15.97 Linear feet ((13 document boxes, 3 flat boxes, 8 card file boxes, and 1 oversized box) plus 1 CD-RW and 1 map folder)
Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)
Laetoli Site (Tanzania)
Richard LeRoy Hay was a geologist, known for his contributions to sedimentary petrography and archaeological geology. This collection contains field notebooks, maps, photographs, data, and documentation of geological specimens he collected, primarily in Africa, but also in the United States, Europe, and Asia. He was known for his work with Mary Leakey, in which he provided the geological framework for Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli in Tanzania.
Scope and Contents:
This collection comprises the professional papers of Richard LeRoy Hay. Among his papers are his correspondence with Mary D. and Louis S. B. Leakey and his research at Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli, consisting of his field notebooks, maps, photographs, data, and documentation of geological specimens he collected. Also in the collection is his research at other sites in East Africa, including Kerimasi and Oldoinyo Lengai in Tanzania and Rusinga Island in Kenya. To a lesser extent (although still a significant amount) in the collection is the documentation of Hay's research in the United States. Present are field notebooks and photographs from his research in Amargosa, Nevada which served as a geologic analog for Olduvai. Also in the collection are field notebooks spanning from 1958 to 2004 containing his notes on his research in Oregon, Hawaii, Wyoming, California, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Wisconsin, and other regions in the country. Mixed in are notes from his research in other countries including Pakistan, Scotland, and France. The collection includes his field notebooks from his service in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, during which he spent some time in Japan. There are no notes from his work as a geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey.
This collection is organized into 8 series: (1) Correspondence with Louis and Mary Leakey, 1961-1970, 1988-1996; (2) East Africa Research, 1958-2005; (3) Non-East Africa Research, 1953-2004; (4) Sample Descriptions, 1956-2001; (5) Specimen Sample Lists, 1959-1998; (6) Publications, 1959-2004; (7) Photographs, 1957-1972, 1989-2001; (8) Fieldwork Tools, undated
Richard LeRoy Hay was a geologist, known for his contributions to sedimentary petrography and archaeological geology. He worked closely with Mary Leakey for more than thirty years and provided the geological framework for Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli in Tanzania.
Hay was born on April 29, 1926 in Goshen, Indiana. He attended Ursinus College briefly (1944-45) before transferring to Northwestern University, where he received his B.S. (1946) and M.S. (1948) in geology. In 1952, he earned his Ph.D. in geology from Princeton University and served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1952-54).
After leaving the army, Hay worked as a geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey (1954-1955) and in 1955 began his academic career at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge (1955-57). In 1957 he accepted a position at University of California, Berkeley and remained there until his retirement in 1983. From 1983 to 1997, Hay was Ralph E. Grim Professor of Geology at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, and later had an appointment as adjunct professor at the University of Arizona, Tucson (1998-2006).
Hay made his first trip to Olduvai Gorge in 1962 and continued to research and publish numerous articles on Olduvai for the next four decades. His most significant publication was his monograph, Geology of the Olduvai Gorge (1976), in which he provided a detailed study of the geologic history of Olduvai, placing hominid remains and other archaeological findings at the site in a paleogeographic context. Also significant was his geological analysis of tuff at Laetoli bearing early hominid footprints; he coauthored with Mary Leakey "Pliocene Footprints in the Laetolil Beds at Laetoli, Northern Tanzania" (1979) and "The Fossil Footprints of Laetoli" (1982).
In addition to Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli, Hay conducted geological fieldwork at Oldoinyo Lengai, Ngorongoro caldera, and Kerimasi volcano in Tanzania, as well as Rusinga Island, Lake Magadi, Amboseli, and Mount Suswa in Kenya. He also worked at several sites in the United States, including the John Day region of Oregon, the Green River formation in Wyoming, Amargosa Desert in Nevada, and Searles Lake in California. Additionally, he worked in west-central Wisconsin where he discovered the replacement of uppermost Precambrian and Cambrian-Ordovician rocks by low-temperature potassium-feldspar.
