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Pan American Civil Aeronautics Board Regulations

Creator:
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Civil Aeronautics Board  Search this
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
3.6 Cubic Feet ((8 legal document boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business records
Date:
[ca. 1970s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection is composed of paper documents which are related to Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) regulations pertinent to Pan American's operation, including CAB Economic Regulations, CAB Legislative History of Regulations, and CAB Air Mail Rates.
Biographical / Historical:
Pan American World Airways was active in the airline industry from 1927, when it established a regular scheduled international service, to its bankruptcy in late 1991. Pan American was the first American airline to operate a permanent international air service. From its first route between Key West and Havana, Pan Am extended its routes into the rest of the Caribbean, Central America and South America. In 1936, Pan Am inaugurated passenger service in the Pacific, and began service in the Atlantic in 1939. Pan Am started around-the-world commercial air service in 1947. Besides setting many 'firsts' with routes, Pan Am also established 'firsts' in the aircraft technology they chose, such as being the first to use Boeing 747s in regular scheduled services.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Pan American, unknown, 1998, 1998-0045, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Airlines  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Law and legislation  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records
Identifier:
NASM.1998.0045
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1998-0045

NACA/NASA Langley Photographic History

Creator:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center  Search this
Names:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center  Search this
Extent:
6.75 Cubic Feet ((15 legal document boxes))
6.3 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Date:
1917-1993
Scope and Contents:
These images, in conjunction with those of the follow-on National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which were taken at the Langley Research Center (NACA's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory), comprise the images in this collection. There are slightly over 1,000 images, broken down into three groups. The first group is arranged by aircraft used by the NACA/NASA at Langley. The second group are images used in the book Engineer in Charge; these photos are of experiments and personalities associated with the NACA years at Langley, 1917-1958. (Note that aircraft photos from the book are found in the aircraft listings.) The third group covers the NASA years of 1958 to 1992 and feature experiments and personalities from that period. In addition to the photographs, most of the images have a corresponding negative which will be entered in the Smithsonian Institutions Office of Printing and Photographic Services negative numbering system.
Biographical / Historical:
Langley Research Center was established as the nation's first civilian aeronautics laboratory in 1917. Langley leads NASA initiatives in aviation safety, quiet aircraft technology, small aircraft transportation and aerospace vehicles system technology and supports NASA space programs with atmospheric research and technology testing and development.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
NASA Langley Research Center Office of External Affairs, Gift, 1992, 1993-0011, Public Domain
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0011
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0011

The changing nature of rainfall during the early history of Mars

Author:
Craddock, Robert A.  Search this
Lorenz, Ralph D.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2017
Topic:
Flight  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Space sciences  Search this
Flight  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_142710

Rocket, Space, and Early Artillery History

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Extent:
15.26 Cubic feet ((14 records center boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Charts
Photographs
Reports
Manuscripts
Publications
Correspondence
Date:
[ca. 1000-1960]
bulk [ca. 1940-1960]
Scope and Contents:
This collection is a compilation of various reports, journals, letters, and books on three main subjects: early artillery, rockets, and space technology. The early artillery history is covered by manuscripts and reports from the Middle Ages to the mid-19th century. The collection then covers rocket development in Russia, Germany, England, the United States, and Austria from the mid-19th century to the 1960s.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Space History, NASM, transfer, 1986, XXXX-0007, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Artillery -- History  Search this
Artillery  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Rocketry  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics) -- History  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Astronautics -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Charts
Photographs
Reports
Manuscripts
Publications
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0007
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0007

