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Ellen Ochoa Innovative Lives Presentation

Topic:
Innovative Lives Program (NMAH public program series)
Interviewee:
Ochoa, Ellen, Dr., 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Names:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Extent:
0.75 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videotapes
Lectures
Slides
Date:
1996/09/24
Scope and Contents:
Original master and reference videos documenting children's program by Dr. Ellen Ochoa. Dr. Ellen Ochoa discusses her role as an inventor, scientist, and astronaut at NASA.
Arrangement:
Divided into 3 series: 1. Original videos; 2. Master videos; 3. Reference videos.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Ochoa was born in Los Angeles, Calif. B.S. in physics, San Diego State, 1975; master's and doctorate in electrical engineering, Stanford University, 1981 and 1985. Dr. Ochoa holds three patents in the field of optical processing and has worked as a research scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) since 1988. In 1990 she became the first Hispanic woman astronaut selected by NASA. In April 1993, Ochoa flew as a mission specialist on the space shuttle Discovery.
Provenance:
National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution Department of History.,Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, 12th St. and Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C.,Made for NMAH.,1997.3162.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Signed copies of releases on file.
Topic:
Space shuttles -- 1990-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Space flight -- 1990-2000  Search this
Hispanic Americans -- 1950-2000  Search this
Electric engineering -- 1980-2000  Search this
Astronautics -- 1990-2000  Search this
Inventions -- 1980-2000  Search this
Astronauts -- 1990-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Lectures -- 1990-2000
Slides
Citation:
Ellen Ochoa Innovative Lives Presentation, 1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0595
See more items in:
Ellen Ochoa Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0595

Patsy Sherman Innovative Lives Presentation

Topic:
Scotchgard
Innovative Lives Program (NMAH public program series)
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Inventor:
Sherman, Patsy  Search this
Names:
3M Company  Search this
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Corporation  Search this
Smith, Samuel  Search this
Extent:
0.35 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videotapes
Photographs
Date:
March 12, 1997.
Scope and Contents:
Videohistory contains original and reference videos and photographs documenting a lecture program for children by Patsy Sherman, inventor of Scotchgard.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Original Videos

Series 2: Master Videos

Series 3: Reference Videos

Series 4: Photographs
Biographical / Historical:
Patsy Sherman was born in Minnesota. After graduating from Gustavus Adolphus College in 1952, Sherman was employed by 3M Company. At 3M, Sherman and a fellow researcher, Samuel Smith attempted to create a new synthetic material to use with jet fuel. During their experiments, Patsy accidentally spilled some of the compound on her tennis shoe and noticed that the shoe remained clean. This discovery led to the development of Scotchguard. Scotchguard is a compound used worldwide to repel soil on sofas, chairs, tablecloths, clothing, and other objects that are used daily. Patsy Sherman's name appears on 16 patents awarded to 3M for their inventions. She has been awarded numerous honors for her achievements and was inducted into the Minnesota Inventors Hall of Fame in 1989. She retired from 3M in 1992.
Provenance:
National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution,,Lemelson Center for the Study of Innovation and Invention, Rm. 1016, MRC 604, 12th and Constitution Ave., N.W. 20560.,Made for NMAH.,1997.3177.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Signed releases on file.
Topic:
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Women chemists -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Textile fabrics -- 20th century  Search this
Chemistry -- 20th century  Search this
Chemists -- 20th century  Search this
Slides  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Photographs
Citation:
Patsy Sherman Innovative Lives Presentation, March 12, 1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0599
See more items in:
Patsy Sherman Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0599

Stephanie Kwolek Innovative Lives Presentation

Creator:
Kwolek, Stephanie  Search this
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Names:
DuPont.  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Lectures
Videotapes
Date:
1996 March 25
Summary:
This collection consists of two and one half hours of original (BetaCam SP), master (BetaCam SP) and reference (viewing) copies (VHS), documenting a lecture program for children on March 25, 1996 by Stephanie Kwolek, inventor of Kevlar. Kwolek discusses her invention of Kevlar as well as her background and life experiences.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of two and one half hours of original (betaCam SP), master (BetaCam SP) and reference (viewing) copies (VHS), documenting a lecture program for children on March 25, 1996 by Stephanie Kwolek, inventor of Kevlar. Kwolek discusses her invention of Kevlar as well as her background and life experiences.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1, Reference Videos, 1996

Series 2, Master Videos, 1996

Series 3, Original Videos, 1996
Biographical / Historical:
Stephanie L. Kwolek was born in 1923 in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. She earned a bachelors degree in chemistry from Margaret Morrison Carnegie College, now known as Carnegie Mellon University, in 1946. Upon graduating 1946, Kwolek joined the DuPont Company in Buffalo, New York, where she worked in the Textile Fibers Pioneering Research Laboratory. In the laboratory she researched and developed new synthetic fibers. Kwolek's specialty at DuPont was low-temperature polymerization. She discovered the first liquid crystal polymers, which created an entire branch of research and invention. In 1964, Kwolek began searching for new high-performance chemical compounds. By 1965, she had discovered a compound that, when spun into fiber, was very strong and stiff. She found that the rigidness of this fiber nearly doubled when exposed to heat. The final product resulted in Kevlar (US Patent 3,819,587; RE 30,352) a high-performance aramid fiber used in bullet-resistant vests, crash helmets, boat shells, and radial tires.

Kevlar provides low stretch or elongation, improved cut resistance, better heat resistance, increased strength, reduced weight, and better impact resistance. Kwolek received a patent for Kevlar in 1971. During her forty year career, Kwolek received twenty-eight patents. She retired from DuPont in 1986.

Kwolek has received various awards for her invention, including the American Society of Metals Award in 1978, and both the American Chemical Society Creative Invention Award and the American Institute of Chemists Chemical Pioneer Ward in 1980. In July of 1995, Kwolek was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 1996 she received the National Medal of Technology, and in 1997 the Perkin Medal was presented by the American Section of the Society of Chemical Industry to Kwolek. Both honors are rarely awarded to women. Kwolek received the 1999 Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award for her innovations in the polymers industry, most notably her invention of Kevlar®.

References

Howell, Caitlan. Innovative Lives, Stephanie Kwolek and Kevlar, the Wonder Fiber, 1996.

