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Anthony Caro letter to Clement Greenberg

Creator:
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1963 June 21
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)9429
See more items in:
Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1983
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_9429
Additional Online Media:

Clement Greenberg papers

Creator:
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Names:
American Committee for Cultural Freedom  Search this
Avedisian, Edward, 1936-2007  Search this
Bannard, Walter Darby, 1934-  Search this
Baziotes, Ethel  Search this
Bush, Jack, 1909-  Search this
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Connolly, Cyril, 1903-1974  Search this
Davis, Gene, 1920-1985  Search this
Diebenkorn, Richard, 1922-1993  Search this
Dorazio, Piero, 1927-  Search this
Dzubas, Friedel, 1915-  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Feeley, Paul, 1910-1966  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Fuller, Peter, 1947-1990  Search this
Goodnough, Robert, 1917-  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Hosaisson, Philippe  Search this
Kainen, Jacob  Search this
Krauss, Rosalind E.  Search this
Moffett, Kenworth  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-  Search this
O'Faolin, Nuala  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Pepper, Beverly  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Sander, Ludwig, 1906-  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Smith, Kimber, 1922-1981  Search this
Solomon, Deborah  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Truitt, Anne, 1921-2004  Search this
Waddington, Leslie  Search this
Wisenski, Kurt  Search this
Extent:
8.6 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Interviews
Etchings
Photographs
Reports
Date:
1937-1983
Summary:
The papers of art critic, author, and lecturer Clement Greenberg measure 8.6 linear feet and date from 1937 to 1983. The bulk of the collection consists of letters from art critics, artists, family, friends, galleries, and museums. Notable correspondents include Jack Bush, Anthony Caro, Richard Diebenkorn, Friedel Dzubas, Helen Frankenthaler, Adolph Gottlieb, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Robert Motherwell, Charles Pollock, Jules Olitski, David Smith, and Anne Truitt among others. Also found are biograpical materials, personal business and financial records, an etching by Kurt Wisneski, printed materials, and two reports by Greenberg concerning his travels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of influential New York art critic Clement Greenberg measure 8.6 linear feet and date from 1937 to 1983. The bulk of the papers (7 feet) consists of letters from art critics, artists, family, friends, galleries, and museums, with some letters from Greenberg. Correspondents include Edward Avedisian, Darby Bannard, Ethel Baziotes, Jack Bush, Anthony Caro, Gene Davis, Richard Diebenkorn, Piero Dorazio, Friedel Dzubas, Andre Emmerich, Paul Feeley, Sam Francis, Helen Frankenthaler, Robert Goodnough, Adolf Gottleib, Hans Hofmann, Philippe Hosiasson, Jacob Kainen, Rosalind Krauss, Robert Motherwell, Ken Moffett, Barnett Newman, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Beverly Pepper, Ludwig Sander, David Smith, Kimber Smith, Clyfford Still, Anne Truitt, and Leslie Waddington.

Biographical materials include a transcript of an interview with Greenberg conducted by Deborah Solomon in 1983. Greenberg's personal business and financial records include correspondence regarding his lectures and seminars, requests for his writings, student queries, documents regarding his television and radio appearances, royalty statements, and receipts for gifts of works of art. Also found within business records are documents relating to Greenberg's testimony at the Mark Rothko Trial in 1974.

Artwork consists of one etching by Kurt Wisenski entitled "Spring." The papers contain very few of Greenberg's writings about art. Found are lists of artists, and reports written by Greenberg on the state of art in Japan and India in 1967, likely related to his membership in the American Committee for Cultural Freedom. Printed material includes scattered clippings concerning art and exhibition announcements.

One series of ACCESS RESTRICTED papers contains documents relating to Greenberg's role as a trustee in the David Smith estate; correspondence between Greenberg with Andre Emmerich and Peter Fuller, Nuala O'Faolain, and the Greenberg family; and some financial materials regarding the sale and loan of Greenberg's art collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1950s-1983 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Business and Financial Records, 1940-1983 (Box 1; 12 folders)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1937-1983 (Boxes 1-8; 7 linear feet)

Series 4: Artwork, 1973 (Box 8; 1 folder)

Series 5: Writings and Notes, 1967-1983 (Box 8; 3 folders)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1950-1982 (Box 8; 2 folders)

Series 7: Restricted Material, 1963-1983 (Boxes 9-11; 1.2 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Clement Greenberg was a highly influential art critic working in New York City from the 1940s through the 1960s. He was an advocate of modern art, particulary the abstract expressionist movement, and one of the first critics to recognize the significance of Jackson Pollock's work.

Greenberg was born in 1909 to Russian immigrants in Bronx, New York. After graduating from Syracuse University in 1930, he married and had a child, David. He settled in New York City while working at the United States Customs Department as an appraiser.

