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Binney & Smith, Inc. Records

Creator:
Binney & Smith, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Binney, Edwin  Search this
Smith, Harold  Search this
Extent:
24 Cubic feet (64 boxes and 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Catalogs
Color charts
Annual reports
Price lists
Newsletters
Photographs
Date:
1897-1998
Summary:
Collection documents Binney & Smith, Inc. creators and manufacturers of Crayola crayons. Includes documentation on 20th century advertising, commercial packaging, commercial imagery, and retail merchandising: newsletters, annual reports, research and development records, color charts, advertising materials, and product information, including catalogs and price lists.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Historical Background, 1956-1994, contains documentation on the corporate history of Binney and Smith, and general background on how crayons are made. The Story of the Rainbow, (editions 1947, 1956, and 1961), provide corporate historical highlights and a history of the company. See also Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995 for information about the company.

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995, consists of annual and corporate reports, by-laws, minutes, correspondence, annual reports, stockholder materials and the attempted merger of Binney & Smith by Cheeseborough-Ponds in the early 1970s and the Kellogg Co., ca. 1979.

Series 3: Financial, Sales, and Marketing Records, 1902-1990, consists primarily of sales information and statistics for crayons and other products. The correspondence, 1913-1931, includes documentation on monthly sales with explanations and analysis. Binney & Smith created comparative data on a yearly basis for products and salesmen. The salesmen data, 1919-1932, contains the amount of sales, expenses, percentages, time periods, and increases and decreases in business. Specific salesmen are cited in reports. All of the sales information should be consulted as there is considerable overlap.

Series 4: Employee/Personnel Records, 1917-1993, contains payroll rate books, employee reports and miscellaneous documentation. The payroll rate books include the names of employees and the rate at which they were paid per hour. In some instances it is noted if the employee left the company.

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995, include newsletters and other publications produced by Binney & Smith, Inc. Arranged alphabetically, this series contains publications intended for both internal distribution such as the Rainbow Insider and external distribution such as the Art Educationist and Drawing Teacher. This series provides valuable information on the history of the company, how it operates, the types of products produced, and the employees. The Art Educationist, formerly known as the Drawing Teacher, which began publication in 1926, was a publication for art teachers that promoted the value of art in schools. It contains editorials, comments from teachers, and suggested art activities.

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987, includes a wide variety of materials documenting the Research and Development Department. The bulk of the materials include crayon formulas. Other formulas for products such as chalk exist.

Series 7: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1918-1998, contains several subseries with the bulk of the material beingdocumentation on labeling and packaging. The advertising accounts are arranged chronologically and then within each year, alphabetically by the name of the journal or magazine in which Binney & Smith advertised. The cards provide the name, address, date of contract, date of expiration, space allotted, rate, subject of the ad, and remarks if applicable. Information on distribution and "specials" is available for some years. The promotional materials consist of licensing information, press kits, and printed literature, particularly Promotional Plans which describe the details of each promotion offered for each product along with suggestions for merchandising activities.

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995, and Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1995, are arranged alphabetically by division within Binney & Smith, Inc. Both series provide documentation on the types of products available to the consumer and costs associated with each product.

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1995, consists of printed literature on a variety of products produced by Binney & Smith, Inc. The series is arranged alphabetically. The product inventories, 1920-1925, are arranged by product number in sequential order. There are three distinct inventories--those arranged by product number (#1-#7026); those arranged alpha-numerically (#04-#04Y); and those arranged alphabetically.

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992, contains published catalogs and advertising of crayon competitors. There is a scrapbook of competitors advertising contains correspondence, product information, advertisements, and newspaper clippings for the American Crayon Co., Art Crayon Co., Botts Mfg., Eberhard Faber Co., Ferst Brothers, Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Milton-Bradley Co., and National Crayon Co.

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997, includes several subseries documenting buildings and office spaces, displays, employees and machinery, products, portraits, photo albums, and oversized. The oversized photographs contain some panoramic shots of Binney & Smith company "annual outings." The photograph albums consist of several albums including the Middletown Township Workshop, 1952, an art workshop sponsored by Binney & Smith, Inc. Three albums contain photographs of various construction and expansion projects from the 1960s to 1975. Of note is the photo album containing photographs and newspaper clippings from the 1959 California Pacific Crayon Company fire. Also, there are Binney & Smith company albums, 1949-1976, that document a variety of activities within the company. Each album was photographed by W. H. Milliken, Jr., and specified the location, date, and number of photographs in the album. The albums cover topics such as art shows, trade shows, suppers, dinner parties, office shots, employee anniversaries, and retirement parties. The scrapbooks span the years 1962-1975, and contain both newspaper clippings and some black and white photographs documenting various company activities and its employees.

