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African American History

Created by:
Joe Schwartz, American, 1913 - 2013
Subject of:
Hugh Mulzac, American, 1886 - 1971
Unidentified Man or Men
Medium:
silver and photographic gelatin on photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 11 x 14 in. (27.9 x 35.6 cm)
Type:
gelatin silver prints
Place depicted:
New York, New York, United States
Date:
1948
Topic:
African American
Military
Photography
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Joe Schwartz and Family
Object number:
2010.74.143
Rights:
© Joe Schwartz
Caption:
African American History - In honor of the first Black Naval Captain, Hugh Mulzac, New York City, 1948
Joe Schwartz, Folk Photography: Poems I've Never Written (2000), 192.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
Visitor Tag(s):

[Drawing of elderly African American man]

Medium:
paper
National Origin:
African Americans
Type:
Drawing
Accession Number:
2003.0004.0001
See more items in:
Anacostia Community Museum Collection
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

[Drawing of elderly African American woman]

Medium:
paper
National Origin:
African Americans
Type:
Drawing
Accession Number:
2003.0004.0002
See more items in:
Anacostia Community Museum Collection
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

African-American Woman

Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 3/4 in x 3 1/2 in; 12.065 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
tintype
Subject:
Photography
Tintype Collection
Photo History Collection
ID Number:
PG*75.23.5
Accession number:
317965
Catalog number:
75.23.5
Description (Brief):
Tintype full-length portrait of an African-American woman standing by a studio rock prop mounted in an album page.
Description:
The NMAH Photo History Collection (PHC) has over 3000 tintype photographs dating from the beginnings of the process in 1856 to the present. ‘Tintype’ was coined and became the favored name.
Tintypes in the PHC are found in albums, the Kaynor Union Case collection and as individual photographs. The original tintype process patent was assigned to William and Peter Neff in 1856. William Neff died a short time later, but his son Peter, who named the process Melainotype, continued on with his work. The earliest tintypes in the PHC are a group of more than thirty Peter Neff Melainotypes, some of which date back to 1856 and contain notes written by Peter Neff. Shortly after the Melainotype, Victor Griswold introduced a very similar process on thinner, lighter iron plates and called them Ferrotypes. The PHC has tintypes ranging from rare large images between 5”x7” and 10”x12”down to small images cut to 6mm diameter to fit jewelry. The Melainotypes are between 1/6 plate and 4”x5” in size and many have indistinct images. There are also unexposed Melainotype plates including a pack of 1/6 plates and large whole-plates with four decorated oval borders that were designed to be cut into smaller quarter plates after exposure.
The great majority of tintype photographs are studio portraits, including the very popular ‘Gem’ size (about ¾” x 1”). Almost every gem tintype in the PHC is an individual head and shoulders portraits, the only exceptions seen being a full length portrait and a head and shoulders portrait of a couple. Most of these gem portraits are in small gem albums designed to hold two to six gems per page. However, several gems are mounted on cartes-de-visite (CDV) size cards and set in specifically designed album pages. Some of these CDV mounted gems are in elaborate miniature frames attached to the card. The tintypes larger than gem size show a greater variety of subject matter, but still with a main focus on individual portraits, this is especially true of the smaller 1/16 and 1/9 plate images. Outdoor tintypes are rare. Of the few in the PHC, the most common outdoor subjects noted are people standing in front of their homes and photographs of people proudly standing with, or sitting on, their horse or horses and buggy. One of the largest tintypes is a 9”x 7” outdoor view of a row of townhouses with a couple standing on one of the balconies. There is also an outdoor tintype of men fishing along with another of their days catch.
One common subject in tintype photography, as noted in text books, is the civil war soldier. The durability of the tintype meant that photographs taken in the field could be sent home. However, this category of tintype is not well represented in the PHC, with less than thirty noted due to the fact that the majority of the Smithsonian’s Civil War tintypes are located mainly in the Military History Collection. Most of the PHC examples of Civil War tintypes are in the Kaynor collection of cased images.
A few of the tintypes in the PHC are hand colored. This coloring varies from light tinting of faces and hands to heavy overpainting that obscures the underlying tintype image. A number of the tintypes (about 30) depict people with the apparatus of their occupations. Some are posed studio shots and others appear to be photographs of people at their place of work. Among the occupational views are images of a doctor, grocery deliveryman, weavers, fireman, ice delivery man, craftsman, cobbler, shoe shiners, mail carrier, surveyor, pipe liners and other tintypes of people wearing work clothes and posing with tools. These include a unique full-length gem tintype of a man in work apron with a saw.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Photographic History
Photo History Collection
Tintype Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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The First Female African American Pilot

