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Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records

Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Names:
Armory Show (1913: New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
International Exhibition of Modern Art  Search this
Kit Kat Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Penguin Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Kuhn, Brenda, 1911-  Search this
Kuhn, Vera, d. 1961  Search this
Oldfield, Otis, 1890-1969  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Quinn, John, 1870-1924  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Photographer:
Rainford, Percy  Search this
Weston, Edward, 1886-1958  Search this
Extent:
31 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Date:
1859-1984
bulk 1900-1949
Summary:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records measure 31 linear feet and date from 1859 to 1984, with the bulk of material dating from 1900 to 1949. Papers contain records of the legendary Armory Show of 1913, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which introduced modern European painting and sculpture to the American public. Papers also contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the artist-run organization that mounted the Armory Show; records of the New York artists' clubs the Kit Kat Club (founded 1881) and the Penguin Club (founded 1917); and the personal and family papers of New York artist Walt Kuhn (1877-1949), one of the primary organizers of the Armory Show.
Scope and Contents note:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records measure 31 linear feet and date from 1859 to 1984, with the bulk of material dating from 1900 to 1949. Papers contain records of the legendary Armory Show of 1913, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which introduced modern European painting and sculpture to the American public. Papers also contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the artist-run organization that mounted the Armory Show; records of the New York artists' clubs the Kit Kat Club (founded 1881) and the Penguin Club (founded 1917); and the personal and family papers of New York artist Walt Kuhn (1877-1949), one of the primary organizers of the Armory Show.

As Secretary for the AAPS, Kuhn retained the bulk of existing records of that organization and of the Armory Show. Minutes and correspondence make up most of the AAPS records (Series 2), as well as documents related to John Quinn's legal brief against a tariff on imported works of living artists. Armory Show Records (Series 1) include personal letters, voluminous business correspondence, a record book, miscellaneous notes, inventories and shipping records, two large scrapbooks, printed materials, a small number of photographs, and retrospective accounts of the show. The printed materials and photographs in Kit Kat Club and Penguin Club Records reflect Kuhn's deep involvement in those clubs.

The Walt Kuhn Family Papers (Series 4) contain records of his artwork, career, travels, personal and professional associations, family members, and work in vaudeville, film, and interior design. Notable among the family papers are illustrated letters and other cartoons; sketches, drawings, watercolors, and prints; candid letters from Walt to Vera Kuhn discussing art scene politics and personalities in New York, Paris, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Florida, and the Midwest; general correspondence with artists, dealers, collectors, journalists, writers, models, and fans; notes in index card files containing biographical anecdotes of the Kuhns' many contacts; provenance files that document the origin and fate of Kuhn's paintings, sculptures, and prints; papers relating to Kuhn's exhibitions and his relationships with the Marie Harriman Gallery and Durand-Ruel Gallery; and photographs and drawings depicting Kuhn's early years in Munich, Germany and Fort Lee, New Jersey; trips to Nova Scotia, New England, the Western United States, and Europe; New York and summer studios, among other subjects.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged into 4 series, with multiple subseries in Series 1 and 4.

Series 1: Armory Show Records, 1912-1963 (Boxes 1-2, 27-31, 56, OV 36; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 2: Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS) Records, 1911-1914, undated (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Kit Kat Club and Penguin Club Records, 1909-1923, undated (Box 3, 32, 56, OVs 37-38; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Walt Kuhn Family Papers, 1859-1984, undated (Box 3-26, 32-35, 56-57, OVs 39-55, 58; 26.7 linear feet)

In general, documents are arranged chronologically, alphabetically, or by type of material. Copy negatives and copy prints made from documents in this collection have been filed separately from originals, in a folder marked "copy." Duplicates of original records made or obtained by the Kuhns have been filed separately as well.

Existing envelopes are filed in front of correspondence and enclosures directly after. Correspondence in the Armory Show Records and AAPS Records is arranged alphabetically, and correspondents are listed in the box inventory following series descriptions below.
Biographical/Historical note:
Walt Kuhn (1877-1949) was an etcher, lithographer, and watercolorist, as well as being a teacher, an advisor to art collectors, an organizer, and a promoter of modern art. He played a key role in the art scene of New York City in the early 20th century, and was among the small group that organized the infamous Armory Show of 1913, officially known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, held at the 69th Regiment Armory building in New York City. After the Armory Show, Kuhn went on to a distinguished career as a painter. He was best known for his sober oil portraits of show people, clowns, acrobats, and circus performers, but was equally prolific in landscapes, still lifes, and figure and genre drawings.

Walt Kuhn was born in Brooklyn, NY in 1877. After a brief career as a bicycle shop owner in downtown Brooklyn, Kuhn traveled West in 1899 to San Francisco, CA and earned his living as a cartoonist for newspapers such as Wasp. After two years in California, he moved back East and then on to Europe to pursue further art training. He briefly attended the Académie Colarossi studio in Paris, but quickly moved to Munich where he joined the class of Heinrich von Zügel in the Royal Academy.