Stephanie L. Kwolek
Provenance:
Created by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, March 25, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Series 3, Original Videos (BetaCam SP) is stored off-site. Arrangements must be made with the Archives Center two weeks prior to a scheduled visit.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Release forms exist.
Topic:
Chemists -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Chemistry -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lectures -- 1990-2000
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Citation:
Stephanie Kwolek Innovative Lives Presentation, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0596
See more items in:
Stephanie Kwolek Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0596

Patricia Bath Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, [videotapes]

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Bath, Patricia, Dr., 1949-  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Oral history
Videotapes
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Interviews
Slides
Photographs
Date:
February 17, 2000 and March 1, 2000.
Summary:
Dr. Patricia Bath was born in 1949 in New York. She conceived of the Laserphaco Probe in 1981 and patented it in 1988 (US Patent # 4,744,360 for an "Apparatus for ablating and removing cataract lenses"). The collection contains original and reference video footage of Dr. Bath's Innovative Lives Presentation documenting her work in the field of ophthalmology and her work creating and patenting the LaserPhaco Probe, an instrument to remove cataracts. Also included is an interview with Dr. Bath at her home in Los Angeles and an interview with her daughter, Eraka Bath and supplemental documentation assembled by Dr. Bath. The documentation includes photocopies of articles, patents, biographical sketch material, and selected publications and references to related to lasers and surgery of Dr. Bath
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 8.5 hours of original (BetaCam SP) video recordings and reference (viewing) copies (VHS) documenting the life and career of Dr. Patricia Bath. The recordings include a presentation by Dr. Bath for the Lemelson Center's Innovative Lives Program and interviews at her home and laboratory in Los Angeles. The collection also includes an interview with Dr. Bath's daughter, Eraka Bath, and copies of footage from other sources about Dr. Bath's work. Additionally, there is supplemental documentation assembled by Dr. Bath. The documentation includes photocopies of articles, patents, biographical sketch material, and selected publications and references to related to lasers and surgery of Dr. Bath.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1, Original Videos, 2000

Series 2, Reference Videos, 2000

Series 3, Supplemental Documentation
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Patricia Bath (1949-) was born in New York. She attended Charles Evans Hughes High School, Hunter College (B.A. 1964), and Howard University College of Medicine (M.D. 1968). Bath held a fellowship in ophthalmology at Columbia University (1969-1970) and an internship at New York University (1970-1973) where she was the first African American resident in ophthalmology. Dr. Bath later joined the faculty of UCLA and Charles R. Drew University in surgery and ophthalmology and later the Department of Ophthalmology at UCLA's Jules Stein Eye Institute. In 1976, Dr. Bath and other colleagues formed the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness (AIPB). Dr. Bath conceived of the Laserphaco, an instrument to remove cataracts in 1981. She received US patent #4,744,360 for an "Apparatus for ablating and removing cataract lenses" on May 17, 1988. Later patents include a method and apparatus for ablating and removing cataract lenses; laser apparatus for surgery of cataractous lenses; and pulsed ultrasound method for fragmenting/emulsifying and removing cataractous lenses. Dr. Bath retired from the UCLA Medical Center in 1993 to work in telemedicine, the use of electronic communication to provide medical services to remote areas where healthcare is limited.

The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation was founded in 1995 at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History through a generous gift from the Lemelson Foundation. The Center's mission is: to document, interpret, and disseminate information about invention and innovation; to encourage inventive creativity in young people; and to foster an appreciation for the central role invention and innovation play in the history of the United States. The Innovative Lives series brings together Museum visitors and especially, school age children, and American inventors to discuss inventions and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product. This collection was recorded by the Innovative Lives Program of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
Related Materials:
An anatomical eye (accession # 2000.0038.01) was donated to the Division of Medicine and Science in 2000 by Dr. Patricia Bath.
Provenance:
This collection was recorded by the Innovative Lives Program of The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation on March 1, 2000. The Innovative Lives series brings Museum visitors and American inventors together to discuss inventions and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ophthalmology  Search this
African American physicians  Search this
Surgeons  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
African American women  Search this
Eye equipment and supplies  Search this
Eye diagnosis  Search this
Eye -- Examination  Search this
Eye -- Diseases  Search this
Inventions -- 1980-2000  Search this
Laserphaco (medical instrument)  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Ophthalmologists  Search this
Medicine -- Communication systems  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Videotapes
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Slides
Photographs
Citation:
Dr. Patricia Bath Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0753
See more items in:
Patricia Bath Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, [videotapes]
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0753

David Gittens Innovative Lives Presentation

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Gittens, David  Search this
Names:
Gyro 200 Company.  Search this
Extent:
0.35 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videotapes
Lectures
Slides
Date:
May 7, 1997
Scope and Contents:
Original and reference videos documenting an NMAH children's program by David Gittens, the inventor of the Ikenga 5302 gyroplane.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Original videos, 1997

Series 2: Master videos, 1997

Series 3: Reference Videos, 1997

Series 4; Photographs, 1997
Biographical / Historical:
Gittens's Ikenga 5302 has several applications--aerial photography, aerial surveying, air courier, border patrol, cattle herding, commuting, crop spraying, flying doctors, intelligence gathering, pipe line inspection, postal service, reconnaissance, and search and rescue. The name Ikenga is derived from Ibomythology in Eastern Nigeria and refers to the creative life forces of humanity.
Related Materials:
The Ikenga 5302 gyroplane is part of National Air and Space Museum's collections, housed at the Garber facility, Silver Hill, Maryland.
Provenance:
Made for the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Autogiros  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Lectures -- 1990-2000
Slides
Citation:
David Gittens Innovative Lives Presentation, May 7, 1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0598
See more items in:
David Gittens Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0598

Charles Adler, Jr. Collection

Creator:
Adler, Charles, Jr., 1899-1980 (engineer, inventor)  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet (; 15 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Patent applications
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Receipts
Place:
Baltimore (Md.) -- 20th century
Date:
1899 - 1980
Summary:
The collection contains correspondence, news clippings, photographs, patents, and printed materials documenting the inventive career of Charles Adler, Jr. Adler is best known for his development of the first traffic actuated signal light in 1928.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains biographical information about Adler and his career. Materials relating to his professional activities include newspaper clippings, photographs and other memorabilia; his published writings include articles in periodicals and newspapers. In addition, there are patent applications, royalty receipts and correspondence, as well as lengthy descriptions of various safety devices Adler invented. Many photographs are not captioned, including images of devices Adler invented, as well as images of aircraft, automobiles, and trains. There are portraits of family members, Adler, and his associates.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Biographical Material, 1899-1980

Series 2, Scrapbooks and Clippings, 1920-1989

Series 3, Correspondence, 1928-1975

Series 4, Patents and Inventions, 1929-1980

Series 5, Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1920-1930

Series 6, Publications, 1952-1980
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Adler, Jr. (1899-1980), a professional engineer and inventor was a life-long resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He began his career as an inventor at age 14, receiving a patent on an electric automotive brake. After attending Johns Hopkins University, he served briefly in the Army during World War I and worked at several jobs before being associated in 1919 with the Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad, where he developed a series of safety devices. In 1928 he developed and installed in Baltimore the first traffic actuated signal light. In 1937 he became a consultant to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, continuing to invent safety and signal devices for automobiles, trains and aircraft. He was granted over sixty United States patents. He was a licensed pilot and a member of numerous professional engineering societies. From 1953-1959, Adler served on the Maryland State Aviation Commission and he was a member of the Maryland Traffic Safety Commission from 1952 until his death in 1980.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Charles Adler, Jr.'s daughter, Mrs. Amalie Adler Ascher on September 15, 1989.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engineers -- 1920-1980  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics and state -- 20th century  Search this
Traffic signs and signals -- 1920-1980  Search this
Traffic engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patent applications
Clippings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Receipts -- 20th century
Citation:
Charles Adler, Jr. Collection, 1899-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0351
See more items in:
Charles Adler, Jr. Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0351
Additional Online Media:

Records of Think Surgical, Inc.

