rocky Mountain Area Artists project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Geodesic domes  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Art and computers  Search this
Art teachers  Search this
Art  Search this
Painters  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)16129
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)363610
AAA_collcode_richer13
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_363610

American Academy in Rome records

Creator:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
Names:
American Academy in Rome  Search this
American School of Architecture in Rome  Search this
American School of Classical Studies in Rome  Search this
Aldrich, Chester Holmes, 1871-1940  Search this
Boring, William, 1859-1937  Search this
Breck, George, 1863-1920  Search this
Dinsmoor, William B.  Search this
Egbert, J. C. (James Chidester), 1859-1948  Search this
Ely, Theo. N.  Search this
Faulkner, Barry, 1881-1966  Search this
Guernsey, Roscoe  Search this
Hewlett, James Monroe  Search this
Kendall, William M.  Search this
La Farge, C. Grant (Christopher Grant), 1862-1938  Search this
Marquand, Allan, 1853-1924  Search this
McKim, Charles Follen, 1847-1909  Search this
Mead, William Rutherford, 1846-1928  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Morey, Charles Rufus, 1877-1955  Search this
Mowbray, H. Siddons (Harry Siddons), 1858-1928  Search this
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams), 1861-1933  Search this
Pope, John Russell, 1874-1937  Search this
Roberts, Laurance P.  Search this
Smith, James Kellum, 1893-1963  Search this
Stevens, Gorham Phillips, 1876-  Search this
Vedder, Elihu, 1836-1923  Search this
Vitale, Ferrucio, 1875-1933  Search this
Ward, John Quincy Adams, 1830-1910  Search this
Extent:
65.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1855-2012
Summary:
The records of the American Academy in Rome measure 65.9 linear feet and date from 1855 to 2012. The collection documents the history of the institution from its inception in 1894 as the American School of Architecture in Rome, through the end of World War II, and chronicles the contributions the academy has made to America's cultural and intellectual development. Nearly one-half of the collection consists of an unprocessed addition received in 2014 containing records that mostly post-date World War II and include correspondence and subject files of officers and executives based in the New York office of American Academy in Rome.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the American Academy in Rome measure 65.9 linear feet and date from 1855 to 2012. The collection documents the history of the institution from its inception in 1894 as the American School of Architecture in Rome, through the end of World War II, and chronicles the contributions the academy has made to America's cultural and intellectual development. Nearly one-half of the collection consists of an unprocessed addition received in 2014 containing records that mostly post-date World War II and include correspondence and subject files of officers and executives based in the New York office of American Academy in Rome.

Items predating the 1894 founding of the American School of Architecture in Rome are personal papers and memorabilia of individuals associated with the institution.

Series 1: Predecessor Institutions, is composed of the records of the American School of Architecture in Rome, 1894-1898, and the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, 1895-1913. Records of the American School of Architecture in Rome include records of its Managing Committee, correspondence, financial records, and printed matter. Among the Managing Committee's records are notes and correspondence relative to the founding of the institution, minute books and reports; also, legal documents including records concerning its dissolution prior to being reorganized as the American Academy in Rome. Correspondence is mostly that of Vice President Charles F. McKim who handled administrative matters. Financial records include capital stock certificates, invoices and receipts. Printed matter consists of scholarship competition announcements.

Records of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome include records of its Managing Committee, Committee on Fellowships, publications, printed matter, and treasurers' records. The Managing Committee's records consist of the proposed resolution concerning its merger with the American Academy in Rome. Committee on Fellowship records are comprised of correspondence, reports, and fellowship applications. Publications records include correspondence and invoices. Printed matter includes general information, annual reports of the Managing Committee and Director, annual reports of the Committee on Medieval and Renaissance Studies, fellowship applications and examination questions, and the proposed consolidation agreement. Treasurers' records include the files of Alex. Bell and Willard V. King. Bell's sparse records consist of a budget, receipts for salary payments, an invoice, canceled checks, and correspondence. King's files, while more substantial than those that survive from Bell's tenure, are quite incomplete. They include correspondence, banking records, budgets and financial statements, investment records, invoices, and receipts for salaries and expenses.

