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Records, 1986-1992

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Resident Associates Program African American Studies Center  Search this
Uniform title:
Cross Talk (Radio program)  Search this
Subject:
Davis, Angela E. 1926-1994  Search this
Reagon, Bernice Johnson 1942-  Search this
Grazette, Jacqueline Hicks  Search this
Anacostia Museum  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority  Search this
Morgan State University Choir  Search this
National Bar Association  Search this
National Business League (U.S.)  Search this
National Conference of Artists (U.S.)  Search this
National University Continuing Education Association (U.S.)  Search this
African American Gallery (Columbia, Maryland)  Search this
African American Museums Association  Search this
Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Alexandria (Virginia) Black History Resource Center  Search this
Association of Black Professionals in International Affairs  Search this
Metropolitan Organization of Black Scientists  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Associates African American Studies Center  Search this
Physical description:
3 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes)
Type:
Brochures
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Audiotapes
Manuscripts
Date:
1986
1986-1992
Topic:
African diaspora  Search this
Lectures and lecturing  Search this
Photographers  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
African American churches  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 96-121
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_252147

Blue skies, black wings : African American pioneers of aviation / Samuel L. Broadnax ; foreword by Alan M. Osur

Author:
Broadnax, Samuel L  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 180 pages, [9] pages of plates : illustrations ; 25 cm
Type:
Biography
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2007
Topic:
African American air pilots  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics--History  Search this
African Americans--History  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_812870

Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection

Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Names:
Air University (U.S.). Air War College  Search this
United States Military Academy  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 332nd Fighter Group  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 477th Bombardment Group  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 99th Fighter Squadron  Search this
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Nixon, Richard M.  Search this
Extent:
75.03 Cubic feet (168 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Place:
Tuskegee Army Air Field (Ala.)
Date:
1928-1990
Summary:
This collection consists of 72 linear feet of the papers of Benjamin O. Davis. Included are the following types of material: programs, invitations, certificates, correspondence, published material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material gathered by General and Mrs. Davis over the course of their lives to 1993. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence, newsclippings, and photographs relating to or received by the Davises, especially after General Davis retired from the Air Force. The collection is particularly rich in materials from the black press of the 1940s, documenting the response of the black community to the activities of the 99th Fighter Squadron and 332d Fighter Group during and after World War II, and contains a small amount of material related to the controversy surrounding the units' combat performance and the morale issues raised by the segregated society of the 1940s. Most of the remainder of the material from Davis' military career centers on his own activities. Davis' tenure as the Director of Public Safety in Cleveland coincides with the activities of the Black Panther movement and the term of Mayor Carl Stokes, Cleveland's first mayor of African descent; the newclippings and correspondence from this period highlight police activities and public reaction in this racially-polarized atmosphere. Much of the material from Davis' early tenure at the Department of Transportation deals with civil aviation security, initially to counter the hijacking wave of the early 1970s and later to reduce cargo theft. The material from his later years, particularly during his years as a consultant, deals primarily with attempts to reduce gasoline consumption, especially his work promoting the 55mph National Maximum Speed Limit. The largest blocks of material from Davis' private life relate to his tenure on the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (1970) and the President's Commission on Military Compensation (1977-1978); these contain, respectively, materials on student protests, including the shootings at Kent State, and on issues surrounding military pay and retirement. There is also a significant body of material relating to his association with Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. and his speaking tours to increase public knowledge of the role of black servicemen during World War II.

Materials of a personal nature, particularly correspondence between General and Mrs. Davis, were retained by the Davises and therefore do not figure in this collection. Most official documents relating to Davis' activities in the military or civil service are held by the United States National Archives and Records Administration in Record Groups 18 (Records of the Army Air Forces), 341 (Records of Headquarters United States Air Force (Air Staff)), 342 (Records of United States Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations), and 398 (General Records of the Department of Transportation). Official materials remaining in the collection are primarily contemporary copies given to Mrs. Davis relating to General Davis' travel or public appearances.

Some of the early material (through approximately 1948) was organized by Mrs. Davis into a series of scrapbooks, each of which contains photographs, correspondence, and newsclippings. The rest of the items in the collection were organized into envelopes by the Davises before donation, with the material generally arranged by posting (duty station) and chronology. The items in any given envelope were generally not organized and neither were the envelopes themselves grouped in any particular manner. Additionally, some military records gathered by General Davis as reference material while writing his autobiography were identified by the period of his posting, although the material itself was generally created after that period. Items relating primarily to Mrs. Davis were not separated by the Davises in any manner; during processing such material was treated in a like manner, remaining interfiled with material relating primarily to General Davis, except as noted below.

The collection as a whole has been organized into four chronological groups: Civilian and Family Life (predating Davis' admission to the US Military Academy at West Point, NY), Military Service, Private Life (post-dating Davis' retirement from the USAF), and Autobiography. The second of these (Military Service) has been organized chronologically by posting, then alphabetically by subject; the remaining groups have been organized alphabetically by broad subject areas, then chronologically.

A number of broad subject areas recur in both the civilian and military sections of this collection. In cases where such broad areas can be applied individually to Davis, Mrs. Davis, or Davis Sr., they have been grouped in that order. The subject areas are as follows:

Awards and Honors -- materials relating to medals, citations, or other awards or honors given to Davis (or other members of his family)

Newclippings -- clippings from newspapers or magazines, or complete newspapers or magazines, except when such clippings were enclosures which had remained with their associated cover letter

Official Duties -- materials relating to Davis' activities connected to his official duties (used in Series II only)

Social -- materials relating to the Davises' activities which are not obviously connected to his official duties

Travel -- materials relating to trips by the Davises which do not appear to be duty-related trips

Other subject areas are generally self-explanatory.

The collection contained two videotapes, one relating to the 50th Anniversary of the Tuskegee Airmen and the other to the 1992 Clinton Campaign, both of which have been transferred to the NASM Film Archives. Cross references to these tapes have been placed in the finding aid in the series or subseries into which they would have fallen had they been documents. A large number of three-dimensional items, particularly plaques, have been transferred to curatorial control. For access to these items, please contact the NASM Aeronautics Department. Oversized items remaining in the collection have been placed in appropriate-sized containers at the end of the document collection; reference to such items occurs in the file lists as "see oversized..." or "see also oversized..." as appropriate.