During his lifetime, Hay received many honors for his accomplishments in geology. He was a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and California Academy of Sciences. He was awarded the Geological Society of America's Kirk Bryan Award in 1978 and the Rip Rapp Archeological Geology Award in 2000. In 2001, he received the Leakey Foundation's Leakey Prize, awarded for intellectual achievement in the field of human evolution. Posthumously, a memorial was held for Hay at the GSA annual meeting in 2007.
Hay died at the age of 79 on February 10, 2006.
Ashley, Gail and Enrique Merino. "Memorial to Richard Leroy Hay (1926-2006)." Geological Society of America Memorials, 35 (2006): 39-43.
"Curriculum vitae and letter." Series 2. East Africa Research. Richard L. Hay papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
1926 -- Born April 29 in Goshen, Indiana
1946 -- Earns B.S. in geology from Northwestern University
1948 -- Earns M.S. in geology from Northwestern University
1952 -- Earns Ph.D. in geology from Princeton University
1952-1954 -- Serves in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
1954-1955 -- Geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey
1955-1957 -- Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
1957-1983 -- Professor at University of California, Berkeley
1962 -- First visit to Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania
1978 -- Awarded Kirk Bryan Award by Geological Society of America
1983-1997 -- Ralph E. Grim Professor of Geology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
1998-2006 -- Adjunct Professor at University of Arizona, Tucson
2000 -- Awarded Rip Rapp Archeological Geology Award by Geological Society of America
2001 -- Awarded Leakey Prize by the Leakey Foundation
2006 -- Died at the age of 79 on February 10
1963 -- Hay, Richard L. and John Stark. "Geology and Petrography of Volcanic Rocks of the Truk Islands, East Caroline Islands." U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 409, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1963. Hay, Richard L. "Stratigraphy of Beds I through IV, Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika." Science 139, no. 3557 (1963): 829–833. Hay, Richard L. "Zeolitic Weathering in Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika." Geological Society of America Bulletin 74, no. 10 (1963): 1281-1286. Hay, Richard L. "Stratigraphy and Zeolitic Diagenesis of the John Day Formation of Oregon." University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 42, no. 5 (1963): 199-262.
1966 -- Hay, Richard L. "Zeolites and Zeolitic Reactions in Sedimentary Rocks." Geological Society of America Special Paper 85, Geological Society of America, New York, 1966.
1968 -- Hay, Richard L. and A. Iijima. "Analcime Composition in Tuffs on the Green River formation of Wyoming." American Mineralogist 53 (January-February 1968): 184-200. Hay, Richard L. "Petrology of Palagonite Tuffs of Koko Craters on Oahu, Hawaii." Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 17, no. 2 (1968): 141-154.
1970 -- Hay, Richard L. "Silicate Reactions in Three Lithofacies of a Semiarid Basin, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania." Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 3 (1970): 237-255.
1972 -- Hay, Richard L. and G.H. Curtis. "Further Geologic Studies and K-Ar Dating of Olduvai Gorge and Ngorongoro Crater." In Calibration of Human Evolution, edited by W.W. Bishop and J.A. Miller, 289-301. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1972.
1973 -- Hay, Richard L. "Lithofacies and Environments of Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania." Quaternary Research 3 (1973): 541-560.
1976 -- Hay, Richard L. Geology of the Olduvai Gorge. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976.
1978 -- Hay, Richard L. and R.K. Stoessell. "Geochemical Origin of Sepiolite and Kerolite at Amboseli, Kenya." Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 65 (1978): 255-267.
1979 -- Hay, Richard L. and M.D. Leakey. "Pliocene footprints in the Laetolil beds at Laetoli, Northern Tanzania." Nature 278 (1979): 317-323.
1982 -- Hay, Richard L. and M.D. Leakey. "The Fossil Footprints of Laetoli." Scientific American 246 (1982): 50-57.
1983 -- Hay, Richard L. "Natrocarbonatite Tephra of Kerimasi Volcano, Tanzania." Geology 11, no. 10 (1983): 599-602.