Series 2: Board of Trustees Records, is comprised of legal documents, minutes, and reports; records of Trustee committees; records of officers; and records of individual Trustees. Legal documents, 1897-1926 and undated, consist of by-laws and amendments, certificate of incorporation, and constitution and amendments. Minutes and reports of the Board of Trustees, 1897-1947 and 1957, including those of its annual meetings, are carbon copies rather than the official minute books, and are incomplete. Reports of officers are incomplete, as well. Also included are reports of Officers'/Trustees' visits to Rome, and reports of the Director and Secretary in Rome submitted to the Board of Trustees.

Records of Trustee committees, 1905-1946 and undated, consist of reports and/or minutes arranged alphabetically by committee; these, too are incomplete, with many committees represented by a single report. Committees represented are: Building Committee, Carter Memorial Committee, Endowment Committee, Executive Committee, Finance Committee, Library Committee, McKim Memorial Committee, Nominating Committee, Committee on Publications. Committee on the School of Classical Studies records consist of its own minutes and reports, reports of its Advisory Council and the Jury on Classical Fellowships. Committee on the School of Classical Studies also include reports of officers and staff of the School of Classical Studies to the Committee on the School of Classical Studies as follows: Director, Professor in Charge, Annual Professor, Director of the Summer Session, Professor of Archaeology, Curator of the Museum, Editor, Librarian, and Committee on the Welfare of Women Students. Committee on the School of Fine Arts records consist of its own minutes and reports, reports of its Special Committee on the Plan and Expense of a Department of Music in the School of Fine Arts, and report of Fine Arts Program, Triptych Project with the Citizens Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc.; also, reports of officers and staff of the School of Fine Arts to the Committee on the School of Fine Arts as follows: Director, Professor in Charge, Associate in Charge, Annual Professor, Professor in Charge of the Department of Musical Composition. In addition, there are minutes and/or reports of the Committee of Twelve and Subcommittee of Five and the Special Committee on Villa Aurelia.

Records of Officers. 1898-1957 and undated, consist mainly of correspondence files and reports, with large numbers of transcriptions and carbon copies. Included are records of: Presidents Charles F. McKim, William R. Mead, Charles A. Platt, John Russell Pope, and James Kellum Smith; Vice Presidents Theodore N. Ely, George B. McClellan, and Henry James; Secretaries H. Siddons Mowbray (Secretary/Treasurer), Frank D. Millet, C. Grant La Farge, William B. Dinsmoor, and H. Richardson Pratt; and Treasurers William R. Mead, William A. Boring, Leon Fraser, and Lindsay Bradford Office files of President Mead, Secretaries Millet and La Farge, and Treasurer Boring are the most complete; files of other individuals, the Vice Presidents in particular, are often quite sparse.

Records of individual Trustees, 1902-1946 and undated, consist of material relating to official Academy business that was created or maintained by each in his capacity as trustee. (Note: many of these individuals also served as officers or staff of the Academy, and their records documenting those functions will be found in the appropriate series.) Included in this subseries are the records of: Chester H. Aldrich, Gilmore D. Clarke, James C. Egbert, Barry Faulkner, Allan C. Johnson, William M. Kendall, C. Grant La Farge, Edward P. Mellon, Charles Dyer Norton, Charles A. Platt, John Russell Pope, Edward K. Rand, John C. Rolfe, James Kellum Smith, S. Breck Trowbridge, Ferruccio Vitale, John Quincy Adams Ward, Andrew F. West, and William L. Westerman. These records tend to be sparse; files maintained by James C. Egbert, Barry Faulkner, Allan C. Johnson, and Ferruccio Vitale are notable exceptions.

Series 3: New York Office Records, consists of records of staff, rosters, printed matter, photographs, personal papers, Association of Alumni of the American Academy in Rome, and miscellaneous records.

Records of staff, 1919-1950 and undated, include the office files of Executive Secretaries Roscoe Guersney, Meriwether Stuart, and Mary T. Williams; Librarian George K. Boyce; and Endowment Fund Campaign Secretaries Phillilps B. Robinson and Edgar I. Williams.