Researchers should also consult Davis' autobiography, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1991).
Arrangement:
Series 1: Education and Civilian Life, to June 1932

Series 2: Military Career, June 1932 to January 1970

Series 3: Civilian Life, February 1970 to 1993

Series 4: Autobiography
Biographical / Historical:
Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. was born in Washington, DC on December 18, 1912, the second of three children born to Benjamin Oliver (Sr.) and Elnora Dickerson Davis. At that time Davis Sr.(1) was a First Lieutenant in the United States Army, having worked his way up from an enlisted cavalry trooper. Elnora Davis died from complications after giving birth to their third child (Elnora) in 1916 and three years later Davis Sr. married Sadie Overton, an English professor at Wilberforce University. Davis and his sisters lived with relatives in Washington while Davis Sr. completed his tour of duty in the Philippines with his new bride. The family was reunited in Tuskegee, AL when Davis Sr. taught military science and tactics at the Tuskegee Institute between 1920 and 1924. In 1924 Davis Sr. was assigned as an instructor to a federalized Ohio National Guard unit and the family moved to Cleveland, OH.

Davis finished his schooling in Cleveland, graduating from Central High School in 1929. He then attended Western Reserve University (1929-1930) and the University of Chicago (1930-1932) before gaining admission to the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY. He graduated in the Class of 1936 and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Infantry.(2) Upon graduation, he married Ms. Agatha Scott, whom he had met and dated while at the Academy.

After serving in the infantry for several years Davis was posted to the newly-established Tuskegee Army Air Field, AL for pilot training in 1942. He graduated in the first class from the new flying school and was officially transferred to the Army Air Corps. In August 1942 he assumed command of the 99th Fighter Squadron, leading it in combat in North Africa and Sicily. The 99th Fighter Squadron was the first unit of "Tuskegee Airmen," as black(3) units in the segregated Army Air Forces (AAF) have come to be called. Two units of Tuskegee Airmen saw combat during World War II: the 99th Fighter Squadron and the 332d Fighter Group (composed of the 100th, 301st, and 302d Fighter Squadrons). Davis, promoted to Colonel in 1944, commanded both of these units in turn, leading the 99th and 332d in combat in Europe and earning the Air Medal, Distinguished Flying Cross, Legion of Merit, and Silver Star for his own actions and a Distinguished Unit Citation for the 332d Fighter Group.

Davis returned to the United States in June 1945 to assume command of the 477th Bombardment Group (composed of the 616th, 617th, 618th, and 619th Bombardment Squadrons; later redesignated the 477th Composite Group), another segregated black unit, at Godman Field, KY. Davis was expected to prepare the unit for deployment to the Pacific Theater, although the unit's training was badly behind schedule due to racial tensions between the white staff and black operating personnel of the unit. Davis quickly brought the unit up to deployment requirements, but the war ended before the 477th left the United States. Returning elements of the 332d and 99th were merged into the 477th, which was redesignated the 332d Fighter Wing in 1947. As the only remaining black unit in the newly-established, but still segregated, United States Air Force (USAF), the 332d suffered from a surplus of qualified personnel while remaining USAF units were often under manned. The performance of the units under Davis' command had laid to rest questions regarding the abilities of the "negro race" and in 1948 the Air Force determined that the efficient use of its manpower required the integration of its units. As a result the Air Force rapidly complied with President Truman's order for the integration of the United States military. Davis acted as an advisor to the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force in relation to the integration of the armed forces. The integration procedure, however, resulted in the deactivation of Davis' command as its personnel were dispersed among the rest of the Air Force; Davis himself was assigned to attend classes at the Air War College at Maxwell AFB, AL.

After completing the course of study at the Air War College (1949-1950), Davis was posted to a variety of command and staff positions both within the United States and abroad. He served in a number of staff positions in Headquarters, USAF, at the Pentagon.(4) He held both command and staff positions abroad in Korea (5), Japan (6), Taiwan (7), Germany (8), and the Philippines.(9) His final assignment was as Deputy Commander in Chief of United States Strike Command at MacDill AFB, FL.

Davis was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1954 (10), after ten years as a Colonel. He was promoted to Major General in June 1959 and to Lieutenant General in April 1965. Despite persistent rumors of his impending promotion to full General (four stars), no such promotion was pending by the time of his retirement on January 31, 1970.

Throughout his military career Davis took great pains to insure good living conditions and fair treatment for the men under his command. He strove to create good relations between the US military forces and local military and civil authorities. In particular, he negotiated several Status of Forces Agreements and defused several antagonistic situations between US forces and local authorities while commanding units in Asia. In addition, he and Agatha established many personal relationships, which they maintained after their return to the United States.

After his retirement from the military, he served briefly as the Director of Public Safety for the City of Cleveland, OH (February-July 1970), leading the Cleveland Police and Fire Departments in the racially-polarized atmosphere in that city after the riots of the late 1960s. Following his resignation from Cleveland, he took a position as the Director of Civil Aviation Security for the United States Department of Transportation (November 1970-June 1971), where he was responsible for implementing measures to counter the first wave of aerial hijackings of the 1970s. In July 1971 he was appointed Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (July 1971-September 1975), serving both the Nixon and Ford Administrations in that position.

Following his retirement from the civil service, he worked as a consultant to the Department of Transportation in the Ford and Carter Administrations on a number of issues, but was particularly linked to the promotion of the 55mph National Maximum Speed Limit. He served on a number of boards and commissions, including the President's Commission on Campus Unrest, the American Battle Monuments Commission, The President's Commission on Military Compensation, and the Board of Directors of the Manhattan Life Insurance Co. He was also active in a number of clubs and organizations, particularly the Tuskegee Airmen Inc., which awarded him a lifetime membership in 1991.

In the late 1980s he began work on his autobiography, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1991). Following its publication, Davis pursued an active speaking career, crossing the country to talk to schools, clubs, and general audiences about his experiences. His book and

es, his contributions to the Black Wings exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum (opened 1983), and the work of Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. did much to lift the veil that had fallen over the activities of black Americans during World War II, both in the air and on the ground. For his contributions, both during and after World War II, he received many awards, including the Order of the Sword (presented by the Non-Commissioned Officers of USAF Tactical Air Command, awarded 1978), designation as an Elder Statesman of Aviation (National Aeronautic Association, awarded 1991), and the Langley Medal (Smithsonian Institution, awarded 1992), as well as numerous lifetime and distinguished achievement awards.

On December 9, 1998, Davis was promoted to General on the Retired List, receiving his fourth star from President William Clinton in a ceremony held in the Presidential Hall of the Old Executive Office Building in Washington, DC. The promotion came only after the Tuskegee Airmen approached Senator John McCain of Airzona, who agreed that the promotion was warranted by Davis' service. McCain added the necessary language to a defense-related bill, which was passed by Congress in September 1998.

