The collection consists of photographs relating to American Indians, which were submitted to the copyright office of the Library of Congress in and around the early 20th century. Many of the photographs are studio portraits as well as photographs made as part of expeditions and railroad surveys. It includes images of people, dwellings and other structures, agriculture, arts and crafts, burials, ceremonies and dances, games, food preparation, transportation, and scenic views. Some of the photographs were posed to illustrate literary works, including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hiawatha, while others depict paintings or other artwork.
The collection was formed from submissions made to the Library of Congress as part of the copyright registration process. In 1949, arrangements were made to allow the Bureau of American Ethnology to copy the collection and some negatives were made at that time, largely from the Heyn and Matzen photographs. The project was soon abandoned, however, as too large an undertaking for the facilities of the BAE. In 1957-1958, arrangements were begun by William C. Sturtevant of the BAE to transfer all of the photographs from the Library to the BAE.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 59
See others in:
Library of Congress Copyright Office photograph collection of American Indians, 1860s-1930s (bulk 1890s-1920s)
In 1965, the Bureau merged with the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology to form the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology, and in 1968 the Office of Anthropology Archives transformed into the National Anthropological Archives.
Photographs made during Matilda Coxe Stevenson's field studies among Southwest Indians, particularly at Zuni. Images primarily document pueblos, people, ceremonies, and daily activities, as well as some photographs of Santa Fe, New Mexico, and ranches, probably those belonging to Stevenson or her friends. The collection includes photographs by William Henry Cobb and Wittick & Russell, as well as Stevenson's assistant May S. Clark and "Mr. Gray," a photographer that Stevenson hired as an assistant.
Matilda Coxe Stevenson (1849-1915; though her birth year is often erroneously listed as 1850) was the first woman to study the American Southwest and the first (and for a long time the only) female anthropologist hired by the US government. Born Matilda Coxe Evans in 1849 in San Augustine, Texas, Stevenson was brought to Washington, D.C., as an infant. She was educated at Miss Anable's English, French, and German School in Philadelphia and through private studies with her father and Dr. William M. Mew of the Army Medical Museum. In 1872 she married James Stevenson, a geologist with the US Geological Survey of the Territories. From 1872-1878, Matilda joined James on Ferdinand V. Hayden's geological surveys to Colorado, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah, and assisted him by compiling geological data. When the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) was created in 1879, Matilda Stevenson was appointed "volunteer coadjutor [sic] in ethnology" and she went with James on his BAE expeditions to the Southwest.
After James Stevenson's death in 1888, BAE Director John Wesley Powell hired Matilda Stevenson to organize her husband's notes. In 1889, Stevenson became regular BAE staff. From 1890 to 1907, Stevenson did substantial individual fieldwork at Zuni and published "The Zuni Indians: Their Mythology, Esoteric Fraternities, and Ceremonies" in the Bureau of American Ethnology's Twenty-Third Annual Report (1901-2). Starting in 1904, Stevenson conducted comparative studies at Zia, Jemez, San Juan, Cochiti, Nambe, Picarus, Tesuque, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, and Taos. In 1907 she purchased a ranch (Ton'yo) near San Ildefonso, which became her base for fieldwork. Stevenson died in Maryland on June 24, 1915.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 23
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Stevenson photographs previously filed in BAE number 4325, MS 4624, MS 4717, Photo Lot 14, and Photo Lot 33 have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 23. These photographs were also made by Stevenson and form part of this collection.
Additional glass negatives made by Stevenson are held in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Anthropological Archives holds Matilda Coxe Stevenson's papers in MS 4689.
Photographic images and portraits of Stevenson are in the National Anthropological Archives in the following collections: Photo Lot 33, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 89-19, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Additional photographs of We'wha, probably commissioned by Stevenson at a studio in Washington, D.C., are in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 2004-03.
The material is in the handwriting of A.S. Gatschet, in a composition book. In the same volume are numerous miscellaneous notes, many in German script; brief bibliographic notes, and notes of an apparently personal nature. There are also extracts from the Codex Wangianus, from Charles Lyell, and from others. In addition, there is a Chinese vocabulary in Chinese characters, on pages 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, and one sheet pasted in book.
Partial contents: Carib terms (obtained from Maria Antonia, a native of Rio Frio, Costa Rica (or Chulpan, native name), 6 pages. Guatuso words, 3 pages. (same source.) Apache words and sentences, page 112. Santa Ana vocabulary (additional page.) Hopi vocabulary, page 113. Jemez vocabulary, page 113. Tehua (Tewa) page 114. Isleta vocabulary, page 114. Yohuns (Yojuane) vocabulary, page 115. Notes to vocabularies, page 115. Dakota language (words, etc.) page 122-129. Apache language (words, etc.) page 130. Dakota (Santee), page 131. Hidatsa, page 132. List of American languages, pages 133-138. Nevome grammatical notes, page 148. (Kasua) vocabulary, pages 151-152. Tobikhars (Gabrieleno) vocabulary, page 153. Island of LaCruz page 154 (from California Farmer- 1836). Few Poosepatuck words, page 154. Received by A.S. Gatschet, September 6, 1875. Chibcha vocabulary pages 155-170. Arawak language of Guiana in its linguistic and ethnological relations. By D.G. Brinton (1871) - Extracts from, pages 188-190. Chabas, les Papyrus---de Berlin, 1863- vocabulary in hieroglyphic symbols, pages 194-5. Hidatsa vocabulary, pages 206-208.
