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ACA Galleries records, 1917-1963

Creator:
ACA Galleries  Search this
Subject:
Mumford, Lewis  Search this
Burliuk, David  Search this
Valente, Alfredo  Search this
Young, Arthur Henry  Search this
Soyer, Raphael  Search this
Hirsch, Joseph  Search this
Dondero, George Anthony  Search this
Pickens, Alton  Search this
Evergood, Philip Howard  Search this
McCausland, Elizabeth  Search this
Newman, Arnold  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Gwathmey, Robert  Search this
Gropper, William  Search this
Olds, Elizabeth  Search this
Baron, Herman  Search this
Soyer, Moses  Search this
Refregier, Anton  Search this
Abbott, Berenice  Search this
American Contemporary Art Gallery  Search this
American Artists' Congress.  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Writings
Topic:
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Gallery directors  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Politics in art  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8772
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210955
AAA_collcode_acagall
Theme:
The Art Market
New Deal
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210955
Additional Online Media:

The ACA Galleries records

Creator:
ACA Galleries  Search this
Names:
American Contemporary Art Gallery  Search this
Abbott, Berenice, 1898-1991  Search this
Baron, Herman, 1892-1961  Search this
Burliuk, David, 1882-1967  Search this
Cahill, Holger, 1887-1960  Search this
Dondero, George A. (George Anthony), 1883-1968  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Gropper, William, 1897-1977  Search this
Gwathmey, Robert, 1903-1988  Search this
Hirsch, Joseph, 1910-1981  Search this
McCausland, Elizabeth, 1899-1965  Search this
Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990  Search this
Olds, Elizabeth, 1896-1991  Search this
Pickens, Alton  Search this
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Soyer, Moses, 1899-1974  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Valente, Alfredo  Search this
Weber, Max, 1881-1961  Search this
Young, Art, 1866-1943  Search this
Photographer:
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Writings
Photographs
Date:
1917-1963
Summary:
The scattered records of the ACA (American Contemporary Art) Galleries date from 1917 through 1963 and include writings by founder Herman Baron, artists Philip Evergood and Anton Refregier, and art critic Elizabeth McCausland; printed materials; and photographs of Baron, ACA artists, art collectors, works of art, and exhibitions. Correspondence is with David Burliuk, Philip Evergood, William Gropper, Lewis Mumford, Moses Sawyer, Max Weber, and others. Also found is a small group of Herman Baron's personal papers.
Scope and Content Note:
The scattered records of the ACA (American Contemporary Art) Galleries date from 1917 through 1963 and include writings by founder Herman Baron, artists Philip Evergood and Anton Refregier, and art critic Elizabeth McCausland; printed materials; and photographs of Baron, ACA artists, art collectors, works of art, and exhibitions. Correspondence is with David Burliuk, Philip Evergood, William Gropper, Lewis Mumford, Moses Sawyer, Max Weber, and others. Also found is a small group of Herman Baron's personal papers.

The records are a rich resource for documenting the Social Realist artists and the militant socialist artists during the great depression and the post-World War II era of "McCarthyism".

Correspondence with ACA artists consists of letters from Philip Evergood, David Burliuk, William Gropper, Robert Gwathmey, Joseph Hirsch, Lewis Mumford, Elizabeth Olds, Alton Pickens, Moses Soyer, Max Weber, and Art Young. Some of the letters concern the socialist and communist views of some of the artists, including responses to Congressional Representive George A. Dondero's public statements and attacks on modern art as a conspiracy to spread communism in the United States. There is a letter written by Holger Cahill to the editor of Time magazine concerning WPA artists. Also found is a letter from Raphael Soyer written to the ACA Galleries concerning the American Artists' Congress.

Writings include Herman Baron's written history of the ACA Galleries and scattered pages of Baron's book on Joe Jones and William Gropper. There are essays and writings by art critic Elizabeth McCausland, and artists Anton Refregier and Philip Evergood. Printed materials consist of ACA publications, newspaper clippings, published articles, printed illustrations by Philip Evergood, and printed materials about Congressman Dondero.

Photographs are of David Burliuk, Bruce Calder, Nicolai Cikovsky, Hy Cohen, Robert Cronbach, Alexander Dobkin, Philip Evergood, Mike Gold, Chaim Gross, William Gropper, Joe Jones, Mervin Jules, Irene Rice Pereia, Geri Pine, Philip Reisman, Vic Shifreen, Harry Sternberg, Moses Soyer, Raphael Soyer, James Baare Turnbull, Nicky Walker, Abraham Walkowitz, Nat Werner, and Art Young. Photographers include Berenice Abbott, Arnold Newman, and Alfredo Valente. Additional photographs are of unidentified installations or exhibitions.