The rosters, 1895-1939 and undated, are printed forms completed by fellows and students, with occasional attachments (usually correspondence or photographs). Included are the rosters of the School of Fine Arts, School of Classical Studies, and School of Classical Studies Summer Sessions.

Printed matter, 1905-[1981?] and undated, has been classified as Academy produced and produced by others. Items produced by the Academy, 1905-[1981?], include general information including act of incorporation and by-laws, fundraising brochure, constitution, Directory of Fellows and Residents, histories of the institution, newsletter of the Director, and printed items relating to special events. Printed matter specifically relating to the School of Classical Studies includes annual announcements, the consolidation agreement, a directory, fellowship announcements and applications, lecture announcements, newsletters, and brochures about summer sessions. School of Fine Arts printed matter includes annual announcements, concert programs, exhibition checklists and catalogs, fellowship announcements and application forms, history, and newsletters.

Printed matter produced by others, 1905-1940 and undated, consists of three scrapbooks of news clippings and photographs compiled by the American Academy in Rome, extensive clipping files, and articles from miscellaneous publications. All of these items are about the American Academy in Rome, or by or about individuals associated with the institution. Also included is a poster for Leave Courses offered at the Academy for U. S. servicemen.

Photographs, 1891-1941 and undated, are organized into the categories of works of art, people, buildings, places, events, and miscellaneous. Works of art are by visiting students and fellows, Frank D. Millet, collaborative problems, Rome Prize Competitions in Architecture, Rome Prize Competitions in Landscape Architecture, and Prix de Rome Competition exhibitions. Photographs of people are both of individuals and groups; among the groups are summer school students and fellowship winners.

Buildings depicted are American Academy properties. Among them are the "New Building," including interior and exterior construction views; studios; and Villas Aurelia, Mirafiore, and Richardson. Also included is a group of photographs of Academy architecture students measuring buildings in Rome and Florence. Places pictured are views of the Academy property and surrounding areas.

Photographs of events include cricket games, Thanksgiving and Fourth of July dinners, Architectural League exhibition, and inauguration of the Manship Fountain. Miscellaneous photographs are of an architectural drawing for a proposed building.

Personal Papers, Memorabilia, and Ephemera, 1855-1923 an undated, were donated to the American Academy in Rome or otherwise left on its premises. None are official records generated by the institution. Included are: Ernest Lewis' photograph album/scrapbook; Allan Marquand's papers; Charles F. McKim's memorabilia, photographs, printed matter, and artifacts; Charles R. Morey's correspondence; and Elihu Vedder's Bible.

Records of the Association of the Alumni of the American Academy in Rome, 1913-1945 and undated), consist of a small number of scattered records including correspondence, fellows' war/government service information (compiled by Sidney Waugh), membership lists, and a newsletter.

Miscellaneous records, 1899-1926 and undated, are writings and architectural records. Writings consist of published and unpublished manuscript material about the American Academy in Rome and its history, and article by H. Siddons Mowbray advising on ornamentation, and text and illustrations for the Art and Archaeology issue on the Academy. Also included are fragments of unidentified letters. Architectural records [oversize] include property and floor plans of Villas Aurora, Chiaraviglio, Ferrari, and Ludovisi.

Series 4: Rome Office Records, consist of records of staff and personal papers. Records of staff, 1903-1947 and undated, include the office files of Directors H. Siddons Mowbray, George Breck, Jesse Benedict Carter, Gorham Phillips Stevens, James Monroe Hewlett, Chester H. Aldrich, Amey Aldrich [Acting Director, very briefly, perhaps unofficially], Charles R. Morey, and Laurance P. Roberts; and records of two members of the School of Fine Arts faculty, Frank P. Fairbanks, Professor of Fine Arts, and Felix Lamond, Professor of Music. Records of Carter, Stevens, Hewlett, and Aldrich appear to be fairly complete; records of early directors are sparse; those of Morey and Roberts appear to be missing significant portions; and those of Professors Fairbanks and Lamond consist of a few scattered items.

