Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
11 documents - page 1 of 1

Powers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862) Collection

Creator:
Powers, William C.  Search this
Names:
Powers, William C.  Search this
Extent:
0.11 Cubic Feet (2 folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Photographs
Date:
1862-1863
Summary:
This collection contains photographs and blueprints of the Powers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862).
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 7 black and white photographs of Powers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862) model and blueprints, as well as the original blueprints.
Arrangement:
No arrangement.
Biographical/Historical note:
William C. Powers was an architectural engineer-mechanic in Mobile, AL during the Civil War. Between 1862 and 1863 he designed and built experimental plans and a model of a helicopter intended to provide the Confederate defenders of Mobile with a means for aerial bombing of the Federal blockading fleet. A family dispute apparently arose over the fear that the North would capture the ship and use it to destroy the South, and the plans were set aside until 1940.
Provenance:
Clara McDermott and William V. McDermott, Gift, 1940, XXXX-0562
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military -- pre-1903  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Powers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Photographs
Citation:
PowPowers (W. C.) Helicopter (1862) Collection, NASM.XXXX.0562, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0562
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0562
Additional Online Media:

C. F. Ritchell Ballooning Scrapbook

Creator:
Ritchell, Charles F.  Search this
Names:
Ritchell, Charles F.  Search this
Extent:
0.4 Cubic Feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Patents
Articles
Scrapbooks
Date:
1878-1901
Scope and Contents:
This scrapbook consists of material relating to Ritchell's flights and activities between 1878 and 1901, included his patent for propelling an airship by foot pedals. Also included are articles relating to his other inventions.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles F. Ritchell was a mechanic and general inventor, who by the mid-1880s claimed to have obtained 150 patents on such devices ranging from windup toy motors to his boring machine used in the manufacture of brushes to his airship experiments.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Paul E. Garber, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0325, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Airships -- pre-1903  Search this
Airships  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Articles
Scrapbooks
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0325
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0325

Rufus Porter Collection

Creator:
Porter, Rufus, 1792-1884  Search this
Names:
Aerial Locomotive (Airship)  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Cubic Feet (1 folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Publications
Booklets
Date:
1826
1849
Summary:
This donation consists of the two booklets written by Rufus Porte on aerial navigation.
Scope and Contents:
This donation consists of the following two booklets written by Rufus Porter: 1) 'Select Collection of Valuable and Curious Arts and Interesting Experiments which are well Explained, and Warranted genuine, and may be Performed Easily, Safely and At Little Expense,' Concord (New Hampshire), J.B. Moore Printers, 1826; and 2) Aerial navigation: The Practicability of Traveling Pleasantly and Safely from New York to California in Three Days, Fully Demonstrated: With a Full Description of a Perfect Aerial Locomotive, with Estimates of Capacity Speed and Cost of Construction,' New-York, Published by H. Smith, John Hall Printer, 222 Water Street, 1849.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged at the item level. One of the two items has been digitized.
Biographical/Historical note:
Rufus Porter (1792-1889) was the inventor of an airship 'the Aerial Locomotive' in the early 19th century. The original design for the airship was produced in 1820. In 1850 Porter organized a stock company to obtain funds for experimental purposes that failed to receive sufficient funds. Porter also invented a revolver, a horse power wood sawing apparatus and other mechanical devices. He was publisher of 'The New York Mechanic' and one of the founders of 'Scientific American.'
Provenance:
Robert B. Stephens, Gift, 1991, NASM.1991.0033
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
• Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Navigation (Aeronautics)  Search this
Airships -- pre-1903  Search this
Airships  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Booklets
Citation:
Rufus Porter Collection, NASM.1991.0033, National Air and Space Musuem, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0033
See more items in:
Rufus Porter Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0033
Additional Online Media:

Gustave Whitehead Manuscript Collection [Gibbs-Smith]

Creator:
Gibbs-Smith, Charles Harvard, 1909-  Search this
Names:
Gibbs-Smith, Charles Harvard, 1909-  Search this
Whitehead, Gustave, 1874-1927  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic Feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Articles
Manuscripts
Date:
1969-1970
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of manuscripts and articles written by Charles H. Gibbs-Smith, in which he refutes Whitehead's claims. The collection contains the following manuscripts: 'The Flight Claims of Gustave Whitehead,' 'Gustave Whitehead: His Flight-Claims and his Place in History,' 'Gustave Whitehead,' 'Reflections on the Whitehead Claims to Powered Flight in 1902 and 1902,' 'An Open Letter on the Subject of the Flight-Claims of Gustave Whitehead,' and 'The Sorry Affair of Gustave Whitehead and His Alleged Powered Flight.'
Biographical / Historical:
Gustave Whitehead (1874-1927) was born in Hochst am Main, Bavaria. He immigrated to the United States and during the early 1900s experimented with aircraft design. According to his claims, he built several aircraft, which he flew several years before the Wrights' 1903 flight. Whitehead still has a number of followers trying to verify his claims.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Charles H. Gibbs-Smith, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0603, Smithsonian Institution
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Wright (Brothers) 1903 Flyer  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Manuscripts
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0603
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0603