Space Astronomy Oral History Project

Creator:
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Space Astronomy Oral History Project (SAOHP) (U.S.)  Search this
Aaron, Jules  Search this
Baum, William  Search this
Behring, William  Search this
Bergstralh, Jay T.  Search this
Bleach, Richard  Search this
Brunk, William Edward, 1928-  Search this
Code, Arthur D.  Search this
Connor, Jerry  Search this
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Drake, Frank D.  Search this
Fastie, William  Search this
Fraser, Lorence  Search this
Friedman, Herbert  Search this
Frier, Phyllis  Search this
Frosch, Robert  Search this
Gianoplis, George  Search this
Gold, Thomas  Search this
Goldberg, Leo  Search this
Harwit, Martin, 1931-  Search this
Hibbs, Albert R.  Search this
Hinners, Noel W.  Search this
Hinteregger, Hans H.  Search this
Johnson, Charles Yothers, 1920-  Search this
Johnson, Francis  Search this
Jursa, Adolph S.  Search this
Kondracki, Henry  Search this
Krause, Ernst H.  Search this
Neugebauer, G. (Gerry)  Search this
Neupert, Werner  Search this
Newburn, R. L. (Ray L.)  Search this
Newkirk, Gordon Allen, 1928-  Search this
Ney, Edward  Search this
Nier, Alfred  Search this
O'Dell, Charles  Search this
Pickering, William  Search this
Porter, Richard W. (Richard William), 1913-1996  Search this
Purcell, J. DeWitt (James DeWitt), 1912-1986  Search this
Rense, William  Search this
Roberts, Walter  Search this
Roman, Nancy Grace, 1925-  Search this
Rosen, Milton W.  Search this
Scheiderman, Dan  Search this
Schorn, Ronald  Search this
Schwarzschild, Martin  Search this
Silberstein, Richard  Search this
Simpson, John A. (John Alexander), 1916-  Search this
Spencer, Nelson  Search this
Spitzer, Lyman, 1914-  Search this
Strand, K. Aage (Kaj Aage), 1907-  Search this
Strong, John  Search this
Tape, Gerald  Search this
Tombaugh, Clyde William, 1906-  Search this
Tousey, Richard, 1908-1997  Search this
Tycz, Mona  Search this
Van Allen, James Alfred, 1914-  Search this
Wasserburg, Gerald  Search this
Webb, James E. (James Edwin), 1906-  Search this
Westphal, James  Search this
Whitsett, Charles  Search this
Wilshusen, Fred  Search this
Withbroe, G. L. (George L.)  Search this
Extent:
3.59 Cubic Feet (19 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Date:
1981-1991
Summary:
The collection consists of the transcripts for the Space Astronomy Oral History Project (SAOHP), which examined the early use of rockets and satellites to study the upper atmosphere and space for the period 1946 through the early 1960s. This project constitutes one of several oral history projects conducted within the Department of Space History, NASM. The principal investigator for the SAOHP was David H. DeVorkin, and the interview set contains 225 hours of interviews with 56 individuals. The central thread of this collection is how the availability of new technologies for research, first the rocket and later satellites, helped to create a new social matrix for research. The following were interviewed: Jules Aaron; Ball Brothers; William Baum, William Behring; Jay Bergstrahl; Richard Bleach; William Brunk; Arthur Code; Jerry Conner; Frank Drake; William Fastie; Lorence Fraser; Herbert Friedman; Phyllis Frier; Robert Frosch; George Gianoplis; Thomas Gold; Leo Goldberg; Martin Harwit; Ralph Havens; Albert Hibbs; Noel Hinners; Hans Hinteregger; Charles Johnson; Francis Johnson; Adolph Jursa; Henry Kondracki; Ernst Krause; Alfred Nier; Gerry Neugebauer; Werner Neupert; Ray Newburn; Gordon Newkirk; Edward Ney; Charles O'Dell; William Pickering; Richard Porter; James Purcell; William Rense;Walter Roberts; Nancy Roman; Milton Rosen; Dan Scheiderman; Ronald Schorn; Martin Schwarzschild; Richard Silberstein; John Simpson; Lyman Spitzer; Kaj Strand; Nelson Spencer; John Strong; Gerald Tape; Clyde Tombaugh; Richard Tousey; Mona Tycz; James Van Allen; Gerald Wasserburg; James Webb; James Westphal; Charles Whitsett; Fred Wilshusen; and George Withbroe.
Scope and Contents:
Audio cassettes and transcipts.
Arrangement:
The Space Astronomy Oral History Project interviews are arranged alphabetically by interviewee.
Historical Note:
This collection contains the interviews for the Space Astronomy Oral History Project. These interviews explore the early use of rockets and satellites over the period 1946 through the early 1960s to investigate the upper atmosphere and space. This project constitutes one of several oral history projects conducted within the National Air and Space Museum's (NASM) Department of Space History. The principal interviewer for this project was David H. DeVorkin and the interview set consists of 225 hours of interviews with 67 individuals. Please note that there are a few instances where audio cassette tapes of the interview subjects exist but without written transcripts while there are also a few cases of existing transcripts of the interviews without any audio cassette tapes. The following were interviewed for this project: Jules Aaron; Frank Bateson; William Alvin Baum; William Behring; Jay Thor Bergstrahl; Richard Bleach; William E. Brunk; Arthur Dodd Code; Jerry Conner; Fred Dolder; Frank Donald Drake; William G. Fastie; Lorence Fraser; Phyllis Freier; Herbert Friedman; Robert Frosch; Reuben H. Gablehouse; R.A.Gaiser; George Gianopolis; Thomas Gold; Leo Goldberg; Martin Otto Harwit; Ralph Havens; Albert Roach Hibbs; Noel Hinners; Hans Erich Hinteregger; Charles Yothers Johnson; Francis S. Johnson; Adolph Simon Jursa; Jerome Kohl; Henry Kondracki; Ernst Henry Krause; R.C. Mercure; Alfred O. Neir; Gerry Neugebauer; Werner Neupert; Ray Leon Newburn; Gordon Allen Newkirk; Edward P. Ney; Charles Robert O'Dell; William Hayward Pickering; Richard W. Porter; James D. Purcell; William A. Rense; Walter Orr Roberts; Nancy Grace Roman; Milton W. Rosen; Dan Schneiderman; Ronald A. Schorn; Martin Schwarzschild; Richard Silberstein; John Simpson; Nelson W. Spencer; Lyman Spitzer, Jr.; Kaj Strand; John Strong; Gerald Tape; Clyde William Tombaugh; Richard Tousey; Mona Tycz; James Van Allen; Gerald Joseph Wasserburg; James Edwin Webb; James A. Westphal; Charles Edward Whitsett; Fred Wilshusen and George Withbroe.
Provenance:
Space History, NASM, Transfer, 1999, 1999-0034, Varies
Restrictions:
The audio cassette tapes of these interviews have yet to be remastered and, due to their fragility, are unavailable to researchers. Transcripts are available to researchers though, there are restrictions placed on a number of them. A NASM staff member will advice the patron which transcripts are available for copying or viewing and how to order copies of transcripts and/or CDs.
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Atmosphere, Upper -- Rocket observations  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Artificial satellites  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Citation:
Space Astronomy Oral History Project, Acc. 1994-0034, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1999.0034
See more items in:
Space Astronomy Oral History Project
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1999-0034
Additional Online Media:

Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection

Creator:
Ninety-Nines (Organization)  Search this
Names:
Air Race Classic  Search this
Angel Derby  Search this
Ninety-Nines (Organization)  Search this
Powder Puff Derby  Search this
Earhart, Amelia, 1897-1937  Search this
Thaden, Louise (McPhetridge), Mrs, 1905-1979  Search this
Extent:
8.73 Cubic feet (23 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Publications
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1929-1981
Summary:
The Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection consists of scrapbooks (yearbooks) complied by the officers of the Ninety-Nines to document the organization. Included in the yearbooks are the following: photographs of the members and officers; news clippings of the organization, individual chapters and sections, and about individual members; programs from air races, including Air Race Classic, Angel Derby, and the Powder Puff Derby; minutes from the annual meetings; and newsletters of the organization, The 99news, Ninety-Nine News, and Ninety-niner.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 19 bound scrapbooks and 34 unbound scrapbooks chronicling the history of the Ninety-Nines. Some of the volumes are described with a date range (September 1, 1937 -- September 1, 1938), while others are described with a volume number and date range (Volume 28, 1956 -- 1957). Organization of the Ninety-Nines History Books varies somewhat over the years. Usually, the books begin with photographs of the officers of the national organization, followed by minutes and a program from the annual meeting. The books end with copies of The Ninety-Nines Newsletters from the previous year. Additional contents of each book are dependent upon the events that happened in a particular year. In the early years of the organization, the books include further refinements of the constitution and by-laws, and various newspaper and magazine articles regarding accomplishments of the organization or individual members. In subsequent years, the history books focus more on the air races in which members participated or various events sponsored by the organization.