1984 -- Hay, Richard L., H. Bowman, F.H. Stross, F. Asaro, R.F. Heizer, and H.V. Micel. "The Northern Colossus of Memnon: New Slants." Archaeometry 26 (1984), 218-229.
1986 -- Hay, Richard L., R.E. Pexton, T.T. Teague, and T.K. Kyser. "Spring-related Carbonate Rocks, Mg Clays, and Associated Minerals in Pliocene Deposits of the Amargosa Desert, Nevada and California." Geological Society of America Bulletin 97, no. 12(1986): 1488-1503.
1988 -- Hay, Richard L., F.H. Stross, F. Asaro, H.R. Bowman, and H.V. Michel. "Sources of the Quartzite of Some Ancient Egyptian Sculptures." Archaeometry 30, no. 1 (1988): 109-119.
1989 -- Hay, Richard L. "Holocene Carbonatite-Nephelinite Tephra Deposits of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania." Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 37, no. 1 (1989): 77-91.
1991 -- Hay, Richard L., S.G. Guldman, J.C. Matthews, R.H. Lander, M.E. Duffin, and T.K. Kyser. "Clay Mineral Diagnesis in Core KM-3 of Searles Lake, California." Clays and Clay Minerals 39, no. 1 (1991): 84-96.
1993 -- Hay, Richard L. and R.H. Lander. "Hydrogeologic Control on Zeolitic Diagenesis of the White River Sequence." Geological Society of America Bulletin 105, no. 3 (1993): 361-376.
1999 -- Hay, Richard L., D.B. Finkelstein, and S.P. Altaner. "Origin and Diagenesis of Lacustrine Sediments, Upper Oligocene Creede Formation, Southwestern Colorado." Geological Society of America Bulletin 111, no. 8 (1999): 1175-1191.
2001 -- Hay, Richard L. and T.K. Kyser. "Chemical Sedimentology and Paleoenvironmental History of Lake Olduvai, a Pliocene Lake in Northern Tanzania." Geological Society of America Bulletin 113, no. 12 (2001): 1505-1521.
2003 -- Hay, Richard L., J. Liu, A. Deino, and T.K. Kyser. "Age and Origin of Authigenic K-feldspar in Uppermost Precambrian Rocks in the North American Midcontinent." Geological Society of America Bulletin 115, no. 4 (2003): 422-433.
Hay's collections of thin sections and geological specimens from Olduvai Gorge, Laetoli, Oldoinyo Lengai, and Kerimasi volcano are held by the Smithsonian Insitution's Human Origins Program.
For other materials at the National Anthropological Archives relating to Olduvai and Laetoli, please see the Louise Marie Robbins papers.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives in January 2009 by Richard L. Hay's widow, Lynn Hay.
CD-RW containing scans of maps of Angata, Endulen, and Ngorngoro is restricted due to preservation concerns.
The papers of Lawrence Oschinsky primarily document his research and professional activities from 1940s-1965 as an American physical anthropologist, but include some personal materials as well. The collection contains his published works, dissertations, field notes, correspondence, teaching materials, and many photographs depicting both his personal travels and his research subjects in the Canadian Arctic, Africa, Asia, and other regions.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Lawrence Oschinsky primarily document his professional life and research on the racial affinities and evolutionary characteristics of various peoples. The collection contains his published works, dissertations, field notes, correspondence, teaching materials, and many photographs depicting both his personal travels and his research subjects in the Canadian Arctic, Africa, Asia, and other regions.
The Lawrence Oschinsky papers are organized into 9 series:
Series 1: Personal Information and Effects
Series 2: Correspondence
Series 3: Education
Series 4: Research and Notes
Series 5: Published Works
Series 6: Writings
Series 7: Teaching Materials
Series 8: Photographs
Series 9: Motion picture film
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrence Oschinsky was born on April 19, 1921, to Lea Pollak Oschinsky and John Oschinsky in New York City. He received his B.A. degree from Brooklyn College in 1943, where he was first drawn to anthropology. In 1947 he received his master's degree in Anthropology from the University of Chicago, with the thesis entitled "Islam in Chicago: Being a Study of the Acculturation of a Muslim Palestinian Community in That City." He attended the University of Zurich from 1947-1950 pursuing graduate coursework in anthropology.