Also surviving are the personal papers of Director Gorham Phillips Stevens, 1912-1931 and undated), consisting of correspondence, financial records, and documentation of professional and charitable activities.

Series 5: Unprocessed Addition to the American Academy in Rome Records was received in 2014 and consists of 31.6 linear feet of the New York office's records for officers, directors, and executives.
Arrangement:
It was obvious that before they came to the Archives of American Art the records had been rearranged more than once, and in such a way that materials from many different departments had been intermingled. In keeping with archival theory and practice, the records were organized to reflect the structure and operation of the institution that created the records, making them more understandable and accessible to a wide variety of researchers.

In general, the records of each officer and staff member are arranged alphabetically, with general correspondence preceding the alphabetical sequence; arrangement within each file is chronological, unless noted otherwise.

Records of the American Academy in Rome are organized into five major series. Each series, except series 5, is divided into several subseries, with the arrangement described in detail in the series descriptions.

Series 1: Predecessor Institutions, 1894-1913 (box 1; 0.88 linear ft.; Reels 5749-5750)

Series 2: Board of Trustees Records, 1897-1957, undated (boxes 1-17, 35, 37; 15.25 linear ft.; Reels 5750-5777)

Series 3: New York Office, 1855-circa 1981, undated (boxes 17-32, 36; 15 linear ft.; 5777-5795)

Series 4: Rome Office, 1903-1943, undated (boxes 32-34; 3 linear ft.; 5795-5800)

Series 5: Unprocessed Addition to the American Academy in Rome Records, 1933-2002 (boxes 35-103; 31.6 linear ft.)
Historical Note:
While in Chicago to advise and work on the fine arts section of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, architects Charles F. McKim, Daniel Burnham, and Richard Howland Hunt, painters John La Farge and Frank Millet, and sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Daniel Chester French, among others, met regularly. From their collaborative experience and discussions came the idea for an American school for artists in Europe. Charles F. McKim was especially enthusiastic. He strongly believed that collaborative experience should be available to future American artists, and perceived a real need for an American school in Europe--preferably in Rome, the very best place to study art, in his opinion.

By March of the following year, McKim was busy devising plans for the school and persuading like-minded architects and artists to assist. He proposed to finance the school by convincing institutions with traveling scholarships in the arts to send those students to Rome. Columbia University, University of Pennsylvania, and the Rotch Scholarship fund readily agreed to the scheme, and in ensuing years many others followed suit. In October, 1894, the American School of Architecture in Rome opened temporary quarters in the Palazzo Torlonia. The school consisted of its Director, Austin Lord, three fellows, and a visiting student; its "library" contained but one volume.

A move to the larger, more suitable Villa Aurora occurred in July 1895. Rent from two subtenants (the newly established American School of Classical Studies in Rome and the British and American Archaeological Society Library in Rome), along with a personal contribution from McKim, made this financially feasible.

The American School of Architecture in Rome was incorporated in the State of New York, 1895, and 10 shares of capital stock were issued. Despite substantial fundraising efforts in Chicago, New York, and Boston, severe financial problems continued. The American School of Classical Studies in Rome vacated the Villa Aurora in 1896--and with it went a sizeable portion of the School of Architecture's income. McKim frequently made up the deficit from his own pocket.

Eventually, it was decided that the American School of Architecture in Rome must be reorganized along the lines of the French Academy and that national sponsorship needed to be obtained through an act of Congress. In June of 1897, the American School of Architecture in Rome voted to dissolve itself and create the American Academy in Rome. The new institution would assume all assets and obligations, fellowships in painting and architecture were to be added to the program, and its Board of Trustees would include architects and artists. The Academy is not a school. Its fellows and visiting students, already professionally trained, go to Rome for further development and for collaboration and association with others. In the words of Director Gorham Phillips Stevens: "The object of the American Academy in Rome is not to afford opportunities for a few individuals to perfect themselves for the practice of their chosen professions. The ideal is to create an atmosphere in which a limited number of carefully selected artists and scholars may develop that synthesis of intellectual culture which will make them worthy to preserve and continue the great traditions of the past in order that the standard of art and literature may be handed on from year to year, constantly strengthened and improved."