The researcher will note that in 1953 volume numbers were assigned to the books. For the sake of continuity and clarity in the finding aid, the processing archivist assigned volume numbers where appropriate. These numbers appear in square brackets where appropriate, i.e. [35]. Due to the fragile nature of the bound scrapbooks, photocopying may not be possible.
Arrangement:
The Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection is arranged chronologically, by date and/or volume number.
Biographical/Historical note:
On November 2, 1929, twenty-six licensed women pilots gathered together at Curtiss Field, Valley Stream, Long Island, New York, to discuss the formation of a club "to promote women pilots among themselves, and to encourage other women to fly, as well as to break down general opposition to aviation." (1) After that first meeting, letters were sent out to the 117 licensed women pilots in the United States, giving all of them the opportunity to become charter members in the new club. The name of the club was to be determined by the number of women who wished to join. When 99 letters were returned by the approved date, the club became known as The Ninety-Nines. Many famous female pilots of the time, including Amelia Earhart, Ruth Elder, Viola Gentry, Phoebe Omlie, and Louise Thaden were charter members.

In the succeeding years, The Ninety-Nines have ably fulfilled the purpose set forth in the original letter. Many aviation records have been set by members of The Ninety-Nines. Amelia Earhart was the first woman to pilot an aircraft across the Atlantic and, in 1936, Louise Thaden and Blanche Noyes won the Bendix Trophy Race. Since 1941, the organization has bestowed a variety of scholarships and grants to members who are seeking advanced training in specialized branches of aviation. Today, the Ninety-Nines, Inc. has grown to include 6,500 members in 35 countries.

(1) Clara Trenckmann to Mr. Skinner and Mr. Mellen, October 1, 1929. "September 1, 1929 -- September 1, 1930," Folder 1, Box 1, Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection (Acc.XXXX-0470). Archives Division, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Provenance:
Ninety-Nines, Inc., unknown, XXXX-0470
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Societies, etc.  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Ninety-Nines Inc., History Books Collection, Acc. XXXX-0470, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0470
See more items in:
Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0470
Additional Online Media:

CGD-6 : The History of the Hollow Charge Effect

Publisher:
Deutschen Akademie für Luftfahrtforschung (DAL)  Search this
Author:
Freiwald, Heinz  Search this
Translator:
Huysler, A  Search this
Issuing body:
United States. Army. Ordnance Department. Technical Intelligence Branch (OTIB)  Search this
Extent:
35 Frames
Container:
Reel 1, Item 6
Type:
Archival materials
Microform
Frames
Date:
December 10, 1945
Scope and Contents:
Army Orndance Technical Intelligence Branch translation OTIS No. 1148, December 10, 1945. Translated by A. Huysler from Heinz Freiwold, "Zur Geschichte der Hohlraumwirkung Bei Sprengladungen", Schriften Deutschen Academie der Luftfahrforschung, Berlin, 1941.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Captured German Aeronautical Documents (CGD) Microfilm, Acc. XXXX.0408, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Captured German Aeronautical Documents (CGD) Microfilm
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0408-ref512

United States Navy Aircraft History Cards (Microfilm)

Creator:
United States. Navy  Search this
Names:
United States. Navy  Search this
Extent:
1.96 Cubic feet (128 35mm microfilm boxes; 63 16mm microfilm boxes; 1 microfilm carton)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Microfilms
Date:
1911-1973
Summary:
This collection consists of duplicate microfilm of individual aircraft records for USN aircraft. (Master films held by Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Department of the Navy). Each record consists of location of aircraft at each monthly inventory, as well as listings for transfer of custody between regular inventories. Includes information on units, flight times, time since overhaul, etc. from acceptance by USN until stricken from USN register. Material consists of five major sets: Aircraft, 1911-1949 (all aircraft, all records); Stricken Aircraft, 1949-1962 (records for aircraft removed from USN inventory during time period); Stricken Aircraft, Dec 1962-Jun 1965 (records for aircraft removed from USN inventory during time period); Active Aircraft, Dec 1962-Jun 1965 (records for aircraft still on USN inventory in Jun 1965); and Active Aircraft, Jun 1965 and subs. The records of active aircraft are in fiscal year groupings. The records are received by fiscal year as they are declassified. For the most part the aircraft purchased on Navy controlled contracts for supply under Lend-Lease or later similar defense aid programs are not included in these records. There are over 120 reels of 35 mm and over 60 reels of 16 mm microfilm holding these records.
Scope and Contents note:
In 1963 the Navy began microfilming the machine-printed AHCs for all stricken aircraft, resulting in 47 rolls of 35mm microfilm covering the 1950-1962 time period. The next year the Navy microfilmed the AHCs up through 1949 for all aircraft, resulting in 62 rolls of 35mm microfilm. With the transition to Fiscal Year activity reports the Navy microfilmed the AHCs for all aircraft stricken since the 1963 filming and for all aircraft active as of 1965, resulting in two sets of 16mm microfilm covering the period 1950-1965, one for the stricken aircraft (6 rolls) and one for active aircraft (13 rolls). From then on the activity records for each fiscal year were microfilmed on either 35mm or 16mm microfilm. In each case, loose AHCs were microfilmed in BuNo. order and computer-generated listings (either printout or direct to microfilm) were sorted in BuNo. order. The following table summarizes the film sets and microfilm types:

SeriesRecord TypeRollsFilm Size1949records 1911-1949, all aircraft (handwritten AHCs)6235mm1962records 1950-1962, aircraft stricken 1950-1962 (machine AHCs)4735mm1965records 1950-1965, aircraft stricken 1962-1965 (machine AHCs)616mm1965arecords 1950-1965, aircraft active as of 1965 (machine AHCs)1316mm1966records for FY1966, all active aircraft (FY AHCs)735mm1967records for FY1967, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)635mm1968records for FY1968, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)635mm1969records for FY1969, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)416mm1970records for FY1970, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)416mm1971records for FY1971, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)316mm1972records for FY1972, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)316mm1973records for FY1973, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1974records for FY1974, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)316mm1975records for FY1975, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1976records for FY1976, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1976trecords for FY197T, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)116mm1977records for FY1977, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1978records for FY1978, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1979records for FY1979, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1980records for FY1980, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1981records for FY1981, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1982records for FY1982, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1983records for FY1983, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1984records for FY1984, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1985records for FY1985, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm1986records for FY1986, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)216mm

The NASM holdings of these records consist of duplicate copies of the microfilm through FY1986, comprising 128 rolls of 35mm microfilm and 63 rolls of 16mm microfilm. The series identifications were assigned by NASM during the preparation of this finding aid to make explicit the different dates and record types included in the microfilm. The note "NASM M###" gives the roll identification assigned by the National Air and Space Museum in the 1960s when all microfilm held by NASM was sequentially numbered regardless of collection; these numbers are included for historical purposes and are cross-referenced in M-number order in Appendix 1 (page 12). More information regarding Navy Aircraft History Cards, and naval aviation in general, please contact the United States Navy at:

Naval History and Heritage Command, Archives Branch | 805 Kidder Breese St., SE | Washington Navy Yard, DC 20374-5060 | https://www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/naval-aviation-history/aircraft-history-cards.html
Arrangement note:
This collection is arranged into the following series:

Series I: 1949 - records 1911-1949, all aircraft (handwritten AHCs) Series II: 1962 - records 1950-1962, aircraft stricken 1950-1962 (machine AHCs) Series III: 1965 - records 1950-1965, aircraft stricken 1962-1965 (machine AHCs) Series IV: 1965a - records 1950-1965, aircraft active as of 1965 (machine AHCs) Series V: 1966 - records for FY1966, all active aircraft (FY AHCs) Series VI: 1967 - records for FY1967, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series VII: 1968 - records for FY1968, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series VIII: 1969 - records for FY1969, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series IX: 1970 - records for FY1970, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series X: 1971 - records for FY1971, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XI: 1972 - records for FY1972, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XII: 1973 - records for FY1973, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XIII: 1974 - records for FY1974, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XIV: 1975 - records for FY1975, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XV: 1976 - records for FY1976, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XVI: 1976t - records for FY197T, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Sereis XVII: 1977 - records for FY1977, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XVIII: 1978 - records for FY1978, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XIX: 1979 - records for FY1979, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XX: 1980 - records for FY1980, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XXI: 1981 - records for FY1981, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XXII: 1982 - records for FY1982, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XXIII: 1983 - records for FY1983, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XXIV: 1984 - records for FY1984, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XXV: 1985 - records for FY1985, all active aircraft (FY computer printout) Series XXVI: 1986 - records for FY1986, all active aircraft (FY computer printout)
Biographical/Historical note:
Since the United States Navy began to acquire aircraft before World War I it has maintained a variety of records relating to the aircraft in its inventory. From 1913 on it recorded information about individual aircraft added to the inventory from its being accepted until stricken from the list. Such records have had a number of official names --Aircraft Record, Aircraft History Card, etc --but are most commonly called "Aircraft History Cards." Originally the records were compiled by hand, but in 1950 the Navy converted its record-keeping system entirely to electronic methods.

Aircraft History Cards do not record the complete history and activity of an individual aircraft. They do not include information about missions or crews, nor do they record exact locations or manners of loss. Rather, they serve as a compilation of the locations and assigned units of the aircraft at set inventory times or as a record of transfers between locations or units. The type of information included and its presentation changes over time and falls into two main groups:

through December 1949

This period actually covers several different styles of record cards, but all are hand-written. The cards themselves are all preprinted and have various Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) form numbers and titles. The earliest, the "Aircraft Record," followed the aircraft through production to acceptance, then listed shipment information and trouble reports until the aircraft was stricken from the Navy list. Later, unnamed, forms continued this presentation until c.1939 when the Aircraft History Card (AHC) began to come into use (the transition is not uniform). The AHC recorded the location and unit assignment of the aircraft at the end-of-month inventory period and recorded dates of transfer in and out of the unit. Unfortunately, no inventory information was recorded for most aircraft for the late-1943 through mid-1944 period. Lend-lease aircraft purchased under Navy contract for delivery to allied powers were not recorded unless and until they returned to U.S. Navy custody. The AHC remained the standard record form until the end of 1949.

January 1950 and October 1986

Beginning in 1950, the Navy changed the format of the AHC and began to utilize electronic equipment to maintain its inventory records. From 1950 on AHCs were machine printed and recorded each transfer or change of status. Each such entry included location and unit assignment as before, but now also included aircraft status, flying time, number of landings, and age. In Fiscal Year 1966 1 (1 July 1965 to 30 June 1966) the Navy changed to a smaller (punch card sized) card listing only the activity for one aircraft during that fiscal year only. Beginning in FY1967, instead of printing the activity information on separate cards for each aircraft, the Navy printed out a single listing for all aircraft showing all the activity during the Fiscal Year, sorted by aircraft BuAer Number (BuNo.) and date. The printouts were in the same format as the machine-printed AHCs, but only contained the activity for a single year. In the mid 1980s the Navy did away with printouts entirely and printed the Fiscal Year activity directly to microfilm.

October 1986 and subsequent

According to the Naval Historical Center, the inventory records after the beginning of Fiscal Year 1987 (1 October 1986) are apparently available only in the Navy's on-line systems. As of this writing no hard-copy versions of these records are available.

1 Until 1976, the United States government fiscal year ran 1 July to 30 June. In 1976, the fiscal year was changed to run 1 October to 30 September. The three-month period between 30 June 1976 (end of FY76) and 1 October 1976 (start of FY77) was designated Fiscal Year 197T (for transitional).
Provenance:
Department of the Navy, Transfer, NASM.XXXX.0462
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes, Military  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Aircraft history cards  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Microfilms
Citation:
United States Navy Aircraft History Cards, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0462, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0462
See more items in:
United States Navy Aircraft History Cards (Microfilm)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0462
Additional Online Media:

7th Photo Group History Photograph Album

Creator:
7th Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group  Search this
Names:
Crosby, Bing, 1904-1977  Search this
Hope, Bob, 1903-2003  Search this
Extent:
0.21 Cubic Feet ((1 flat box))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photograph albums
Date:
bulk 1943-1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a 90 page photo album (unbound); each page is assembled from a montage of photographs, drawings (usually charcoal sketches), and/or typed text labels, with professionally hand-drawn graphic titles. The completed page setup was then photographed and printed as a 9 x 9 inch copy photograph. The first portion of the album presents an overview of the reconnaissance unit's activities, showing bombardment damage to German industrial targets, airfields, and V-2 rocket launch sites, and reconnaissance support for the US Army advance across France following D-Day. Also depicted are the dangers faced by reconnaissance pilots (shown flying the Lockheed F-5 Lightning) from "Weather, Fighters, and Flak!" Later portions of the album show assorted views of England, including unidentified rural areas as well as noted landmarks in London, Oxford, Windsor, and Stratford-upon-Avon. There are several pages showing visits by celebrities including Bob Hope and Bing Crosby. A couple of pages show assorted aircraft in flight, including North American P-51 Mustang, Boeing B-17 Superfortress, and Supermarine Spitfire in USAAF markings.
Biographical / Historical:
The 7th Photographic Group (variously known as 7th Photographic Reconnaissance and Mapping Group, 7th Photographic Group ((Reconnaissance)), and 7th Reconnaissance Group) was activated on 1 May 1943 and assigned to the Eighth Air Force on 7 July 1943. Stationed initially at Mount Farm, England, in March 1945 they moved to Chalgrove, England, and then from October 21 through November 1945 were stationed in Hitcham, England; they were inactivated in England on 21 November 1945. The group was tasked to obtain information about bombardment targets and damage inflicted by bombardment operations; provide mapping service for air and ground units; observe and report on enemy transportation, installations, and positions; and obtain data on weather conditions. 7th Photo Group received a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for operations during the Normandy campaign of June 1944; later that year they covered missile sites in France, carried out photographic mapping missions for ground forces advancing across France, and provided reconnaissance support for the airborne attack on Holland and for the Battle of the Bulge.
Provenance:
Gift
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
V-2 rocket  Search this
Aerial reconnaissance  Search this
North American P-51 Mustang Family  Search this
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress Family  Search this
Supermarine Spitfire Family  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Citation:
7th Photo Group History Photograph Album, Accession XXXX-0669, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0669
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0669