Georges Naudet Collection

Creator:
Naudet, Georges, 1900-1983.  Search this
Names:
Blanchard, Jean-Pierre, 1753-1809  Search this
Blériot, Louis, 1872-1936  Search this
Godard, Eugène, 1864-  Search this
Godard, Louis  Search this
Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel, 1740-1810.  Search this
Naudet, Georges, 1900-1983.  Search this
Vedrines, Jules  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box) (1 flatbox))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Publications
Clippings
Postcards
Date:
[ca 1600s-1930s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes early ballooning material as well as photographs of early 20th century French pilots. The ballooning material includes material from Jean-Pierre Blanchard, Joseph Montgolfier and Eugene and Louis Godard. The early photographs include the following aviators: Louis Blériot, and Jules Védrines. The following types of material are included: photographs, newspaper clippings, postcards, and books.
Biographical / Historical:
Georges Naudet (June 9, 1900 - May 22, 1983) was a French businessman who was passionately interested in the early history of ballooning and aviation. An amateur in the field of aviation history, he became an avid collector and author.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
George Naudet Estate, purchase, 1984, XXXX-0479, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- France  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Balloons -- France  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Clippings
Postcards
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0479
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0479
Additional Online Media:

James Means Collection

Topic:
Aeronautical Annuals (annual)
Creator:
Means, James, 1853-1920  Search this
Names:
Aerial Experiment Association  Search this
Aero Club of America  Search this
Aero Club of Washington  Search this
Aeronautic Society of New York  Search this
United States. Army. Signal Corps  Search this
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond, 1878-1930  Search this
Jones, Ernest La Rue, 1883-1955  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Lilienthal, Otto  Search this
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 1850-1924  Search this
Maxim, Hiram S., 1840-1916  Search this
Means, James, 1853-1920  Search this
Zahm, Albert Francis, 1862-  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Cubic feet ((4 legal document boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Publications
Photographs
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Date:
1892-1913
bulk 1895-1897
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence and scrapbooks. The correspondence is arranged into 15 sub-series: Aerial Experiment Association, Aero Club of America, Aero Club of Washington, Aeronautic Society of New York, Aeronautical Annuals, Octave Chanute and his daughters, Glenn Curtiss, House Resolution #7653, Ernest Jones, Otto Lilienthal, Henry Cabot Lodge, Hiram Maxim, Technical Matters, U.S. Signal Corps, and Albert Zahm. Of the three scrapbooks, one is a photograph album containing early glider photos and travel postcards. The second contains photos and news clippings regarding aviation in the 1890's, especially the work of Langley and Maxim with kites, balloons, and aerial bicycles. Clippings are in English, French, Spanish, Italian, German and Dutch. The third scrapbook is labeled 'James Means 1892' and consists of photos, letters, manuscripts, clippings in English and German, copies of legislation, and book excerpts.
Biographical / Historical:
James Means (1855-1920) was an American industrialist who sacrificed his business to devote himself to the promotion of aviation. Determined to disseminate information on flying, he collected and edited the most significant works of Otto Lilienthal, Octave Chanute, Samuel Langley and others, producing the 'Aeronautical Annuals' which appeared in 3 volumes in 1895, 1896 and 1897. Dr. Means studied bird-flight, kites and gliders, and designed model gliders in the early 1890s. He was awarded patents for his aircraft smoke signal device (1909), his aircraft launcher (1909), and his simplified control column for airplanes (1909-1911).
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
James H. Means, gift, unknown, XXXX-0394, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Kites  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Publications
Photographs
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0394
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0394
Additional Online Media:

Aaron A. Sargent 1883 Designs for Aerial Ship

Creator:
Sargent, Aaron Augustus, 1827-1887  Search this
Names:
Sargent, Aaron Augustus, 1827-1887  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic Feet (1 folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Date:
1883
Summary:
This collection consists of drawings relating to Aaron A. Sargent's designs for an Aerial Ship in 1883
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately eighteen sheets of drawings, descriptions and calculations relating to Aaron A. Sargent's designs for an Aerial Ship. These early dirigible designs are dated June 2, 1883 and are believed to have been drawn during Sargent's tenure as Minister to Germany.
Arrangement:
No arrangement; just one folder of material.
Biographical/Historical note:
Aaron Augustus Sargent (1827-1887) was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts. After working in the printer's trade in Philadelphia, PA, he moved to Washington, DC and became Secretary to a Member of Congress. He later owned a paper in Nevada City, CA and studied law there, subsequently serving as District Attorney and as Representative to the Thirty-seventh Congress. He served as a United States Senator from 1873-1879. In January 1878 he introduced to the Senate a bill that was to be adopted in 1920 as the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting suffrage to women. Sargent returned to California in 1880. He was appointed Minister to Germany (1882-1884) and thereafter practiced law in San Francisco, CA.
Provenance:
David I. and Janice Sargent Lamphier, Gift, 2000, NASM.2000.0032
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Airships  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Citation:
Aaron A. Sargent 1883 Designs for Aerial Ship, NASM.2000.0032, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2000.0032
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2000-0032
Additional Online Media:

Sir Hiram S. Maxim Collection

Creator:
Maxim, Hiram H.  Search this
Names:
Maxim Gun Co  Search this
United States Electric Lighting Co  Search this
Maxim, Hiram S., 1840-1916  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic Feet ((1 records center box))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1890-1916
bulk 1890-1894, 1912
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains material by or about Maxim. The bulk of the collection consists of published works, but does include an unpublished paper about Maxim's aeronautical experiments and a collection of newclippings regarding Maxim's life. This accession includes the following five books: Li Hung Chang's Scrapbook by Sir Maxim, 1913; The Life and Work of Sir Hiram Maxim: Knight, Chevalier de la Legion D'Honneur, by P. Fleury Mottelay, 1920; A Genius in the Family: Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim through a small Son's Eyes, by Hiram P. Maxim, 1936; My Life: Sir Hiram S. Maxim, by Sir Maxim, 1915; and A New System for Preventing Collisions at Sea, by Sir Maxim, 1912. This collection also includes two binders of material: 'Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim, February 5, 1840 - November 25, 1916. Chevalier de Legion d' Honneur Photos, Press Notices, Etc.' and 'Sir Hiram Maxim's Airplane about 1890' which includes a description and photographs of the steam powered heavier than air flying machine designed and built in 1890 in England by Sir Maxim.
Biographical / Historical:
Sir Hiram Maxim (1840-1916) was an engineer and inventor. In 1878, while serving as Chief Engineer of the United States Electric Lighting Company, he contested and lost a priority battle with Thomas Edison over the invention of the electric light. He then turned to Mechanical Engineering and invented the first efficient machine gun. The United States government was not interested in the gun, so Maxim traveled to England in 1881 and established the Maxim Gun Company. The company merged with Nordenfeldt Company (1888) and Vickers Company, which eventually formed Vickers Sons and Maxim (1896). The British War Office adopted the gun and Maxim became a British citizen (1901). In 1901 Queen Victoria knighted Maxim. Maxim experimented in aeronautics during the thirty years before his death including and wrote a number of books and articles on the subject, including 'Artificial and Natural Flight' in 1908. Maxim also built a steam-powered aircraft, the Maxim (H.S.) Flying Machine, in 1894.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Hiram H. Maxim, gift, 1989, 1989-0031, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Machine guns  Search this
Maxim gun  Search this
Airplanes -- Design and construction  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Maxim 1894 Flying Machine  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0031
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0031

Krainik Ballooning Collection

Creator:
Krainik, Cliff  Search this
Names:
Brady, Mathew B., 1823 (ca.)-1896  Search this
Lowe, Thaddeus S. C.  Search this
Myers, Carl, 1842-1925  Search this
Myers, Mary, "Carlotta Queen of the Air"  Search this
Stevens, Albert Leo, 1873-1944  Search this
Extent:
3.19 Cubic feet (2 shoeboxes; 3 flatboxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Stereoscopic photographs
Postcards
Photographs
Woodcuts
Date:
1859-1934
Summary:
This 19th and 20th century ballooning memorabilia collection contains the following items, which have been meticulously inventoried: 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items.
Scope and Contents:
The Krainik Ballooning Collection contains 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items all pertaining to 19th and 20th century ballooning. Highlights of the stereoscopic photographs include: views of T.S.C. Lowe's balloons during the Civil War; views of the Nadar and Godard balloons; balloons during the Boer War, Russo-Japanese War, and WWI; and views of the airships Ganymede, Great Western, Phantom Balloons, Buffalo, Madame Carlotta, and The Aerial. The photographic portion of the collection features Matthew Brady's views of Lowe's balloons during the Civil War; views of the balloon Madam Carlotta before and during flights; smoke and gas balloon inflation and flights; and portraits of T.S.C. Lowe and other pioneers of ballooning.

The collection also contains lithographic cards printed in Germany, whimsical advertising trade cards incorporating popular ballooning motifs and events, and 19th century woodcut illustrations from various periodicals concerning all aspects of ballooning. Other items include a small broadside for the Grand Balloon Ascension of CARLOTTA and a contract for smoke balloon ascensions. A few non-archival items, such as medals for Lowe's balloon, City of New York, and Giffard's giant captive balloon, 1878, were accessioned with this collection and subsequently transferred to curatorial collections.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement note:
This collection has been arranged, first, in chronological order based on the Krainik inventory number that was assigned by the donor (K#), and then by size.
Biographical / Historical:
The Krainik Ballooning Collection was amassed by Clifford and Michele Krainik, experts in 19th and early 20th century historical photographs, negatives, and ephemera. This collection of 19th and 20th century ballooning memorabilia contains 112 stereoscopic photographs; 107 photographs; 84 postcards, trade cards, valentines, and similar items; 80 prints; and 23 miscellaneous items.
Provenance:
Clifford Krainik, Purchase, 1989, 1990-0009, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Great Western (Airship)  Search this
Phantom Balloons (Airships)  Search this
Airships  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Madame Carlotta (Airship)  Search this
The Aerial (Airship)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905  Search this
South African War, 1899-1902  Search this
Buffalo (Airship)  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Ganymede (Airship)  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Communications  Search this
Balloons -- History  Search this
Balloons -- pre-1900  Search this
Spanish-American War, 1898  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereoscopic photographs
Postcards
Photographs
Woodcuts
Citation:
Krainik Ballooning Collection, Acc. 1990-0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1990.0009
See more items in:
Krainik Ballooning Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1990-0009
Additional Online Media:

Samuel P. Langley Collection

Creator:
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Names:
Chanute, Octave, 1832-1910  Search this
Herring, Augustus Moore, 1867-1926  Search this
Huffaker, Edward C., 1856-1937  Search this
Langley, S. P. (Samuel Pierpont), 1834-1906  Search this
Manly, Charles Matthews, 1876-1927  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Extent:
24.28 Cubic feet (64 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1891-1914
bulk 1891-1900
Summary:
This collection includes information about Samuel P. Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence, manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for the Aerodromes, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, the Langley Memoirs on Mechanical Flight and the Langley "Waste Books."
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes information about Langley and his colleagues, as well as documentation of Langley's work. The collection includes the Aerodrome project waste books, biographies of Langley and his assistant Charles Manly, newspaper clippings, correspondence), manuscripts regarding Langley's aircraft, photographs and drawings, work requisitions for staff labor on the project, a sketchbook, specifications and measurements for Langley's experiments, and manuscript material from the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight.