Herman Baron's personal papers include letters written to his wife and friends during World War I, writings by Baron for various magazines including Glazier's Journal. Personal photographs are of Herman Baron in his army uniform. There is also an obituary for Herman Baron written by art critic Elizabeth McCausland.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 5 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, circa 1930s-1960s (Box 1; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 2: Writings and Notes, 1938-circa 1960s (Box 1; 8 folders)

Series 3: Printed Material, 1939-1960 (Box 2; 4 folders)

Series 4: Photographs, circa 1930s-circa 1960s (Box 2; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 5: Herman Baron Personal Papers, circa 1910s, 1940s-1960s (Box 2-3; 0.3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Herman Baron, Stuart Davis, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, and Adolf Dehn founded the American Contemporary Art (ACA) Galleries on August 16, 1932. Located at 1269 Madison Avenue in New York City, the galleries' first show featured watercolorist Hy Cohen. Baron encouraged freedom of expression and did not censor the artworks displayed in his gallery. As a result, the gallery became an outlet for generally unknown and socially conscious artists, including the Social Realists.

Born in Lithuania in 1892, Herman Baron immigrated to the United States as a child. He served in World War I and later attended New York University. Baron founded and edited Glazier's Journal (later Glass Digest) in 1924 as the first journal for the professional glazing trade. Additionally, he wrote short stories and plays for American Hebrew and Young Israel.

In response to economic issues facing the art market during the depresssion of 1930s, ACA Galleries organized relief efforts to financially support their artists. During this period, the gallery became closely allied with militant artists' organizations and some of the more politically radical artists. In 1935, the ACA Galleries and Herman Baron hosted the first meeting of the American Artists' Congress in the gallery space.

The ACA Galleries featured exhibitions of works by artists David Burliuk, Stuart Davis, Philip Evergood, William Gropper, Robert Gwathmey, Joe Jones, Rockwell Kent, Lee Krasner, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Lewis Mumford, Louise Nevelson, Alton Pickens, Moses Soyer, Raphael Soyer, Max Weber, Art Young, and others. Baron also organized exhibitions of many artists employed by or associated with the Works Progress Administration of the federal arts program. Due to the progressive nature of the works of art found in the ACA Galleries, Herman Baron came under considerable criticism during the McCarthy Era. Baron was condemned by Representative George A. Dondero for supporting "un-American" sympathies and was forced often to defend his gallery and artists.

For years the gallery focused on artists rights and supporting the work of artists, rather than a profit. In the 1950s, a shift occurred when Baron's nephew Sidney Bergen initiated professional business practices and transformed the gallery into a profitable venture. Now located at 529 West 20th Street in New York City, ACA Galleries continues to promote and support various social causes.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art holds the Herman Baron papers, dating from 1937-1967 which were donated by Syracuse University, George Arents Research Library in 1984. Some exhibition catalogs may be found here.
Provenance:
Ella Baron, widow of the ACA Galleries' founder Herman Baron, donated the records to the Archives of American Art in 1965 and 1966.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The ACA Galleries records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Politics in art  Search this
Gallery directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Writings
Photographs
Citation:
ACA Galleries records, 1917-1963. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.acagall
See more items in:
The ACA Galleries records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-acagall
Additional Online Media:

Doll & Richards gallery records

Creator:
Doll & Richards gallery  Search this
Names:
Azeez Khayat Gallery  Search this
Kleemann Galleries  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston  Search this
Chetcuti, John  Search this
Freiman, Robert  Search this
Goodrich, Lloyd, 1897-1987  Search this
Haseltine, William Stanley, 1835-1900  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Lindenmuth, Tod  Search this
Meyerowitz, William, 1887-1981  Search this
Shepler, Dwight, 1905-  Search this
Verner, Elizabeth O'Neill, 1883-1979  Search this
Woodward, Stanley Wingate, 1890-1970  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Zoehler, Wendell H., 1907-1989  Search this
Extent:
87.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Financial records
Date:
1863-1978
bulk 1902-1969
Summary:
The records of the Doll & Richards gallery of Boston measure 87.5 linear feet and date from 1863 to 1978, with the bulk of the material dating from 1902-1960s. Extensive financial and sales records, inventory records, and correspondence and letter books provide a detailed account of the business operations and sales of the gallery. Also found are notes and research files on artists and paintings, business and legal records, exhibition catalogs, six exhibition scrapbooks, printed materials, and photographs. Significant correspondents include John Chetcuti, Robert Freiman, Lloyd Goodrich, Tod Lindenmuth, Macbeth Galleries, William Meyerowitz, Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Stanley Woodward, and Andrew Wyeth, among many others.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the Doll & Richards gallery of Boston measure 87.5 linear feet and date from 1863 to 1978, with the bulk of the material dating from 1902-1960s. Extensive financial and sales records, inventory records, and correspondence and letter books provide a detailed account of the business operations and sales of the gallery. Also found are notes and research files on artists and paintings, business and legal records, exhibition catalogs, six exhibition scrapbooks, printed materials, and photographs. The bulk of the collection dates from 1902 when the gallery was incorporated and new books were begun. According to gallery employee Wendell Zoehler, many records from the 19th century were discarded and periodically, especially when the gallery moved, other records were discarded.