Oral history interviews with Paul Edward Garber

Creator::
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992. interviewee  Search this
Extent:
8 audiotapes (reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Transcripts
Date:
1974
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Paul E. Garber was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his seminal role in the development of the National Air and Space Museum during his sixty-nine years at the Smithsonian.
Descriptive Entry:
Garber was interviewed in 1974 by Smithsonian Institution Archives Historian Miriam S. Freilicher. The interviews discuss his background, living in Washington, D.C., as a child, and early interest in flying; his early career at the Smithsonian as a Preparator; the acquisition of many of the famous aircraft in the National Air and Space Museum collection; his career in the United States Navy during World War II; and the early years of the National Air Museum. The collection consists of 8.0 hours of audiotape recording and 187 pages of transcript, and occupies 0.5 linear meters of shelf space. There are two generations of tape for each session: original tapes and reference tapes. In total, this collection is comprised of 8 original 5" reel-to-reel tapes and 8 reference copy audiotape cassettes. Box 1 contains transcripts of the interviews and cassette copies of the original reel to reel recordings, which are in security storage.
Historical Note:
Paul Edward Garber (1899-1992), was the first Curator of the National Air Museum, now the National Air and Space Museum. Garber was born on August 31, 1899, in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and moved permanently to Washington, D.C., with his family in 1910. He developed an interest in flight early in life with kites, and it continued with airplanes when he saw Orville Wright fly at Fort Meyer, Virginia, in 1909 while on a trip to Washington with his father. His interest in flight continued to grow as he visited airplane exhibits at the Smithsonian and flew kites on his own. Once while flying a kite outside his family home on Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., he met Alexander Graham Bell, who helped him fix it. During World War I, Garber joined the D.C. National Guard, and then transferred to the United States Army as a Sergeant where he learned to fly airplanes at Bolling Field. After the war, he joined the Air Mail Service as a ground crewman, headquartered at College Park, Maryland.

Garber joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution in 1920 as a Preparator in the Division of Mechanical Technology where he repaired objects and built models for exhibition. This began his long career at the Smithsonian during which he followed his passion for flight and built a world-class collection of airplanes. Among the airplanes Garber acquired for the collection are the Curtiss NC-4, the first aircraft to fly across the Atlantic; Lincoln Ellsworth's Northrop Gamma Polar Star, which made the first flight across the Antarctic; Wiley Post's Winnie Mae, which established a number of speed records; and Charles A. Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis. During World War II, Garber took military leave from the Smithsonian from 1941 to 1946 and worked for the United States Navy. While a Commander in the Navy, he built recognition models of enemy planes to teach pilots, gunners and observers how to identify the enemy planes.

When the National Air Museum was officially founded on August 12, 1946, Garber was appointed its first Curator. During the early years of the museum, Garber spent much time commuting between Washington, D.C., and Park Ridge, Illinois, where the museum had a storage facility for military aircraft in a Douglas Company building used for airplane assembly during World War II. The Korean conflict made it essential that the storage facility be put back into operation, so Garber had the task of finding a new storage facility. He conducted aerial surveys of the D.C. area by airplane and found suitable land in the Silver Hill area of Maryland. The twenty-one acres of land was acquired by the Smithsonian, and storage and restoration facilities were built. In 1980 the facility was renamed the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility.

In 1967, Garber, in association with The Smithsonian Associates, founded the annual Smithsonian Kite Festival which was first held on March 25, 1967. The festival included kite flying on the National Mall, kite-making workshops, a lecture series, and a special display of kites made by Garber and his wife. In 1969, at the age of 70, Garber retired after serving the Smithsonian for forty-nine years. He continued to work at the museum for another twenty years as Historian Emeritus, and he was the museum's first Ramsey Fellow. He died on September 23, 1992, at the age of 93.
Topic:
Aeronautical museums  Search this
Aerospace museums  Search this
Curtiss NC-4 (P2N-1)  Search this
Polar Star (Airplane)  Search this
Spirit of St. Louis (Airplane)  Search this
Winnie Mae (Airplane)  Search this
Museum curators -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9592, Oral history interviews with Paul Edward Garber
Identifier:
Record Unit 9592
See more items in:
Oral history interviews with Paul Edward Garber
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9592

The Federal Express Advertising History Collection

Interviewer:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Fallon McElligott Advertising Agency  Search this
Federal Express Corporation  Search this
Names:
Ally & Gargano, Inc. (advertising agency)  Search this
Collector:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Interviewee:
Ally, Carl  Search this
Altenburg, Nancy  Search this
Burnham, Patrick  Search this
Frazier, Sharon  Search this
Gargano, Amil  Search this
Kelly, Patrick  Search this
Miller, William B.  Search this
Moschitta, John (actor)  Search this
Oliver, Tom  Search this
Presley, Carol  Search this
Sedelmaier, Joe (filmmaker)  Search this
Smith, Fred  Search this
Tesch, Mike  Search this
Williams, Carl  Search this
Extent:
6.6 Cubic feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Oral history
Commercials
Videotapes
Clippings
Storyboards
Posters
Audiocassettes
Abstracts
Advertisements
Audiotapes
Place:
Memphis (Tenn.)
Minneapolis (Minn.)
Chicago (Ill.)
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Date:
1972-1989
Summary:
Created in 1971, the Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery system was an innovative company known for its memorable advertising campaigns. The core of the Federal Express Advertising History Collection is a series of interviews conducted in 1988 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth. Twenty-five individuals associated with Federal Express advertising were interviewed about the company and its award-winning advertising.
Scope and Contents:
The Federal Express Advertising Collection documents the dvelopment of the overnight air freight delivery company with particular emphasis on the innovative advertising campaigns used to introduce and promote the company's services. The oral histories with individuals associated with both Federal Express Corporation and the advertising agencies form the core of the collection. Abstracts that provide biographical information and summaries of the interviews supplement the oral histories. Research files and company publications provide background information. Television commercials and print advertising contain examples, particularly illustrating the campaigns discussed in the interviews.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Research Files, 1972-1988