The National Air and Space Museum's Samuel P. Langley Collection was drawn from several sources in the Smithsonian Institution. Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003) for several purposes:

Design papers and notes from Langley's aerodrome project were used for restoring the Langley Aerodromes for exhibits beginning in 1917.

Correspondence from the papers was consulted when controversies arose between the Wright brothers and the Smithsonian, and over credit for the design of the motor built by Stephen M. Balzer and extensively modified by Charles Manly, which was used on Aerodrome A.

Technical drawings of the Aerodromes were drawn from the SIA in the 1970s for conservation purposes.

Other material was added to the collection over the years:

Correspondence, memoranda, notes and label scripts from Langley exhibits from 1913 through the 1960s.

Design notes and work records from Langley's workshop were stored with the Aerodromes in the Museum's collections, and were later transferred to the Archives Division.

Biographical material on Langley, and correspondence to the Museum on Langley and the Aerodromes.

Material from the foundation of the Langley Aerodynamic Laboratory (now NASA's Langley Research Center) in 1913.

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Samuel P. Langley Collection is arranged in the following series:

Series 1 - Waste Books: Langley and his staff used waste books - bound ledgers - to keep records of their work on the aeronautical projects, which Langley inspected frequently.

Series 2 - Scrapbooks: A collection of 18 scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings on "Aerial Navigation". Projects by Langley, Maxim, Lilienthal and many obscure aeronautical experimenters are included. Other clippings are included in Series VIII and XI.

Series 3 - Aeronautical Research and the Aerodromes: This series consists of notes, data, drawings and memoranda from Langley's aeronautical research at both the Smithsonian and the Allegheny Observatory. Subseries 2 contains material used in various Smithsonian exhibitions of the Langley Aerodromes. Some additional material is included in Series 11.

Subseries 3.1 - Design and Construction

Subseries 3.2 - Langley Aerodrome Exhibits

Series 4 - Correspondence: Letters and memoranda written by and sent to S. P. Langley and his assistants, C. M. Manly and J. E. Watkins. Additional correspondence is included in Series 11.

Subseries 4.1 - S. P. Langley Correspondence

Subseries 4.2 - S. P. Langley's Assistants' Correspondence

Subseries 3 - Miscellaneous Correspondence

Series 5 - Manuscripts, Papers, Articles: Manuscripts, published articles and papers by Langley and others. See also Series 11.

Subseries 5.1 - Works by S. P. Langley

Subseries 5.2 - Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Articles, and Notes

Series 6 - Photographs: Photographs, mainly of Langley's Aerodromes. Additional photographs are included with Series 11.

Series 7 - Trade Catalogues and Ephemera: Trade catalogues and price lists from various suppliers and dealers found stored with the "Aerodrome A" at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Facility in Suitland, Maryland.

Series 8 - Miscellaneous Files

Series 9 - Flat Boxes and Oversized Material: Ledgers, drawings, test data, publications

Series 10 - Shorthand Diaries: A collection of 37 notebooks containing notes in an unidentified shorthand system, dating from 1898 to 1902, with 8 notebooks bearing partial dates or undated.

Series 11 - Additional Material: After the publication of the Langley Collection finding aid, two additional boxes of correspondence, manuscript material, drawings and photographs were found in the Museum's rare book room, the Ramsey Room. This material has been included as a separate series.
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906) was an astronomer, a pioneer of aeronautical research, and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1887-1906). As a young man, Langley studied civil engineering and pursued this as a career until 1864, when his interest in astronomy led him to positions at the Harvard Observatory, the Naval Academy, the Western University of Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh. In 1887, Langley was named Secretary of the Smithsonian, and spent the following years in the research, construction and tests of flying machines. On May 6, 1896, his unpiloted Aerodrome No. 5, powered by a 1hp steam engine, flew nearly three quarters of a mile. This flight surpassed by more than ten times the best efforts of any predecessor. In 1898, at the request of the Army's Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, Langley started work on another design - the Great Aerodrome, also known as Aerodrome A. However, two attempts at launching the aircraft in 1903 failed. In addition to his scientific experiments, Langley's writings include Experiments in Aerodynamics and The Internal Work of the Wind, and the Langley Memoir on Mechanical Flight, published posthumously. Samuel P. Langley died in Aiken, South Carolina, on February 27, 1906.

A Timeline of Early Aeronautical Milestones and Samuel P. Langley's Life and Career

August 22, 1834 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley born to Samuel Langley and Mary Sumner Williams Langley in Roxbury Massachusetts.

1843 -- William Henson and John Stringfellow publish their design for the "Aeriel", a steam-powered "Aerial Steam Carriage".

1845 -- Langley begins to attend the Boston Latin School.

1847 -- Henson tests a model of his aircraft.

1848 -- Stringfellow and Henson build and test a steam powered model aircraft. It has a wingspan of 10 feet (3.5 meters), and it flies 131 feet (40 meters) before crashing into a wall.

1849 -- Sir George Cayley tests a towed triplane glider. In one test, it flies several yards with a local boy as a passenger.

1851 -- Langley graduates from the Boston High School; begins work as an apprentice with a Boston architect.

circa 1852-1864 -- Langley works for architectural and engineering firms in St. Louis and Chicago.

1853 -- Cayley's coachman flies a glider across Brompton Dale, Yorkshire. The coachman resigns his position after the flight. Cayley conceives the rubber band–powered model airplane. Michel Loup designs a powered twin propeller monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.

1853-1854 -- L C. Letur tests his parachute-glider design. Letur is killed in a test flight in 1854.

1855 -- Joseph Pline coins the word "aeroplane" to describe a propeller-driven dirigible.