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel
Type:
Video recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/x-m4v
Uploaded:
Mon, 16 Jan 2012 12:00:00 EST
Topic:
African Americans
Copyright:
© 2012 SNI/SI Networks L.L.C. All rights reserved. Smithsonian Channel is a trademark of Smithsonian Institution. SNI/SI Networks L.L.C. is an authorized user.
Podcast Keywords:
African American,history,Civil Rights,Aviation,Planes,leaders
Description:
Bessie Coleman wanted to fly, and she wouldn't take no for an answer. As the first African American woman with a pilot's license, she proved her skill as a stunt pilot.
Duration:
03:01 MINS
Author:
Smithsonian Channel
Subtitle:
Bessie Coleman wanted to fly, and she wouldn't take no for an answer. As the first African American woman with a pilot's license, she proved her skill as a stunt pilot.
See more episodes:
Smithsonian Channel Presents Black History Month
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
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The First Female African American Pilot

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2012-01-04T18:16:08.000Z
Youtube Category:
Shows
Video Title:
The First Female African American Pilot
Description:
Bessie Coleman wanted to fly, and she wouldn't take no for an answer. As the first African American woman with a pilot's license, she proved her skill as a stunt pilot.
Views:
70,184
Video Duration:
3 min 7 sec
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
Visitor Tag(s):

African American Art Curator Talk

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2012-08-01T23:55:46.000Z
Topic:
Art, American
Youtube Category:
Education
Video Title:
African American Art Curator Talk
Description:
Virginia Mecklenburg, senior curator, explores the work of Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Lois Mailou Jones, Melvin Edwards, and other artists featured in the exhibition African American Art: Harlem Renaissance, Civil Rights Era, and Beyond. These artists participated in ongoing dialogues about art, black identity, and individual rights that engaged American society in the twentieth century. Using documentary realism, painterly expressionism, and the postmodern assemblage of found objects, they rewrote American history and its art.
Views:
3,950
Video Duration:
49 min 11 sec
See more by:
americanartmuseum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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[African American porcelain doll]

Medium:
plastic, cloth, yarn, paint
National Origin:
American
Type:
Doll
Accession Number:
1995.0008.0004
Description:
Small African American porcelain doll with yarn black hair, moveable head, arms and legs, in beige dress and white slip.
Previous owner Jacqueliine Griffith was the only child of Delaphine Griffith. Delaphine was the only child of Sarah Thomas. Mother and daughter were very close. However, Jacqueline Griffith was quite private and reserved, therefore little is known about the family, her private life or the collection.l
June P. Brown is the executor of Jacqueline Griffith's estate.
See more items in:
Anacostia Community Museum Collection
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

[African American porcelain doll]

Medium:
porcelain, cloth, paint
National Origin:
American
Type:
doll
Accession Number:
1995.0008.0017
Description:
African American porcelain doll with blue plaid dress and pink slip.
Previous owner Jacqueliine Griffith was the only child of Delaphine Griffith. Delaphine was the only child of Sarah Thomas. Mother and daughter were very close. However, Jacqueline Griffith was quite private and reserved, therefore little is known about the family, her private life or the collection.l
June P. Brown is the executor of Jacqueline Griffith's estate.
See more items in:
Anacostia Community Museum Collection
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Black Wings: African American Pioneers