Subseries 1.1, Federal Express Clippings Files

Subseries 1.2, Federal Express Research Reports

Subseries 1.3, Research Files

Series 2, Interviewee Files, 1988

Series 3, Oral History Interviews, 1988

Subseries 3.1, Original Interviews

Subseries 3.2, Researcher Copies

Subseries 3.3, Masters

Series 4, Television Advertising, 1973-1989

Subseries 4.1, Television Commercials

Subseries 4.2, Storyboards

Subseries 4.3, Slides and Photographs

Series 5, Print Advertising, 1972-1988

Subseries 5.1, Federal Express Print Advertising

Subseries 5.2, Federal Express Mechanicals

Subseries 5.3, Slides of Mechanicals and International Marketing

Subseries 5.4, Federal Express Posters

Subseries 5.5, Print Reference Materials

Series 6, Public Relations Materials, 1973-1988

Series 7, Company Publications, 1973-1988

Series 8, Miscellaneous, Undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1971, Fred Smith of Memphis, Tennessee created the Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery system. He based his idea for a new approach to the air freight delivery service on the "hub and spoke system." According to Smith's innovative model, a fleet of airplanes would fly packages from cities across the nation each evening to a central "hub" in Memphis, where the parcels would be unloaded, sorted, and re-loaded onto other planes for travel to their final destinations. Smith's objective was two-fold: to expedite delivery of the parcels and to ensure their security in the process.

In 1977, Congress passed the Air Cargo Deregulation Act. This enabled Federal Express to fly much larger planes and to expand its business without substantial capital investment. During its first decade of existence, the corporation achieved remarkable success, enjoying its first billion-dollar revenue in 1981.

Federal Express originally employed two advertising agencies: Ally & Gargano, Inc. of New York City (1974-1987) and Fallon McElligott of Minneapolis (1987 - 1994). In its early years, Federal Express was attracted to Ally & Gargano due to the agency's small size and its entrepreneurial spirit. Fred Smith believed these traits would foster the creativity necessary for original and effective advertising to introduce Federal Express. It was the responsibility of the agency to convince customers not only to abandon such incumbants in the industry as Emery, United Parcel Service and the U.S. Postal Service, but also to trust Federal Express, a newcomer.

Ally & Gargano targeted the professional community and the general public through print advertisements and television commercials. Especially in the latter medium, the agency used humor as its primary marketing technique, emphasizing competitors' "slowness" and "unreliability." In 1981, the agency launched a series of widely acclaimed ads with John Moschitta as the "Fast Talking Man." The slogan "When it absolutely, positively has to be there overnight" seen at the close of most commercials served as a practical reminder of Federal Express' function.

Federal Express moved its account from Ally & Gargano to Fallon McElligott in 1987. Fallon McElligott's first television campaign used the phrase "It's more than just a package -- it's your business" and depicted scenes of different work environments. The campaign stressed the seriousness with which Federal Express handled its customers' parcels. In 1988, Federal Express was a sponsor of the Winter Olympics.
Related Materials:
Ally and Gargano, Inc. Print Advertisements (AC0938)
Provenance:
Made by the Smithsonian Institution and donated by the Federal Express Corporation, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Television advertising  Search this
Advertising campaigns  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Service industries  Search this
Overnight delivery service  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- Freight  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1970-1990
Oral history
Commercials
Videotapes
Clippings
Storyboards
Posters
Audiocassettes
Abstracts
Advertisements
Audiotapes
Citation:
The Federal Express Advertising History Collection, 1972-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smiithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0306
See more items in:
The Federal Express Advertising History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0306

United States Air Force Aircraft History Cards Microfilm

Creator:
United States. Air Force  Search this
Names:
United States. Air Force  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces  Search this
United States. Army. Air Corps  Search this
United States. Army. Air Service  Search this
United States. National Guard Bureau  Search this
Extent:
1.69 Cubic Feet (128 microfilm boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Microfilms
Date:
circa 1910-1953
Summary:
This collection consists of duplicate microfilm of individual aircraft records for the United States Air Force (USAF). The microfilm covers aircraft owned by the US Army Air Service, Army Air Corps, Army Air Forces, USAF, and the National Guard starting in July of 1923 and including those dropped from the active inventory before June 30, 1955. (Master films are held by the Air Force Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB, AL.) Each record card consists of a complete record of aircraft transfers (duty locations) from acceptance until retirement. Duty locations do not include unit, only theater/air base.
Scope and Contents:
Beginning in 1951, the USAF began microfilming the IARCs for retired aircraft. The first group filmed were aircraft retired as of May 1951 (119 rolls of 16mm microfilm), with additional sections including retirements through September 1952 and records "out of file" (not present in the retired aircraft file) in May 1951 (6 rolls) and retirements through May 1953 and records "out of file" in September 1952 (3 rolls). In 1971 the USAF microfilmed the records through 1954 for aircraft not retired by May 1953 (approximately 70 rolls) and all active aircraft from 1955 through 1964 (89 rolls). Later these various film series were designated by the Air Force Historical Research Agency (AFHRA; Maxwell AFB, AL), which maintains the original records, as ACR (May 1951 retirements), OA (out-of-file records from May 1951, retirements through September 1952 and May 1953), AC (aircraft active as of August 1954), and ACA (1955-1964 records).

Records were organized by military serial number, although some records were missorted and therefore filmed out of order. The project only encompassed the main IARC files and as a result the records maintained by the 15th SCU were filmed only in a few rare cases. Similarly the records maintained by overseas SCUs were not filmed. Thus the IARC records for wartime aircraft, particularly those transferred out of the Continental United States, remain incomplete.

The NASM holdings of these records consists of duplicate copies of the ACR and OA series of films only, comprising 128 rolls of microfilm. NASM rolls are identified consistent with the AFHRA designation scheme. The following listing gives the roll identification (ACR- or OA- number), the serial number range, and any special notes relating to the particular roll. The note "NASM M###" gives the roll identification assigned by the National Air and Space Museum in the 1960s when all microfilm in the NASM collection was sequentially numbered regardless of collection; these numbers are included for historical purposes and are cross-referenced in M-number order in Appendix 1 (page 8).