Kuhn returned to New York City in 1904 and took up an active role in the art scene there, participating in the Salmagundi Club and the Kit Kat Club, teaching at the New York School of Art, and cartooning for Life, Judge, Puck, and other publications. In 1910, he participated in an exhibition of Independent Artists on 35th St. with Robert Henri and met artist Arthur B. Davies.

In 1911, when the National Academy of Design opened their annual exhibition, Kuhn, Henry Fitch Taylor, Elmer MacRae, and Jerome Myers were exhibiting at Clara Potter Davidge's Madison Gallery. To these four young artists, the Academy exhibition was typically lackluster, and the attention it received was unwarranted. Sensing that they were not alone in their attitude, they decided to organize. They invited a dozen other artists to join them, thus forming the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS). The group elected Kuhn Secretary and Arthur B. Davies President, and with the help of attorney and art collector John Quinn, they incorporated and began raising funds for an independent exhibition the following year.

In September of 1912, at Davies' suggestion, Kuhn traveled to Cologne, Germany to view the Sonderbund Internationale Kunst-Austellung. There he saw presented, in overwhelming volume, the work of his European contemporaries and their modern antecedents, the post-impressionists. He immediately began selecting and securing artwork for the upcoming AAPS exhibition. Kuhn traveled through Germany, Holland, France, and England, visiting private collectors, dealers, and artists. In Paris, Kuhn was joined by Davies and American artist and art agent Walter Pach. Kuhn and Davies sailed for New York in November, leaving the details of European arrangements to Pach.

The resulting Armory Show exhibition opened in New York in February 1913, and a selection of the foreign works traveled to Chicago and Boston in March and April. It included approximately 1300 American and European works of art, arranged in the exhibition space to advance the notion that the roots of modernism could be seen in the works of the old masters, from which the dramatically new art of living artists had evolved. Savvy and sensational publicity, combined with strategic word-of-mouth, resulted in attendance figures over 200,000 and over $44 thousand in sales. The Armory Show had demonstrated that modern art had a place in the public taste, that there was a market for it and legitimate critical support as well.

During the first World War, Kuhn stayed in NY and was active in the Kit Kat Club, an artists' club founded in 1881, which provided its members with collective studio space, live models, exhibitions, and an annual costume ball. In 1917, Kuhn founded another group called the Penguin Club, which had similar objectives to the Kit Kat Club, but with Kuhn himself as the gatekeeper. In addition to exhibitions and costume balls, the Penguin Club held summer outings and stag dinners, and maintained collective studio and exhibition space on East 15th Street in Manhattan. Its members included Americans and European artists displaced by the war in Europe. In the 1920s, Kuhn expanded a few sketches he had written for Penguin Balls into full-blown vaudeville productions, some of which were incorporated into larger musical revues such as The Merry Go Round and The 49ers and traveled around the country. Kuhn's theater work continued until 1928, and his fascination with show business continued to influence him throughout his life.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Kuhn gradually achieved recognition for his artwork, with sales to private collectors and dealers including Edith Halpert, Merritt Cutler, Lillie Bliss, John Quinn, and Marie Harriman. Kuhn also promoted other young painters whose work he liked, including Otis Oldfield, Lily Emmet Cushing, John Laurent, Frank di Gioia, and the self-taught Vermont artist Patsy Santo. Sometimes artists would contact him by mail, asking for lessons or advice. His lengthy letters to students offer coaching in technique and subject matter, as well as in the overall problem of success in art.

In 1929, Kuhn moved into the 18th St. studio that he would keep until the end of his life. He kept a rack of costumes in the studio, mostly made by Vera Kuhn, and his models, many of them stage and circus performers, would come and sit for Kuhn's portraits. The same year his painting The White Clown was exhibited at the newly established Museum of Modern Art in New York, bringing intense publicity and sales interest. Around this time, Kuhn began to receive the support of collector Duncan Phillips and curator Juliana Force of the Whitney Museum of American Art, both of whom made purchases and consistently exhibited his work.

Marie Norton Whitney Harriman, second wife of railroad magnate and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, shared a professional liaison with Kuhn that would take many forms and last until his death. Soon after the success of The White Clown, Kuhn established a relationship with the Marie Harriman Gallery, where he participated in group and solo shows during the height of his career. Kuhn also traveled with the Harrimans to Europe in 1931, where the three visited important private collections and acquired many valuable modern paintings for the Harrimans. Their collection, so heavily influenced by Kuhn's ideas about art, would eventually go to the National Gallery of Art.

Kuhn was an artist who understood the art business and never shied away from it. For Kuhn, promoting the ideas and practitioners of a certain brand of modernism was an expression of both aesthetic ideology and pragmatic self-interest. His contribution to the public discourse on modernism situated his own work at the heart of art history and the marketplace. Regardless of his motivations, he was indisputably a key player at a pivotal time in American art, when academic art was riotoulsy overturned to make way for modernism. His paintings are now held in major museum collections around the country, where most of them arrived with bequests from the collectors Kuhn had cultivated so carefully in his lifetime.