Beginning in 1901, bills to make the American Academy in Rome a "national institution" were introduced in Congress on several occasions. A hearing was finally scheduled in 1905, and a revised bill that prohibited government funding and specified that U.S. officials may not be Trustees was signed into law. Serious efforts to create an Endowment Fund and secure better quarters were associated with the movement to obtain status as a national institution. The Academy was successful in meeting all of these objectives. In 1904, the Academy moved to the Villa Mirafiore (also known as Villa Mirafiori), which it soon purchased and renovated. The Endowment Fund raised well over a million dollars. Donors of $100,000 to the Endowment Fund, designated "Founders" of the American Academy in Rome, were: The Carnegie Foundation, Henry C. Frick, Harvard College, Charles F. McKim, J. P. Morgan, Sr., J. P. Morgan, Jr., The Rockefeller Foundation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., William K. Vanderbilt, and Henry Walters. Other categories of donors were "Incorporators" (a new Act of Incorporation was required at the time the American Academy in Rome was chartered as a national institution) and "Life Members."

The American School of Classical Studies in Rome, which had been established by the Archaeological Society in 1895 and during its first year shared the Villa Aurora with the American School of Architecture in Rome, entered into a consolidation agreement with the American Academy in Rome in 1911. Their merger went into effect on the last day of 1912, and ever since, the American Academy in Rome has consisted of the School of Fine Arts and the School of Classical Studies, administered by a common director. The School of Classical Studies is composed of fellows and visiting scholars who are graduate students, secondary teachers, or professors engaged in research in the areas of archaeology, ancient art, philology, and humanistic studies. Women were a part of the School of Classical Studies from its beginning, but were not permitted to participate in the School of Fine Arts until well after World War II. Beginning in 1923, the School of Classical Studies instituted Summer Sessions which appealed to secondary teachers, and attracted an enrollment that was largely female.

Originally, the School of Fine Arts offered fellowships in architecture, painting, and sculpture. Fellowships in landscape architecture were added in 1915; in 1920, a Department of Music was established, and along with it fellowships in musical composition. Fellowships in art history were established in 1947. Unmarried men under age 30 were eligible to compete for the fine arts fellowships awarded annually (except for landscape architecture, awarded every third year); the duration of fellowships ranged from one to three years at various points in the institution's history. In residence along with fellows of the American Academy in Rome, might be holders of various traveling scholarships: the McKim Fellowship, the Columbia Traveling Scholarship, the Perkins Scholarship, the Robinson Traveling Scholarship (Harvard), the Rotch Scholarship, the Julia Appleton Scholarship, the Traveling Scholarship and Stewardson Memorial Scholarship (University of Pennsylvania), the Cresson Scholarship (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts), the Drexel Institute Traveling Scholarship, the Lazarus Scholarship (Metropolitan Museum of Art), the Lowell Scholarship (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and the Rinehart Scholarship (Peabody Institute, Baltimore). Visiting students, who remained for a much briefer period than fellows or recipients of various traveling scholarships, were admitted to all lectures and granted use the library, but resided elsewhere. The Academy opened an Atelier in downtown Rome for visiting students in 1927, which operated until financial considerations forced its discontinuation seven years later.

As the merger was being planned, J. P. Morgan, Sr., who was interested in both the American Academy in Rome and the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, began buying properties on the Janiculum, adjacent to Villa Aureilia. Villa Aurelia, built on the summit of the Janiculum in 1650, had been bequeathed to the American Academy in Rome in 1909 by Clara Jessup Heyland. Complications surrounding the gift of Villa Aurelia--including the will being contested by Mrs. Heyland's brother, and problems with unsettled tax assessments--were overcome in the interest of acquiring the outstanding building and its extensive grounds. Not long before his death in 1913, Morgan donated his neighboring land, and the American Academy in Rome continued to expand its Janiculum holdings through purchases and gifts from others. Morgan also agreed to provide a loan for construction of a new building. This building, designed by McKim, Mead, and White and known as the Main Building or Academy Building, opened in 1915; it served as the fellows' residence and work area, and included room for the library, offices, and space for exhibitions and other public events.