In the late 1930s, Clement Greenberg attended a meeting of the U.S. Works Progress Administration and heard Hans Hofmann speak of avant-garde art. In 1939, he wrote one of his first important critical pieces "Avant-Garde and Kitsch" for the Partisan Review. Greenberg argued that the avant-garde art movement rose out of the need to defend and maintain high art standards against the decline in taste brought about by America's consumerism and capitalist culture.

In 1940, Greenberg joined Partisan Review as an editor. He became art critic for the Nation in 1942, and was associate editor of Commentary from 1945 until 1957. In December 1950, he joined the CIA-fronted American Committee for Cultural Freedom.

Throughout the 1940s through the 1960s Greenberg continued to write and, in his essays and articles, he promoted the work of Abstract Expressionists, among them Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Hans Hofmann, Barnett Newman, and Clyfford Still. He particularly championed Jackson Pollock. Greenberg wrote several seminal essays that defined his views on art history in the 20th century. "Greenberg on Collage" was one one of his most important.

Greenberg's views on pop art were mixed. He also became less enamored with Abstract Impressionism, particularly the second generation. However, he became very interested in the Color-Field and Hard-Edge painters.

Through the 1960s Greenberg's views informed a younger generation of art critics including Michael Fried and Rosalind E. Krauss. Some writers maintain that Greenberg's views were so well-respected that he had too much of an influence on the world of art. In time, Greenberg's antagonism to Postmodernist theories and other modern art movements caused him to lose much of his credibility among both artists and art critics.

Greenberg died at the age of eighty-five in 1994.

Since his death, letters edited by his widow, Janice Van Horne and a re-evaluation of his writings have helped to restore his reputation within the art world.
Related Material:
The Portland Art Museum holds Clement Greenberg's private art collection as well as a library of exhibition catalogs.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reels N69-91, N70-7, and N737). Most, but not all, of these papers were later donated by Greenberg. Loaned materials not donated at a later date remain with the lender and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
Clement Greenberg initally lent material for microfilming in 1968-1969. He donated most of this material with additional papers in several accretions between 1984 to 1991.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Some of the collection is ACCESS RESTRICTED: documents relating to the estate of David Smith; some correspondence with Peter Fuller, Nuala O'Faolain, and the Greenberg family; and sale and loan agreements. Contact the reference staff for more information about permission to use this portion of the collection.
Rights:
The Clement Greenberg papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art criticism -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Japan  Search this
Art -- India  Search this
Modernism (Art) -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Interviews
Etchings
Photographs
Reports
Citation:
The Clement Greenberg papers, 1937-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.greeclep
See more items in:
Clement Greenberg papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-greeclep
Additional Online Media:

Nathan Halper business records

Creator:
Halper, Nathan  Search this
Names:
H.C. Gallery (Provincetown, Mass.)  Search this
H.C.E. Gallery (Provincetown, Mass.)  Search this
Kootz Gallery (N.Y.)  Search this
National Association of Women Artists (U.S.)  Search this
Sun Gallery (Provincetown, Mass.)  Search this
Avery, Milton, 1885-1965  Search this
Botkin, Henry, 1896-1983  Search this
Brodie, Gandy, 1925-1975  Search this
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Cuddihy, John Murray  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Kootz, Samuel Melvin, 1898-1982  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Stankiewicz, Richard, 1922-1983  Search this
Extent:
4.2 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Gallery records
Visitors' books
Date:
1952-1979
Summary:
Records of four of Nathan Halper's Provincetown galleries measure 4.2 linear feet and date from 1952-1979. The records relate to Kootz Gallery, H-C Gallery, HCE Gallery, and Sun Gallery - all based in Provincetown. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence with artists, estate executors, collectors, galleries, and museums. There are also scattered business and financial records documenting operations and sales, photographs and slides, printed materials, and one poem. Correspondents include Milton Avery, Anthony Caro, John Murray Cuddihy, Marsden Hartley, Hans Hoffman, Samuel Kootz, Robert Motherwell, David Smith, Richard Stankeiwicz, and many others.
Scope and Contents note:
Records of four of Nathan Halper's Provincetown galleries measure 4.2 linear feet and date from 1952-1979. The records relate to Kootz Gallery, H-C Gallery, HCE Gallery, and Sun Gallery - all based in Provincetown. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence with artists, estate executors, collectors, galleries, and museums. There are also scattered business and financial records documenting operations and sales, photographs and slides, printed materials, and one poem. Correspondents include Milton Avery, Anthony Caro, John Murray Cuddihy, Marsden Hartley, Hans Hoffman, Samuel Kootz, Robert Motherwell, David Smith, Richard Stankeiwicz, and many others.