Page 114- Brief discussion of location of "Tehua" (Tanoan) pueblos. Gatschet, A.S. Pages 151-52 in notebook- "Kasua" vocabulary. June, 1875. Loew, Oscar. Page 153- Brief vocabulary of the "Tobokhars, extinct tribe at the San Gabriel Mission, collected from an old sick chief, [by] Oscar Lowe, June, 1875...(Fernando Quinto, who recollects Fremont's Exped..." This is not the same as the main "Tobikhar" vocabulary from Lowe in Bureau of American Ethnology Manuscript 774. Page 113- Note on "Moqui" (Hopi) language, with brief vocabulary. Gatschet, A.S. 1 slip bound between pages 112-113 in notebook- Eleven words and phrases of the Santa Ana or Silla language. Gatschet, A.S. Pages 122-129-Dakota vocabularies. 1890's? Autograph document. Gatschet, A.S.
Contents: Carib terms (obtained from Maria Antonia (or Chulpan, native name), 6 pages. Guatuso words, 3 pages (same source) Apache words and sentences, page 112. Santa Ana vocabulary (additional page) Hopi vocabulary page 113. Jemez vocabulary page 113. Tehua (Tewa) page 114. Isleta vocabulary page 114. Yohuns (Yojuane) vocabulary page 115. Notes to vocabularies, page 115. Dakota language (words, etc.) pages 122-129. Apache language (words, etc.) page 130. Dakota (Santee) page 131. Hidatsa page 132. List of American Languages, pages 133-138. Nevome grammatical notes page 148. Kasua vocabulary pages 151-152. Tobikhars (Gabrieleno) vocabulary page 153. Island of LaCruz page 154 8from California Farmer - 1836). Few Poosepatuck words, page 154. Received from A. S. Gatschet September 6, 1875. Chibcha vocabulary pages 155-170. Arawak language of Guiana in its linguistic and ethnological relations By D. G. Brinton (1871) - Extracts from pages 188-190 Chabas, les Papyrus --- de Berlin, 1863- vocabulary in hieroglyphic symbols, page 194-5. Hidatsa vocabulary pages 206-208.
Contents: Tanoan. Gatschet, A. S. Brief discussion of location of "Tehua" (Tanoan) pueblos. 1/3 page, page 114. Barbareno Chumash. Loew, Oscar. "Kasua" vocabulary. June, 1875. Pages 151-52 in notebook. Gabrielino. Loew, Oscar. Brief vocabulary of "Tobikhars, extinct tribe at the San Gabriel Mission, collected from an old sick chief, [by] Oscar Loew, June, 1875...(Fernando Quinto. who recollects Fremont's Exped..." Page 153 in notebook. This is not the same as the main "Tobikhar" vocabulary from Loew in Bureau of American Ethnology Manuscript 774. Hopi. Gatschet, A. S. Note on "Moqui" (Hopi) language, with brief vocabulary. Page 113 (1/4 page) in notebook. Page 113 on Microfilm Negative Reel 11 (Hopi manuscript reel). Sia. Gatschet, A. S. Eleven words and phrases of the Santa Ana or Silla language. 1 slip, bound between pages 112-113 in notebook. Dakota Gatschet, A. S. Dakota vocabularies. [1890s ?] Autograph document. 7 pages.
Lantern slides depicting the people and landscape of the American Southwest. Images include those of Southwest Indians, dwellings and pueblos, churches, dances and ceremonies, excavations (including Pueblo Bonito and Neil M. Judd with his excavation party), pictographs, and landscapes. Tribes represented include Acoma, White Mountain Apache, Hopi (Mishongnovi), Laguna, Navajo, Taos, and Santa Clara Indians. The slides were largely commercially distributed by the George W. Bond, Chicago Slide Company, Chicago Transparency Company (for the Santa Fe Railroad), Detroit Slide Company, Edward H. Kemp, National Geographic Society, and United States Bureau of Reclamation. The collection was listed as the "Casey collection" by Father John Montgomery Cooper when it was brought to the museum.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 32, USNM ACC 211312
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional artifacts donated by the Department of Anthropology, Catholic University of America in accession 211312 held in the Department of Anthropology collections and in National Anthropological Archives Photo lot 20.