Series 13: Audio-Visual Materials, circa 1980s-1998, contain two 1/2" VHS tapes documenting the 40th anniversary of the Crayola 64 box and Silly Putty.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Historical Background

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995

Series 3: Financial, Sales, and Marketing Records, 1902-1990

Series 4: Employee/Personnel Records, 1917-1993

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987

Series 7: Advertising and Promotional Records, 1918-1998

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995

Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1925

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1925

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997

Series 13: Audiovisual Materials, circa 1980-1998.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1864, Joseph W. Binney (1836-1898), began a small chemical works in Peekskill, New York. He ground and packaged hardwood charcoal and manufactured small quantities of lamp black from whale oil. In 1880, he opened a New York City office taking on his nephew, C. Harold Smith (1860-1931) as a salesman. Later, Joseph Binney's son, Edwin Binney (1866-1934), joined the business. The organization was known as the Peekskill Chemical Co. Joseph W. Binney retired and in May 1885, Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith formed a partnership, Binney & Smith. Their early products included red oxide pigment used in barn paint and carbon for black tires. In 1900, the company began producing slate school pencils in its Easton, Pennsylvania mill. With the assistance of John Ketchum, the owner of a talc mine in North Carolina, Binney began combining old slate waste with cement and the talc supplied by Ketchum to produce slate pencils. Two years later, Binney & Smith introduced their white dustless blackboard chalk, "Au-Du-Septic" and in 1903, the company produced a box of eight crayons, which sold for a nickel. The word "Crayola" coined by Edwin Binney's wife, Alice, comes from "craie" the French word for chalk, and "ola," from oleaginous, meaning oily or pertaining to oil. Binney & Smith's best known product is Crayola crayons. However, its product line now includes: tempera, washable, and fabric paints, Liquitex acrylic paints, Magic Marker, chalk, clay, and Jazzy fashion and craft accessories. Binney & Smith acquired Silly Putty in 1977 and in 1984, became a subsidiary of Hallmark Cards, Inc. Products are still manufactured in Easton, Pennsylvania (world headquarters), as well as Mexico, and Indonesia and are available in twelve languages. In 2007, the company changed its name to Crayola LLC.

Scope & Content

The Binney & Smith Inc. Records, document twentieth century advertising, commercial packaging, commercial imagery, and retail merchandising. They are a major source for research on American consumer culture. This collection is divided into thirteen (13) series: Series 1: Historical Background, 1956-1990s; Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995; Series 3: Financial, Sales and Marketing Records, 1902-1990; Series 4: Employee and Personnel Records, 1917-1993; Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995; Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987; Series 7: Advertising and Promotional Records, 1918-1998; Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995; Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1995; Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1995; Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992; Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, c. 1900s-1997; and Series 13: Audio-Visual Materials, c. 1980-1998.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts were donated to the National Museum of American History, Division of Cultural History on November 18, 1997 and March 15, 1998. The artifacts consist of more than 150 objects, including 79 boxes of Crayola crayons from the 1900s to 1998; 24 boxes of chalk from the 1890s to 1998, 18 art kits; 10 sets of EDU-CARDS from the 1960s and 1970s; and 10 packages of Silly Putty from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on November 18, 1997, by Binney & Smith through Patrick Morris. Additional materials were donated in March 1998, by Binney & Smith through Tracey Muldoon Moran and in February 2000 through Stacy Gabrielle.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Chalk -- 1910-2000  Search this
Crayons -- 1910-2000  Search this
Packaging -- 20th century  Search this
Paint -- 1910-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Catalogs -- 1910-2000
Color charts -- 1910-2000
Annual reports -- 20th century
Price lists
Newsletters -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Binney & Smith, Inc., Records, 1897-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0624
See more items in:
Binney & Smith, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0624
Additional Online Media:

Hallye M. Cornelius and Glendora Horne Collection of Cigarette Packages

Creator:
Cornelius, Hallye Mercer  Search this
Horne, Glendora  Search this
Extent:
0.12 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Ephemera
Labels
Packaging
Date:
1945.
Summary:
Seventy-three (73) cigarette pack labels from the World War II years. The manufacturers include American, British, Chinese, and Japanese tobacco companies.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of seventy –three cigarette pack labels from the World War II years. Manufacturers include America, British, Chinese, and Japanese tobacco companies. The cigarette pack labels are listed alphabetically by brand name in the container list. If available, the tobacco company name and geographic location, are provided.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Donors were ephemera collectors.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Glendora Horne on November 7, 2002.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Tobacco -- 20th century  Search this
Packaging -- 20th century  Search this
Cigarettes -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera -- 1940-1950
Labels
Packaging
Citation:
Hallye M. Cornelius and Glendora Horne Collection of Cigarette Packages, 1945, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0826
See more items in:
Hallye M. Cornelius and Glendora Horne Collection of Cigarette Packages
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0826
Additional Online Media:

Virgil Johnson Collection of Cigarette Packages

Creator:
Brown and Williamson.  Search this
Johnson, Virgil  Search this
American Tobacco Company.  Search this
Benson and Hedges.  Search this
Philip Morris, Inc.  Search this
Lorillard.  Search this
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company.  Search this
Reynolds, R. J.  Search this
Extent:
25 Cubic feet (26 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Albums
Date:
circa 1890-1997
Summary:
As a teenager, Virgil Johnson [b.1918] became interested in the designs and symbols on cigarette packs like "Black Cat" and "White Roll", and he began actively collecting in the 1930s. His interest intensified during the 1940s when he was stationed in North Africa and across the Mediterranean region as a photographer with the U.S. Navy. Mr. Johnson collected cigarette packs for over fifty years, and was a member of the Cigarette Pack Collector's Association.