Biographical material consists of one literary poem.

The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence with many artists, estate executors, gallery partners, collectors, galleries, and museums regarding works of art, sales, account balances, requests for information, and general updates.

Scattered business records are found for all four galleries and include a Kootz Gallery guest register, address books, corporation and partnership agreements for the Kootz, H-C, HCE, and Sun galleries, insurance policies, and a Kootz Gallery employee file. Both the guest register and address books were also used as general business related notebooks.

Financial material consists of inventory stock books, price lists and sales, checkbook registers, and general expense invoices/receipts for the four galleries. The undated stock books list artists' names, general artwork identification information, and prices. Additional sales information is found in price lists, correspondence, sales notebooks, and checkbook registers. Invoices and receipts also document general operating expenses.

Printed material includes newspaper clippings on the Provincetown art scene and major artists represented by Halper, three exhibition catalogs, and an event calendar from the National Association of Women Artists.

Photographic material consists of prints and slides of the Kootz, H-C, and HCE galleries; black and white and color prints of exhibitions by Harry Botkin, Adolph Gottlieb, Robert Motherwell, and Hans Hofmann; and black and white prints, color slides, and transparencies of select works of art shown at the galleries.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 6 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1953-1970 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1952-1979 (Boxes 1-2; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 3: Business Records, 1953-1970 (Box 2; .7 linear feet)

Series 4: Financial Material, 1953-1970 (Boxes 3-4; 2 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1952-1976 (Box 5; 3 folders)

Series 6: Photographic Material, 1953-1969 (Box 5; 11 folders)
Biographical/Historical note:
Nathan Halper (1907-1983) worked in Provincetown, Massachusetts as a contemporary American art dealer, writer, and James Joyce scholar.

Nathan Halper first moved to Provincetown, Massachusetts in 1936 where he met and eventually married his wife, Helen Marjorie Windust Halper. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, their circle of friends included artists, writers, and academics drawn to the Provincetown art colony. Through friendships with Adolph Gottlieb and Fritz Bultman, Halper was introduced to Hans Hofmann, his students, and other abstract expressionist artists.

In 1949, Halper was invited to give a talk on James Joyce at Forum 49, a Provincetown summer lecture series on the future of art organized by Weldon Kees and held in a gallery at 200 Commercial Street. Speakers ranged from Jackson Pollock to poet laureate Howard Nemerov, and the series also presented one of the first major exhibitions of abstract expressionism in America. In 1952, Halper became the treasurer of the Provincetown Art Association (est. 1914), an influential social nexus that connected artists, galleries, patrons, and the public through memberships and annual events.

In 1953, he entered into a partnership with New York art dealer Sam Kootz and helped establish the Kootz Gallery in Provincetown. Their stable initially consisted of abstract expressionists Kootz represented in New York: Robert Motherwell, Hans Hofmann, Adolph Gottlieb, Fritz Bultman, and William Baziotes. Halper and Kootz mutually agreed to dissolve their partnership in 1954 and Halper opened the H-C Gallery with John Murray Cuddihy in 1955. After Cuddihy's departure at the end of the 1956 season, Halper opened the HCE Gallery (1957-1967), a name inspired by Joyce's Finnegan's Wake. In 1962, Halper entered into a one year partnership with Noah Goldowsky to help finance and run the Sun Gallery.

After the dissolution of the Kootz Gallery, Halper continued to represent Motherwell and, for a short time, Gottlieb in the Provincetown area, but quickly added other artists to the HCE stable. Through its relationship with New York dealers, such as Martha Jackson Gallery, Andre Emmerich Gallery, and Waddington Galleries, HCE was able to exhibit and sell works by Milton Avery, Gandy Brodie, Anthony Caro, Edwin Dickinson, Marsden Hartley, Hans Hoffman, Wolf Kahn, William King, Jan Muller, Elie Nadelman, David Smith, Richard Stankiewicz, Tal Streeter, and Anthony Vevers, among others.
Related Archival Materials note:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are the Kootz Gallery records and oral history interviews with Nathan Halper conducted by Dorothy Seckler, July 17, 1963 and by Robert Brown, July 8-August 14, 1980. Columbia University also holds Nathan Halper's papers concerning his literary scholarly work.
Provenance:
The Nathan Halper business records were donated by Nathan Halper in 1979. Additional materials were donated in 1983 and 1984 by his wife Helen Marjorie Windust Halper.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Nathan Halper business records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Massachusetts -- Provincetown  Search this
Gallery directors  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Massachusetts -- Provincetown  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- Massachusetts -- Provincetown  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Gallery records
Visitors' books
Citation:
Nathan Halper business records, 1952-1979. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.halpnath
See more items in:
Nathan Halper business records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-halpnath
Additional Online Media:

Piri Halasz papers

Creator:
Halasz, Piri  Search this
Names:
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Hayter, Stanley William, 1901-1988  Search this
Lipsky, Pat, 1941-  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Poons, Larry  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967  Search this
Tofel, Jennings, 1891-1959  Search this
Truitt, Anne, 1921-2004  Search this
Extent:
1.8 linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Drafts (documents)
Lectures
Greeting cards
Manuscripts
Interviews
Photographs
Transcripts
Writings
Date:
1969-2009
Summary:
The papers of Piri Halasz are dated 1966-2009, and measure 1.8 linear feet. The collection consists of correspondence with Clement Greenberg and a number of well-known artists, manuscripts of articles, complete and partial drafts and transcripts of lectures and talks, interview transcripts, exhibition reviews, research, biographical material, photographs and printed material documenting her activities as an art critic, writer and curator. An unprocessed addition donated in 2017 includes biographical material, writings, 19 audio cassette tapes of interviews with various artists, curators, and critics, and two CDs containing images related to her lectures.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Piri Halasz are dated 1966-2009, and measure 1.8 linear feet. Correspondence with Clement Greenberg and a number of well-known artists, manuscripts of articles, drafts and transcripts of lectures and talks, interview transcripts, exhibition reviews, research, biographical material, photographs and printed material documenting her activities as an art critic, writer and curator. An unprocessed addition donated in 2017 includes biographical material, writings, 19 audio cassette tapes of interviews with various artists, curators, and critics, and two CDs containing images related to her lectures.

The series titled "Greenbergiana" contains various materials related to Greenberg, including an interview Halasz conducted with Greenberg in 1991, a questionnaire filled out by artist Pat Lipsky Sutton concerning Greenberg's ideas about her work, and items concerning his death and memorial services.

Correspondence contains letters from Anthony Caro, Helen Frankenthaler, Clement Greenberg, Jules Olitski, Larry Poons, Anne Truitt, and others. There is a folder of greeting cards, some with original artwork, from artists of her acquaintance. Also found is correspondence with publishers about articles she submitted. Photographs are of Halasz and colleagues.

Writings include drafts of published and unpublished articles about Pablo Picasso, Ad Reinhardt, Abraham Rattner, Jennings Tofel, Larry Poons, Stanley William Hayter, Morris Louis, Manhattan museums, Randy Bloom and other subjects. There are transcripts of lectures and talks given by Halasz, and transcripts of interviews she conducted with Stanley William Hayter and Randy Bloom.

"A Year in the Life of Present Modernism," an exhibition curated by Halasz, was held in 1997-1998 at the Tribes Gallery, New York City. Documentation includes printed material, photographs, and biographical information about Halasz and participating artists.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 4 series:

Series 1: "Greenbergiana," 1989-1996(Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1969-2007 (Box 1; 0.2 linear ft.)

Series 3: Writings and Related Materials, 1980-2009 (Boxes 1-2; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 4: "A Year in the Life of Present Modernism," 1996-1998 (Box 2; 1 folder)

Series 5: Unprocessed Addition, 1966-2005 (Box 3)
Biographical Note:
Piri Halasz (b. 1935) is an art critic, writer, lecturer, teacher, curator and blogger who focuses on the New York art scene and politics from the 1940s to the present. She corresponded with a number of well-known artists; her long-standing association with Clement Greenberg is represented in her correspondence, articles and interviews.

Halasz, a native New Yorker, attended Barnard College where she majored in English literature. After her graduation in 1956, Halasz worked at Time magazine for six years as a researcher, primarily in business news, before being promoted to writer. For the next six years, she wrote articles covering a range of subjects including obituaries, celebrities, books, current trends and world affairs. Her 1966 cover story for Time , "Swinging London," was a cultural snapshot of mid-1960s London that resulted in an invitation to write A Swinger's Guide to London. Published by Coward McCann in 1967, it is scheduled for republication in 2010 as part of the Authors Guild "Back in Print" program.

In 1967 Halasz was assigned to write the art page of Time. Her 1969 article about Helen Frankenthaler attracted the attention of Clement Greenberg and they became close friends. Greenberg encouraged her to leave Time, which she did in 1969.

She returned to Columbia in 1974 to pursue graduate studies in art history and obtained her PhD in 1982; a substantial section of Halasz's dissertation was devoted to Greenberg's philosophy. Halasz has since pursued a career as an art critic, writer, lecturer, teacher, curator and blogger. In 1996 she launched "From the Mayor's Doorstep," an online column of art criticism and politics which became a blog in 2010.

Halasz has taught at Columbia University, Hunter College, C. W. Post Center Long Island University, Molloy College, and Bethany College. She has published articles, primarily on art, in The New York Times, Smithsonian Magazine, The Virginia Quarterly Review, Arts Magazine, Art in America, ARTnews and NYArts.