Creator:
Think Surgical, Inc. (Fremont, California)  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (17 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1983-2010
bulk 1991-1994
Summary:
The collection documents the development of ROBODOC™, the first robot to perform surgery on a human in the United States through correspondence, memoranda, press clippings, press releases, engineering drawings, regulatory policies and procedures, photographs, and audiovisual materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the development of ROBODOC™, a robotic surgical system that would redefine precision joint replacement procedures. The collection contains correspondence, memoranda, press clippings, press releases, engineering drawings, regulatory policies and procedures, photographs, and audiovisual materials documenting the development of the ROBODOC™. The collection is strong in documentation about regulatory policies and procedures the company undertook for approval from the Food and Drug Administration.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Project History and Background Materials, 1985-2003

Series 2: Engineering Materials, 1989-2000, bulk 1991-1993

Series 3: User Guides, 1991-2001

Series 4: Food and Drug Administration, 1987-2001

Series 5: Press Clippings, 1983-2010

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials, 1988-2009
Historical:
ROBODOC™ was the first robot to perform surgery in the United States. It was developed in 1986 by IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and researchers at the University of California, Davis. They formed a collaborative initiative to develop a surgical device for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). The team included William Bargar, M.D., Howard "Hap" Paul, D.V.M (1949- 1993), and engineers, Brent Mittelstadt and Peter Kazanides. See US Patent 5,769,092 for Computer-aided system for revision total hip replacement surgery and US Patent 5,806,518 for Method and system of positioning surgical robot, 1998. The original company, Integrated Surgical Systems (ISS) was incorporated in 1990.

The goal of ISS was to create a robotic surgical system that would redefine precision joint replacement procedures. Drilling into bone by hand is not always precise, and often requires glue to fill in empty spaces. Additionally there is a danger the bone will splinter. In this regard, ROBODOC is similar to computer-controlled machine tools. ROBODOC "mills" the bone or joint for accurate fitting similar to machine tools.

In May of 1990 the device was successfully tested on dogs. Since 1998 when it received 510 (K) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Total Hip Arthroplasty over 28,000 procedures have been performed worldwide.

ROBODOC™ was eventually sold in 2007 to Novatrix Biomedical, Inc. which formed Curexo Medical, Inc. to handle the acquisition of Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. (ISS). ISS became THINK Surgical, Inc. in 2014.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Odex I Walking Robot Collection (AC0203)

Massie/McLurkin Innovative Lives Presentation and Interviews (AC0603)

Computer oral History Collection (AC0196)

Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records (AC0929)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Think Surgical, Inc. through Dr. Mun In-Ki, CEO and President, April 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
Orthopedics  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 21st century  Search this
Inventors -- 21st century  Search this
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1378
See more items in:
Records of Think Surgical, Inc.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1378
Additional Online Media:

S. Colum Gilfillan Papers

Creator:
Science and Technology, Department of (NMAH)  Search this
Kranzberg, Melvin, Dr., 1917-1995  Search this
Gilfillan, Seabury Colum (college instructor)  Search this
Names:
Society for the History of Technology  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (5 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Date:
1921-1978
Summary:
The collection documents S. Colum Gilfillan, a charter member of the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) in 1958 and his SHOT correspondence, particularly with Melvin Kranzberg.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection includes Gilfillan's correspondence during 1951 1978 and a number of papers written by him and (in some cases) published or delivered to professional societies; the dates of the papers range from 1921 to 1972. Gilfillan was a charter member of the Society for the History of Technology in 1958. His SHOT correspondence, particularly with Melvin Kranzberg, concerning several articles by Gilfillan published in SHOT's journal "Technology and Culture" constitutes a segment of the correspondence, 1957 1978. Gilfillan had made an unsuccessful attempt to organize a similar group, the Society for the Social Study of Invention in 1947. Some of the draft documents for this society are included.

Much of the correspondence concerns the ideas incorporated in Gilfillan's major work, Sociology of Invention (1935) and the Supplement to it published in 1971. Gilfillan's letters to others are complicated by his use of his own method of spelling using contractions of words and phonetic techniques to increase the number of words per page.

Also included in the collection are three "shoeboxes" of 3" x 5" cards filed alphabetically by author, representing a bibliography of writings on inventions and inventors. These cards, numbering several thousand, represent Gilfillan's research notes on his reading in his area of professional interest. Unfortunately their use is made difficult by Gilfillan's unique spelling system and the scrawled handwriting used on many of them.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Serties 1: Correspondence, 1951-1978

Series 2: Major Papers and Projects, 1921-1978

Series 3: Invention Authors and Bibliographic Notes, undated undated
Biographical/Historical note:
Seabury Colum Gilfillan was born (1889) in St. Paul, Minnesota and was graduated (AB in Social Science) from the University of Pennsylvania (1910). He served in the U.S. Army (1917 1919) and received master and doctorate degrees in sociology from Columbia University (1920). He was acting assistant professor and associate professor of social science at the University of the South (1921 1924). He was curator of transportation and social science at the Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago (1929 1930) and assistant professor of social science, Purdue University (1937 1938). In 1940 he was a lecturer at Northwestern University and in 1941 1950 a research associate at the University of Chicago.

Gilfillan worked as an investigator for the President's Research Committee on Social Trends, 1930 1932 and for the Natural Resources Committee, 1936. He was a charter member of the Society for the History of Technology and a member of the Sociology Association and the Eugenics Society.
Provenance:
Donated by S. Colum Gilfillan to Wesley C. Williams, curator, History of Science and Technology Collection, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio in November 1971. Melvin Kranzberg, formerly of Case Western Reserve, transferred it to the National Museum of American History where it was received by Archives Center May 20, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Check for usage or copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Social sciences -- 20th century  Search this
Sociology -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
S. Colum Gilfillan Papers, 1921-1978, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0461
See more items in:
S. Colum Gilfillan Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0461

George Eli Whitney Papers

Author:
Whitney, George Eli, 1862-1963 (engineer)  Search this
Collector:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Locomobile Company  Search this
Bacon, John H.  Search this
Cooledge, Nathaniel Henry  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Patents
Photographs
Correspondence
Clippings
Date:
1898-1957
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence includes about 3 dozen handwritten letters to John H. Bacon from Whitney. Bacon apparently undertook the task of collecting documentation of Whitney's career in the 1950s. Another 30 letters involve former associates of Whitney's, particularly Nathaniel Henry Cooledge (known as "Oliver") who was associated with Whitney as his trusted foreman and assistant for 50 years. Also included are agreements, contracts and patents concerning Whitney's inventions as well as newsclippings, photoprints, etc. A lengthy questionnaire prepared by John H. Bacon was filled out by Whitney in 1955 giving information on his major inventions and projects as well as his personal life.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Whitney (1862 1963) was an engineer and inventor who developed many applications of steam power, including bicycles, cars and boats in the late 1800s. The Locomobile Company, of which Whitney was chief engineer, produced several thousand steam cars around the turn of the century. During WWI, Whitney designed the compound steam engine which powered about 300 U.S. Navy anti submarine ships. Whitney was the recipient of about 150 patents on his inventions, a number of which he sold rights to.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Edward Bacon, October 31, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors -- 1890-1960  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Correspondence -- 1880-1950
Clippings -- 1890-1960
Citation:
George Eli Whitney Papers, 1898-1957, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0463
See more items in:
George Eli Whitney Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0463