Sources consulted for this biography include The Story of the Armory Show (1988) by Milton W. Brown, Walt Kuhn, Painter: His Life and Work (1978) by Philip Rhys Adams, and "Walt Kuhn" by Frank Getlein, in the 1967 catalog of the Kennedy Galleries, Inc.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Archives of American Art holds the papers of Walter Pach, the European representative of the Armory Show.
Provenance:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records were loaned for microfilming and later donated to the Archives of American Art by Walt Kuhn's daughter Brenda Kuhn in several installments between 1962 and 1979. An additional accession of letters, photographs, and an artifact was purchased by the Archives in 2000. Another addition was donated by Terry DeLapp, Kuhn's dealer, in 2015.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Etchers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Watercolorists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Lithographers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Citation:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records, 1859-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kuhnwalt
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kuhnwalt
Additional Online Media:

Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949

Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Subject:
Kuhn, Vera  Search this
Pach, Walter  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen)  Search this
Rainford, Percy  Search this
Kuhn, Brenda  Search this
Oldfield, Otis  Search this
Quinn, John  Search this
Weston, Edward  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Penguin Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Kit Kat Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Marie Harriman Gallery  Search this
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Topic:
Etchers  Search this
Scrapbooks  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Drawings  Search this
Diaries  Search this
Lithographers  Search this
Sound recordings  Search this
Watercolorists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9172
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211367
AAA_collcode_kuhnwalt
Theme:
Diaries
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211367
Additional Online Media:

F. Luis Mora pocket diary

Creator:
Mora, F. Luis (Francis Luis), 1874-1940  Search this
Subject:
Architectural League of New York  Search this
Lotos Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
1913 Mar.
Topic:
Painting  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)12593
See more items in:
F. Luis Mora papers, 1891-1986, bulk 1891-1922
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_12593

Arthur B. Davies letter to Walter Pach

Creator:
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Internationale Kunstausstellung des Sonderbundes Westdeutscher Kunstfreunde und Künstler (1912 : Cologne, Germany)  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1912 Oct. 2
Topic:
Art market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14170
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14170
Additional Online Media:

Walter Pach notes for lecture on the Armory Show

Creator:
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
1950
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14186
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14186
Additional Online Media:

Walter Pach notebook recording sales at the New York Armory Show

Creator:
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
1913 Feb. 18-Mar. 15
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14188
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14188

Walter Pach notebook

Creator:
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
1913 Mar.-Apr.
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14189
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14189
Additional Online Media:

Photo of Raymond Duchamp-Villon's sculpture La Maison Cubiste

Subject:
Duchamp-Villon, Raymond  Search this
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
circa 1913
Topic:
Sculpture  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14196
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14196
Additional Online Media:

CBS News Eyewitness, "The art show that shocked America"

Creator:
CBS News  Search this
Subject:
Clark, Kenneth  Search this
Collingwood, Charles  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Armory Show 50th anniversary exhibition  Search this
Type:
Motion Picture Film
Date:
1963 April
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)7860
See more items in:
Miscellaneous sound, film, and video recordings collection
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_7860

Armory Show poster

Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Printed Materials
Date:
1913
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)19874
See more items in:
Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, 1899-circa 2013, bulk 1912-1916
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_19874

Walt Kuhn, Paris, France letter to Vera Kuhn, Chevy Chase, Md.

Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Kuhn, Vera  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1912 Oct 28
Topic:
Art market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14046
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14046
Additional Online Media:

The Association of American Painters and Sculptors invitation to participate in the Armory Show

Creator:
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Printed Materials
Date:
1912?
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14150
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14150
Additional Online Media:

Association of American Painters and Sculptors statement on the Armory Show

Creator:
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1913 Jan. 4
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14151
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14151

Armory Show entry form for Marcel Duchamp's painting Portrait of chess players

Subject:
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Financial Records
Date:
not after 1913
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14152
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14152

Armory Show entry form for Henri Matisse's Red studio

Subject:
Matisse, Henri  Search this
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Financial Records
Date:
not after 1913
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14153
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14153

Invitation to the opening of the Armory Show

Creator:
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Printed Materials
Date:
1913
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14165
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14165
Additional Online Media:

Announcement card for materials on sale at the Armory Show

Creator:
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Printed Materials
Date:
1913
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14166
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14166
Additional Online Media:

Arthur B. Davies letter to Walt Kuhn

Creator:
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Subject:
Deusser, August  Search this
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Internationale Kunstausstellung des Sonderbundes Westdeutscher Kunstfreunde und Künstler (1912 : Cologne, Germany)  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1912 Sept. 2
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14167
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14167
Additional Online Media:

Arthur B. Davies letter to Walt Kuhn

Creator:
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1912 Oct.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14168
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14168
Additional Online Media:

Walt Kuhn letter to Walter Pach

Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Subject:
Armory Show (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1912 Dec. 12
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)14169
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records, 1859-1984, bulk 1900-1949
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_14169
Additional Online Media:

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