Agatha died early in 2002 and General Davis, suffering from Alzheimer's Disease, followed shortly after, passing away on July 4, 2002 at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC.

Endnotes 1. For the sake of brevity, "Davis" refers to Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. "Davis Sr." refers to his father, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr.

2. Davis had requested a commission in the Army Air Corps, but was refused due to his race. Davis was the fourth black American to graduate from West Point and the first in the twentieth century. In keeping with his sentiments, his ethnicity will only be mentioned when it has a direct bearing upon his career. See Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991).

3. At the request of General and Mrs. Davis the term "black" or "black American" is used in preference to "African-American". Patricia Williams, Memorandum for the Record, August 21, 1992, NASM Accession File 1992 0023.

4. Staff Planning Officer, Operations and Planning Division/Commands Division, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCS/O; July 1950-January 1951); Chief, Air Defense Branch/Fighter Branch, DCS/O (January 1951-July 1953); Director of Manpower and Organizations, DCS/Programs and Requirements (August 1961-February 1965); Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements (February-May 1965).

5. Commander, 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing (November 1953-July 1954); Chief of Staff, United Nations Command/US Forces Korea (May 1965-August 1967)

6. Director of Operations and Training, Headquarters, Far East Air Force, Tokyo (July 1954-April 1957)

7. Commanding Officer, Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) and Vice Commander, Thirteenth Air Force (June 1955-April 1957)

8. Chief of Staff, Twelfth Air Force (May-December 1957); Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, USAF Europe (December 1957-July 1961)

9. Commander, Thirteenth Air Force (August 1967-July 1968)

10. Davis was the first black American to achieve flag rank in the United States Air Force. He was the second in the armed forces, the first being his father, who was promoted to Brigadier General in the United States Army in 1940.

1912 December 18 -- Davis born in Washington, DC to First Lieutenant Benjamin O. Davis (Sr.) and Elnora Dickerson Davis

1914 September 1 -- World War I begins

1915 February -- Davis Sr. begins duties as instructor at Wilberforce University, OH

1916 February 9 -- Elnora Dickerson Davis dies

1917 April 6 -- United States declares war on Germany; direct U.S. involvement in World War I begins

1917 (Summer) -- Davis Sr. assigned to 9th Cavalry Regiment, Camp Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands

1918 November 11 -- World War I armistice signed; end of combat operations in Europe

1919 -- Davis Sr. marries Sadie Overton

1920 July -- Family moves to Tuskegee, AL (Davis Sr. instructs at Tuskegee Institute)

1924 July -- Family moves to Cleveland, OH (Davis Sr. instructs 372d Infantry Regiment, OH National Guard)

1929 -- Davis graduates from Central High School, Cleveland, OH

1929 --1930 -- Davis attends Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH

1930 --1932 -- Davis attends University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

1931 March -- Davis appointed to United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (fails entrance exam)

1932 March -- Davis passes USMA entrance exam

1932 July 1 -- Davis reports to USMA, West Point, NY (attends July 1, 1932-June 12, 1936)

1936 June 12 -- Davis graduates from USMA, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Infantry

1936 June 20 -- Davis marries Agatha Josephine Scott

1936 September 12 -- Davis reports to Company F, 24th Infantry Regiment at Fort Benning, GA (Company Officer, September 12, 1936-August 27, 1937)

1937 July 7 -- Japanese forces invades China; World War II begins in Asia

1937 August 27 -- Davis reports to the Infantry School at Fort Benning, GA (attends normal course, August 27, 1937-June 18, 1938)

1938 June 18 -- Davis reports to Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, AL as Professor of Military Science (instructs June 18, 1938-February 14, 1941)

1939 June 12 -- Davis promoted to First Lieutenant

1939 September 1 -- German forces invade Poland; World War II begins in Europe

1940 October 9 -- Davis promoted to Captain (temporary promotion)

1940 October 25 -- Davis Sr. promoted to Brigadier General and placed in command of the 4th Cavalry Brigade at Fort Riley, KS

1941 February -- Davis assigned as Aide de Camp to Davis Sr. (serves February-May 1941)

1941 May 20 -- Davis reports to Flying School at Tuskegee Army Air Field, AL (student, May 20, 1941-March 7, 1942)

1941 December 7 -- Japanese aircraft attack Pearl Harbor, HI; direct U.S. involvement in World War II begins

1942 March 7 -- Davis is appointed Administrative Officer, Tuskegee AAF, AL (serves March 7-August 27, 1942)

1942 May -- Davis transferred from Infantry to Army Air Corps

1942 May 11 -- Davis promoted to Major (temporary promotion)

1942 May 21 -- Davis promoted to Lieutenant Colonel (temporary promotion)

1942 August 27 -- Davis assumes command of 99th Fighter Squadron, Tuskegee AAF, AL (Squadron Commander, August 27, 1942-October 4, 1943)

1943 April 24 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Casablanca, French Morocco

1943 April 29 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Oued N'ja, French Morocco

1943 June 7 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Fardjouna, Tunisia

1943 July 28 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Licata, Sicily

1943 September 4 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Termini, Sicily

1943 September 17 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Barcellona, Sicily

1943 September -- Davis returns to Continental United States

1943 October 8 -- Davis assumes command of 332d Fighter Group, Selfridge Field, MI (Group Commander, October 8, 1943-June 7, 1945)

1944 February 3 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Montecorvino, Italy

1944 April 15 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Capodichino, Italy

1944 May 28 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Ramitelli Airfield, Italy

1944 May 29 -- Davis promoted to Colonel (temporary promotion)

1945 May 4 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Cattolica, Italy

1945 May 7 -- Germany surrenders; World War II ends in Europe

1945 June 10 -- Davis returns to Continental United States

1945 June 21 -- Davis assumes command of 477th Composite Group (Group Commander, June 21-30, 1945)

1945 July 1 -- Davis assumes command of Godman Field, KY, and all tenant units, including 477th Composite Group (Base Commander, July 1, 1945-March 4, 1946)

1945 September 2 -- Japan surrenders; World War II ends in the Pacific

1946 March 4 -- Davis assumes command of Lockbourne AAB and all tenant units, including 477th Composite Group (Base Commander, March 4, 1946-September 15, 1947) All units at Godman Field transferred to Lockbourne Army Air Base, OH

1947 July 1 -- 477th Composite Group redesignated 332d Fighter Wing

1947 July-August -- Davis travels to Liberia with Davis Sr. as a special representative of the United States Government for the establishment of Liberian independence

1947 September 16 -- Davis assumes direct command of 332d Fighter Wing (Wing Commander, September 16, 1947-June 30, 1949)

1947 October 1 -- United States Air Force created as an independent service.

1948 July 2 -- Davis' promotion to Lieutenant Colonel made permanent.

1948 July 26 -- President Truman signs Executive Order 9981 ordering the full integration of the United States armed forces.