From 1950-1951 he was instructor of anatomy at Makerere College Medical School, in Kampala Uganda, studying the racial affinities of various African tribes. From 1951-1952 he was a Research Student at the University of Cambridge, England. He returned to the University of Zurich in 1952 and received his PhD in Anthropology. His doctoral dissertation, published in 1953, was entitled "The Racial Affinities of the Baganda and Other Bantu Tribes of British East Africa." In October 1953, Oschinsky returned to the United States and began his teaching and research career as an Instructor in Physical Anthropology at the Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. He also acted as research assistant to Dr. Wilton M. Krogman, Professor of Physical Anthropology, and took anthropometric measurements of school children for Krogman's child growth research program.
Concurrently, Oschinsky cooperated with police and other agencies in the forensic identification of unknown human remains and cases of disputed paternity. Toward the end of 1953, he obtained a position as a Research Scholar in Physical Anthropology at the United States Educational Foundation in Burma. He spent a year studying the peoples of Burma in relation to those of Thailand, Indonesia, Malaya, and the Philippines. From 1956-1957, he was an Instructor in Anatomy at Howard University Medical School in Washington, DC. During 1957-1958, he was Visiting Lecturer in Physical Anthropology at the University of Arizona, Tucson. In 1958, Oschinsky was offered the position of Curator of Physical Anthropology at the National Museum of Canada, in Ottawa, where he devoted himself to an intensive study of the museum's osteological collections. In 1962 he became a part-time instructor in Physical Anthropology at St. Patrick's College, University of Ottawa. In July 1963, Oschinsky became Assistant Professor, and later Associate Professor of Physical Anthropology, University of Toronto, where he taught until his death on December 19, 1965.
Oschinsky wrote several scientific papers during these years, culminating in 1964 with the monograph The Most Ancient Eskimos: The Eskimo Affinities of Dorset Culture Skeletal Remains.. In this book, Oschinsky explored Eskimo prehistory via skeletal specimens.
1921 April 19 -- Born in New York City, NY
1939-1943 -- Bachelor of Arts, Brooklyn College
1943-1947 -- Masters in Anthropology, University of Chicago
1947-1950 -- Graduate Coursework in Anthropology, University of Zurich
1950-1951 -- Anatomy instructor; studied racial affinities of African tribes, Makerere College Medical School, Uganda
1951-1952 -- Research student, University of Cambridge, England
1952-53 -- PhD in Physical Anthropology, University of Zurich
1953 -- Worked with police and other agencies in the forensic identification of unknown human remains and cases of disputed paternity
1953-1954 -- Instructor, Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Research assistant to Dr. Wilton M. Krogman; took anthropometric measurements of schoolchildren for Krogman's child growth research program.
1954-1955 -- Research scholar in Physical Anthropology, United States Educational Foundation, Burma (currently Myanmar)
1956-1957 -- Instructor in Anatomy, Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.
1957-1958 -- Visiting Lecturer in Physical Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson
1958-1963 -- Curator of Physical Anthropology, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa
1962 -- Part-time instructor in Physical Anthropology, St. Patrick's College, University of Ottawa
1963-1965 -- Assistant Professor of Physical Anthropology, University of Toronto
1964 -- Published monograph, The Most Ancient Eskimos: The Eskimo Affinities of Dorset Culture Skeletal Remains
1965 December 19 -- Died in Toronto, Ontario
The National Anthropological archives holds the records of the Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development.
Oschinsky's measuring instruments and a number of dental casts were transferred to the biological anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History.
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Lawrence Oschinsky's nephew, Scott Fuller, in 2016.