Her self-published book, A Memoir of Creativity: Abstract Painting, Politics and the Media, 1958-2008 (iUniverse, 2009), is an insider's view of the publishing industry, the New York art scene and an explication of her theory of "multi-referential imagery. This theory posits that abstract painting refers to imagery that is unconsciously significant to the artist which then triggers recognition in the viewer.

Ms. Halasz lives and works in New York City.
Provenance:
Donated 2010 and 2017 by Piri Halasz.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Piri Halasz papers papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art historians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drafts (documents)
Lectures
Greeting cards
Manuscripts
Interviews
Photographs
Transcripts
Writings
Citation:
Piri Halasz papers, 1969-2009. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.halapiri
See more items in:
Piri Halasz papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-halapiri

André Emmerich Gallery records

Creator:
André Emmerich Gallery  Search this
Names:
Galerie André Emmerich  Search this
Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co.  Search this
Sotheby's (Firm)  Search this
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Hockney, David  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Pepper, Beverly  Search this
Extent:
309.1 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Etchings
Date:
circa 1929-2009
Summary:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers measure 311.2 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2009. The collection documents the business of the André Emmerich Gallery as well as André Emmerich's life and activities related to the business of selling art. Gallery records include correspondence; appointment books; administrative and subject files; exhibition files; artist files and accounts; inventory, sales, purchase, and consignment records; chronological files; financial and legal records; printed materials; original artwork; photographic and audiovisual materials. Also found are personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich. TheA small addition received in 2014 includes general correspondence, administrative files, exhibition files, artists' files, inventory records, consignment records, printed material, photographic materials, and André Emmerich personal papers and records.
Scope and Content Note:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers measure 311.2 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2009. The collection documents the business of the André Emmerich Gallery as well as André Emmerich's life and activities related to the business of selling art. Gallery records include correspondence; appointment books; administrative and subject files; exhibition files; artist files and accounts; inventory, sales, purchase, and consignment records; chronological files; financial and legal records; printed materials; original artwork; photographic and audiovisual materials. Also found are personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich.

The records document the gallery's daily business operations, exhibitions, and relationships with artists, dealers, clients, galleries, and museums. Artists particularly well-represented throughout the collection include Anthony Caro, Sam Francis, Helen Frankenthaler, David Hockney, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, and Beverly Pepper.

Records pre-dating the gallery's establishment in 1954 are primarily newspaper and magazine clippings related to artists, personal photographs and photographs of artists, an original etching, and some of André Emmerich's personal records including biographical materials, correspondence, writings, and legal and financial records. Records post-dating the gallery's closure in 1998 are primarily residual business records related to the final disposition of artwork, clippings, photographs of André Emmerich and gallery staff, biographical materials, personal correspondence, writings, legal and financial records, and condolences received by Emmerich's wife upon his death in 2007.

Correspondence is primarily with galleries, museums and clients about business matters. Correspondence files also cover topics such as appraisals, authentications, offers of sale, artists seeking representation, image requests, job applications and recommendations. Also included are the New York gallery's copies of correspondence between the New York staff and the Zurich staff.

André Emmerich's appointment books document appointments, notes, and reminders about Emmerich's business and personal activities. Four appointment books relating to the birth of Emmerich's three sons and second marriage were kept by the family. The appointment books are access restricted and require written permission to use.

Administrative files include corporate records establishing the Andre Emmerich gallery's structure, records documenting the gallery's daily operations, advertising and publicity material, and records about the Sotheby's acquisition. There are also materials related to Top Gallant Farm, from its establishment to its closure. Travel records relate to André Emmerich's business trips and vacations along with some files on the travels of a several staff members at the gallery. Files about the operations of the Galerie André Emmerich in Zurich, Switzerland are included in the series as well.

Subject files relate to Emmerich's gallery business as well as personal and political interests, such as antiquities, art fairs and exhibitions, lecture research, art associations, and sculpture parks. There are several files on the art critic Clement Greenberg and former president of Gay Men's Health Crisis, Nathan Kolodner, who was also an art dealer and director of the Andre Emmerich Gallery.

Exhibition files contain numerous exhibition catalogs and printed materials related to exhibitions held or organized by the André Emmerich Gallery in Manhattan and Galerie André Emmerich in Zurich. The files contain materials ranging such as exhibition invitations, posters, printed materials, press releases, and guest books. Photographs of exhibitions can be found in the Photographic Materials series.

Artist files include biographical materials, clippings, correspondence, mailing lists, price lists, printed materials, and occasionally lectures, writings, and audiovisual materials for many of the artists represented or shown by André Emmerich Gallery. The General Correspondence files might contain duplicates or expanded versions of some of the correspondence. Photographs of artists can be found in the Photographic Materials series.