1949 May 11 -- USAF issues Air Force Letter 35-3 stating that Air Force policy is equal treatment and opportunity for all persons in the Air Force regardless of race, color, religion, or national origin.

1949 June 30 -- 332d Fighter Wing deactivated

1949 July 1 -- Davis assumes command of Lockbourne AFB, OH (Base Commander, July 1-August 16, 1949)

1949 August 16 -- Lockbourne AFB, OH transferred to Ohio Air National Guard

1949 August 17 -- Davis reports to Air War College, Maxwell AFB, AL (attends course, August 17, 1949-July 4, 1950)

1950 June 25 -- North Korean forces invade South Korea; Korean War begins

1950 July 19 -- Davis reports to Pentagon to serve as Staff Planning Officer, Operations and Planning Division, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCS/O), Headquarters, United States Air Force, Washington, DC (serves July 19, 1950-January 4, 1951)

1950 July 27 -- Davis' promotion to Colonel made permanent

1950 August 8 -- Davis awarded Croix de Guerre by the French government for his actions during World War II

1950 September 12 -- Operations and Planning Division redesignated Commands Division of DCS/O

1951 January 5 -- Davis begins duty as Branch Chief, Air Defense Branch, Commands Division, DCS/O. (serves January 5, 1951-July 15, 1953)

1951 April 16 -- Air Defense Branch redesignated Fighter Branch, Control Division, DCS/O

1953 February 5 -- Davis reports to Craig AFB, AL for Jet Indoctrination Course (February 5-March 2, 1953); returns to Fighter Branch on completion of course

1953 July 16 -- Davis reports to Nellis AFB, NV for Advanced Jet Fighter Gunnery School (July 16-November 16, 1953)

1953 July 27 -- Korean War armistice signed; end of combat operations in Korea

1953 November 25 -- Davis assumes command of 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing at Suwon, Korea (Wing Commander, November 25, 1953-July 6, 1954)

1954 July 7 -- Davis reports to Headquarters, Far East Air Force, Tokyo, Japan to serve a Director of Operations and Training (serves July 7, 1954-April 1957)

1954 October 27 -- Davis is promoted to Brigadier General (temporary promotion)

1955 June -- Davis reports to Taipei, Taiwan to establish Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) (Commander, June 1955-April 1957), with simultaneous duties as Vice Commander, Thirteenth Air Force and Director of Operations and Training, FEAF

1957 March -- Davis awarded Command Pilot Rating

1957 May -- Davis assigned to Twelfth Air Force

1957 June -- Davises travel from Taiwan to Europe via United States

1957 July -- Davis reports to Headquarters, Twelfth Air Force at Ramstein, Germany (Chief of Staff, May-December 1957)

1957 December -- Davis begins duties as Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (ADVON) at Headquarters, USAF Europe, Wiesbaden, Germany (serves December 1957-July 1961)

1959 June 30 -- Davis is promoted to Major General (temporary rank)

1960 May 16 -- Davis' promotion to Brigadier General made permanent

1961 -- US military personnel sent to South Vietnam as advisors

1961 August -- Davis reports to Pentagon to serve as Director of Manpower and Organizations, Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements, Headquarters, USAF (serves August 1961-February 1965)

1962 January 30 -- Davis' promotion to Major General is made permanent

1965 February -- Davis begins duty as Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements, Headquarters, USAF (serves February-May 1965)

1965 April 30 -- Davis promoted to Lieutenant General

1965 March 2 -- USAF begins "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign over North Vietnam

1965 May 13 -- Davis reports to Seoul, Korea to begin duties as Chief of Staff to the United Nations Command and United States Forces Korea (serves May 13, 1965-August 1, 1967)

1966 October 25 -- Sadie Overton Davis dies

1967 August -- Davis assumes command of Thirteenth Air Force, Clark Air Base, Philippines (Commanding Officer, August 1967-July 1968)

1968 August 1 -- Davis reports to MacDill AFB, FL to begin duties as Deputy Commander in Chief of United States Strike Command (serves August 1, 1968-January 31, 1970)

1968 January -- Tet Offensive begins in Vietnam

1968 October 31 -- "Rolling Thunder" ends on orders from President Johnson

1969 January 20 -- Richard M. Nixon inaugurated President of the United States

1970 -- USAF begins withdrawing units from South Vietnam

1970 January 31 -- Davis retires from United States Air Force

1970 February 1 -- Davis begins work as Director of Public Safety for the Cleveland, OH (works February 1, 1970-July 27, 1970)

1970 June 13 -- Davis joins President's Commission on Campus Unrest (report issued September 27, 1971)

1970 July 27 -- Davis resigns from Cleveland position, citing lack of support from Mayor Stokes

1970 September 20 -- Davis begins work as a consultant to the United States Secretary of Transportation on air transportation security (works September 20, 1970-November 4, 1970)

1970 November 4 -- Davis begins work a Director of Civil Aviation Security for the United States Department of Transportation (works November 4, 1970-July 1, 1971)

1970 November 26 -- Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. dies

1971 July 1 -- Davis becomes Acting Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (serves July 1, 1971-August 3, 1971)

1971 July 8 -- Nixon Administration nominates Davis to be Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs

1971 July 29 -- Senate confirms Davis in Assistant Secretary position

1971 August 3 -- Davis sworn in a Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (serves August 3, 1970-September 20, 1975)

1973 March 28 -- Last US Military personnel leave South Vietnam

1974 August 9 -- Nixon resigns as President of the United States. Vice President Gerald R. Ford becomes President

1975 September 20 -- Davis retires from Civil Service

1976 April -- Davis begins work as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Transportation for the National Maximum Speed Limit

1977 January 20 -- James E. Carter inaugurated President of the United States

1977 June -- Davis joins President's Commission on Military Compensation (report issued March 1978)

1981 January 20 -- Ronald W. Reagan inaugurated President of the United States Davis leaves position as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Transportation

1989 January 20 -- George H. W. Bush inaugurated President of the United States

1991 -- Davis' autobiography – Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography – is published by Smithsonian Press

1991 June 30 -- Davis awarded a Lifetime Membership by Tuskegee Airmen Inc

1993 January 20 -- William J. Clinton inaugurated President of the United States

1998 December 9 -- Davis promoted to General (Retired) in a ceremony at the Old Executive Office Building

2001 January 20 -- George W. Bush inaugurated President of the United States

2002 July 4 -- Davis dies at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC

2002 July 17 -- Davis buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA
Provenance:
Benjamin O. Davis and Agatha S. Davis, Gift, various, 1992-0023
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Fighter pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks -- United States  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics and state  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0023
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0023
Additional Online Media:

The social context of the aeronautical education experience of African-American civilian, commercial, and military pilots / by Taurean Mashawn Walker

Author:
Walker, Taurean Mashawn  Search this
Physical description:
89 pages : 23 cm
Type:
Books
Theses
Place:
United States
Date:
2016
Topic:
African American air pilots--Education--Social conditions  Search this
Flight training  Search this
African Americans in aeronautics  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1104078

Exhibition Records

Creator::
National Air and Space Museum. Aeronautics Division  Search this
Extent:
2.5 cu. ft. (2 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Manuscripts
Date:
1978-2010
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of records documenting updates to the "Black Wings" exhibition at the National Air and Space Museum as well as educational outreach, publications, research, special events, and other activities pertaining to groundbreaking African American aviators. The "Black Wings" exhibition opened in 1982 in the Pioneers of Flight Gallery and initially focused on the Tuskegee Airmen. The exhibition was periodically updated and its content broadened. A traveling version of the exhibit, which began touring in 2011, was developed in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. These records were created and maintained by a number of curators over time, including Cathleen Lewis, Space History Division, and Von Hardesty and Peter L. Jakab, Aeronautics Division. Materials include correspondence, memoranda, proposals, scripts, clippings, event announcements, lecture notes, visitor comment forms, agreements, and related materials.
Topic:
Aeronautical museums  Search this
Astronautical museums  Search this
Museums -- Educational aspects  Search this
Museum publications  Search this
Special events  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Traveling exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 18-172, National Air and Space Museum. Aeronautics Division, Exhibition Records
Identifier:
Accession 18-172
See more items in:
Exhibition Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa18-172

Black aviator : the story of William J. Powell : a new edition of William J. Powell's Black wings / with an introduction by Von Hardesty

Author:
Powell, William J. 1899-1942  Search this
Hardesty, Von 1939-  Search this
Subject:
Powell, William J. 1899-1942  Search this
Physical description:
xxvi, 150 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Autobiographies
Date:
1994
1934
©1994
Topic:
African Americans in aeronautics  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Call number:
CT275.P8992P8 1994
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_466774

Bellanca J-2 "Abyssinia"; Julian, Hubert Fauntleroy

Collection Creator:
Arnold, Rudy, 1902-1966  Search this
Container:
Box 34, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
circa September 1933
Scope and Contents:
Hubert Julian, dressed in white flight suit, poses standing on the right front wheel of his Bellanca J-2 "Abyssinia" ("Emperor Haile Salassi I King of Kings", r/n NR-782W) at Floyd Bennett Field, Long Island, New York; three-quarter right front view of aircraft, close up; circa September 1933. [Partial, cracked glass plate negative.]
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Bellanca J-2 "Abyssinia"  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Collection Citation:
Rudy Arnold Photo Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0356, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0356, Item XRA-8096
See more items in:
Rudy Arnold Photo Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0356-ref1384

Bellanca J-2 "Abyssinia"; Julian, Hubert Fauntleroy

Collection Creator:
Arnold, Rudy, 1902-1966  Search this
Container:
Box 34, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
circa September 29, 1933
Scope and Contents:
Aviator Hubert Julian (center, standing on folding chair) poses for photographers in front of his Bellanca J-2 (r/n NR-782W, one-half right front view) at Floyd Bennett Field, Long Island, New York; the aircraft's propeller is draped with an American flag. An unidentified woman holding a bouquet of roses and a bottle of champagne stands behind Julian on a second chair as a crowd looks on from either side. Date is presumed to be September 29, 1933, when the aircraft was christened "Abyssinia" at a press conference.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Bellanca J-2 "Abyssinia"  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Collection Citation:
Rudy Arnold Photo Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0356, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0356, Item XRA-8234
See more items in:
Rudy Arnold Photo Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0356-ref1386

Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation exhibition records

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
National Air and Space Museum--Exhibitions  Search this
Extent:
2 sound recordings (audio cassette)
1 Linear foot ((1 box))
0.05 Linear feet
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sound recordings
Correspondence
Brochures
Exhibit scripts
Date:
c. 1983
Scope and Contents note:
In the 1980s, the National Air and Space Museum created an exhibit, with a correlating text called Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation. The exhibit and book were dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who has anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. Black Wings encompasses the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both military and civilian circles. This show was exhibited at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum from April 01, 1984 to August 05, 1984.

These records document the planning, organizing, execution, and promotion of the exhibition. Materials include correspondence, research files, administrative records, brochures, education packages, and design layouts.
Local Call Number(s):
ACMA 03-016
Other Archival Materials:
This collection relates to the Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection housed at National Air and Space Museum, Archives Division, MRC 322, Washington, DC, 20560.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
The Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Brochures
Exhibit scripts
Citation:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-016
See more items in:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-03-016

Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation Narration

Creator:
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
4 sound recordings (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound recordings
Narration
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
circa 1984
Scope and Contents:
The narrator provides history of black men and women in aviation.
Narration or voice over with music. Part of Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation Audiovisual Records. Consistent beeps throughout several of the recordings. Some of the recordings contain some of the same content. Undated.
Biographical / Historical:
The exhibition, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, profiled the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both military and civilian circles. The exhibition, originally created and displayed at the National Air and Space Museum, was dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who has anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. See an expanded version of the exhibition circulated by SITES, including among its additional artifacts photo murals and audio-visual programs, and the flight suit worn by black astronaut Guion Bluford during preparations for his 1983 space shuttle flight. The SITES exhibition is divided into four parts: Headwinds, the black pioneers of World War I and the early 1920s; Flight Lines, the changing role of blacks in the 1930s and '40s; Wings for War, black involvement in World War II; and Era of Change, their breakthroughs in commercial aviation after World War II. The collection, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation Audiovisual Records, contains the audiovisual materials created when the exhibit was borrowed and adapted for exhibit at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum from April 1, 1984 - August 5, 1984.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV003453-2

ACMA AV003455

ACMA AV003507
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
African American women air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Citation:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation Narration, Exhibition Records AV03-016, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-016, Item ACMA AV003453-1
See more items in:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-016-ref505