1857 -- Jean-Marie Le Bris, a sea captain inspired by the flight of the albatross, builds a glider he names the "Albatros Artificiel" and makes two short hops, breaking his leg in the second. Félix du Temple, a French naval officer, flies a clockwork model aircraft - the first sustained powered flights by a heavier-than-air machine.

1862 -- Gabriel de la Landelle coins the word "aviation", and later, "aviateur" - aviator.

1864 -- Langley returns to Roxbury. He begins work, with his younger brother John, on a five foot focal length telescope, which they complete over three years.

1864-1865 -- Samuel and John Langley tour Europe.

circa 1865 -- Langley is hired as observatory assistant at the Harvard University Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

January 1866 -- The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (later named the Royal Aeronautical Society) is founded.

circa 1866 -- Langley is hired as assistant professor of mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. Duties include restoring the Academy's astronomical observatory to operation.

1867 -- Langley is named professor of Astronomy and Physics at the Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh. Duties include directorship of the Allegheny Observatory. His tenure at Allegheny will begin his work at the popularization of science through lectures and writing newspaper and journal articles.

1868 -- Stringfellow builds a model triplane.

1869 -- Langley proposes a system of standard time distribution via the telegraph to railroads and cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad signs on for the service. Langley joins a U.S. Coast Survey expedition to Oakland, Kentucky, to observe the August 7th solar eclipse. He observes later eclipses in 1870, 1878, and 1900.

1870 -- The Allegheny Observatory begins twice-daily time signals to the Pennsylvania Railroad's offices. Other railroads, businesses, and government offices later subscribe to the service. The income from the system aids the operation of the Allegheny Observatory and Langley's research work. Langley travels to Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, to observe a solar eclipse.

1870 -- Alphonse Pénaud designs his rubber-powered "Hélicoptère".

August 18, 1871 -- Pénaud demonstrates his "Planophore", a rubber-powered model, at the Tuileries, Paris. It flies 40 meters (approximately 131 feet) in 11 seconds.

1871 -- Francis Wenham designs the first wind tunnel; it is built by John Browning.

1873 -- Langley makes a detailed drawing of a sun spot. Famous for its accuracy of detail, the drawing is widely reproduced for many years.

1876 -- Pénaud and Paul Gauchot patent a design for an inherently stable steam-powered full-sized airplane.

1878 -- Bishop Milton Wright presents a toy based on the Pénaud "Hélicoptère" to two of his sons – eleven year old Wilbur and seven year old Orville.

1879-1880 -- Langley designs and builds his bolometer for the measurement of the energy of incident electromagnetic radiation.

1879 -- Victor Tatin designs and flies a compressed air-powered seven foot long model.

1881 -- Langley organizes an expedition to Mount Whitney in California's Sierra Nevada Range for solar observations and other scientific studies.

1883 -- Alexandre Goupil builds a bird-shaped unpowered airplane that briefly lifts off in a tethered test while carrying two men.

1884 -- The U.S. Signal Service publishes Langley's report on the Mount Whitney expedition.

1886 -- Langley's interest in aeronautics is kindled by a paper on bird flight by a Mr. Lancaster at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Buffalo, New York. Lancaster also describes making small flying models which he describes as "floating planes" and "effigies".

1887 -- Langley designs and builds his large whirling table at the Allegheny Observatory for the study of aerodynamics; begins aeronautical experimental work. He coins the term Aerodromics for the art of building flying machines from the Greek aerodromoi.

January 12, 1887 -- Langley is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

April 1887 -- Langley begins to build small Pénaud type rubber-powered flying models.

November 18, 1887 -- Langley is named Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution on the death of Secretary Spencer F. Baird. He retains the directorship of the Allegheny Observatory, dividing his time between Washington and Allegheny until 1891 when James E. Keeler becomes director of the observatory.

1887 -- Hiram Maxim, an American living in Great Britain and inventor of the Maxim machine gun, begins work on a large powered biplane test rig.

1888 -- Langley publishes The New Astronomy.

1889 -- The National Zoological Park is founded, due to Langley's support. A site in Washington's Rock Creek Park is selected by Langley and Frederick Law Olmstead. The Zoo becomes part of the Smithsonian in 1890, and is opened in 1891.

1890 -- Langley founds the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; its first home is in a wooden building behind the Smithsonian Castle. In 1955, SAO moves to Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1890 -- Clément Ader completes his "Éole', a full-sized airplane. It has a fifty foot wing span, and is equipped with a lightweight 20-horsepower steam engine of Ader's design and a four-bladed propeller. At Armainvilliers on October 9, the Éole lifts off the ground to an altitude of approximately one foot and skims the ground for about 50 meters (165 feet). Ader later claims a second flight of 100 meters in September, 1891; there is no evidence for the second flight.

March 28, 1891 -- First successful flight of one of Langley's rubber-powered models.

1891 -- Work begins on Langley's "Aerodrome No. 0", powered by two small steam engines. Construction is halted before the aircraft is completed.

1891 -- Otto Lilienthal, a German mechanical engineer, begins a program of flight research using piloted hang gliders of his own design. He and his brother Gustav will go on to design and build 18 gliders over the next five years, making approximately 2,000 flights. Langley's Experiments in Aerodynamics is published by the Smithsonian.

1892 -- Langley's "Aerodrome No. 1" designed and built. Not flown.

1892-1893 -- "Aerodrome No. 2" and "Aerodrome No. 3" are designed and built. "No. 3" is powered by compressed air. Neither is flown.