Microelectronics Oral History Collection

Interviewee:
Madland, Glen  Search this
Goldstein, Andrew  Search this
Flaschen, Steward  Search this
Faggin, Frederico  Search this
Everitt, Bruce  Search this
Petritz, Richard  Search this
Nebeker, Frederik  Search this
Morten, David  Search this
Creator:
Finn, Bernard S., 1932-  Search this
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Morton, David  Search this
Names:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Date:
1996.
Summary:
Transcripts and audio cassettes of oral history interviews with pioneers in the field of microelectronics. The interviews document the spectrum of innovative activities in the microelectronics industry.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains transcripts and original audio cassettes of oral history interviews with pioneers in the field of microelectronics. Series 1, Transcripts, 1996 are arranged alphabetically and a table of contents and abstracts are available for each interview. Series 2, Audio Cassette Tapes, 1996 are arranged alphabetically. The interviews were conducted by Andrew Goldstein, David Morton, and Frederik Nebeker.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Transcripts, 1996

Series 2: Audio Cassette Tapes, 1996
Historical:
The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, in cooperation with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Center for the History of Electrical Engineering, conducted oral histories to document the spectrum of innovative activities in the microelectronics industry. These activities include, translation (people or companies instrumental in knowledge transfer between invention stage and commercialization); venture capital (entrepreneurs or financiers); applications (use of the basic form of microelectronics technology in entirely new, often unexpected applications) research management; legal issues; and chip design.
Provenance:
This collection was created by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation with NMAH staff member, Barney Finn of the Division of Information, Technology and Communication and David Morton of the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering in 1996.
Restrictions:
Some oral histories are restricted; others unrestricted for research use on site by appointment. Gloves required with unprotected photographs.
Rights:
Copyright status unknown or uncertain.
Topic:
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Microelectronics  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Electric engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Microelectronics industry -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Citation:
Microelectronics Oral History Collection, 1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0566
See more items in:
Microelectronics Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0566

George Carruthers Innovative Lives Presentation

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Carruthers, George R.  Search this
Names:
Naval Research Laboratory (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Lectures
Videotapes
Slides
Date:
1996-02-22
Summary:
This video history consists of original, master and reference videos documenting a children's lecture program by George R. Carruthers, a physicist and inventor. Carruthers invented the Far Ultra-Violet Camera (FUVCAM).
Scope and Contents note:
This collection contains original, master, and reference videos documenting Dr. George Carruthers. Dr. Carruthers discusses his invention, the Far Ultra-Violet Camera (FUVCAM), as well his background, and experience working with the space program.
Arrangement:
Divided into 3 series: 1) Original Videos; 2) Master Videos; 3) Reference Videos.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. George Carruthers was born in 1939 and grew up in Milford, Ohio and Chicago's South Side. Carruthers received his B.S. in Physics from the University of Illinois in 1961, M.S. Physics in 1962, and his Ph.D in aeronautical and astronomical engineering in 1964. After receiving his Ph.D in 1964, Carruthers joined the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Space Science Division where he is now Senior Astrophysicist. Along with William Conway, another scientist, Carruthers developed the lunar surface ultraviolet camera and spectrograph used on the moon by Apollo 16 in 1972. The camera was used to take ultraviolet pictures of the Earth during the Apollo 16 space mission. It was the first camera to take pictures of the upper levels of the earth's atmosphere and to show that hydrogen exists in outer space.
Provenance:
This videohistory was created by the Innovative Lives Program of The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation on February 22, 1996. The Innovative Lives series brings young people and American inventors together to discuss inventions and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Space photography  Search this
Physics -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Cameras -- 20th century  Search this
Engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Astronomy -- 20th century  Search this
Astrophysics -- 20th century  Search this
Astronautics in astronomy -- 20th century  Search this
Astronomical photography -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics -- 20th century  Search this
Astronautical instruments -- 20th century  Search this
Ultraviolet spectrometry  Search this
Spectrography -- 20th century  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lectures -- 1990-2000
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Slides
Citation:
George Carruthers Innovative Lives Presentation, February 22, 1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0597
See more items in:
George Carruthers Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0597

Roland C. Hawes Papers

Creator:
Cary Instruments.  Search this
Hawes, Roland C., 1908-1999  Search this
Applied Physics Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Applied Physics Corporation.  Search this
Aviv & Associates, Inc.  Search this
Beckman Instruments, Inc.  Search this
Cary Instruments.  Search this
National Technical Laboratories.  Search this
Varian Associates.  Search this
Beckman, Arnold O.  Search this
Cary, Howard  Search this
Duffield, Jack J.  Search this
George, Kenyon  Search this
Extent:
14.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Pencil works
Photographic prints
Photographs
Blueprints
Diazo prints
Drawings
Date:
1908-1997
Scope and Contents note:
Correspondence, handwritten notes and sketches, memorandum reports, catalogs, printed material, patent documents, drawings, blueprints (original and diazo copies), and photographs document Hawes's work in the field of immunnassay, spectrophotometry, scientific apparatus and instruments industry, and administrative duties at Applied Physics Corporation/Cary Instruments.
The bulk of the papers consist of materials found in Series 2: Research files A-Z, 1913 (1927-1990) (4.5 cubic feet). Series 5: Cary Instruments 1937-1992 (4 cubic feet) and Series 6: Consulting, 1908-(1939-1992) (3.5 cubic feet).
Arrangement:
Divided into 7 series: 1) Personal files, 1938-1997; 2) Research files, A-Z, 1913 (1927-1990); 3) Piness Laboratories, 1920-1979; 4) Beckman Instruments, Inc., 1939-1974; 5) Cary Instruments, 1937-1992; 6) Consulting work, 1908-(1939-1992); 7) Professional activities, 1949-1996. By series topical, chronological and alphabetical.
Biographical/Historical note:
The career of Roland C. Hawes, born Oct. 4, 1908, Riverside, California, began in chemical analysis and led him into the scientific apparatus and instruments industry, where he worked in the field of spectrophotometry. B.S., chemistry, California Institute of Technology, 1930. He died in 1999.
Related Archival Materials:
Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry, Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Beckman Arnold Orville: oral history, 1978 and papers 1954-1989, California Institute of Technology Archives.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Roland C. Hawes,1997, September 8.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
All rights tranferred to Museum in Deed of Gift.
Topic:
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry -- California  Search this
Spectrophotometry  Search this
Spectrum analysis  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Pencil works
Photographic prints
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Blueprints
Diazo prints
Drawings -- 20th century
Citation:
Roland C. Hawes Papers, 1908-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0617
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0617