Short Films on Aviation and Space Flight

Creator:
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
United States. Air Force  Search this
Goddard, Robert Hutchings, 1882-1945  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
1 video recording (VHS)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Video recordings
Video recordings
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
circa 1984
Scope and Contents:
Several short films about Black aviation history, Blacks in the Air Force, aerial combat, Tuskegee Airmen, and World War II; and one short film about Robert Goddard and interplanetary space travel. Titles transcribed from physical asset include 'Blacks in Aviation,' 'Blackwings,' and 'Father of Space Age: Robert Goddard.'
Short films. Related to the exhibition 'Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation Audiovisual Records.' Undated.
Biographical / Historical:
The exhibition, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, profiled the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both military and civilian circles. The exhibition, originally created and displayed at the National Air and Space Museum, was dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who has anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. See an expanded version of the exhibition circulated by SITES, including among its additional artifacts photo murals and audio-visual programs, and the flight suit worn by black astronaut Guion Bluford during preparations for his 1983 space shuttle flight. The SITES exhibition is divided into four parts: Headwinds, the black pioneers of World War I and the early 1920s; Flight Lines, the changing role of blacks in the 1930s and '40s; Wings for War, black involvement in World War II; and Era of Change, their breakthroughs in commercial aviation after World War II. The collection, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation Audiovisual Records, contains the audiovisual materials created when the exhibit was borrowed and adapted for exhibit at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum from April 1, 1984 - August 5, 1984.
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Space flight  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Citation:
Short Films on Aviation and Space Flight, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-016, Item ACMA AV002043
See more items in:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-016-ref506

The Tuskegee Airmen chronology : a detailed timeline of the Red Tails and other black pilots of World War II / Daniel L. Haulman ; with a foreword by Charles E. McGee, Colonel (Ret.), 302nd Fighter Squadron, 332nd Fighter Group

Author:
Haulman, Daniel L (Daniel Lee) 1949-  Search this
Subject:
United States Army Air Forces Fighter Squadron, 99th  Search this
United States Army Air Forces Fighter Group, 332nd  Search this
United States Army Air Forces African American troops  Search this
Physical description:
xviii, 179 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Chronology
Chronologies
History
Place:
Europe
United States
Tuskegee Army Air Field (Ala.)
Date:
2017
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945--Participation, African American  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Aerial operations, American  Search this
African American air pilots--History  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Regimental histories  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1104142

Project Files

Topic:
Pathways to the Skies (Video recording)
Creator::
National Air and Space Museum. Space History Division  Search this
Extent:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Color transparencies
Audiotapes
Electronic records
Floppy disks
Date:
1992-1998
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of materials created and maintained by David H. DeVorkin, Senior Curator, documenting the video "Pathways to the Skies" produced by the National Air and Space Museum for Project SMART. Project SMART was led by George R. Carruthers, Physicist, to encourage minority youths to become interested in science, math, and technology. Carruthers believed that doing experiments and watching demonstrations was the best way to learn about science. "Pathways to the Skies" was produced by the National Air and Space Museum and distributed by Project SMART to encourage interest in the minority experience in aviation and spaceflight. Materials include correspondence, memoranda, scripts, notes, images, and background materials. Also included is a cassette tape copy of an oral history interview of Carruthers. Some materials are in electronic format.
Topic:
Aviation  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Museums -- Educational aspects  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Color transparencies
Audiotapes
Electronic records
Floppy disks
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 03-079, National Air and Space Museum. Space History Division, Project Files
Identifier:
Accession 03-079
See more items in:
Project Files
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa03-079

Jesse Brown Photographs

Creator:
Jones, Phillip  Search this
Names:
United States. Navy -- Aviation  Search this
United States. Navy. Fighter Squadron 32  Search this
Brown, Jesse L., 1926-1950  Search this
Jones, Phillip  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Snapshots
Place:
Naval Air Station Pensacola (Fla.)
United States -- Armed Forces -- Afro-Americans
Date:
bulk 1947
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of twenty-two snapshots taken by Phillip Jones, many of which include images of his friend Jesse Brown, as well as friends John Brannon, Sam Clauzel, and Rex Vannoy, during their Pensacola training. They are shown posing in front of a North American SNJ Texan. There are also a few shots of Pensacola training facilities as well as Sikorsky R-4s and other various training aircraft.
Biographical / Historical:
Jesse L. Brown (1926-1950) was the first African-American Navy pilot. Born in Hattiesburg, Mississippi to sharecroppers, Brown attended Ohio State University and enlisted in the US Naval Reserve on 8 July 1946. That following spring, he accepted an appointment as a midshipman in the US Navy. Brown attended the Navy preflight school in Ottumwa, Iowa, followed by flight training at Pensacola, where he was one of only six (out of 100) to complete the training. In 1948, Brown began a tour of duty with VF-32 at Quonset Point, RI, and was commissioned an ensign on April 15th of that year. In June 1950, VF-32 was operating from USS Leyte in the Mediterranean on a routine cruise when it was diverted to the Korean War. By October 1950, Brown was flying F4U-4 Corsair missions from USS Leyte. Brown became a section leader and received the Air Medal for daring attacks against the enemy before getting shot down by enemy fire and perishing in the wreckage of his aircraft. Brown was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and on March 18, 1972, the Navy christened the USS Jesse L. Brown (DE-1098) the first time that a Naval vessel had been named for an African-American.
Provenance:
Joan B. Jones, Gift, 2003
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Medals -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Snapshots
Citation:
Jesse Brown Photographs, Accession 2003-0049, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0049
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0049

Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation audiovisual records

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
National Air and Space Museum. Exhibitions  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Linear feet
2 sound recordings (2 audio cassette sound recordings)
2 video recordings (2 VHS 1/2" video recordings)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Date:
circa 1983
Scope and Contents note:
In the 1980s, the National Air and Space Museum created an exhibit, with a correlating text called Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation. The exhibit and book were dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who has anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. Black Wings encompasses the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both military and civilian circles.This collection contains the audiovisual materials created when the exhibit was borrowed and adapted for exhibit at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum.
Related Archival Materials note:
This collection relates to the Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection housed at National Air and Space Museum, Archives Division, MRC 322, Washington, DC, 20560.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Museum exhibits  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Collection Citation:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-016, Series ACMA AV03-016
See more items in:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation exhibition records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-016-ref694

Records

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution, Resident Associates Program, African American Studies Center  Search this
Extent:
3 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Brochures
Clippings
Audiotapes
Manuscripts
Date:
1986-1992
Descriptive Entry:
These records consist of program materials for the African American Studies Center in the Smithsonian Resident Associate Program (RAP). Most records are correspondence, memoranda, notes and reports to and from Jacqueline Hicks Grazette, Program Manager, concerning her contacts with African American speakers, entrepreneurs, authors, and local African American Church leaders; local, mostly African American-owned, radio and television stations; Hispanic and African American civic organizations within the Washington metropolitan area; mailing lists for Latino and African American professionals; mailing lists for professional organizations such as the National Bar Association, the National Conference of Artists, the National Business League, the Metropolitan Organization of Black Scientists, and the National University Continuing Education Association. Other records include Grazette's lecture notes, minutes of various meetings, copies of the Center's fiscal budgets, proposals for youth activities, newspaper clippings, brochures and membership survey results.