Incoming and outgoing correspondence documents sales, consignments, appraisals, exhibitions, and inquiries by artists and others to Doll & Richards for over a century. Significant correspondents include artists John Chetcuti, Robert Freiman, Tod Lindenmuth, William Meyerowitz, Dwight Shepler, Elizabeth O'Neill Verner, Stanley Woodward, Andrew Wyeth, and others. Additional correspondents include Lloyd Goodrich from Whitney Museum of American Art, Azeez Khayat Gallery, Macbeth Galleries, Kleemann Galleries, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. There is one letter from George Inness (1866). Outgoing correspondence is limited to 46 volumes of letterpress copybooks dating from 1930-1967.

Notes and research files primarily consist of compiled information about artists in which Doll & Richards dealt. These include card files related to the provenance of paintings by Winslow Homer and William Stanley Haseltine, and a book about Winslow Homer with notations by Zoehler about the sale of paintings .

Administrative and business records of general daily operations include an address book, meeting minutes, miscellaneous lists and notes, and a large card file of contacts with clients, consignors, artists, and businesses. A detailed description of the gallery's operations by Zoehler is also found here. Legal records include contracts, agreements, certificates of stock, certificates of copyrights, and photocopies of founding documents.

Although there are limited records prior to 1902, the financial records provide comprehensive detail of the gallery's financial transactions from the turn of the century through the early 1970s. Volumes of financial ledgers provide details of artwork bought, sold, and consigned; order forms for sales, framing, restoration, and shipping; gallery expenditures and salaries; records of client purchases; and other affairs. Many of the financial records are indexed and cross-referenced, offering researchers complex but rich documentation. The financial records should be consulted with the numerous inventory records that provide detailed information about the stock of art work held at the gallery. Inventory records also include documentation about the frames held by the gallery from the mid-1880s-1950. The gallery used sometimes complex codes to index and cross reference sales and stock. When known, these codes have been outlined in the more detailed series desciptions below, or filed within the appropriate boxes.

The history of Doll & Richards' exhibitions from the 1880s-1968 are documented in six disassembled bound volumes that contained exhibition catalogs and announcements. There are also additional loose catalogs and announcements. Additional printed materials include newspaper clippings related to exhibitions and the gallery and seven scrapbooks related to Doll & Richards' exhibitions from 1909-1943.

The bulk of the black and white photographs in the collection are of works of art by artists that Doll & Richards exhibited. There are only a handful of photographs of other subject matter, but include images of the gallery spaces at 2 Park Street, 71 Newbury, and 138 Newberry; and of artists.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as nine series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1863-1972, bulk 1930s-1972 (Boxes 1-14; 14 linear feet)

Series 2: Notes and Research Files, 1880s-1978, bulk 1930s-1960s (Boxes 15-16, 78; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Business Records, circa 1866-1978, bulk 1910s-1960s (Boxes 16-18; 1.9 linear feet)

Series 4: Legal Records, 1863-1906, 1941-1962 (Boxes 18, 78; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Financial Records, 1871-1973, bulk 1902-1969 (Boxes 18-69, 79, BV81-112; 55 linear feet)

Series 6: Inventory Records, 1881-1969, bulk 1900s-1940s (Boxes 69-70, BV113-128; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Materials, circa 1880s-1968, bulk 1890s-1960s (Boxes 70-75; 4.9 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1880s-1960s (Boxes 75-78; 2 linear feet)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1908-1968, bulk 1908-1943 (Boxes 77, 80; 1.1 linear feet)

The records have been arranged according to the original order maintained by the gallery. Bound volumes containing exhibition catalogs glued to the internal spines have been disbound for preservation and proper housing.
Historical Note:
The Doll & Richards gallery originated in Boston in 1866 as an art gallery and framing shop owned by Charles E. Hendrickson, E. Adam Doll, and Joseph Dudley Richards. The gallery was a well-known Boston establishment for over 100 years that represented William Stanley Haseltine, Winslow Homer, William Morris Hunt, and Andrew Wyeth, among many other notable American painters, sculptors, and printmakers.

In 1870 Hendrickson retired and the gallery became Doll & Richards. After the untimely death of Doll in 1880, Richards purchased Doll's interest in the firm, retaining the gallery's well-known name. Under Richards' direction, the gallery prospered. Richards promoted the works of painter Winslow Homer, developing a market for his watercolors in Boston. He incorporated the gallery in 1902 and served as the treasurer and financier until his death in 1922 at 80 years old. The gallery then reorganized; Arthur McKean, who joined in 1911, became manager, and J.L. (Joe) Richards became treasurer. Fergus Turner, who joined the firm as a salesman in 1885 and became president in 1902, retained his role as president until 1938.

Over the century the gallery showcased contempory American artists, including William Morris Hunt, Dodge McKnight, William Stanley Haseltine, Laura Coombs Hills, Eliot O'Hara, Joseph Lindon Smith, Stanley Woodward, and Andrew Wyeth. The gallery also consigned paintings, prints, and objects from other major art galleries including Azeez Khayat Gallery, Kennedy Galleries, M. Knoedler and Co., Macbeth Gallery, Victor D. Spark, and Victor Waddington Galleries (Dublin, Ireland). According to long-time employee Wendell Zoehler (employed from 1929-1966), Doll & Richards' primary clientele came from the Social Register. In the summer months when wealthy Bostonians typically vacationed outside of the city, Doll & Richards remained open for tourists, many of whom became regular seasonal customers of the gallery.