The collection is open for research. Access to the Lawrence Oschinsky papers requires an appointment.
The George Henry Mills Collection was donated to the National Air and Space Museum in 1994 by Mills' daughter, Mrs. Georgia Mills Head.
Scope and Contents:
The George Henry Mills Collection consists of 14.59 cubic feet (14.47 linear feet) of material collected from his naval career, 1918-1948. A large part of the collection is made up of records of Mills' service during World War II as the commander of the Atlantic Fleet's airship formations. The collection also includes records of his service as an official Navy observer aboard the German rigid airships Graf Zeppelin and Hindenburg. Of particular interest are records of the period before and immediately after the entry of the United States into World War II: the pre-war build-up of the Navy's LTA program, the "Neutrality Patrols" as the Navy fought an undeclared war against Germany, and of the harrowing early days of the Battle of the North Atlantic as German U-boats roamed the eastern coast of the United States. Mills maintained an extensive correspondence with many of the leading figures of LTA: Charles E. Rosendahl, Garland Fulton, and Scott E. Peck --their letters provide a unique picture of the Navy LTA program during its most active and successful period.
The collection also includes numerous technical reports on aspects of LTA flight, training material, photographs, clippings and articles on LTA.
The George H. Mills Collection is arranged in the following series:
Series I: Naval career of George H. Mills
Series II: Correspondence
Series III: General LTA Papers
Series IV: General Naval Papers
Series V: Publications, Articles, Clippings
Series VI: Lectures, Speeches, Papers
Series VII: Miscellaneous Papers
Series VIII: Photographs
Series IX: Scrapbooks; Oversized Material
George Henry Mills (1895-1975), Naval officer and airship aviator, was a member of the U.S. Navy's inner circle of advocates of lighter than air (LTA) flight. Mills was born on August 5, 1895 in Rutherfordton, North Carolina, the son of John Craton Mills and Nora Poole Mills. He attended Bingham Military School in Asheville, North Carolina, and entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1914. Mills graduated from the Academy in June, 1918 and served in various fleet and shore assignments (a chronology of Mills' naval service will be found in the notes to Series I on page 2). He married Leonore Wickersham of Corning, NY in 1923; their daughter, Georgia Lee Mills, was born in 1928.
Mills was assigned to LTA training at Naval Air Station Lakehurst, New Jersey in 1931. He completed his training in 1932 and served in the Navy's LTA fleet through the 1930's. Mills flew as an observer on board the Graf Zeppelin in 1934 and on the Hindenburg in 1936. In 1935, Mills survived the crash of the USS Macon off the California coast. Mills returned to Lakehurst, serving there in various assignments; he was made commanding officer of NAS Lakehurst in January, 1940.
At Lakehurst, Mills organized blimp patrols as part of the Navy's Neutrality Patrol and helped coordinate the Navy's rapid buildup of the LTA program. When Airship Patrol Group One was formed in January 1942, Mills was named commanding officer; in December 1942 he commanded Airship Wing Thirty. In July 1943, Mills was assigned as the commander of Fleet Airships, Atlantic - the chief of the Navy's LTA forces in the Atlantic Theater. George Mills was promoted to the rank of Commodore in November 1943.
In 1945, Mills returned to sea as the captain of the troopship USS Hermitage. Before retirement from the Navy in 1949, Mills served as the chief of the Naval Airship Training and Experimentation Command (CNATE) at NAS Lakehurst.
After leaving the Navy, Mills settled in North Carolina and worked for the Equitable Life Insurance Company, and later for the National Securities and Research Corporation. Mills served one term in the North Carolina State Legislature from 1950 to 1952. George H. Mills died on October 24, 1975, the same day as his longtime LTA colleague and friend, Garland Fulton, whose papers are also part of the collections of the National Air and Space Archives. They were buried on the same day in Arlington National Cemetery.