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2011-08-31T20:38:20.000Z
Topic:
Aeronautics
Flight
Space Sciences
Youtube Category:
Education
Video Title:
Black Wings: African American Pioneers
Description:
Aeronautics curator Von Hardesty discusses the updated Black Wings exhibit in the "Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery," offering a perspective on African American pioneer aviators, past and present. This informal gallery talk was recorded on February 9, 2011 as part of the National Air and Space Museum's "Ask an Expert" lecture series. "Ask an Expert" lectures are presented weekly at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC and biweekly at the Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA. For more information & schedule, see http://www.nasm.si.edu/askanexpert/
Views:
1,810
Video Duration:
14 min 40 sec
See more by:
airandspace
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

The Legacy of an African American Army Officer

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-02-18T17:11:00.000Z
Metadata Updated:
2014-10-11T13:19:57.000Z
YouTube Category:
Shows
Views:
2679
Video Title:
The Legacy of an African American Army Officer
Description:
The daughter of Harold Montgomery, the only African American general staff corps officer in Europe post-World War II, recounts her childhood in Germany and her relationship with her father. From: BREATH OF FREEDOM http://bit.ly/1m0VbkL
Video Duration:
157 seconds
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
Visitor Tag(s):

Janet Harmon Bragg: Pioneering African American Aviator

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2011-03-15T19:59:58.000Z
Topic:
Museum administration
Youtube Category:
Education
Video Title:
Janet Harmon Bragg: Pioneering African American Aviator
Description:
Janet Harmon Bragg was the first black female aviator to receive her commercial pilots license, but the road to that success was not easy. In this clip, Bragg describes how her efforts to earn a commercial pilots license were thwarted by a bigoted flight instructor in Alabama in 1943. This clip was taken from the Smithsonian Institution Archives Videohistory Collection, RU 9545 Black Aviators, Session 1 Tape 3 http://siarchives.si.edu/research/videohistory_catalog9545.html
Views:
2,290
Video Duration:
2 min 48 sec
See more by:
SIArchives
YouTube Channel:
SIArchives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Miss Essie Williams [from negatives] [black-and-white cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographers:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)
Film manufacturer:
Defender
Subject:
Williams, Essie
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet
1 item, 10" x 8"
Culture:
African Americans Washington (D.C.)
Type:
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1940
1960
N.d
1930-1960
Topic:
African American women
African Americans
Local number:
Box 618.04.128
AC0618.004.0002319.tif (AC Scan)
41841 (Scurlock No.)
Summary:
Full-length studio portrait of African American woman wearing full-length gown. Ink on negative: "41841 Miss Essie Williams." Defender Safety Base edge imprint.
Cite as:
Scurlock Studio Records, ca. 1905-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Black-and-white negative series (Scurlock Studio Collection) : photonegatives 1904-1994
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

[Dr. Ernest E. Just in his laboratory at Howard University : paper photoprint, 1916.]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N. 1883-1964
Printmaker:
Scurlock, Robert S [Saunders] 1917-1994
Subject:
Just, Ernest E. Dr. 1883-1941
Howard University
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on paper, 14" x 11", matted and framed
1 item
Culture:
African Americans Washington (D.C.)
Type:
Later prints
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1916
Topic:
African American scientists
African Americans
Local number:
2008-2115 (SI Neg. No.)
1998.0011.055 (Indexed NMAH Acc. No.)
Notes:
In Box 27.
Summary:
Later print by Robert S. Scurlock, ca. 1976. There are also several additional unmounted prints of this image in the collection.
Cite as:
Scurlock Studio Records, ca. 1905-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Black-and-white photoprints (Series 1), Scurlock Studio Records, ca. 1905-1994
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

[African American woman, identified as Carol Brice, standing in front of Lincoln statue, Lincoln Memorial : black-and-white photonegative,] June, 28, 1947