The gallery experienced financial difficulties in the 1930s, leading to bankruptcy. Doll & Richards was purchased by McKean and incorporated in Maine in 1941. McKean sold Doll & Richards in 1962 to Maurice Goldberg; at this time none of the remaining family or staff were connected with the gallery. In 1973, the gallery was sold to Jeanne and Paul Sylva and closed.

Although the gallery always remained in the vicinity of Boston Common, it relocated numerous times over the years. In 1871 the gallery moved from 28 Summer Street to 145 Tremont Street. In 1878, the gallery remodeled and occupied the entire two-story building at 2 Park Street, renting out the second floor, known as the Hawthorne Room, for lectures. After thirty years on Park Street, Doll & Richards relocated to Newbury Street in 1908, beginning a succession of moves down Newbury Street approximately every twenty years, finally to 172 Newbury Street in 1962.
Related Material:
Among the other resources relating to the Doll & Richards gallery in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Wendell Zoehler conducted by Robert Brown on April 14 and April 27, 1978.
Separated Material:
A daguerroteype of Gaetano Cardinal Bedini received with the records was transferred to the Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery on May 24, 2004.
Provenance:
The Doll & Richards records were donated to the Archives of American Art in numerous accessions between 1973 and 1979 by Jeanne and Paul Sylva, who purchased the gallery in 1973, and by former employee Wendell Zoehler.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Doll & Richards gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Art dealers -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Financial records
Citation:
Doll & Richards gallery, 1863-1978, bulk 1902-1960s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.dollrich
See more items in:
Doll & Richards gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dollrich

Fine Arts Federation of New York records

Creator:
Fine Arts Federation of New York  Search this
Extent:
15.2 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1895-2005
Summary:
The records of the Fine Arts Federation of New York, a consortium of New York City arts and architecture organizations, measure 15.2 linear feet and date from 1895-2005, bulk 1935-2002. The Federation's activities on behalf of the interests of the constituent organizations and the greater community are documented through officers' files, correspondence, administrative records, scattered printed materials, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the Fine Arts Federation of New York, a consortium of New York City arts and architecture organizations, measure 15.2 linear feet and date from 1895-2005, bulk 1935-2002. The Federation's activities on behalf of the interests of the constituent organizations and the greater community are documented through officers' files, correspondence, administrative records, scattered printed materials, and scrapbooks.

The records do not span the entire history of the F.A.F.; records prior to 1935 are few and scattered. Generally, the records document the activities of those officers' who served terms from the mid-20th century to the end of the century, and who maintained and donated their files to the Archives of American Art.

Presidents' Files contain scattered correspondence of F.A.F. presidents from 1935-early 1950s, and the files maintained or collated during presidental tenures from the 1970s and the 1990s-2000s. Secretaries' Files contain scattered records of various F.A.F. secretaries from the 1930s-early 1950s, and the files maintained or collated during particular secretaries' tenures from 1952-late 1970s and the early 2000s. Records in both series contain a variety of materials including administrative records, correspondence, meetings records, and subject files. Treasurers' Files include correspondence, two financial ledgers, lists of membership dues, and tax-related materials from 1915-1967.

The bulk of the Correspondence Series ranges from the 1930s-1960s and contains correspondence from constituent societies, special committees, and standing committees, as well as some miscellaneous chronological correspondence. Administrative Records include records related to the F.A.F. constitution and by-laws; meeting minutes and ancillary records; and project files from the late 1980s. Printed Materials include scattered announcements, catalogs, clippings, and pamphlets from the late 20th century to 2000s. Folders containing various types of records with little discernable order, a mélange of correspondence, drafts, meeting minutes, mimeographs, notes, reports, scattered clippings, transcriptions, and other documents, the bulk from the mid-1930s-1950s, comprise the Miscellaneous Series. There are also two photo scrapbooks documenting two separate events held in 1995.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series:

Series 1: Presidents' Files, 1935-2002 (Boxes 1-3; 2.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Secretaries' Files, 1900-2002 (Boxes 3-9; 5.1 linear feet)

Series 3: Treasurers' Files, 1915-1967 (Box 9; 0.75 linear feet)

Series 4: Correspondence, circa 1914-2004, bulk 1930s-1967 (Boxes 9-12; 2.75 linear feet)

Series 5: Administrative Records, 1895, 1897, 1935-2005 (Boxes 12-14; 1.9 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Materials, 1971-2005 (Box 14; 6 folders)

Series 7: Miscellaneous, 1914-1966, bulk mid-1930s-1950s (Boxes 14-15; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1995 (Box 16; 2 folders)
Historical Note:
The Fine Arts Federation of New York was established in 1895 "to ensure united action by the Art Societies of New York in all matters affecting their common interests; and to foster and protect the artistic interests of the community."