1893 -- A 38 foot scow is converted into a houseboat with a workshop and launch platform for Aerodrome testing. In May, it is towed down the Potomac to a point near Quantico, Virginia, off Chopawamsic Island. In November, "Aerodrome No. 4" is taken to the houseboat for testing.

November 20, 1893 -- Test flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" - it falls in the water.

December 7, 1893 -- Second flight of "Aerodrome No. 4" – it falls in the water.

July 31, 1894 -- Maxim's large test rig rises briefly from its support rails during a test run.

August 1-4, 1894 -- Octave Chanute and Albert Zahm sponsor the Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, bringing together an international assembly of aeronautical researchers.

October 1894 -- Test flight of modified "Aerodrome No. 4", using improved catapult. Aircraft falls in the water. "Aerodrome No. 5", with a one horsepower gasoline burning steam engine, is also tested. It flies 35 feet for three seconds before stalling and falling into the river.

November 12, 1894 -- Lawrence Hargrave, an Australian researcher, links together four of his box kites, adds a simple seat, and flies to an altitude of 16 feet in the device.

1894 -- Chanute publishes his book Progress in Flying Machines.

1895 -- James Means publishes the first of his three >Aeronautical Annuals.

May 6, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is launched from the houseboat's catapult; the left wing collapses and the aircraft lands in the water. Aerodrome No. 5 is launched at 3:05 PM and flies about half a mile in a minute and a half at an altitude reaching 100 feet – the first sustained flight of a heavier than air apparatus. In a second flight at 5:10, Aerodrome No. 5 makes three circles, climbs to about 60 feet, and is airborne for one minute and thirty-one seconds. The flight is witnessed and photographed by Alexander Graham Bell (box 45, folder 9).

June 1896 -- Chanute and Augustus Herring establish a camp at the Lake Michigan dunes near Miller, Indiana to conduct flight tests on a number of gliders – several of Chanute's designs, including his multiwing "Katydid", Herring's copy of a Lilienthal design, and a Chanute-Herring triplane collaboration.

August 9, 1896 -- Lilienthal's glider stalls and crashes from an altitude of about 50 feet. Lilienthal dies of his injuries the next morning. His last words are "Opfer müssen gebracht warden" - "Sacrifices must be made".

November 28, 1896 -- "Aerodrome No. 6" is flown from the houseboat – it flies 4800 feet in one minute and forty-five seconds.

July 1897 -- Ader completes his "Avion III", also known as the "Aquilon". It features two 20-horsepower steam engines and twin tractor propellers, and a wingspan of nearly 56 feet. The aircraft weighs approximately 880 pounds. Ader attempts a flight on October 14; "Avion III" is unable to rise off the ground.

March 25, 1898 -- Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt suggests the military use of the Langley "Aerodrome" to Navy Secretary John D. Long (box 40, folder 10).

April 6, 1898 -- Langley proposes a scaled-up version of the "Aerodrome" for military use to a joint Army-Navy board meeting at the Smithsonian. He requests $50,000 to build a large, piloted version of his earlier designs. The proposed aircraft is called the "Great Aerodrome", or "Aerodrome A".

June 1898 -- Charles M. Manly, a Cornell University engineering student, is hired as Langley's "assistant in charge of experiments".

October 1898 -- Major work begins on the "Great Aerodrome", also known as "Aerodrome A".

December 12, 1898 -- A contract is signed between Langley and Stephen M. Balzer of New York. Balzer is to design and build a 12 horsepower motor to power the "Aerodrome". On the same date, Langley writes to the U.S. Army Board of Ordnance and Fortifications, agreeing to design and build a flying machine. He estimates a cost of $50,000 to build his machine.

May 1899 -- A new, larger houseboat equipped with a turntable and catapult is delivered in Washington.

May 30, 1899 -- Wilbur Wright sends a letter to Langley at the Smithsonian, requesting material pertaining to aeronautical research. He says in his letter that he wishes "… to begin a systematic study of the subject in preparation for practical work." Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Richard Rathbun directs his staff to assemble a package of papers, including Langley's Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight and Experiments in Aerodynamics. The Wright brothers receive the package three weeks later. They later credit the material they received from the Smithsonian with giving them a "good understanding of the nature of the problem of flying."

June 7 - August 3, 1899 -- Additional flights of "Aerodrome No. 5" and "No. 6" are made from the houseboat at Chopawamsic Island.

July 1899 -- Langley visits Ader's workshop in Paris.

July 1899 -- The Wright Brothers build a five foot biplane kite.

October 2, 1899 -- Percy Pilcher dies of his injury after his Lilienthal-type glider breaks up in flight.

May 1900 -- Langley and the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory observe the May 28 solar eclipse in Wadesboro, North Carolina.

August 1900 -- The Wrights begin to build their first glider, a biplane design with a 17 foot wingspan.

September 1900 -- The Wrights arrive at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to test their glider on the dunes. They begin test flights in early October.

July 1901 -- The Wrights return to Kitty Hawk with a new biplane glider.

August 1901 -- Langley creates the Children's Room, with exhibits designed to inspire interest in science, technology and natural history, in the Smithsonian Castle.

Autumn 1901 -- The Wright brothers return to Dayton and begin a program to develop their own fundamental aeronautical data, building a wind tunnel and a test rig mounted on a bicycle.

September 19, 1902 -- The Wrights complete assembly of their new glider and begin flights the same afternoon. They continue the flights through the autumn. After an early crash, continual modifications improve the design. Wilbur writes to his father, "We now believe the flying problem is really nearing its solution." On their return to Dayton, the brothers file a patent on their design.

July 14, 1903 -- The houseboat is towed down the Potomac to a spot opposite Widewater, Virginia, about 40 miles from Washington.