Approximately 6000 cigarette packages, foreign and American, arranged in 24 albums. Manufacturers include names such as those shown below.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately 6,000 cigarette packages, ca. 1890-1997, arranged in 24 albums. The cigarette packages offer a strong base for research into the categories of visual imagery created, associated with, and manipulated for the sale of tobacco products. Researchers interested in the history of design will also find these packages a useful source, as they reflect design modifications (in image, logo, typeface, and package features) over time for virtually every brand marketed in the U.S. and an enormous selection of those marketed overseas, by both U.S. and other global tobacco concerns.

Series 3: BOOKS ABOUT TOBACCO AND TOBACCO COLLECTING These titles have been transferred to NMAH Library.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 3 series.

Series 1: Cigarette Packages

Series 2: Articles and Other Publications About Tobacco

Series 3: Books About Tobacco and Tobacco Collecting
Biographical / Historical:
As a teenager, Virgil Johnson [b.1918] became interested in the designs and symbols on cigarette packs like Black Cat and White Roll, and he began actively collecting in the 1930s. His interest intensified during the 1940s when he was stationed in North Africa and across the Mediterranean region as a photographer with the U.S. Navy. Mr. Johnson collected cigarette packs for over fifty years, and was a member of the Cigarette Pack Collector=s Association.
Related Materials:
The Archives Center is nationally recognized as a site in which to pursue research into the history of tobacco advertising. The Warshaw Collection (AC 60) include many thousands of tobacco advertisements and cigar box labels from the 19th and 20th centuries; the Ayer Collection (AC 59) includes advertising proofsheets for American Tobacco, Phillip Morris, R.J. Reynolds and other cigarette and cigar manufacturers since the 1870s. The Marlboro Collection (AC 198) includes print ads, company publications, and oral history interviews with tobacco industry and advertising agency personnel. The Walter Landor/Landor Associates Industrial Design Collection (AC 500) includes documentation on package design for numerous tobacco companies since the 1950s, and the newly acquired Sandra and Gary Baden Collection of Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising (AC 611) contains several hundred ads featuring movie stars, singers, politicians, and athletes promoting tobacco products since the 1890s.

4,000 cigarettes, also donated by Mr. Johnson, each contained in a screw top glass vial, were donated to the Center for Disease Control's Office of Smoking and Health in Atlanta, Georgia.
Separated Materials:
Thirty (30) empty wood, metal, and plastic cigarette packs are also part of the Virgil Johnson Collection. They are housed with the Consumer Culture Collections in the Cultural History Division, which also holds several dozen cigarette packs from the Walter Landor/Landor Associates Industrial Design Collection (AC 500).
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History in July 1998, by Mr. Virgil Johnson, a resident of Alexandria, Virginia.
The collection was donated to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History in July 1998, by Mr. Virgil Johnson, a resident of Alexandria, Virginia.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Packaging -- 1850-1900  Search this
Packaging -- 20th century  Search this
Tobacco -- 1850-2000  Search this
Tobacco -- 20th century  Search this
Cigarettes -- 1850-2000  Search this
Cigarettes -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albums
Citation:
Virgil Johnson Collection of Cigarette Packages, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0645
See more items in:
Virgil Johnson Collection of Cigarette Packages
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0645
Additional Online Media:

Mahler Product Packaging and Advertising Collection

Donor:
Mahler, Steven  Search this
Mahler, Steven  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertising
Color photographs
Packaging
Date:
1946-2018
Summary:
The collection consists of examples of product packaging designed by Mahler and others. The packaging is for products such as snack foods, motor oil, tobacco products, and sport equipment.
Content Description:
The collection consists of examples of product packaging designed by Mahler and others. The packaging is for products such as snack foods, motor oil, tobacco products, and sport equipment. Also included are marketing guidelines and design parameters regarding particular product packaging, with photographs.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center in 2019 by Steven Mahler.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Occupation:
Packaging designers -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Food -- Packaging  Search this
Packaging  Search this
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising
Color photographs
Packaging -- 20th century
Citation:
Mahler Product Packaging and Advertising Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1482
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1482

Anthony Moreno Papers

Creator:
Moreno, Anthony M.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Annual reports
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
1965-1973
Summary:
Collection documents the life and career of Anthony Moreno, graphic artist and designer.
Content Description:
The collection consists of archival materials documenting the life and career of Anthony Moreno, graphic artist and designer. Included in the collection are a photocopy of Moreno's military document, advertisements, product packaging, companies' annual reports, magazines, and other printed materials.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Margaret Moreno to the Archives Center in 2019.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising art -- 20th century  Search this
Graphic artists  Search this
Packaging -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Annual reports -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
Anthony Moreno Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1478
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1478

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