Artist accounts comprise account statements prepared periodically by the gallery documenting each artist's expenses and sales. Ledgers and general accounting files can be found in the Other Financial and Legal Records series.

Inventory records include inventory cards describing artwork entering and leaving the gallery and files containing various gallery inventories. Artist inventory cards, representing artists from both the New York and Zurich galleries, list the artist, title, date, media and measurements of an artwork. The cards also indicate whether the work was ultimately sold, returned to the artist, consigned, etc., and divided into categories accordingly. Inventory files show various gallery inventories.

Sales records document gallery sales and include paid invoices, records relating to Zurich sales, general sales records such as price lists and canceled sales, and Sotheby's Parke-Bernet auction reports. There are gaps in sales invoices in 1961-1964 and 1969-1971.

Purchase records include correspondence and invoices related to purchases and offers; annotated invoices for works of art bought by the gallery; André Emmerich, Inc. related purchase records; "Non-Modern" art related purchase records.

Consignment records include correspondence and consignment agreements documenting consignments to and from the André Emmerich Gallery; consignments from other galleries to André Emmerich, Inc.; and general consignment records.

Chronological files include copies of invoices or cover letters documenting the movement of artwork into and out of the gallery through sales, consignments, loans, and approvals. Records dating January through August 1968, January through March 1969, and September 1969 through July 1971 are missing.

Financial and legal records include client and partner account statements, resale and exempt organization certificates, accounting ledgers, and legal files related to disputes involving or of interest to the gallery.

Printed materials include auction catalogs and reports, books, and clippings describing André Emmerich, the galleries in New York and Zurich, Top Gallant Farm, and the art world. Also included is a large scrapbook created by the gallery containing clippings and gallery announcements dated 1955-1958. Clippings relating to particular artists can be found in the Artists Files series.

There are two pieces of original artwork in the collection. One is a 1974 print of a 1933 composite etching by Esther Dick Gottlieb, Adolphe Gottlieb, Edgar Levy, Lucille Corcos Levy, David Smith, and Dorothy Dehner Smith. The second is a 1998 lithograph by Louise Bourgeoise, called The Face of the Critic. The artist gave the lithograph as a gift in honor of Robert Hughes and the Archives of American Art and is numbered 61 out of a series of 300.

Photographic materials include prints, slides, negatives, and transparencies. Subjects include artists, André Emmerich, gallery installations, Top Gallant Farm, events, artists' studios, gallery staff, gallery space, and artwork. Photographs which show André Emmerich are indicated as such in the finding aid.

Audiovisual materials includes videocassettes and one audiocassette related to the art world. Videocassettes related to specific artists can be found in the Artists Files series. Videocassettes related to André Emmerich can be found in the André Emmerich Personal Papers and Records series. Videocassettes related to Top Gallant Farm and Sotheby's can be found in the Administrative Files series.

Personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich include biographical materials, personal correspondence, writings and lectures, and legal and financial records. The biographical materials include an address book, interviews and identifying documents. Writings include articles, edits, dissertations, lectures, etc. There are also some miscellaneous correspondence which is organized chronologically.

The small addition received in 2014 includes general correspondence, administrative files, exhibition files, artists' files, inventory records, consignment records, printed material, photographic materials, and André Emmerich personal papers and records.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 19 series:

Series 1: General Correspondence Files, 1958-2006 (boxes 1-18, OV 314-315; 18.2 linear feet)

Series 2: André Emmerich Appointment Books, 1954-2007 (boxes 19, 325, 326; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Administrative Files, 1954-2003 (boxes 20-31, 306, OV 314, OV 316-319; 11 linear feet)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1958-1967, 1971-2000 (boxes 31-32, 306, OV 318, OV 320; 2 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, circa 1954-1998 (boxes 32-40, 306, 307, OV 318-322; 8.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Artists Files, 1929-1932, 1938-2007 (boxes 40-68, 307, 308, OV 320-323; 28 linear feet)

Series 7: Artist Accounts, 1958-1998 (boxes 68-81; 13.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Inventory Records, circa 1954-2000(boxes 82-128; 46.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Sales Records, 1959-1998 (boxes 128-168; 40 linear feet)

Series 10: Purchase Records, 1961-1966, 1972-1994 (boxes 168-170; 2 linear feet)

Series 11: Consignment Records, 1961-2002 (boxes 170-177; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 12: Chronological File of Incoming and Outgoing Artwork, 1968-1998 (boxes 178-185; 8 linear feet)

Series 13: Other Financial and Legal Records, 1956-1999 (boxes 186-202; 16.5 linear feet)