Photographers:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)
Film manufacturer:
Eastman Kodak Company
Subject:
Brice, Carol 1916-1985
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet, 4" x 5"
1 item
Culture:
African Americans Washington (D.C.)
Type:
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1947
June, 28, 1947
1930-1950
1940-1950
Topic:
Memorials
Sculptures
Lincoln Memorial (Washington, D.C.)
Local number:
Freezer box 54
618ns0242760jp.tif (AC Scan No.)
Notes:
From NUS carton 82.
Carol Brice was a leading contralto and one of the first African American singers to record extensively. Ident. by Dave Haddock.
Summary:
No caption on negative. From a series. Caption on envelope: "NAACP Mass Meeting, Lincoln Memorial--Harry Truman address, Mrs. Roosevelt--38th annual NAACP Conference"; #3 of 4 negatives.
Cite as:
Scurlock Studio Records, ca. 1905-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Black-and-white film negatives (Series 4), Scurlock Studio Records 1905-1994
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

[Dr. Ernest E. Just in his laboratory at Howard University : paper photoprints, 1916.]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N. 1883-1964
Printmaker:
Scurlock, Robert S [Saunders] 1917-1994
Subject:
Just, Ernest E. Dr. 1883-1941
Howard University
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on paper, 14" x 11", unmounted
2 items
Culture:
African Americans Washington (D.C.)
Type:
Portraits
Later prints
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1916
Topic:
African American scientists
African Americans
African American men
Local number:
1998.3003 (NMAH Acc.)
618ps0225143pm.tif (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site
Summary:
Later prints by Robert S. Scurlock, ca. 1976. See also similar framed print. Almost identical, on warm-toned paper, but with a slight lateral shift between them.
0618.225143A: Print includes more negative area on the right but less on the left. With signature "Scurlock" and copyright symbol in white ink at the right. Pencil on verso, "DR. ERNEST E. JUST / 1916". Scan available.
618.225143B: Print includes more negative area on left and less on right. Dust spots on negative, subject's right lapel area.
Cite as:
Scurlock Studio Records, ca. 1905-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Black-and-white photoprints (Series 1), Scurlock Studio Records, ca. 1905-1994
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Portrait of Lillian Evans wearing white lace dress

Creator:
Evans-Tibbs Collection
Scurlock, Addison N. 1883-1964
Subject:
Evanti, Lillian Mme (Lillian Evans Tibbs) 1890-1967
Physical description:
1 photographic print carbon print 6 1/2 x 4 1/2 in. (16.5 x 11.4 cm)
Culture:
African American
Type:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1907
Circa 1907
Topic:
African American women
Portraits
African Americans
Local number:
ACMA PH2003.7063.160
Summary:
The Evans-Tibbs Collection focuses on the life and accomplishments of opera singer, Madame Lillian Evanti. Born Annie Lillian Evans (1890-1967) to a prominently middle-class family in Washington, DC, she began performing as a child and toured as a concert artist after graduating from Howard University. Her father was Wilson Bruce Evans, founding principal of Armstrong Technical High School. Her mother, Annie Brooks Evans, was a music teacher in the public school system. Hiram Revels, the first African American senator, was her great-uncle; her maternal grandfather, Joseph Brooks, served in the D.C. Territorial Legislature in the 1870s; two relatives are attributed with taking part in John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. In 1918, she married Roy Tibbs, Howard University music professor. Her stage name, Madame Evanti, is a glamorous combination of Evans and Tibbs. Madame Evanti made her professional debut with the Paris Opera in the title role of Lakmé, making her the first African American to sing with an organized European opera company. Before her retirement in the 1950s, Evanti would win acclaim for her operatic talents in Europe, South America, Africa, and the Caribbean. She was decorated by several countries, sung at the White House, served as a Good Will Ambassador, performed with the National Negro Opera Company, and gained national attention as a composer.
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

[Mary McLeod Bethune, 3/4 bust, wearing dark lace dress and pearl necklace : acetate film photonegative plus one contact print, probably 1930s.]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N. 1883-1964
Film manufacturer:
Defender
Subject:
Bethune, Mary McLeod Mrs. 1875-1955
Physical description:
Negative: Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet, 7 x 5 in
Print: Silver gelatin on paper print, 7 x 5 in
2 items
Culture:
African Americans Washington (D.C.)
Type:
Contact prints
Vignettes
Photographs
Retouching
Date:
1930
1940
probably 1930s
1950-2000
1930-1940
Topic:
African American women
Portraits--African American women
Pencil
Local number:
Freezer box 47
30467 (Scurlock No.)
Notes:
From negative Box A. No. 38 on original sleeve.
Prints in box 80.
Summary:
Negative vignetted at bottom. Heavy pencil retouching in face on negative. Ink on negative edge: "30467 Mrs. Mary Bethune". "Defender Safety Base", maker edge marking. Contact print originally filed with negative.
Cite as:
Scurlock Studio Records, ca. 1905-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Black-and-white film negatives (Series 4), Scurlock Studio Records 1905-1994
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