There are also 81 audiocassette tapes, which were taped at various programs such as Black American History Seminar, Angela Davis, Halley's Comet, Black Diaspora, African Diaspora, Black Inventions, Migration to Washington, Bernice Reagon, Black Churches, Afro-American Photographers, Black Presence in Asia, Morgan State Choir, Once Upon a Time, Black Memorabilia, Cross Talk with Jacqueline Grazette, and others.

Records dealing with outreach activities include lists of local black Churches; contacts with organizations such as Afro-American History and Genealogical Society; Alexandria Black History Resource Center; African American Aviators; International Association of Black Professionals in International Affairs; African American Museum Association; and Delta Sigma Theta. There is correspondence with other bureaus within the Smithsonian Institution such as the Committee for a Wider Audience; contacts with the Anacostia Museum and the African American Gallery, Columbia, Maryland; contacts with African American-owned newspapers such as Afro-American, and others such as the City Paper and Community News.
Topic:
Cross Talk (Radio program)  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Lectures and lecturing  Search this
Photographers  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
African American churches  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Brochures
Clippings
Audiotapes
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 96-121, Smithsonian Institution, Resident Associates Program, African American Studies Center, Records
Identifier:
Accession 96-121
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa96-121

Emory Conrad Malick Biographical Information

Creator:
Malick, Emory Conrad.  Search this
Names:
Curtiss Aviation Flying School  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic Feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Date:
bulk 1888-2010
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of copies of records relating to Emory Conrad Malick including copies of photographs of Malick; aerial photographs taken by Malick; a copy of Malick's letterhead which includes a photo of Malick at the controls of an aircraft; biographical sketches written by family members; news clippings related to Malick; copies of correspondence between Malick and various family members and business associates; a listing of "Holders of Aviation Certificates of the Aero Club of America Issued under F.A.I [Fédération Aéronautique Internationale] Rules"; a receipt for dues paid to the Aero Club of Pennsylvania; and a copy of a member's ticket to an Aero Club of Pennsylvania event in September 1910.
Biographical / Historical:
Emory Conrad Malick was the first African-American aviator to earn a pilot's license in the United States. Malick was born in 1881 and grew up in Pennsylvania. As a young man, Malick built and flew gliders. Malick attended the Curtiss Aviation School at North Island, San Diego, California where he earned Aero Club of America aviation certificate no. 105 on March 20, 1912 (issued under Fédération Aéronautique Internationale rules). In 1914, Malick obtained a Curtiss pusher type airplane and began barnstorming in Pennsylvania making him the first pilot to fly in Snyder County. Malick later moved to Philadelphia and flew for the Flying Dutchman Air Service and took aerial photographs on behalf of the Aero Service Corporation and Dallin Aerial Surveys. Malick died in 1958.
Provenance:
Mary Grocee, Gift, 2010
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
African American air pilots  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Emory Conrad Malick Biographical Information, Accession 2010-0034, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2010.0034
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2010-0034

Ida Van Smith Flight Clubs, Inc. Journal and Negro Airmen International, Inc. Membership Cards

Names:
Negro Airmen International, Inc.  Search this
Van Smith, Ida  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic Feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Membership cards
Publications
Date:
bulk 1974-1978
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a 1974 edition of the Ida Van Smith Flight Clubs, Inc. Journal, signed by Smith, and two Negro Airmen International Inc. membership cards for Teddie N. Hayes, 1976 and 1978.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1967, Ida Van Smith founded a series of flight training clubs for minority children to encourage their involvement in aviation and aerospace sciences. Born in North Carolina, Smith graduated from Shaw University and earned a master's degree from Queens College. She became a teacher in the New York City Public Schools in the fields of history and special education. In 1967, at the age of 50, she finally fulfilled a personal dream to learn to fly. Once she had her private pilot's license and instructor rating, Smith founded the Ida Van Smith Flight Club on Long Island, New York. Training for the students was provided in an aircraft simulator funded by the FAA and an operational Cessna 172. Soon there were more than 20 clubs throughout the country, with members ages 13-19. As a result, thousands of children were exposed to aviation and many pursued careers in aviation. Smith also produced and hosted a cable television show on aviation and taught an introductory aviation course at York College of the City University of New York. Although she retired from teaching in 1977, Smith remains active in her namesake clubs. She is a member of the Tuskegee Airman's Black Wings, Negro Airman International, and the Ninety-Nines. She has published or been featured in many educational, aviation, and historical journals. Smith has received numerous awards for her contributions to aviation and youth education.
The Negro Airmen International, Inc. (NAI) was founded in February, 1967 by aviator Edward Gibbs. NAI is the oldest African American civilian aviation organization in the country and encourages African Americans to enter the field of aviation by providing aviation learning opportunities and creating job opportunities.
Provenance:
Samantha Stockley, Gift, 2016
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Membership cards
Publications
Citation:
Ida Van Smith Flight Clubs, Inc. Journal and Negro Airmen International, Inc. Membership Cards, Accession 2017-0007, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2017.0007
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2017-0007

