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ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 27
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1964-1968
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Leon Kroll papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Leon Kroll papers, 1905-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Leon Kroll papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-krolleon-ref346

ACA Galleries records, 1917-1963

Creator:
ACA Galleries  Search this
Subject:
Mumford, Lewis  Search this
Burliuk, David  Search this
Valente, Alfredo  Search this
Soyer, Raphael  Search this
Hirsch, Joseph  Search this
Dondero, George Anthony  Search this
Pickens, Alton  Search this
Evergood, Philip Howard  Search this
Young, Art  Search this
McCausland, Elizabeth  Search this
Newman, Arnold  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Gwathmey, Robert  Search this
Gropper, William  Search this
Olds, Elizabeth  Search this
Baron, Herman  Search this
Soyer, Moses  Search this
Refregier, Anton  Search this
Abbott, Berenice  Search this
American Contemporary Art Gallery  Search this
American Artists' Congress.  Search this
Topic:
Writings  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Gallery directors  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Politics in art  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8772
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210955
AAA_collcode_acagall
Theme:
The Art Market
New Deal
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210955
Additional Online Media:

The ACA Galleries records

Creator:
ACA Galleries  Search this
Names:
American Contemporary Art Gallery  Search this
Abbott, Berenice, 1898-1991  Search this
Baron, Herman, 1892-1961  Search this
Burliuk, David, 1882-1967  Search this
Cahill, Holger, 1887-1960  Search this
Dondero, George A. (George Anthony), 1883-1968  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Gropper, William, 1897-1977  Search this
Gwathmey, Robert, 1903-1988  Search this
Hirsch, Joseph, 1910-1981  Search this
McCausland, Elizabeth, 1899-1965  Search this
Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990  Search this
Olds, Elizabeth, 1896-1991  Search this
Pickens, Alton  Search this
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Soyer, Moses, 1899-1974  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Valente, Alfredo  Search this
Weber, Max, 1881-1961  Search this
Young, Art, 1866-1943  Search this
Photographer:
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Writings
Photographs
Date:
1917-1963
Summary:
The scattered records of the ACA (American Contemporary Art) Galleries date from 1917 through 1963 and include writings by founder Herman Baron, artists Philip Evergood and Anton Refregier, and art critic Elizabeth McCausland; printed materials; and photographs of Baron, ACA artists, art collectors, works of art, and exhibitions. Correspondence is with David Burliuk, Philip Evergood, William Gropper, Lewis Mumford, Moses Sawyer, Max Weber, and others. Also found is a small group of Herman Baron's personal papers.
Scope and Content Note:
The scattered records of the ACA (American Contemporary Art) Galleries date from 1917 through 1963 and include writings by founder Herman Baron, artists Philip Evergood and Anton Refregier, and art critic Elizabeth McCausland; printed materials; and photographs of Baron, ACA artists, art collectors, works of art, and exhibitions. Correspondence is with David Burliuk, Philip Evergood, William Gropper, Lewis Mumford, Moses Sawyer, Max Weber, and others. Also found is a small group of Herman Baron's personal papers.

The records are a rich resource for documenting the Social Realist artists and the militant socialist artists during the great depression and the post-World War II era of "McCarthyism".

Correspondence with ACA artists consists of letters from Philip Evergood, David Burliuk, William Gropper, Robert Gwathmey, Joseph Hirsch, Lewis Mumford, Elizabeth Olds, Alton Pickens, Moses Soyer, Max Weber, and Art Young. Some of the letters concern the socialist and communist views of some of the artists, including responses to Congressional Representive George A. Dondero's public statements and attacks on modern art as a conspiracy to spread communism in the United States. There is a letter written by Holger Cahill to the editor of Time magazine concerning WPA artists. Also found is a letter from Raphael Soyer written to the ACA Galleries concerning the American Artists' Congress.

Writings include Herman Baron's written history of the ACA Galleries and scattered pages of Baron's book on Joe Jones and William Gropper. There are essays and writings by art critic Elizabeth McCausland, and artists Anton Refregier and Philip Evergood. Printed materials consist of ACA publications, newspaper clippings, published articles, printed illustrations by Philip Evergood, and printed materials about Congressman Dondero.

Photographs are of David Burliuk, Bruce Calder, Nicolai Cikovsky, Hy Cohen, Robert Cronbach, Alexander Dobkin, Philip Evergood, Mike Gold, Chaim Gross, William Gropper, Joe Jones, Mervin Jules, Irene Rice Pereia, Geri Pine, Philip Reisman, Vic Shifreen, Harry Sternberg, Moses Soyer, Raphael Soyer, James Baare Turnbull, Nicky Walker, Abraham Walkowitz, Nat Werner, and Art Young. Photographers include Berenice Abbott, Arnold Newman, and Alfredo Valente. Additional photographs are of unidentified installations or exhibitions.