Sally Fox Innovative Lives Presentation

Creator:
Person, Abigail  Search this
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Fox, Sally  Search this
Names:
Fox Fibre.  Search this
Natural Cotton Colours, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videotapes
Oral history
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
1997
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 5 1/2 hours of footage documenting Sally Fox, an inventor of a commercially spinnable naturally colored cotton. This video was created on November 14, 1997.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Original Videos, 1997

Series 2: Master Videos, 1997

Series 3: Reference Videos, 1997

Series 4: Photographs, 1997
Biographical / Historical:
Sally Fox began growing brown cotton in 1982 and experimented with crossbreeding it. By 1985, some of Fox's plants growing from cross-pollinated seeds produced green cotton as well as brown. These naturally colored cottons were brought to the marketplace in 1989, when Fox established her company, Natural Cotton Colours, Inc., in Arizona. FoxFibre is the registered trademark of her naturally colored cotton. Fox developed several different types and colors of cotton--pink, yellow, lavender, brown, green, and red. Crossbreeding two types, reddish-brown Coyote and traditional white Pima produces the bronze brown Buffalo FoxFibre. The six varieties of FoxFibre include three browns: Coyote (reddish), Buffalo (mocha), and New Brown; and three greens: Green FoxFibre, Palo Verde (sage), and New Green. FoxFibre is naturally colored, so there is need to bleach or dye the fabric. The Coyote and Buffalo FoxFibre are naturally flame resistant. FoxFibre is environmentally friendly because it is grown organically, without the use of chemical pesticides.
Provenance:
Created by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation on November 14, 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Copies of release forms exist.
Topic:
Inventors -- 1980-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Spinning -- 1980-2000  Search this
Cotton growing -- 1980-2000  Search this
Cotton -- 1980-2000  Search this
Inventions -- 1980-2000  Search this
Slides  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Oral history -- 1980-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Photographs
Citation:
Sally Fox Innovative Lives Presentation, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0646
See more items in:
Sally Fox Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0646

Kleinschmidt Teletype Records

Creator:
Morton, Sterling, 1885-1961  Search this
Goodspeed, Charles B.  Search this
Teletype Corporation  Search this
Kleinschmidt, Edward E., 1876-1977  Search this
American Telephone and Telegraph Company  Search this
Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Corporation  Search this
Kleinschmidt Electric Company  Search this
Donor:
Pigott, Janet  Search this
Pigott, Janet  Search this
Names:
Krum, Howard  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Date:
1915-1930
Summary:
This collection largely contains correspondence regarding the Kleinschmidt Teletype, as well as financial records and newspaper clippings regarding the Teletype Company.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence kept by Charles B. Goodspeed, a major stockholder in KIeinschmidt Electric Company. It relates to internal workings of the company and the telegraphic typewriter it developed, as well as the merger with Morkrum and the purchase of the company by AT&T. Many of the letters are from Sterling Morton, president of the Teletype Corporation.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1915-1930

Series 2: Financial Statements, 1929

Series 3: Newspaper Clippings, 1915-1930
Biographical / Historical:
The Kleinschmidt Teletype was invented by Edward E. Kleinschmidt, a German-American inventor and businessman. He invented a high-speed stock ticker, an automatic fishing reel, a railroad signaling device, and a high-speed teletype that "revolutionized the communications industry." The Kleinschmidt Teletype was considered a breakthrough in world communication, replacing Morse code transmission and reception with typewriters and printers. Kleinschmidt, Howard Krum, and Sterling Morton jointly obtained a patent for this technology in December 1928. Teletype Corporation was sold to the American Telephone and Telegraph Company for $30 million in 1930.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Janet Pigott in 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Telegraph -- History  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Telegraph, Wireless  Search this
Communication  Search this
Telecommunication  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Kleinschmidt Teletype Records, 1915-1930, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1259
See more items in:
Kleinschmidt Teletype Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1259

William G. Elliott Spectra-Span Records

Creator:
SpectraMetrics (Burlington, Massachusetts)  Search this
Elliott Laboratories (Andover, Massachusetts)  Search this
Elliott, William G., 1932-2014  Search this
Donor:
Elliott, Mark  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business records
Black-and-white photographs
Financial records
Correspondence
Lantern slides
Laboratory notebooks
Patents
Manuals
Reports
Printed materials
Writings
Date:
circa 1958-1988
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Elliott's work in developing the SpectraSpan Spectrometer and related technologies including the use of echelle gratings and argon plasmas with the spectrometer. It also documents his companies, SpectraMetrics, and Elliott Laboratories. The collection contains correspondence; photographs, including lantern slides; business and financial records; writings; laboratory notes; internal company reports; user's manuals; patents and patent-related papers; and publications and printed materials.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
William G. Elliott was an engineer who, in 1966, founded SpectraMetrics, which developed and marketed the SpectraSpan echelle spectrometer. He later sold SpectraMetrics, and founded Elliott Laboratories in 1972.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mark Elliott.
Restrictions:
UNPROCESSED COLLECTION.
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.,Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Spectrum analysis  Search this
Spectroscope  Search this
Spectrophotometry  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Spectrometer  Search this
Argon plasmas  Search this
Echelle gratings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white photographs -- 1950-2000
Financial records -- 1050-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Lantern slides
Laboratory notebooks -- 1950-2000
Patents -- 1950-2000
Manuals -- 1950-2000
Reports -- 1950-2000
Printed materials -- 1950-2000
Writings -- 1950-2000
Citation:
William G. Elliott Spctra-Span Records, ca. 1958-1988, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1361
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1361

Marion O'Brien Donovan Papers

Creator:
Dodd, Sharon Donovan  Search this
Donovan, Christine  Search this
Donovan, James F. Jr., Dr.  Search this
Donovan, Marion O'Brien, 1917-1998 (woman inventor)  Search this
Rabinow, Jacob, 1910-  Search this
Walters, Barbara  Search this
Names:
Keko Corporation.  Search this
Saks Fifth Avenue.  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (17 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videotapes
Sketches
Publications
Publicity photographs
Photographs
Advertising mail
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Birth certificates
Correspondence
Color prints (photographs)
Dye diffusion transfer prints
Marriage certificates
Patent drawings
Date:
1949-1999
Summary:
Correspondence, patents, photographs, newspaper clippings, and subject files about various inventors and ideas. Collection documents women inventors, American culture, 1950s-1970s, and products designed for women and the home. Donovan's papers offer a near complete invention record, including both successes and failures, as well as patent and trademark correspondence.
Scope and Contents:
The Donovan papers offer a near complete invention record, including both successes and failures, and include correspondence, photographs, patents, newspaper clippings, and subject files about various inventions and ideas. This collection documents direct marketing techniques for products designed especially for women and the home. It may be useful for researchers interested in women inventors and entrepreneurs, American culture from the 1950s through the 1970s, and advertising history.