For access to the AC and ACA series, contact the Air Force Historical Research Agency at:

Air Force Historical Research Agency, 1600 Chennault Circle, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6424
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into the following series:

Series I: Records for aircraft retired from USAF service through May 1951

Series II: Records for aircraft retired from USAF service through May 1951 (Out of file records)

Series III: Records for aircraft retired from USAF service May 1951 through September 1952

Series IV: Records for aircraft retired from USAF service September 1952 through May 1953

The NASM holdings of these records consists of duplicate copies of the ACR and OA series of films only, comprising 128 rolls of microfilm. NASM rolls are identified consistent with the AFHRA designation scheme. The follow listing gives the roll identification (ACR- or OA- number), the serial number range, and any special notes relating to the particular roll. The note "NASM M###" gives the roll identification assigned by the National Air and Space Museum in the 1960s when all microfilm in the NASM collection was sequentially numbered regardless of collection; these numbers are included for historical purposes and are cross-referenced in container listing notes.
Biographical/Historical note:
The United States Air Force and its predecessors1 have maintained a variety of records relating to the aircraft operated by the service. Beginning in 1923, the Air Service maintained individual records for each aircraft added to the inventory listing location and activity from its acceptance by the service until its retirement from the inventory. Such records have had a number of official names --Aircraft Master Record, Individual Aircraft Record Card (IARC), etc. --but are most commonly called "Aircraft History Cards." Originally, these records were manually compiled from unit inventories, morning reports, and so on, but the increased use of automated systems in the 1940s allowed automatic compilation and machine printing of the IARC entries after 1940.

IARCs do not record the entire history and activity of an individual aircraft. They do not include information about missions or crews, nor do they record exact locations or manners of loss. Rather, they serve as a compilation of the locations, transfers, and "controlling activity" (the unit responsible for reporting the aircraft) of the aircraft at a set time. The exact type of information and its manner of presentation changes over time and can be best described in chronological groups:

through c.1940 This period actually covers a variety of record card styles, but the data is hand-written or typed. The information follows the printed columns on the card. The information generally consists of reporting location, inventory date (month and fiscal year2), and flying time (both total and during the inventory period). The reporting activity is generally the base, rather than the unit. Transfers between bases are included as separate listings which include the authority for the transfer.

c.1940 --November 1942 During this period the USAAF switched to the use of electronic accounting machine (EAM) technology for inventory reporting and this allowed the automated compilation and printing of IARC data. The data and card presentation remains constant from the forms in use before the change, but the cards are machine printed, rather than hand written. Some data is abbreviated; location, for example, is given by a seven-character abbreviation.

November 1942 --April 1944 At the end of 1942 the responsibility for maintaining the inventory and individual aircraft status information was shifted from Headquarters, Air Materiel Command to one of several Statistical Control Units (SCU) within the Continental United States (CONUS) or overseas. IARCs were still prepared as before for newly-purchased aircraft and added to the main IARC file to track each aircraft from the factory to its initial assignment within CONUS or to an overseas shipping destination. The 15th SCU was responsible for tracking aircraft inventory and status information for aircraft within the CONUS and developed its own form for recording this data. The 15th SCU forms radically changed the data presentation --flying time was no longer recorded, some unit information was recorded for the first time, and location either appears as the abbreviations used previously or as a four-character shipping destination code. No effort was made to transfer 15th SCU data to the IARC master file, so that no activity was recorded on IARC cards during this period. Further, the inventory records on aircraft outside of the CONUS were maintained by SCUs in theater; as a result the entries on IARCs end with their transfer overseas, save for the final entry showing their removal from the inventory or until they returned to a CONUS location.

April 1944 --September 1949 At the beginning of this period, entries again appear on the main IARCs, although the concentration on CONUS-based aircraft continued until after the end of World War II. There are no records for aircraft transferred overseas once they leave the CONUS until they are dropped from the inventory, return to the United States, or until the reporting requirements changed after the end of the war. During this period the entries recorded a change in the status of the aircraft --either a transfer of station or a change in the usage of the aircraft. Entries record the reporting and other involved station and unit and the type, nature, and date of the change. The exact presentation of the data varies slightly over the period but generally involves a number of codes used to speed transmission of the data.

September 1949 and subsequent Beginning September 1949, IARCs entries were printed in batches, giving rise to groups of entries followed by a "bookkeeping" line indicating the serial number and number of entries printed. The data presentation for each entry remains similar to the entries from the previous period.

During the machine-printed period (from 1940 on) IARC entries become more and more difficult to understand due to the increasing data density and the use of one- or two-character codes for a variety of information. The Museum staff is currently preparing a guide to understanding the USAF IARC, which will treat the various code groups and data presentations in greater depth.

1 Aviation Section, United States Army Signal Corps (1914-1918); United States Army Air Service (USAAS; 1918-1926); United States Army Air Corps (USAAC; 1926-1941); United States Army Air Forces (USAAF; 1941-1947); United States Air Force (USAF; 1947- )

2 Until 1976 the government fiscal year (FY) ran 1 July --30 June. Thus FY1941 ran 1 July 1940 through 30 June 1941.
Provenance:
Dept. of the Air Force, Transfer, unknown, XXXX-0461.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Airplanes, Military  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aircraft history cards  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Microfilms
Citation:
United States Air Force Aircraft History Cards Microfilm, Acc. XXXX-0461, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0461
See more items in:
United States Air Force Aircraft History Cards Microfilm
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0461
Additional Online Media:

History of Aeronautics to 1919

Collection Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 491, Reel 17
Type:
Archival materials
Audio
Date:
July 8, 1960
Scope and Contents:
Lecture on the History of Aeronautics, from beginnings to the Curtiss NC-4 (1919) deliverec by Paul E. Garber.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1991-0063-ref5112

Legislative history of H.R. 15963 (Department of Transportation Act), P.L. 89-670