Madame Lillian Evanti sings for her sorority, Zeta Phi Beta

Creator:
Evans-Tibbs Collection
Subject:
Evanti, Lillian Mme (Lillian Evans Tibbs) 1890-1967
Physical description:
1 photographic print gelatin silver 10 x 8 in. (25.4 x 20.3 cm)
Culture:
African American
Type:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
Undated
Topic:
African American women
Portraits
Local number:
ACMA PH2003.7063.026
Summary:
The Evans-Tibbs Collection focuses on the life and accomplishments of opera singer, Madame Lillian Evanti. Born Annie Lillian Evans (1890-1967) to a prominently middle-class family in Washington, DC, she began performing as a child and toured as a concert artist after graduating from Howard University. Her father was Wilson Bruce Evans, founding principal of Armstrong Technical High School. Her mother, Annie Brooks Evans, was a music teacher in the public school system. Hiram Revels, the first African American senator, was her great-uncle; her maternal grandfather, Joseph Brooks, served in the D.C. Territorial Legislature in the 1870s; two relatives are attributed with taking part in John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. In 1918, she married Roy Tibbs, Howard University music professor. Her stage name, Madame Evanti, is a glamorous combination of Evans and Tibbs. Madame Evanti made her professional debut with the Paris Opera in the title role of Lakmé, making her the first African American to sing with an organized European opera company. Before her retirement in the 1950s, Evanti would win acclaim for her operatic talents in Europe, South America, Africa, and the Caribbean. She was decorated by several countries, sung at the White House, served as a Good Will Ambassador, performed with the National Negro Opera Company, and gained national attention as a composer.
Cite as:
Evans-Tibbs Collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Insititution, gift of the Estate of Thurlow E. Tibbs, Jr
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Publicity portrait of Madame Lillian Evanti

Creator:
Evans-Tibbs Collection
Maurice Studio
Subject:
Evanti, Lillian Mme (Lillian Evans Tibbs) 1890-1967
Physical description:
1 photographic print gelatin silver 9 1/2 x 8 in. (24.1 x 20.3 cm)
Culture:
African American
Type:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Publicity photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
African American women
Portraits
Local number:
ACMA PH2003.7063.033
Summary:
The Evans-Tibbs Collection focuses on the life and accomplishments of opera singer, Madame Lillian Evanti. Born Annie Lillian Evans (1890-1967) to a prominently middle-class family in Washington, DC, she began performing as a child and toured as a concert artist after graduating from Howard University. Her father was Wilson Bruce Evans, founding principal of Armstrong Technical High School. Her mother, Annie Brooks Evans, was a music teacher in the public school system. Hiram Revels, the first African American senator, was her great-uncle; her maternal grandfather, Joseph Brooks, served in the D.C. Territorial Legislature in the 1870s; two relatives are attributed with taking part in John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. In 1918, she married Roy Tibbs, Howard University music professor. Her stage name, Madame Evanti, is a glamorous combination of Evans and Tibbs. Madame Evanti made her professional debut with the Paris Opera in the title role of Lakmé, making her the first African American to sing with an organized European opera company. Before her retirement in the 1950s, Evanti would win acclaim for her operatic talents in Europe, South America, Africa, and the Caribbean. She was decorated by several countries, sung at the White House, served as a Good Will Ambassador, performed with the National Negro Opera Company, and gained national attention as a composer.
Cite as:
Evans-Tibbs Collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Insititution, gift of the Estate of Thurlow E. Tibbs, Jr
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

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