August 8, 1903 -- Langley's "Quarter-Size Aerodrome" makes a successful flight from the houseboat.

September 3, 1903 -- Work is begun on erecting the "Great Aerodrome" on the houseboat catapult.

October 7, 1903 -- The "Great Aerodrome", piloted by Manly, is launched by the houseboat catapult at 12:20 PM. The aircraft is snagged by the catapult launch car, and drops into the river. Langley was in Washington, and does not witness the attempt. The wreckage of the "Aerodrome" is salvaged.

December 8, 1903 -- The refurbished "Great Aerodrome" is readied for flight on the houseboat, now moored below Washington at Arsenal Point at the confluence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. At 4:45 PM, the aircraft, with Manly at the controls, is launched. The tail assembly drags along the launch track, and the "Aerodrome's" tail begins to collapse. The "Aerodrome" drops into the river. Manly is briefly trapped by the wreckage, but cuts himself free and is rescued. In the aftermath of the crash, Langley is ridiculed in the press. Though the Army withdraws its support, Langley receives offers of financial support from businessmen to continue his aeronautical work. He politely refuses these offers and ends his aeronautical activities.

December 17, 1903 -- The Wright brothers make four flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first flight covered a distance of 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds; in the fourth flight, the "Flyer" traveled 852 feet in 59 seconds.

June 1905 -- The Smithsonian's accountant, W. W. Karr, is accused of embezzling Institutional funds. He is later convicted and imprisoned. Langley holds himself responsible for the loss, and thereafter refuses to accept his salary.

November 1905 -- Langley suffers a stroke.

February 1906 -- Langley moves to Aiken, South Carolina to convalesce.

February 27, 1906 -- After suffering another stroke, Langley dies.

March 3, 1906 -- Samuel Pierpont Langley is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, Boston.

May-October 1914 -- The "Great Aerodrome" is refurbished and is tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, New York; the tests are conducted by Glenn Curtiss. Using the Manly-Balzer motor and mounted on pontoons instead of using a catapult launch, the "Aerodrome" makes several short flights, the longest lasting about five seconds. Later a Curtiss 80-hp engine is substituted for the Manly-Balzer motor and a flight of about 3,000 feet is made on September 17. The Smithsonian Institution later displays the "Aerodrome" with an exhibit label that reads "The first man-carrying aeroplane in the history of the world capable of sustained free flight." This claim causes a rift between the Institution and Orville Wright (Wilber Wright had died in 1912) that is not fully mended until 1942. The Wright 1903 "Flyer" is presented to the Smithsonian Institution on December 17, 1948. Today, the "Flyer" is on exhibit in the Milestones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space Museum's Mall Building; Samuel Langley's "Great Aerodrome" is displayed at the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.
The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff:
Langley's staff engaged in his aeronautical work as listed in waste books, drawings and correspondence:

The Smithsonian Aeronautical Staff

F. C. Bache -- Laborer with the U.S. Fish Commission, then located at the Smithsonian.

Carl Barus -- Formerly of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Weather Bureau. Hired in 1893 as a physicist; acted as the liaison between Langley and the Aerodrome project staff. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Louville Eugene Emerson -- Laborer.

George L. Fowler -- An engineer, Fowler was hired by Langley to help design an engine for the Aerodromes.

William Gaertner -- Instrument maker.

Heed, Jr. -- Name found in a shorthand diary dated 1899 - presumably, a Smithsonian secretary or assistant.

Augustus Moore Herring -- An independent aeronautical experimenter and skilled designer and pilot of gliders; hired by Octave Chanute in 1894 and by Langley as chief assistant in 1895. Herring resigned (or was dismissed) in November 1895 and resumed work with Chanute. In 1908, he competed with the Wrights for the Army Flyer contract, but did not complete a finished aircraft.

Edward Chalmers Huffaker -- An engineer and aeronautical experimenter; built gliders based on the observation of bird flight; had delivered a paper at the International Conference on Aerial Navigation in Chicago, 1893. Recommended by Chanute, Huffaker was hired by Langley in December, 1894. He resigned from the Smithsonian in 1898 and went to work for Chanute.

L. C. Maltby -- Machinist, 1891-1899; assisted in motor design and oversaw the fabrications of the metalwork for the Aerodromes. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

Charles Matthews Manly -- Graduate of Cornell University (1896). Hired by Langley and placed in charge of construction of the Great Aerodrome in 1898. Piloted the Great Aerodrome on its two launch attempts, 1903. Manly resigned from the Smithsonian in 1905. He served as a consulting aviation engineer for different government agencies and corporations, including the British War Office, 1915; the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation 1915-1919 (from 1919-1920 as the assistant general manger); and as a member of the US Commission to the International Aircraft Conference, London, 1918. Manly also completed and edited Langley's Memoir on Mechanical Flight which was published by the Smithsonian in 1911.

Charles B. Nichols -- Smithsonian cabinet maker (1890-1893), in charge of construction of the small rubber powered models.

R. Luther Reed -- Smithsonian carpenter foreman (1880-1904). In charge of construction of Aerodromes No. 5 and 6 following between Herring's departure and Manly's arrival. Worked on design of the Great Aerodrome and the second houseboat. Part of the crew on the houseboat.

B.L. Rhinehart -- Smithsonian mechanic. Built a small steam motor for Aerodrome No. 0 in 1891. Performed design work on an experimental gasoline motor, c.1896.

William L. Speiden -- Draftsman or designer (1893-1899).