During World War I, the American Academy in Rome managed to remain open, although no new fellows arrived during the war years and the number of resident fellows and staff dwindled considerably. Most who remained were involved in some type of civilian war work, often with the Red Cross. In fact, Villa Aurelia was rented by the Red Cross in Italy for office space, and the Main Building was offered as a convalescent hospital, but the war ended before it could be put to that use.

After Italy declared war on the United States in 1941, the American Academy in Rome closed for the remainder of World War II. Those who had been awarded fellowships in classics just prior to the Academy's closing were given the option of using their stipends for study at home or waiting until conditions permitted travel to Rome. A very reduced staff stayed to care for the property and continue library cataloguing, coping with often severe wartime shortages of food and fuel. In addition, there were financial hardships. When bank accounts of enemy aliens were frozen and it was no longer possible to transfer funds from the United States, the Swiss Legation and Vatican arranged for loans to keep the Academy and its staff afloat. Funds that would have been awarded to new fellows during this period were put to use in other ways. In 1943, the American Academy in Rome made a grant to the Citizen's Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc. for competitions to award commissions to artists and art students throughout the country, funding more than 100 triptychs for chapels, as well as murals, medals, and sculpture. Seniors in American colleges and universities were eligible to compete for several scholarships for graduate work in classical studies awarded by the American Academy in Rome.

In 1945, the Academy was the site of Leave Courses on various aspects of Italian culture offered to servicemen. From the end of the war until the Academy reopened at the start of the 1946/47 academic year, G.I. Fellowships were offered to discharged soldiers wishing to study at the Academy, making the institution eligible to receive surplus equipment and rations. During this time intensive planning was underway for administrative changes and new programs.

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1893 -- While in Chicago to collaborate on the fine arts section for the World's Columbian Exposition, architects Charles F. McKim, Daniel Burnham, Richard Howland Hunt, painters John La Farge, and Sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Daniel Chester French, among others, met regularly and from their collaborative experience and discussions came the idea for an American school in Europe.

1894 -- American School of Architecture in Rome opened in temporary quarters at the Palazzo Torlonia with Austin Lord, Director, three fellows, and a visiting student.

1895 -- Villa Aurora leased with 2 subtenants, the American School of Classical Studies and the British and American Archaeological Society Library in Rome American School of Architecture incorporated and 10 shares of capital stock issued (2 each to McKim and Hunt, and 1 to Burnham, Kendall, Schermerhorn, Boring, Garland, and Dill) McKim visits Rome.

1896 -- Metropolitan Museum of Art, administrator of Jacob H. Lazarus Scholarship for the study of mural painting, agrees to send the winner to Rome American School of Classical Studies in Rome vacates Villa Aurora.

1897 -- American School of Architecture in Rome dissolved and reorganized as the American Academy in Rome; the assets (including the lease on Villa Aurora) of the American School of Architecture in Rome were transferred and its program expanded to include fellowships in painting and sculpture Samuel A. B. Abbott appointed first Director Rome Prize discontinued (for 9 years) due to lack of funds.

1898 -- Incorporated in New York State; trustees begin to focus on raising an endowment.

1904 -- Move to Villa Mirafiore (also known as Villa Mirafiori); occupied until 1914.

1905 -- Chartered by the Congress of the United States; a bill signed by President Roosevelt made the American Academy in Rome a national institution (receiving no government funding and barring U.S. officials from acting as Trustees).

1906 -- Purchase of Villa Mirafiore finalized; renovations begun.

1909 -- Villa Aurelia bequeathed to the Academy by Clara Jessup Heyland (used until 1932); there were protracted problems surrounding the acquisition of the property including a brother who contested the will and unsettled taxes.

1911 -- School of Classical Studies in Rome (established by the Archaeological Institute of America in 1895) and the American Academy in Rome announce their consolidation [the merger became effective on the final day of 1912].

1912 -- Lands on the Janiculum adjacent to Villa Aurelia, recently acquired by J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr., transferred to the American Academy in Rome.