A consortium of New York City arts and architecture organizations, the F.A.F. has been responsible for saving historic buildings, promoting the arts, and providing a vision of the city's architectural future. The F.A.F. also provided delegate nominations to the New York City mayor for the Art Commission, a panel of architects and artists who reviewed proposed development to public property.

Presidents and other officers of the F.A.F. included Joseph H. Freedlander (1935-1937), A. F. Brinckerhoff (1937-1939), James C. Mackenzie (1940-1941), Wheeler William (1943, 1946-1948), Howard Greenley (Vice President, 1943-1944), Charles Downing Lay (Acting President, 1945), Richard Bach (1948-1950), Harvey Stevenson (1950-1951?), Giorgio Cavaglieri (1971-1974; 2001-2002), Margot Gayle (1974-1977), Nanne Wollmann (1992?-1994?), Roy Gussow (1996?-1997), and Lorrie Goulet (1997-2001), among others.

For many years in the mid-20th century, the Fine Arts Federation was located in the Architectural League of New York building on East 40th Street.
Related Material:
Additional records related to the Fine Arts Federation of New York are found in the Architectural League of New York records, 1880s-1974.
Separated Material:
The Fine Arts Federation loaned materials to the Archives of American Art for microfilming in 1970 which are available on microfilm reel N70/16 and by interlibrary loan. These materials were not included in later donations and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid. They include correspondence with or related to the Municipal Art Society, mostly about the nomination of delegates to the F.A.F. and appointments to the New York City Art Commission and the mayor's Panel of Architects, 1961-1967; annual and semi-annual meeting reports for 1961-1965, and 1967; and an address by J. Roy Carroll, president of the American Institute of Architects, to the officers and board of the F.A.F., November 1963, concerning the artists-architect's role in society.
Provenance:
The Fine Arts Federation loaned materials for microfilming in 1968 and 1970; these same records were later donated, along with multiple accretions from 1978-2007 by former officers of the F.A.F., including Minor Bishop, Giorgio Cavaglieri, Margot Gayle, Lorrie Goulet, Katherine Thayer Hobson, Henriette Nathan, and Nanne Wollmann.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings and electronic records with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Fine Arts Federation of New York records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Art -- Societies, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Fine Arts Federation of New York, 1895-2005, bulk 1935-2002. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.fineafny
See more items in:
Fine Arts Federation of New York records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-fineafny

Paint By Numbers Collection

Donor:
Schiffman, Jacquelyn  Search this
Creator:
Palmer Paint Company  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (16 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Designs
Layouts
Sheet music
Photographs
Date:
ca. 1934-1957.
Summary:
Included are scrapbooks, newspaper and magazine articles, photographs, original artwork, advertising and promotional materials relating specifically to paint by numbers kits.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Advertising contains informational and visual materials of items marketed by Klein and Robbins, as well as, publishers montage items. These materials cover products such as Toleware, Craftmaster, Paint the Number and Palmer Paint.

Series 2: General Motors contains random information about the General Motors Corporation.

Series 3: Newspaper Articles contain newspaper clippings from various sources documenting the use and popular culture surrounding Paint-By-Numbers. These articles display advertisement and marketing campaigns used by Klein and Robbins.

Series 4: Photographs contains numerous images of the Paint By Number product from factory construction to exhibit designs, as well as, images of Max Klein, Arthur Godfrey and Jimmy Durante. One image is a demo personal portrait usage by Ike and Mamie Eisenhower.

Series 5: Sketch Transparency with color information (approx. 8.5" x 11") small contains unpainted sketches with transparencies.

Series 6: Blank Sketches with colored pictures (approx. 9.5" x 12") medium contains a series of matching blank sketches accompanied by a colored picture version.

Series 7: Blank Boards contains various numbered Paint-By-Number boards.

Series 8: Completed Paintings contains painted images of various. Series 9: Colored Picture with Sketch contains painted images of various scenes.

Series 10: Colored Pictures painted images of various images and scenes accompanied by transparencies and sketches.

Series 11: Blank Sketches contains blank imagine graphics laid out in typical Paint-By-Numbers scheme.

Series 12: Scrapbooks contains bound and loose leaf pages of materials pertaining to Paint-By-Number advertisement and popular culture.

Series 13: Paint-By-Numbers Kits contains materials used to package and market the Paint-By-Numbers product.

Series 14: Sheet Music contains a score composed by Frank and Dorothy Daniels regarding the possibilities of Paint-By-Number.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 14 series.

Series 1: Advertising

Series 2: General Motors Materials Series 3: Newspaper

Series 4: Photographs Series 5: Sketch Transparency with color information small

Series 6: Blank Sketches with colored pictures (9.5 x 12) medium

Series 7: Blank Boards medium

Series 8: Completed Paintings

Series 9: Colored Picture with Sketch Series 10: Colored Pictures (medium)

Series 11: Blank Sketches (large) Series 12: Scrapbooks

Series 13: Paint-By-Numbers Kits Series 14: Sheet Music
Biographical / Historical:
The concept of paint by numbers was born in the forties when Max Klein, owner of the Palmer Paint Company of Detroit Michigan teamed up with artist Dan Robbins. Dan Robbins was a designer doing free lance artwork such as package designs and children's coloring pictures for Max Klein.