Series 14: Printed Materials, 1955-1960, 1965-2008 (boxes 202-204, 308, 309; 3 linear feet)

Series 15: Original Artwork, 1933, 1974, 1998 (box 205, 310; 0.7 linear feet (2 folders))

Series 16: Photographic Materials, circa 1930-1935, 1941-1998, circa 2005 (Boxes 205-296, 311-313, OV 324; 92.8 linear feet)

Series 17: General Audio and Video Recordings, 1985, 1990-1995 (Boxes 297-298; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 18: André Emmerich Personal Papers and Records, 1937-1940, 1946-2008 (Boxes 298-305, OV 321, OV 323; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 19: Addition to the The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers, 1956-2009 (Boxes 328-329, OV 330; 2.1 linear feet)
Historical Note:
André Emmerich (1924-2007) was one of America's most noted contemporary art dealers and opened the André Emmerich Gallery in New York in 1954. The gallery showcased contemporary art, particularly Color Field painting and monumental sculpture.

André Emmerich was born on October 11, 1924 in Frankfurt, Germany. From age 7 he was raised in Amsterdam before emigrating with his family to New York City in 1940. He studied at Oberlin College and developed an interest in pre-Columbian art and antiquities. After graduation, he spent ten years in Paris working as a writer and editor before returning to New York. He married Constance Emmerich and the couple had three sons, Adam, Noah, and Toby.

In 1954 Emmerich opened the André Emmerich Gallery at 18 East 77th Street and initially specialized in contemporary American and European art and pre-Columbian antiquities. In 1956, the gallery moved to 17 East 64th Street, and in 1959 to the Fuller Building at 41 East 57th Street. Emmerich wrote two books about pre-Columbian art, Art Before Columbus in 1963 and Sweat of the Sun, Tears of the Moon: Gold and Silver in Pre-Columbian Art in 1965.

In 1961, Emmerich learned that French and Company, a gallery advised by art critic Clement Greenberg, was closing its department of contemporary art. French and Company had represented Color Field painters Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, and Jules Olitski. Emmerich immediately invited Louis and Noland to be represented by his gallery. In 1966 he extended the invitation to Olitski as well, and Helen Frankenthaler joined soon after. The gallery's reputation as one of the earliest and most important promoters of Color Field painters was launched.

In addition to Color Field painters, the gallery represented, among others, Pierre Alechinsky, Karel Appel, Milton Avery, Herbert Ferber, Sam Francis, John Graham, Al Held, David Hockney, Hans Hofmann, John Hoyland, Judy Pfaff, Miriam Schapiro, and Anne Truitt.

Until January 1983, sales of pre-Columbian art primarily went through an entity called André Emmerich Inc. (AE Inc.), while sales of contemporary went through the André Emmerich Gallery Inc. (AEG). In 1983, the two entities were merged and operated under the name André Emmerich Gallery Inc.

In 1971, Emmerich began operating a downtown gallery at 420 West Broadway, in SoHo, in space shared with Leo Castelli, Virginia Dwan, and Ileana Sonnabend. In 1972, Emmerich opened a branch of his gallery in Zurich. He incorporated the Galerie André Emmerich Gmbh primarily for the purpose of leasing gallery space in Zurich. Until February 1974, sales of Pre-Columbian art in Zurich were made by an entity called André Emmerich Gallery Inc., New York Filiale Zurich. The Galerie André Emmerich Gmbh was officially liquidated in May 1982. The Filiale was formally closed in October 1996. Galerie André Emmerich also enjoyed a short-lived joint venture with Gimpel & Hanover.

André Emmerich served as president of the Art Dealers Association of America from 1972-1974 and again from 1991-1994.

Emmerich opened a private 150 acre sculpture park, Top Gallant Farm, on his estate in Pawling, New York, in 1982, where he stored and exhibited monumental sculptures by artists his gallery represented including Anthony Caro, Beverly Pepper, Alexander Liberman, Alexander Calder, Mark di Suvero, George Rickey, and Keith Haring. David Hockney painted waves onto floor of the property's swimming pool in 1986. Emmerich operated the sculpture park until 1996.

Emmerich sold his gallery to Sotheby's in 1996. He continued to be affiliated with the gallery until Sotheby's closed the gallery in 1998. Emmerich then began work on his memoir, My Life With Art, excerpts of which have been published in Art News, the Wall Street Journal, and The New Criterion.