1913 -- American Academy in Rome now consists of the School of Fine Arts and the School of Classical Studies. New York office moves to the Architect's Building, 101 Park Ave., remaining at this location until 1973. By this date, largely through the generosity of J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr., nearly all of the land bounded by Via Angelo Masina, Via Giacomo Medici, Via Pietro Riselli, and the Aurelian Wall on the Janiculum had been purchased and many improvements made to the properties near the Villa Aurelia. Construction begins on the new Academy building designed by McKim, Mead, and White and situated on the grounds of Villa Aurelia; financed through a loan from J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr. (after Morgan Sr.'s death, his son offered to cancel the loan at an amount equal to funds raised by the Academy for the purpose).

1915 -- First Fellowship in Landscape Architecture established; opening of new Academy building housing the fellows' residential quarters, work areas, library, offices, and spaces for public programs.

1917 -- Villa Aurelia rented to the Red Cross for office space, and the new Main building was slated to become a convalescent hospital, but the war ended before it could be put to use.

1919 -- New York office reorganized by Roscoe Guernsey, executive secretary; sale of Villa Mirafiore; Academic Council established in Rome.

1920 -- Department of Music and Fellowship in Musical Composition established.

1923 -- School of Classical Studies establishes summer sessions, largely attended by teachers.

1926 -- Second Fellowship in Landscape Architecture funded by Garden Club of America (later permanently endowed).

1927 -- Academy opens an Atelier in downtown Rome, providing studios for visiting students (operated until 1934).

1929 -- First Thomas Spencer Jerome lecturer appointed.

1941 -- Academy closes for duration of World War II; a skeletal staff remain behind to care for the property and continue library cataloguing; Italy declares war on the United States.

1942 -- After transfer of funds from the U.S. proved impossible and enemy aliens were prohibited from withdrawing their own funds from Italian banks, the Swiss Legation and Vatican offered assistance to the Academy by providing loans.

1943 -- Academy grant to Citizen's Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc., funded hundreds of triptychs; murals, medals, and sculptures also commissioned Academy awards scholarships in classical studies at American colleges and universities.

1945 -- "Leave courses," held at the Academy, consisting mainly of lectures by distinguished scholars still in Rome, instituted for U.S. servicemen.

1946 -- Regular program resumes at the start of the academic year.

1947 -- Fellowship in the History of Art established.

1965 -- Loan of printed matter for microfilming by the Archives of American Art (reels ITRO 2-3 and 11-13).

1973 -- New York office moves to American Federation of Arts building, 41 East 65th St. (until 1993).

1982 -- Gift of New York office records to the Archives of American Art.

1990 -- Gift of Rome office records to the Archives of American Art.

1993 -- New York office moves to Metropolitan Club, 7 East 60th St.
Related Material:
Papers of a number of former fellows, trustees, and other individuals associated with the American Academy in Rome are among the holdings of the Archives of American Art.

Chaloner Prize Foundation records, 1915-1974 (microfilm reels 5664-5669) were received with the American Academy in Rome records. They have been arranged and described as a separate collection.

Valentine, Lucia and Alan Valentine. The American Academy in Rome, 1894-1969. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1973.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels ITRO 2-3, and ITRO 11-13) including annual reports, exhibition catalogues, a history of the American Academy in Rome, the American Academy in Rome at the World's Fair, and the Golden Gate Exposition and newsletter. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and can be found at the American Academy in Rome, Italy. This material is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The material on reels ITRO 2-3 and ITRO 11-13 were lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming by the American Academy in Rome in 1965. Records of predecessor institutions, the Board of Trustees, and the New York office, including photographs and personal papers, were donated in 1982 by the Academy president, Calvin G. Rand. In 1990, Rand also gifted the Rome office records and the personal documents of Gorham Phillips Stevens. An addition of New York office records was donated in 2014 by the Academy director, Adele Chatfield-Taylor.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. research center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The American Academy in Rome records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Architecture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Architecture, Classical -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art schools -- Italy -- Rome  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
American Academy in Rome records, 1855-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ameracar
See more items in:
American Academy in Rome records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ameracar

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