The paint by numbers kits were not a big success when Klein and Robbins attempted to sell them in 1949 under the Craft Master label.

Under the name of Craft Master they produced the first paint by numbers kits. After creating the first 30, Robbins hired artists to help him with the tedious task of making the outlines, creating transparent overlays, painting, printing and proofing artwork.

Both Klein's and Robbins wives spent time painting samples for Craft Master to test and display.

In 1959 Klein sold Craft Master which he set up as a separate company after the product became so successful. It has since gone through several ownerships.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Industry on Parade (NMAH.AC.0507)

Episode 188, May 1954, Every man a Rembrandt! demonstrates manufacturing painting sets with numbers. Palmer Paint Company, Detroit, Michigan.
Separated Materials:
Related objects located in the Division of Home and Community Life.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Jacquelyn Schiffman, 1997, September 21.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Art, American -- 1930-1960  Search this
Leisure -- United States  Search this
Painting -- 1930-1960  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Designs
Layouts -- 1930-1960
Sheet music -- 1920-1960
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Paint By Numbers Collection, ca. 1934-1957, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0544
See more items in:
Paint By Numbers Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0544
Additional Online Media:

Ben Benn Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Benn, Ben, 1884-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1915-1993, undated
Scope and Contents note:
Chronological professional and personal letters received by Ben Benn relating to exhibitions, affiliations with various artists' groups, and relationships with other artists and friends. Found are letters from Alfred Barr, Holger Cahill, Juliana Force, Sidney Geist, Kaj Klitgaard, Rowan and Irene LeCompte, Audrey McMahon, Elie and Viola Nadelman, Samuel Rosenblum, Harry Salpeter, and Hugh Stix, and various art galleries and museums, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Newark Museum, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Walker Art Center Also found is correspondence from containing letters from Hudson Walker and others, relating to Benn's one-man exhibition; included are price lists of Benn's paintings.

See Appendix for list of notable correspondents from Series 2.1. and 2.3.
Appendix: Notable Correspondents from Series 2.1. and 2.3.:
Abbott, Jere, (See The Museum of Modern Art)

American Artists' Congress, 1936 (1 letter)

American British Art Center, 1944 (1 letter

American Federation of the Arts, 1959 (1 letter)

American Society of Painters, Sculptors, and Gravers, 1935-1936 (3 letters)

American Society for Technion, Women's Division, Israel Institute of Technology, 1958 (4 letters)

Anderson Galleries, The, 1922 (2 letters)

Arden Studios, Inc., 1931 (1 letter)

Art Appreciation Movement, 1942

Art For Living, 1949 (1 letter)

Art USA, 1959 (2 letters)

Artists Equity Association, 1951 (1 letter)

Artists' Gallery, The, 1937-1956 (11 letters)

Artists' and Sculptors' Division, Joint Distribution Committee, 1938 (1 letter)

Artists for Victory, 1943 (1 letter)

Artists Welfare Fund, Inc., 1973 (1 letter)

Associated American Artists, 1942 (1 letter)

Avery, Milton, 1930 (1 letter)

Barr, Alfred A., 1953-1956 (2 letters): See also The Museum of Modern Art

Baziotes, William, 1942 (1 letter)

Beer-Monti, Federica, (See The Artists' Gallery)

Bender, William H., 1968 (1 letter)

Benton, Tom, undated (1 letter)

Benton, Rita and Tom, 1925 (1 letter)

Benton, Rita, 1926-1928, undated (2 letters)

Biddle, George, 1949-1950 (3 letters)

Bluemner, Oscar, 1918-1932 (2 letters)

Blume, Peter, (See The National Institute of Arts and Letters)

Board, Brewster, (See First Municipal Art Exhibition)

Bourgeois Galleries, 1917-1918 (5 letters)

Bourgeois, P., (See Bourgeois Galleries)

Bourgeois, S., (See Bourgeois Galleries)

Breckinridge, Mrs. Henry, (See City of New York, Municipal Art Committee)

Brooklyn Museum, 1931-1932 (4 letters)

Brown, George Lippincott, 1922 (1 letter)

Brownell-Lamberston Galleries, 1930 (1 letter)

Bruckel, Fred H., (See Montross Gallery)

Bry, Edith, (See Artists' and Sculptors' Division, Joint Distribution Committee)

Bummell, Peter, (See The Museum of Modern Art)

Burck, Jacob, (See New Masses)

Cahill, Holger, (See First Municipal Art Exhibition): See also Works Progress

Administration/Federal Art Project

Carmel, Hilda, (See Artists Welfare Fund)

Chidsey, Alan C., 1937 (1 letter)

City of New York, Municipal Art Committee, 1936 (3 letters)

Coady, R.W., 1915-1918 (5 letters)

Codry, Patrick, (See New Masses)