Andre Emmerich died in New York 2007 and is survived by his second wife, Susanne Emmerich.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with André Emmerich conducted by Mona Hadler on January 18, 1993.
Provenance:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by André Emmerich in eight accretions between 1999 and 2002. Two additional accretions were donated by Emmerich's wife Susanne in 2008 and 2009; and by James Yohe, Emmerich's former business partner, in 2009 and 2014.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Access of diaries required written permission.
Rights:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Sculpture, Abstract  Search this
Color-field painting  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Switzerland -- Zurich  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Etchings
Citation:
André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers, circa 1929-2009. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.andremmg
See more items in:
André Emmerich Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-andremmg
Additional Online Media:

Anthony Caro: artist file, [photographs]

Artist:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Artist files
Topic:
Art, British  Search this
Image number:
VFM VF000548
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_137551

Anthony Caro : sculpture towards architecture / Paul Moorehouse

Author:
Moorhouse, Paul  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013-  Search this
Tate Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
55 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Place:
England
Date:
1991
Topic:
Sculpture, Abstract--Exhibitions  Search this
Call number:
NB497.C35 A4 1991
N40.1.C285M8 1991
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_647810

Anthony Caro : interior and exterior / Karen Wilkin

Title:
Interior and exterior
Author:
Wilkin, Karen 1940-  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013 Criticism and interpretation  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
151 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2009
C2009
Topic:
Space (Art)  Search this
Call number:
NB497.C35 W54 2009
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_945689

Anthony Caro, new sculpture. [Exhibition] February 19 to March 8, 1972

Author:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
André Emmerich Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
[8] p. : ill. ; 19 x 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1972
Call number:
NB497.C35 A4 1972
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_640239

Anthony Caro / préface de Bernard Blistène

Author:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Blistène, Bernard  Search this
Galerie Lelong (Paris, France)  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
21 p. : ill. ; 32 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1990
Call number:
NB497.C35 A4 1990
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_647388

Anthony Caro / Terry Fenton

Author:
Fenton, Terry  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
128 p. : ill. (some col.), 1 port. ; 31 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1986
Call number:
NB.497.C35.F34.1986
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_649248

Anthony Caro / Terry Fenton

Author:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Fenton, Terry  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
128 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 31 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1986
Call number:
N40.1.C285 F3
N40.1.C285F3
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_308546

Anthony Caro, new sculpture : [exhibition] May 2 through May 21, 1970

Author:
André Emmerich Gallery  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
[5] p. : ill. ; 19 x 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1970
[1970]
Call number:
NB497.C35 A55
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_195912

Caro & Olitski : 1965-1968 : painted sculptures and the Bennington sprays / [foreword by Lauren Olitski Poster.]

Title:
Caro and Olitski
Artist:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Writer of foreword:
Poster, Lauren  Search this
Host institution:
Paul Kasmin Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Olitski, Jules 1922-2007  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Olitski, Jules 1922-2007  Search this
Physical description:
75 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Correspondence
Exhibition catalogs
Records and correspondence
Date:
2017
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1086194

Anthony Caro and twentieth-century sculpture / Giovanni Carandente

Author:
Carandente, Giovanni  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Museum Würth  Search this
Biennale di Venezia (48th : 1999 : Venice, Italy)  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013 Criticism and interpretation  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
63 p. : ill. (chiefly col.), ports. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1999
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_708411

The last judgement : sculpture / by Anthony Caro ; with contributions by Peter Baelz ... [et al.]

Title:
Last judgment
Author:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Baelz, Peter R  Search this
Museum Würth  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013 Last judgement  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013 Criticism and interpretation  Search this
Physical description:
208 p. : col. ill. ; 31 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
2001
Topic:
Judgment Day in art  Search this
Call number:
NB497.C35 A4 2001
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_727111

The Trojan War : sculptures by Anthony Caro / photography by David Buckland ; texts by John Spurling and Julius Bryant

Author:
Spurling, John 1936-  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Bryant, Julius  Search this
Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood (London, England)  Search this
Yorkshire Sculpture Park  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
88 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1994
Topic:
Trojan War--Art and the war  Search this
Call number:
NB497.C35 A4 1994
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_647809

Anthony Caro : upright sculptures

Title:
Upright sculptures
Author:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Marlow, Tim 1963-  Search this
Annely Juda Fine Art  Search this
Daniel Templon (Gallery)  Search this
Mitchell-Innes & Nash  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
127 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Interviews
Date:
2010
C2010
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_960003

Anthony Caro : the Emma series, May 30-September 1, 2003

Title:
Emma series
Emma series and after
Author:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013-  Search this
Fenton, Terry  Search this
Frederik Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
16 p. : col. ill., ports. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
2003
[2003]
Call number:
NB497.C35 A4 2003b
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_827785

Anthony Caro : painted sculpture

Author:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013-  Search this
Pachner, Joan  Search this
Mitchell-Innes & Nash  Search this
Subject:
Caro, Anthony 1924-2013  Search this
Physical description:
27 p. : col. ill. ; 22 x 28 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
2005
C2005
Call number:
NB497.C35 A4 2005d
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_837835

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