Series 1: Personal Papers and Biographical Materials, 1917-1999

Subseries 1.1: Biographical Materials, 1917-1999 includes newspaper clippings, biographical materials, and memorabilia relating to Marion Donovan's early life, family, and social activities. Note: Original clippings have been photocopied, and researcher copies are available.

Subseries 1.2: Magazine Publications, 1953-1999 includes original magazines which featured articles on Marion Donovan.

Series 2: The Boater, 1949-1995

Includes United States and foreign patents, notes, clippings, correspondence, photos, press releases and scrapbooks that document the invention of the Boater diaper cover.

Series 3: Other Ideas and Inventions, 1941-1993

Subseries 3.1: Marion Donovan's Subject Files, 1941-1995 are arranged chronologically and contain advertisements, articles, correspondence, sketches, notes, United States and foreign patents, photo materials, press releases, publications, and some artifacts documenting her ideas and inventions.

Subseries 3.2: Barbara Walters' Television Special, Not For Women Only, [1975] features an episode highlighting "Inventors and Invention," with a panel that includes Marion Donovan, Jacob Rabinow, and Henry Kloss, demonstrating their inventions.

Series 4: Dentaloop, 1979-1996

Subseries 4.1: Manufacturing Files, 1979-1996 contains files relating to the manufacture and packaging of DentaLoop, and includes photo materials, correspondence with various manufacturers including Johnson & Johnson, clippings, craft materials, and reports.

Subseries 4.2: Patents and Patent History, 1985-1996 contains files kept by Marion Donovan documenting the patent history of her and others' dental inventions.

Subseries 4.3: Marketing Files, 1989-1995 includes a substantial mailing list compiled over the years by Marion Donovan Associates, various order forms, advertising drafts, press releases, correspondence with Procter & Gamble, photo materials, personalized questionnaire responses, and a "How-To" videotape demonstration.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 4 series.

Series 1: Personal Papers and Biographical Material, 1999

Series 2: The Boater, 1949-1999

Series 3: Other Ideas and Inventions, 1941-1993

Series 4: DentaLoop, 1979-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Twentieth-century inventor, Marion O'Brien Donovan (1917-1998), made a career of designing solutions to everyday, domestic problems. Her career is framed by her invention in 1949 of the "Boater," a diaper cover made of surplus parachute nylon, and her invention in 1993 of DentaLoop, individual precut circles of two-ply dental floss. As an inventor and entrepreneur, Donovan created products that addressed problems in personal health, beauty, and household needs.

Marion O'Brien was born into a family of inventors on October 15, 1917, in South Bend, Indiana. Marion's father, Miles O'Brien, with his identical twin brother John, developed an industrial lathe for manufacturing gun barrels and founded the South Bend Lathe Works in 1906. After her mother died when she was seven, Marion spent a majority of her time at her father's factory, even inventing a "tooth powder" while in elementary school. She graduated with a B.A. in English from Rosemont College in 1939, and worked briefly for both Harper's Bazaar and Vogue. In 1942, she married James F. Donovan and moved to Westport, Connecticut.

A Connecticut housewife and mother of two in 1946, Donovan was unsatisfied with the options available to her to keep her babies dry. To her, cloth diapers "served more as a wick than a sponge," and rubber pants assured a nasty case of diaper rash. Looking for a way to hold the dampness in without keeping air out, she experimented by clipping a panel from her shower curtain, sewing a moisture-proof diaper cover, and replacing safety pins with snaps. Three years later, she introduced the "Boater." Donovan's attempts to sell her idea to leading manufacturers failed, but her product became an instant sensation and commercial success when she began selling the Boater at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1949. In 1951, Donovan sold both her company, Donovan Enterprises, and her diaper patents to children's clothing manufacturer Keko Corporation, for one million dollars.

Marion Donovan's interest in design and invention manifested itself in a Master's degree in architecture which she received from Yale University in 1958, at age forty-one. According to her obituary, she was one of three women in her graduating class. In the decades that followed, Donovan would go on to invent "The Ledger Check," a combined check and record-keeping book; "The Big Hang-Up," a garment hanger and closet organizer; and "The Zippity-Do," an elasticized zipper pull.

Marion Donovan was involved in every aspect of product development, serving as creator, designer, manufacturer, and marketer. Often, designing the product also meant designing the machinery that could construct the product to her unique specifications. While working on the development of DentaLoop, for example, she and second husband, John Butler, traveled to a factory in Germany to explore floss-producing machinery ideas. Donovan also went to great lengths to market her floss product. Between the years 1991 and 1995, in collaboration with daughter Christine, she launched her largest promotional campaign, marketing DentaLoop directly to hundreds of dental professionals and pharmacists all over the country. Always envisioning improvements, she continued to correspond with companies specializing in oral hygiene products until her husband suffered a stroke, and she focused her attentions on caring for him. Following his death in July, Marion O'Brien Donovan Butler died four months later on November 4, 1998.
Related Materials:
Artifacts were donated to the National Museum of American History in March of 2000. The "Boater" diaper cover (1949), a key chain bracelet, and "The Zippity-Do" (1970) were donated to the American Costume Collection of Social History Collection. "DentaLoop" (1993) materials were donated to the Science, Medicine, and Society Division.
Provenance:
Ms. Donovan's daughters, Christine Donovan and Sharon Donovan Dodd, and son, Dr. James F. Donovan, Jr., donated the collection to the Archives Center, March 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Women in technology  Search this
Women in marketing  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Women architects  Search this
Trademarks  Search this
advertising  Search this
Diapers  Search this
Dental hygiene -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1970-1980
Sketches
Publications
Publicity photographs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Advertising mail
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Birth certificates
Correspondence -- 20th century
Color prints (photographs)
Dye diffusion transfer prints
Marriage certificates
Patent drawings -- 20th century
Citation:
Marion O'Brien Donovan Papers, 1949-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0721
See more items in:
Marion O'Brien Donovan Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0721
Additional Online Media:

Wadsworth W. Mount Papers

Creator:
Mount, Wadsworth W., 1907-1985  Search this
Donor:
Mount, John W.  Search this
Extent:
10.5 Cubic feet (33 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Photographs
Laboratory notebooks
Date:
1920-1984
Summary:
Archival materials documenting five of Mount's numerous inventions: the solar still, a jet power burner, turnbuckles and swivel connectors for boats, the "wadnut" (a self-tightening fastener), and a method of joining industrial piping. The papers include notes on concepts, and on testing and prototypes; correspondence with patent attorneys and potential industrial users of the devices; photographs; biographical information on Mount; and a general subject file on his inventions.
Scope and Contents:
Mount had a great range of interests in his inventing career, from children's toys to military equipment and industrial devices, such as pipe-joining processes and patented sailing-boat hardware. He was issued more than 20 U.S. patents as well as patents from Britain, Canada, France, Australia and other countries. The progress of his work on these projects is recorded in the various documents and photographs that constitute this collection. The records in this collection were selected from among some 50 cubic feet of material, as being most representative of Mount's work. Retained were records providing biographical information about Mount and his career as an inventor; his general subject files, which document the wide range of his interests; and a sample of files fully documenting five of his major inventions, three of which were commercially successful and the other two were not. Of particular interest are the numerous documents detailing Mount's efforts, often over decades, in developing inventions. Notes on the concepts, testing of models and prototypes, and voluminous correspondence with patent attorneys, potential industrial users of the devices and photographs of equipment constitute the bulk of the collection. Several projects stand out as Mount's major efforts: solar stills (which store the sun's heat), a jet power burner, turnbuckles and swivel connectors for boats, the "Wadnut" (a self-tightening fastener) and, most importantly, a method of joining industrial piping.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1934-1977

Series 2: General Inventions, 1920-1980

Series 3: Solar Stills, 1952-1981

Series 4: Jet Power Burner, 1943-1984

Series 5: Turnbuckles, Swivel Connectors, 1948-1976

Series 6: Wadnut, 1951-1983

Series 7: Pipe Joint Method, 1961-1983
Biographical / Historical:
Wadsworth Walton Mount (1907-1985), son of a Baptist minister and businessman, was born in Minnesota, raised in Millington, NJ, attended public schools and was graduated from Amherst College in 1928 with a major in economics and philosophy. Employed in Wall Street as a stock salesman and statistician, he traveled as a public utilities analyst. On the death of his father (1931) he took over management of the family wood-working business, which failed in 1932. After completing the liquidation, Mount was employed by a New York printer and publisher of financial publications. During World War II he was engaged in developing an anti-aircraft gun and a rocket-propelled grapnel for the armed forces. Following the war he became a full-time inventor, working independently in the basement of his Warren, NJ home. He also worked occasionally as a consultant to industrial companies.
At the Smithsonian Institution:
National Air and Space Museum Archives

Wadsworth Mount Collection, circa 1940s-1977

This collection contains photographs, negatives, blueprints, patents, test reports and correspondence dealing with Mount's rocket application inventions
At Other Organizations:
The Amherst College Library, Department of Archives and Special Collections, contains a collection of Mount's papers documenting his work in developing the concept of the Value Added Tax.
Provenance:
Donated by the inventor's son, John W. Mount, in 1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Laboratory notebooks
Citation:
Wadsworth W. Mount Papers, 1920-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of John W. Mount.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0352
See more items in:
Wadsworth W. Mount Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0352
Additional Online Media:

Nobel Voices Video History Project

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (20 boxes )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Oral history
Videotapes
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
VHS (videotape format)
Date:
2000 - 2001
Summary:
Thirty-three videotaped interviews of Nobel Prize laureates, conducted in Lindau, Germany, Washington, D.C., and elsewhere in the United States. The interviews form the core of the Nobel Voices Video History Project and the exhibition "Nobel Voices." Documents and preserves examples of the quest for innovation and its important messages for future generations.
Scope and Contents:
The thirty-three interviews total approximately twenty-six and one half hours in length and exist in five formats: digital, BetaCam SP, 1/2" VHS, cassette audio tapes, and transcripts. All five formats document the same interview content for each interviewee. The collection contains original, master, and reference videos, audio tapes, transcripts, production footage (stock and b-roll) and compact disks, documenting thirty-three Nobel laureates. All interviews were conducted by Neil Hollander. The production footage is from a variety of non-profit and commercial sources and there are no transcripts or time logs. The production footage was used in the exhibition interactive Ask the Prizewinners and the Nobel Prize: 100 Years of Creativity and Innovation (interactive CD-ROM). This CD-ROM explores the motivation and vision of Nobel laureates and the history of Alfred Nobel and his prize. This CD-ROM is a resource for educators and others interested in interdisciplinary approaches to stimulating creativity. The Ernst Otto Fischer (Chemistry 1973) interview was not conducted in English and there is no transcript. The Hans-Uno Bengtson interview documents a Swedish physicist and there is no transcript. Five interviews include laureate spouses: Kirsten Fischer Lindahl, Isabella Karle, Margaret Kroto, Nancy Mullis, and Phyllis Osheroff. The video interviews and transcripts are unedited. A three minute edited version of the interviews appears on the web at http:///www.NOfestiBEL.com.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into six series.

Series 1: Original Videos, 2000

Series 2: Master Videos, 2000

Series 3: Reference Videos, 2000

Series 4: Audio Tapes, 2000-2001

Series 5: Transcripts, 2000

Series 6: Production Footage, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution and the Deutsches Museum collaborated in June 2000 to conduct video interviews with thirty-three Nobel Laureates. Interviews were conducted in Lindau, Germany, Washington, D.C., and elsewhere in the United States. The video documentation subsequently formed the core of the Nobel Voices Video History Project and the exhibition Nobel Voices: Celebrating 100 Years of the Nobel Prize. The interviewees were asked about their motivations, visions for the future, and opinions on the nature of creativity and innovation. In the interviews, the laureates speak about their passion for their work, their childhood inspirations, the spirit of discovery, and the personal meaning of the Nobel Prize.

The Nobel Voices Video History Project documents and preserves examples of the quest for innovation and its important messages for future generations. Interviewees were: Werner Arber, Hans-Uno Bengton, Gunther Blobel, Paul Boyer, Claude Cohen-Tannouudji, Johann Deisenhofer, Kristen Lindahl Deisenhofer, Manfried Eigen, Richard Ernst, Edmond Fischer, Ernst Otto Fischer, Paul Greengard, Jerome Karle, Isabella Karle, Klaus von Klitzing, Walter Kohn, Harold Kroto, Robert B. Laughlin, David Lee, Rudolph A. Marcus, Kary B. Mullis, Nancy Mullis, Erwin Neher, Douglass D. Osheroff, Phyliss L. Osheroff, William D. Phillips, John Polanyi, John Pople, Gerardus t'Hooft, Robert C. Richardson, Jack Steinberger, Samuel C.C. Ting, Charles Townes, Martinus Veltman, and Jody Williams.

The Lemelson Center received generous support for the Nobel Voices exhibit from the Lemelson Foundation. The exhibit was developed in collaboration with the Deutsches Museum, Bonn, Germany, and the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery, with the cooperation of the Meetings of Nobel Prize Winners in Lindau, Germany, annually convened by Countess Sonja Bernadotte of Wisborg, Sweden. Nobel Voices explores the motivation and vision of Nobel laureates and the history of Alfred Nobel and his prize. It features personal video interviews of laureates, candid photographic portraits, and original artifacts, including Albert Einstein's pipe and William Faulkner's tweed jacket and typewriter.