Coffey, Katherine, (See The Newark Museum)

Cohen, Mildred, (See College Art Association)

College Art Association, 1932-1936 (5 letters; 1 press release)

Committee of Five/League for American Citizenship, 1928 (1 letter)

Corcoran Gallery of Art, The, 1938 (1 letter)

Dasburg, Andrew, 1921, undated (2 letters)

Educational Art Alliance, 1944 (1 letter)

The Day, 1935 (1 letter)

Egan, Charles, (See Egan Gallery)

Egan Gallery, 1946 (1 letter)

Elliott, James H., 1954 (1 letter)

Fair Lawn Art Association, The, 1950 (1 letter)

Ferargil Galleries, 1934 (1 letter)

First Municipal Art Exhibition, 1934 (2 letters)

Fisher, William, 1917-1925 (5 letters)

Fitzgerald, Eleanor M., The Studio Theatre, 1941 (2 letters)

Force, Juliana, (See Whitney Museum of American Art)

Ford Foundation, The, 1958-1960 (7 letters)

Forum Exhibition Committee, The, 1916 (6 letters)

Fraser, Joseph T., (See The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts)

Frueh, Mr. and Mrs. Alfred, 1916 (1 invitation)

Frueh, Alfred, 1917 (1 invitation)

Frueh, Giuliette, 1923 (1 letter)

Geist, Sidney, 1939-1959 (35 letters)

Gerdts, William H., (See The Newark Museum)

Glassgold, C. Adolph, (See Whitney Museum of American Art)

Goff, Carleton, (See Providence Art Club)

Gollomb, Joseph, 1931, undated (2 letters)

Goodyear, A. Conger, (See The Museum of Modern Art)

Hale, Robert Beverly, (See The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Hamlin, Elizabeth, (See Brooklyn Museum)

Hanna Ray, (See John Wanamaker New York)

Harris, Ruth F., (See The New York Times)

Hartley, Marsden, 1934 (1 postcard)

Hellman, George, 1926-1927 (2 letters): See also The New Gallery

Hirschhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1974 (1 letter)

Horch, Louis L., (See Roerich Museum)

Irvine, Rosalind, (See Whitney Museum of American Art)

Johnston, E.M., (See Bourgeois Galleries)

Katz, Harry, The Library of Congress, 1993 (1 letter)

Kent, H.W., (See The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Klitgaard, Georgina and Kaj, 1920 (1 letter)

Klitgaard, Kaj, 1921-1936, undated (8 letters)

Korzenik, Lillian, (See American Society for Technion, Women's Division, Israel Institute of Technology

Krasne, Bell, 1954-1955 (2 letters)

Kruse, Alexander Z., 1941 (1 letter)

Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, (See American Artists' Congress)

LaGuardia, Fiorello, 1941 (1 letter)

Lambertson, Dorothy, (See Brownell-Lambertson Galleries)

Lang, Gladys V., (See The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Laurent, Robert, 1920 (1 letter)

Lechay, James, 1971 (1 letter)

LeCompte, Rowan, 1949-1953 (12 letters)

LeCompte, Irene and Rowan, 1952-1967 (12 letters)

LeCompte, Irene, 1951-1953 (4 letters)

Lerner, Abram, (See Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden)

Lewis, Robert, 1950-1952 (5 letters)

Lowry, W. McNeill, (See The Ford Foundation)

McBride, Henry, 1932 (1 letter)

McCausland, Elizabeth, 1951 (1 letter)

McKinney, Roland, (See Pepsi-Cola's Fifth Annual Art Competition): See also The Metropolitan Museum of Art

McMahon, Audrey, (See College Art Association)

Mallette, Alice, (See The Museum of Modern Art)

Marantz, Evelyn, (See Art For Living)

Marvel, Josiah P., The Springfield Museum of Art, 1932 (2 letters)

Meeting Place, The, 1931, (2 letters)

Metropolitan Museum of Art, The, 1939-1957 (8 letters)

Miller, Ann, (See The Fair Lawn Art Association)

Minnigerode, C. Powell, (See The Corcoran Gallery of Art)

Montross Gallery, 1930 (1 letter)

More, Hermon, (See Whitney Museum of American Art)

Museum of Modern Art, The, 1931-1951, undated (5 letters)

Musgrove, Louis, 1935-1954, undated (4 letters)

Musgrove, Nonnie, 1963 (1 letter)

Nadelman, Elie, 1915 (1 letter): in French

Nadelman, Elie and Viola, 1921-1947, undated 6 letters)

Nadelman, Viola, 1925-1929 (4 letters)

National Society of American Art, 1934 (2 letters)

Nestor, Bernard and Dudley Pratt, (See Seattle Art Museum)

New Gallery, The, 1926-1927 (2 letters)

New Masses, 1933 (3 letters)

Newark Museum, The, 1958 (4 letters)

New York Times, The, 1938-1957 (2 letters)

Nordness, Lee, (See Art USA)

Ostrowsky, Abbo, (See Educational Art Alliance)

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, The, 1942-1965 (3 letters)

Pepsi-Cola's Fifth Annual Art Competition, 1948 (3 letters)

Phillips Memorial Gallery, 1929 (1 letter)

Providence Art Club, 1965 (3 letters)

Rickey, George, 1936 (1 letter)

Ritchie, Andrew C., (See The Museum of Modern Art)

Robinson, Eleanor, (See Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr.)