Creator:
United States. Department of Transportation Act, 1966.  Search this
United States. Civil Aeronautics Board  Search this
United States. Congress (89th, 2nd session : 1966)  Search this
Former owner:
United States. Civil Aeronautics Board. Library  Search this
Extent:
4 Volumes ((approx. 2900 p. in various pagings), 29 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Volumes
Date:
1966
Summary:
A collection of official U.S. government documents relating to the legislative history of the 1966 Department of Transportation Act, prepared by the Civil Aeronautics Board for the use of its own staff.Types of materials in the collection include: presidential messages; bills of the 89th Congress (House and Senate) in various stages of the legislative process; amendments; committee prints and hearings; a copy of Public Law 89-670; excerpts from the Congressional record; typed and signed Civil Aeronautics Board inter- and intra-office correspondence; memoranda and other miscellaneous documents.
Arrangement note:
Organized into four series: 1. Aviation bills. 2. Hearings and reports. 3. Congressional record excerpts (continued into first half of v. 4). 4. Letters, memoranda and misc. material.
General note:
Title from typed t.p. inserted at front of each v.
Topic:
Transportation -- Law and legislation -- United States  Search this
Legislative histories -- United States  Search this
Identifier:
SIL-RR.XXXX-0002
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-rr-xxxx-0002

Edward Wellman Serrell Aeronautical Papers

Creator:
Serrell, Edward Wellman  Search this
Extent:
0.73 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Invoices
Notes
Technical drawings
Contracts
Date:
1865-1867
Summary:
The Edward Wellman Serrell Aeronautical Papers contains material related to the efforts, during and after the American Civil War, of Brigadier General E. W. Serrell of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to design and build the Valomotive, a steam-powered helicopter.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of a draft of Serrell's report on his activities and on the design of the Valomotive, February 10, 1865; his undated memorandum on the design of the Valomotive; Serrell's undated notes for a pamphlet "On the Subject of Navigating the Air by Steam;" a drawing of rotors and machinery of the Valomotive; and a drawing of a flying machine designed by F. H. Raffey. Also included is a draft of an agreement or contract between Serrell and an unnamed correspondent for the sale of the British patent rights to the Valomotive, dated March 26, 1866. Correspondence in the collection includes eleven letters to Serrell from Mortimer Nelson (January to August 1866), an early aeronautical researcher who patented an Aerial Car in 1861; two letters from F. W. Brearey, the secretary of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain; a letter from aeronautical pioneer F. H. Wenham of the Aeronautical Society to Brearey; a letter from Sir William Fairbairn of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain; and a photocopy of a letter to Serrell from P. T. Barnum, dated May 10, 1866, in which Barnum proposes exhibiting Serrell's Valomotive. The collection also includes several invoices or receipts from Serrell's project.
Arrangement:
The Edward Wellman Serrell Aeronautical Papers collection has been arranged by document type - Serrell's descriptions and reports on the Valomotive, correspondence, invoices and receipts, and drawings.
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Wellman Serrell (1826-1906), a civil engineer and Union Army general, was born in London on November 5, 1826. His family immigrated to the United States in 1831, settling in New York City. Serrell became a civil engineer, working in railroad and bridge design and construction. He worked at times for the Erie Railroad, the Northern Railroad of New Hampshire, the New Jersey Central Railroad, and the Union Pacific Railroad. He also assisted in the 1848 Panama Survey. Serrell prepared plans and supervised the construction of several bridge projects: the Niagara River suspension bridge at Lewiston in 1850, the St. John, New Brunswick bridge, and the St. Lawrence bridge at Quebec. He served as chief engineer of the Hoosac Tunnel (1855-56).

At the beginning of the Civil War, Serrell organized the 1st New York Volunteer Engineer Regiment (1st NYVE). In October 1861, Serrell was appointed lieutenant colonel of the regiment. He was promoted to full colonel in command of the unit in February 1862. The 1st NYVE took part in the 1862 South Carolina campaign, beginning with the expedition to Port Royal, October 21 to November 7, 1861. Serrell served as chief engineer of the 10th Corps and of the Army of the James, and also served as chief of staff of the Army of the James as a brevet brigadier general. While at Port Royal, General Ormsby Mitchell, commanding the 10th Corps, became interested in the possibilities of aerial reconnaissance. Serrell demonstrated a wind-up toy helicopter to Mitchell, and proposed building a full sized flying machine. Mitchell died soon thereafter, but Serrell later demonstrated in 1864 an improved toy to Major General Benjamin Butler, commanding the Army of the James. Serrell's toy helicopter reached an altitude of over one hundred feet. Butler ordered Serrell to build a full-sized machine. Moving to New York, and with funding provided by wealthy oilmen, Serrell designed a fifty-two foot cigar-shaped craft, equipped with a high-pressure steam boiler and "gliding planes" (wings), and four "fans" -- two for lift and two for propulsion. The rear fan was designed to swivel, thus serving as a vectored thrust propeller. The craft, variously called the Valomotive and the Reconoiterer, was assembled in Hoboken, New Jersey. Serrell contacted with the firm of Bennett and Risley of New York City to build a powerful but light steam engine; the design and construction of their engine was delayed until the Confederate surrender in April 1865 ended Army interest in Serrell's project, though he continued to work on the project into 1866. After the war, Serrell worked as a consulting engineer to many corporations, and served as president of the Washington County Railroad. Edward Wellman Serrell died on April 25, 1906, at Rossville on Staten Island, New York.
Provenance:
Allison Serrell, Gift, 2011
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Serrell Helicopter (1861)  Search this
Aeronautics -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Invoices
Notes
Technical drawings
Contracts
Citation:
Edward Wellman Serrell Aeronautical Papers, Accession 2011-0040, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2011.0040
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Edward Wellman Serrell Aeronautical Papers
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National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2011-0040
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National Aeronautics & Space Administration, Headquarters, History

Collection Creator:
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Container:
Drawer ON, Folder 116050-01
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
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Collection Restrictions:
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National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
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Collection Creator:
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Container:
Drawer ON, Folder 116050-80
Type:
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Scope and Contents note:
Photos
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Archives Reading Room at the Museum in Washington, DC. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Reference Desk.
See more items in:
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Collection Creator:
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Container:
Drawer ON, Folder 116055-01
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Documents
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Archives Reading Room at the Museum in Washington, DC. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Reference Desk.
See more items in:
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Container:
Drawer ON, Folder 117000-00
Type:
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Scope and Contents note:
Bibliographies
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Archives Reading Room at the Museum in Washington, DC. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Reference Desk.
See more items in:
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EDAN-URL:
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National Aeronautics & Space Administration, History Office, Newsletters

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum. Archives Division.  Search this
Container:
Drawer ON, Folder 117020-01
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Documents
Collection Restrictions:
The majority of the Archives Department's public reference requests can be answered using material in these files, which may be accessed through the Archives Reading Room at the Museum in Washington, DC. More specific information can be requested by contacting the Archives Reference Desk.
See more items in:
National Air & Space Museum Technical Reference Files: Space History
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