Visitors to the exhibition pass through eight sections telling the story of the Nobel Prize and those who have achieved it: The Nobel Prizes, Nobel Encounters, Inventing the Future, Alfred Nobel: The Man Behind the Prize, The World of the Laureates, Through Young Artists' Eyes, The Nobel Laureates in Lindau, and Images of Nobel Prize Winners from the National Portrait Gallery. For more information about the Nobel Prize and Nobel Laureates see http://nobelprize.org/ administered by the Nobel Foundation.
Provenance:
The collection was transferred from the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, May 18, 2001.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Signed release forms on file.
Topic:
Medicine  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Physics  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Nobel Prizes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history -- 2000-2010
Videotapes -- 2000-2010
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
VHS (videotape format)
Citation:
Nobel Voices Oral History Project, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0771
See more items in:
Nobel Voices Video History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0771
Additional Online Media:

N. Joseph Woodland Papers

Creator:
Woodland, N. Joseph, 1921-2012  Search this
Names:
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Articles
Transcripts
Technical drawings
Notebooks
Correspondence
Examinations (documents)
Notes
Patents
Date:
1943-2012
Summary:
The collection documents the career of N. Joseph Woodland, who, along with Bernard Silver, invented and developed the bar code.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the career of N. Joseph Woodland, who, along with Bernard Silver, invented and developed the bar code. The collection includes papers relating to Woodland's early life and education, such as exams and transcripts; papers relating to his work with IBM, including correspondence, notes and notebooks, and technical drawings; patents; photographs; awards and honors; articles.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1943-2012

Series 2: International Business machines Corporation (IBM), 1951-2006

Series 3: Node Code, 1986-2003

Series 4: Consulting, 1987-2000

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1990-2011
Biographical / Historical:
Norman Joseph Woodland (1921-2012) was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Woodland also served during World War II in the Army as a technical assistant for the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Drexel University (1947) and a Masters in Mechanical Engineering from Syracuse University (1956). He joined the Drexel University faculty as a lecturer in mechanical engineering in 1947.

In 1948, Woodland became aware of the need for supermarket inventory control through automated checkout. He conceived of the idea of using printed parallel stripes of varying widths to encode prices of items in 1949. Woodland, together with Bernard Silver (1921-1963), an electrical engineer, and fellow Drexel University faculty lecturer, defined a system to exploit the bar code invention to automatically capture item prices as well as inventory data. Woodland and Silver were issued US patent 2,612,994 for a classifying apparatus and method on October 7, 1952. Woodland and Silver sold their patent for $15,000 to Philco in 1961.

Woodland joined IBM in 1951 as a mechanical designer and later worked as a senior planner in artificial intelligence in general and expert systems. While at IBM, Woodland identified and applied existing and emerging technologies to enhance planned IBM products and systems. He worked in store systems marketing, long-range market planning, product planning, and artificial intelligence development. In 1983, he received an IBM technical sabbatical to work on expert systems and robotics at Carnegie Mellon University and to study these systems in use in Japan. A significant portion of Woodland's career focused on the bar code in general and supermarket automated check-out processes. His work laid the foundation for the creation of the universal product code (UPC symbol), for which ), for which he was an integral part of the IBM team's winning design, in his role as the person responsible for IBM's UPC symbol proposal to the grocery industry's symbol selection committee.

In 1992, Woodland won the National Medal of Technology for his invention and contribution to the commercialization of bar code technology, which improved productivity in every industrial sector and gave rise to the bar code industry. Woodland holds six patents.

Woodland married Jacqueline Woodland (née Blumberg) in 1951 and they had two daughters, Betsy Karpenkopf and Susan Woodland.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2017 by Susan Woodland, the daughter of N. Joseph Woodland.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bar coding  Search this
Numerical control  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Transcripts -- 20th century
Technical drawings -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Examinations (documents) -- 20th century
Notes -- 20th century
Patents -- 20th century
Citation:
N. Joseph Woodland Papers, 1943-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1433
See more items in:
N. Joseph Woodland Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1433
Additional Online Media:

Hal Walker Innovative Lives Presentation

Topic:
Innovative Lives Program (NMAH public program series)
Presenter:
Crew, Spencer, Dr., 1949-  Search this
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Inventor:
Walker, Hal, Jr. (Hildreth), 1933-  Search this
Interviewee:
Stephens, Lee  Search this
Walker, Bettye Davis, Dr.  Search this
Speaker:
Lemelson, Jerome H., 1923-1997  Search this
Molella, Arthur P., 1944-  Search this
Travis, John  Search this
Heyman, Ira Michael, 1930-2011  Search this
Names:
A-MAN (African American Male Achievers Network)  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Lectures
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Videotapes
Oral history
Slides
Date:
1995 June 1
Summary:
Collection documents inventor Hal Walker and his research and development work with lasers and electric automobiles.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains original (Betcam SP), master (Betacam SP), reference (1/2" VHS) videos and photographs documenting Spencer Crew, Secretary I. Michael Heyman, Arthur Molella and Jerome Lemelson in honor of the establishment of the Lemelson Center and the first Innovative Lives Program (a series of lecture-demonstrations by American inventors and entrepreneurs for young people--by Hildreth "Hal" Walker. Hal Walker discusses his background and how he became an inventor. With John Travis, a chemist from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Walker demonstrates the properties and applications of lasers, including measuring the distance to the moon and voice communications. Walker developed laser equipment that projected images of the moon back to the earth during the 1969 Apollo moon walk.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Original videos

Series 2: Master videos

Series 3: Reference videos

Series 4: Photographs
Biographical / Historical:
Hal Walker was born in 1933 in Louisiana. In 1951, he joined the Navy and served for four years as a qualified electrician's mate. In 1955, Walker joined Douglas Aircraft Company installing radar systems and at the same time began taking classes at L.A. City College. Soon after joining Douglas Aircraft, a series of layoffs occurred and Walker joined RCA working with the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). He continued to sharpen his technical and managerial skills developing industrial and medical uses for lasers, plasma, quantum physics, and holography. By 1981, Walker joined Hughes Aircraft, the organization that brought Laser Target Designator Systems (LTDs) to the United States Army's weapons inventory. Walker retired from Hughes Aircraft in 1989 and with his wife, Dr. Bettye Davis Walker, founded A-MAN, the African American Male Achievers Network, Inc. Science Discovery Learning Center. A-MAN's mission is to utilize Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)-related projects as a motivational tool and advance the educational achievement, and the intellectual and career development of African-American, Latino and other minority students pre-K thru 12thgrades.
Provenance:
Created by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation in 1995.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Signed copies of releases for Hal Walker and Mark Lee Stephens on file.
Topic:
Electric engineering -- 1980-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 1950-2000  Search this
Automobiles, Electric  Search this
Lasers  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Optics  Search this
Physics -- 20th century  Search this
African American inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Aerospace engineers  Search this
Aerospace industries  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Lectures -- 1990-2000
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Videotapes
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Slides
Citation:
Hal Walker Innovative Lives Presentation, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0602
See more items in:
Hal Walker Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0602

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