Rockefeller, Mrs. John D., 1940 (1 letter)

Roerich, Horch L., (See Roerich Museum)

Roerich Museum, 1936 (1 letter)

Rogovin, Howard, 1956 (4 letters)

Rollins, Lloyd L., 1944 (3 letters): See also Works Progress Administration/Federal Art Project

Ross, Sidney, (See Theatre in Art Exhibition)

Rowan, Edward B., (See Treasury Department, Section of Painting and Sculpture)

Saarinen, Aline B., (See The New York Times)

Salpeter, Harry, (See Harry Salpeter Gallery, Inc.)

Harry Salpeter Gallery, Inc., 1956-1961 (11 letters)

Seattle Art Museum, 1933 (1 letter)

Shahn, Ben, 1949 (1 letter)

Slatkin, Charles E., (See Charles E. Slatkin Galleries)

Charles E. Slatkin Galleries, Inc., 1959 (1 letter)

Society of Independent Artists, The, 1923 (1 letter)

Marie Sterner Fine Arts, 1930 (1 letter)

Stix, Hugh, 1930-1960 (6 letters): See also The Artists' Gallery

Theatre in Art Exhibition, 1932 (2 letters)

Treasury Department, Section of Painting and Sculpture, 1934 (1 letter)

Tschudy, Herbert B., (See Brooklyn Museum)

Usher, Elizabeth, (See The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Van Deventer, S., Kröller-Müller Museum, 1924 (1 letter)

Varian , Dorothy, 1937 (1 letter)

Von Groschwitz, Gustave, (See Ferargil Galleries)

Walker Art Center, 1953-1954 (17 letters)

Walker, Hudson, 1948-1958 (6 letters): See also Hudson Walker Art Center

Walkowitz, Abraham, 1928 (1 letter)

John Wanamaker New York, 1934 (1 letter)

Wehle, Harry B., (See The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Weichsel, John, The People's Guild, 1915 (1 letter)

Whitney Museum of American Art (pre-1930: Whitney Studio Club), 1927-1950, undated (16 letters)

Woodstock Artists Association, 1977 (1 letter)

Works Progress Administration/Federal Art Project, 1935-1936 (2 letters)

Wright, Willard Huntington, (See The Forum Exhibition Committee)

Yiddisher Kultur Farband, 1951 (1 letter)

Zorach, William, 1916 (1 letter)

Notable Correspondents from Series 2.3: Velida Benn Correspondence, 1906-1963

Art Foundation, The, 1943 (Page proof of advertisement for Art News)

Ashton, Dore, The New York Times, 1958 (1 letter)

Avery, Sally, 1934 (1 letter)

Benton, Rita, 1925 (2 letters)

Bluemner, Oscar, undated (1 letter)

Bouché, Louis, 1918 (2 letters)

Champanier, Abram, 1933 (1 letter)

City of New York, The, Department of Parks, 1915 (Permit to paint and sketch in the boroughs of Manhattan and Richmond)

Columbia University, 1928-1929 (4 letters)

Force, Juliana, 1933 (1 letter)

Freeman, Anne, (See Juliana Force)

Furlong, Tomás, 1909-1911 (3 letters; 1 letter in Spanish)

Geist, Sidney, 1941-1949 (14 letters)

Hartley, Marsden, 1934 (1 postcard, surname omitted)

Haskell, Juliana, (See Columbia University)

Hitchings, Elisabeth J., College Art Association 1935 (1 letter)

Kelly, Anne, (See Mrs. John D. Rockefeller)

Klitgaard, Kaj, undated (1 note)

LeCompte, Irene, 1951-1953, (2 letters)

LeCompte, Rowan and Robert Lewis, 1949 (1 letter)

Mora, Luis F., 1911 (1 letter in Spanish)

Nadelman, Viola, 1942 (1 letter)

Osma, Julio, 1923-1924 (4 letters: 2 letters in Spanish)

Rockefeller, Mrs. John D., 1931 (1 letter)

Rollins, Lloyd, 1944 (2 postcards)

Salpeter, Betty and Harry, 1956 (1 letter)

Salpeter, Harry, 1960 (1 postcard)

Sanger, William, 1915 (1 letter)

Stella, Joseph, 1918 (1 letter)

Stieglitz, Alfred, 1925 (1 letter)

Weber, Max, 1918 (1 letter)

Weischel, Mr. and Mrs., 1915 (1 postcard)

Zorach, Marguerite, 1915-1916 (2 letters)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. research facility.
Collection Rights:
The Ben Benn papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Ben Benn papers, 1905-1993. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.bennben, Subseries 2.1
See more items in:
Ben Benn papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-bennben-ref16

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