John Elfrith Watkins -- Assistant engineer of construction with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Joined the Smithsonian as an honorary curator in the Steam Transportation section in 1885. Named curator of Transportation in 1887. He rejoined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1892, and later worked at the Field Columbian Museum as director of Industrial Arts. Watkins returned to the Smithsonian in 1895 as the National Museum's curator of Technological Collections. In 1898, he was named curator of the Division of Technology. Watkins also served the Smithsonian as Engineer of Property, 1888-1889, and Chief of Buildings and Superintendence, 1896-1903. Watkins carried on much of the Aerodrome project's correspondence, and was the project's expert in steam engine design.

George B. Wells -- Smithsonian messenger (1894-1903). Most of the collection's shorthand notebooks (Series X) bear his name; possibly, he acted as Langley's stenographer.

William Crawford Winlock -- Curator, Bureau of International Exchange (1889-1899).
Related Materials:
Parts of the collection were separated at undetermined dates from the institutional records of Samuel Langley's time as Secretary (now held by the Smithsonian Institution Archives [SIA], as the Samuel P. Langley Papers, 1867-1906, Record Unit 7003).

In addition to Record Unit 7003, researchers may wish to consult these Smithsonian Institution Archives' collections:

Record Unit 31, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1866-1906, with related records to 1927.

Record Unit 34, Office of the Secretary, Correspondence, 1887-1907

Record Unit 7268, J. Elfreth Watkins Collection, 1869, 1881-1903, 1953, 1966 and undated.

The Archives Division of the National Air and Space Museum holds the Charles M. Manly Papers, (Acc. 1999-0004). Manly was Samuel Langley's assistant in the Aerodrome project from 1898 to 1903.

Langley Technical Files: The Archives Division's technical files are housed in the Archives-Library reading room of the Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. Material on Langley and his Aerodromes are housed in folders in the technical files Aircraft Series and in the Biographies Series. Because material from the Samuel P. Langley Collection is thought to have been transferred into the Technical Files, these file headings are included here. In the listings, "Images Available" refers to digital image files available through the Archives Division's image database; these images may be viewed in the Museum's reading rooms.

Langley Technical Files: Aircraft Series Technical Files

Langley (Samuel P.), General -- Photos, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198600-80

Langley (Samuel P.), General, NASM -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198601-80, AL-198601-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A (Great Aerodrome, Man-Carrying Aerodrome) -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198603-01, AL-198603-80, AL-198603-85, AL-198603-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, Curtiss 1914 Rebuild -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198605-01, AL-198605-80, AL-198605-96, AL-198605-97, AL-198605-98, AL-198605-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome A, NASM -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198607-01, AL-198607-80, AL-198607-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodromes, Numbered, General -- Photos, Photo Dupes. Folder(s): AL-198610-80, AL-198610-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 0 (1891) -- Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198612-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 1 (1891) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 2 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 3 (1892) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Transparencies, Photo Dupes, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198622-01, AL-198622-80, AL-198622-90, AL-198622-98, AL-198622-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Aerodrome No 6 (1895-96) -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198624-01, AL-198624-80, AL-198624-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Clockwork Model -- Photos. Folder(s): AL-198628-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Gliding Model Aerodromes (1895) -- Images Available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Ladder Kite (1896) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images Available. Folder(s): AL-198635-80, AL-198635-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodromes, General -- Documents, Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198640-01, AL-198640-80, AL-198640-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 4 (1895) -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198648-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 11 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 13 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 14 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 15 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198670-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 19 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198678-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 20 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 21 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 22 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198684-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 23 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198686-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 24 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 25 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 26 -- Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198692-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 27 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 28 -- Photos, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198696-80

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 30 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Model Aerodrome No 31 -- Images available.

Langley (Samuel P.) Proposed Man-Carrying Aerodrome (1898-99) -- Documents, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198710-01, AL-198710-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Quarter-Size" Aerodrome (1900-01 -- Documents, Photos, Negatives, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198720-01, AL-198720-80, AL-198720-85, AL-198720-99

Langley (Samuel P.) "Rubber-Pull" Model Aerodrome (1895-96) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198730-80, AL-198730-99

Langley (Samuel P.) Whirling Arm (1888-90) -- Photos, Photo Dupes, Images available. Folder(s): AL-198740-80, AL-198740-99

Langley Technical Files: Biographies Series Technical Files

Langley, Samuel Pierpont, general -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-01

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-02

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-03

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Aero) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-04

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-05

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Astro) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-06

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/Rocket) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-08

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles by/French) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-09

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-10

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-11

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-12

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-13

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (articles on) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-14

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Awards and Honors) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-15

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Wright Controversy) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-16

Langley, Samuel Pierpont (Obituaries) -- Documents. Folder(s): CL-094000-17

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photo Dupes. Folder(s): CL-094000-40

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Photos. Folder(s): CL-094000-80

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Negatives. Folder(s): CL-094000-85

Langley, Samuel Pierpont -- Images available.
Provenance:
Smithsonian generated, transfer, unknown.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- pre-1903  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Langley Aerodrome Family  Search this
Langley Aerodrome No 5 (1895-96)  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Drawings
Manuscripts
Photographs
Publications
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0494
See more items in:
Samuel P. Langley Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0494
Additional Online Media:

John Steiner Balloon Ascension Ambrotype, 1857

Subject:
Steiner, John H  Search this
Lowe, Thaddeus S. C  Search this
Physical description:
0.05 cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Ambrotypes
Date:
1857
Pre-1903
Pre-1900
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Balloons--History  Search this
Local number:
XXXX-0617
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions on access
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_227949

Modify Your Search






or


Narrow By
  • National Air and Space Museum Archives