Chronology of George H. Mills' Naval Service
1914 -- June 14 - Entered U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland
1918 -- June 6 - Graduated from the Academy, Class of 1919; commissioned Ensign, USN September 21 - Service aboard USS New Mexico. Promoted to Lieutenant (JG)(Temporary)
1920 -- June 1 - Promotion to Lieutenant (JG)
1922 -- First LTA flight as gunnery spotter on captive balloon on USS New Mexico June 3 - Promotion to Lieutenant
1923 -- September 25 - Assigned as personal aide to RADM George W. Williams, Commandant, Sixth Naval District, Charleston, SC June 20 - Assigned as divisions communication officer on staff of VADM Henry A. Wiley, Battleship Division, Battle Fleet
1929 -- June 5 -Assistant gunnery officer and senior watch officer, USS Pensacola
1924 -- August 5 - Served as aide and flag secretary to RADM Williams as Commander Destroyer Squadrons, Scouting Fleet. Served on USS Concord, USS Dobbin, USS Whitney
1925 -- September - Continued as aide when RADM Williams was relieved by RADM Noble E. Irwin
1931 -- June 1 - Ordered to NAS Lakehurst for LTA instruction. Training flights on free and captive balloons and on airships Los Angeles (ZR-3), Akron (ZRS-4), J-3, J-4, K-1 and ZMC-2
1927 -- June 30 - Officer-in-charge, naval recruiting for North and South Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina
1933 -- September 1 - Promotion to Lieutenant Commander
1934 -- May 14 - Ordered on temporary duty as naval observer on the Graf Zeppelin. Made three round trips aboard the Graf Zeppelin between Friedrichshafen and cities in South America August 9 - Ordered to NAS Lakehurst as Operations Officer October 14 - Ordered to NAS Sunnyvale (later NAS Moffett Field) as tactical officer, pilot and navigational watch on USS Macon (ZRS-4)
1935 -- February 12 - USS Macon crashes off Point Sur, California. Mills is rescued after three hours in the water April 15 - Ordered to NAS Lakehurst as operations and mooring officer
1936 -- November 4 - Ordered to Newport News for fitting out USS Yorktown August - Naval observer aboard Hindenburg on round trip flights between Lakehurst and Frankfort, Germany
1937 -- September 30 – Assigned as gunnery officer, USS Yorktown September 12 – October 2 - Training in chemical warfare at Gas Warfare School, Edgewood Arsenal, MD
1939 -- July 1 - Promotion to Commander June – Assigned as executive officer, NAS Lakehurst
1940 -- January 15 - Appointed commanding officer, NAS Lakehurst
1941 -- July - Temporary duty, Airship Board, Washington
1942 -- December 1 - Appointed Commander, Fleet Airship Wing Thirty June 17 - Promotion to Captain January 2 - Appointed Commander, Airship Patrol Group One
1943 -- November 5 - Promotion to Commodore July 1 - Appointed Commander, Fleet Airships, Atlantic
1945 -- July 23 - Awarded Legion of Merit July 10 - Appointed captain, USS Hermitage (AP-54). Reverts to rank of captain
1946 -- August 5 - Appointed commander, NAS Moffett Field
1947 -- September 26 - Appointed chief, Naval Airship Training and Experimentation Command (CNATE)
1949 -- June 30 - Retirement from U.S. Navy
ADM -- Admiral
ASW -- Anti-submarine warfare
ATC -- Air Transport Command
BuAer -- Bureau of Aeronautics (US Navy)
CDR -- Commander
CNATE -- Naval Airship Training and Experimentation Command
Cong -- Congress
GHM -- George Henry Mills
LTA -- Lighter than air flight
MAD -- Magnetic anomaly detector (often found as magnetic airborne detector)
NACA -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
NAS -- Naval Air Station
NATS -- Naval Air Transport Service
ND -- No date
RADM -- Rear admiral
RN -- Royal Navy
Sess -- Session
VADM -- Vice Admiral
WPA -- Works Project Authority
ZNP -- Patrol airship
ZP -- Airship squadron
Georgia M. Head, Gift, 1994, 1994-0022, NASM
No restrictions on access.