Lawrence Edward "Larry" Campbell, Jr. Papers

Creator:
Campbell, Lawrence Edward "Larry," Jr.,, 1926-1992.  Search this
Extent:
0.87 Cubic Feet ((2 boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Articles
Correspondence
Video recordings
Logbooks
Date:
bulk 1945-1992
Summary:
This collection consists of approximately 0.87 cubic feet of material relating to the career of Lawrence Edward "Larry" Campbell, Jr. in the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Air Force Reserves, the National Transportation and Safety Board, and the Alaska Air National Guard.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 0.87 cubic feet of material relating to the career of Lawrence Edward "Larry" Campbell, Jr., including photographs; news clippings; correspondence; military and personnel records; award certificates and commendations; training materials and manuals; flight records; and a folder of material pertaining to a racial discrimination complaint that Campbell filed against his supervisor at the Alaska Field Office of the National Transportation and Safety Board. There are fifteen black and white photographs in the collection ranging in size from approximately 2.5 by 3.5 inches up to 8 by 10 inches. Aircraft shown in the photographs are the Republic P-47 (F-47) Thunderbolt; Lockheed (F-80) P-80A Shooting Star; and the Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar. The collection also contains three VHS tapes containing oral history interviews of Lawrence Edward "Larry" Campbell, Jr. that were conducted by his family, the ceremony presenting him the The Alaskan Legion of Merit, and his memorial service; as well as two of Campbell's pilot's log books. The first log book covers the dates October 1947 to June 1960, and the second has a single entry for June 1968.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by type of material, or in some cases topic. Items within each folder are arranged chronologically. Titles in brackets were applied by Archivist.
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrence Edward "Larry" Campbell, Jr. (1926-1992) was a pioneering African American aviator. He volunteered for military service in 1944 and was sent for cadet training with the 332nd Fighter Group at Tuskegee Army Air Field but was discharged in 1945 at the end of World War II. Campbell was again accepted for flight training in 1947, which he successfully completed in 1948. In the late 1940s, Campbell flew the Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star which was widely reported to be the first jet flight to be made by an African American for the U.S. Air Force. Campbell was discharged again a few years later but continued his flying career with the U.S. Air Force Reserves. Campbell worked as an accident analyst and later administrative assistant with Boeing from the 1950s until taking a position as an air safety investigator with the National Transportation and Safety Board in 1963. In February of that year, Campbell joined the Alaska Air National Guard at the rank of captain making him the first African American member, and when he assumed command of the Guard unit in 1972, he became the first African American group commander in the country. Campbell retired from the Air National Guard in 1973 at the rank of colonel. Throughout his career, Campbell held a number of positions in state and Federal government including membership on the Alaska Transportation Commission; director of operations and safety manager for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Aircraft Services; and loan examiner for the Alaska Department of Commerce, Division of Veterans Affairs. Campbell was the recipient of numerous honors and awards including being selected by then Alaska governor Walter J. Hickel as the state's representative to the American Foundation for Negro Affairs Conference (1966); receiving the Air Force Commendation Award for outstanding achievement (1972); and being honored with the Alaska Legion of Merit (1992).
Provenance:
Dolores R. Campbell, Gift, 2016, NASM.2016.0035
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Republic P-47 (F-47) Thunderbolt Family  Search this
Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar  Search this
Lockheed (F-80) P-80A Shooting Star  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Articles
Correspondence
Video recordings
Logbooks
Citation:
Lawrence Edward "Larry" Campbell, Jr. Papers, NASM.2016.0035, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2016.0035
See more items in:
Lawrence Edward "Larry" Campbell, Jr. Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2016-0035
Additional Online Media:

Dale L. White, Sr., Papers

Author:
White, Dale L., Sr., 1899-1977  Search this
Extent:
2.26 Linear Feet (2 legal-sized boxes; 1 flat box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1932-2013
bulk 1932-1939
Summary:
The Dale L., White, Sr., Papers consist of material relating to the aviation career of Dale L. White, Sr., including his attendance at the Curtiss Wright Aeronautical University and his piloting of the "Goodwill Flight" from Chicago, Illinois, to Washington, DC, to lobby for African-Americans to be able to join the US Army Air Corps. The bulk of the collection covers his flying years between 1932 and 1941, though personal materials from a later date are also included. Materials included are photographs, negatives, telegrams, a scrapbook, aeronautical textbooks, aeronautical notebook, DVDs, newspaper and magazine articles, pilot log books, pilot licenses, and related information.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists material relating to the aviation career of Dale L. White, Sr., including his attendance at the Curtiss Wright Aeronautical University and his piloting of a 1939 "Goodwill Flight" from Chicago, Illinois, to Washington, DC, to lobby for African-Americans to be able to join the US Army Air Corps. The collection also contains information on other important African-American aviators, including: Chauncey Spencer, White's navigator for the "Goodwill Flight;" Willa Brown; and John Charles Robinson, "The Brown Condor of Ethiopia."

The following types of material are included: photographs, negatives, telegrams, scrapbook, aeronautical textbooks, aeronautical notebook, newspaper and magazine articles, pilot log books, pilot licenses, DVDs and three mini-DV master video tapes with Chauncey Spencer (stored in the audiovisual collection), and related information.
Arrangement:
The collection has been arranged into three series: Series 1, Career and African-Americans in Aviation; Series 2, Personal Materials; and Series 3, Aeronautical Education Materials.

The collection did not have any particular order when received by the NASM Archives. Archivists have organized the documents by topic then by date.
Biographical Note:
Dale L. White, Sr., (1899-1977) was a prominent African-American pilot, who, along with Chauncey Spencer, flew a 1939 "Goodwill Flight" from Chicago, Illinois, to Washington, DC, to lobby for African-Americans to be able to join the US Army Air Corps.

Born in Minden, Louisiana, White moved to Chicago, Illinois, in 1930. In 1932, he started to attend the Curtiss-Wright Aeronautical University. On August 18, 1933, White began his flight training and he received his license in June 1936. For the next decade, White was very active in Chicago African-American flying circles and was a member of the Challenger Air Pilots Association (CAPA), a group organized by Chicago-area African-American aviation enthusiasts.

In the spring of 1939, the CAPA decided to organize a "Goodwill Flight" to Washington, DC, to lobby for a change in legislation so the African-Americans could join the US Army Air Corps. Dale White was chosen to be the pilot and Chauncey Spencer was selected as the navigator for this flight. With a CAPA-secured rental of a Lincoln (Aircraft) Page LP-3 (New Swallow) biplane, White and Spencer left Chicago on May 8, 1939, for their 3000 mile round-trip. During their time in Washington, DC, White and Spencer had a scheduled meeting with Senators Slatttery and Everett Dirksen and chance meeting with then Senator Harry S. Truman, who in 1948 integrated the armed services by presidential order. After returning from their successful trip, White was chosen to drop a wreath on the grave of aviator Bessie Coleman, located in Lincoln Cemetery, Chicago, on a May day designated, "The Spirit of the late Bessie Coleman."

In August of 1939, the CAPA broadened its scope and was incorporated as the National Negro Airman's Association of America (NAAA), and White was elected to be vice president. During the rest of 1939, White made numerous flights in and around Chicago.

In 1940, White became an aircraft mechanic at Wright Patterson Field in Dayton, Ohio. White did not join the Tuskegee Airman as he was too old to apply, but he did continue to fly until June 1941, when he quit flying at the request of his wife. He retired from Wright Patterson in 1971 and died in 1977.
Provenance:
Donated Dale L. White, Jr., gift, 2013.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Flights  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Citation:
Dale L. White, Sr., Papers Collection, Accession 2013-0050, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2013.0050
See more items in:
Dale L. White, Sr., Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2013-0050
Additional Online Media:

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