Herman Baron's personal papers include letters written to his wife and friends during World War I, writings by Baron for various magazines including Glazier's Journal. Personal photographs are of Herman Baron in his army uniform. There is also an obituary for Herman Baron written by art critic Elizabeth McCausland.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 5 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, circa 1930s-1960s (Box 1; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 2: Writings and Notes, 1938-circa 1960s (Box 1; 8 folders)

Series 3: Printed Material, 1939-1960 (Box 2; 4 folders)

Series 4: Photographs, circa 1930s-circa 1960s (Box 2; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 5: Herman Baron Personal Papers, circa 1910s, 1940s-1960s (Box 2-3; 0.3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Herman Baron, Stuart Davis, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, and Adolf Dehn founded the American Contemporary Art (ACA) Galleries on August 16, 1932. Located at 1269 Madison Avenue in New York City, the galleries' first show featured watercolorist Hy Cohen. Baron encouraged freedom of expression and did not censor the artworks displayed in his gallery. As a result, the gallery became an outlet for generally unknown and socially conscious artists, including the Social Realists.

Born in Lithuania in 1892, Herman Baron immigrated to the United States as a child. He served in World War I and later attended New York University. Baron founded and edited Glazier's Journal (later Glass Digest) in 1924 as the first journal for the professional glazing trade. Additionally, he wrote short stories and plays for American Hebrew and Young Israel.

In response to economic issues facing the art market during the depresssion of 1930s, ACA Galleries organized relief efforts to financially support their artists. During this period, the gallery became closely allied with militant artists' organizations and some of the more politically radical artists. In 1935, the ACA Galleries and Herman Baron hosted the first meeting of the American Artists' Congress in the gallery space.

The ACA Galleries featured exhibitions of works by artists David Burliuk, Stuart Davis, Philip Evergood, William Gropper, Robert Gwathmey, Joe Jones, Rockwell Kent, Lee Krasner, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Lewis Mumford, Louise Nevelson, Alton Pickens, Moses Soyer, Raphael Soyer, Max Weber, Art Young, and others. Baron also organized exhibitions of many artists employed by or associated with the Works Progress Administration of the federal arts program. Due to the progressive nature of the works of art found in the ACA Galleries, Herman Baron came under considerable criticism during the McCarthy Era. Baron was condemned by Representative George A. Dondero for supporting "un-American" sympathies and was forced often to defend his gallery and artists.

For years the gallery focused on artists rights and supporting the work of artists, rather than a profit. In the 1950s, a shift occurred when Baron's nephew Sidney Bergen initiated professional business practices and transformed the gallery into a profitable venture. Now located at 529 West 20th Street in New York City, ACA Galleries continues to promote and support various social causes.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art holds the Herman Baron papers, dating from 1937-1967 which were donated by Syracuse University, George Arents Research Library in 1984. Some exhibition catalogs may be found here.
Provenance:
Ella Baron, widow of the ACA Galleries' founder Herman Baron, donated the records to the Archives of American Art in 1965 and 1966.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The ACA Galleries records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Politics in art  Search this
Gallery directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Writings
Photographs
Citation:
ACA Galleries records, 1917-1963. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.acagall
See more items in:
The ACA Galleries records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-acagall
Additional Online Media:

ACA Galleries - Authors Guild, Inc.

Collection Creator:
Glackens, Ira, 1907-1990  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1967-1987
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Ira and William Glackens papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Ira and William Glackens papers, circa 1900-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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Ira and William Glackens papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-glacwill-ref32

ACA Gallery

Collection Creator:
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1965-1968
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Leon Kroll papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Leon Kroll papers, 1905-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Leon Kroll papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-krolleon-ref33

Herman Baron

Subject:
Baron, Herman  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
194-
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)9972
See more items in:
ACA Galleries records, 1917-1963
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_9972
Additional Online Media:

Photographs of Exhibition at ACA Gallery

Collection Creator:
Soyer, Moses, 1899-1974  Search this
Container:
Box 4 (hol), Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Moses Soyer papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Moses Soyer papers, circa 1905-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Moses Soyer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-soyemose-ref110

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator::
Archives of American Art  Search this
Container:
Box 15 of 17
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Restricted for 15 years, until Jan-01-2020; Transferring office; 3/2/1988 memorandum, Massa to Fleckner; Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 06-090, Archives of American Art, Director's Records
See more items in:
Director's Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa06-090-refidd1e2132

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator::
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Office of the Director  Search this
Container:
Box 8 of 25
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 510, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Office of the Director, Records
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0510-refidd1e4162

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Friedman, B. H. (Bernard Harper), 1926-2011  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1982-2006
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is ACCESS RESTRICTED; written permission is required. Use of original materials requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Bernard Harper Friedman papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. They may be used for research, study, and scholarship. Access requires written permission.
Collection Citation:
Bernard Harper Friedman papers, 1926-2011, bulk 1943-2010. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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Bernard Harper Friedman papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-friebern-ref39

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Penney, Charles Rand, 1923-2010  Search this
Container:
Box 21, Folder 35
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1991-1994
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Charles Rand Penney papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Charles Rand Penney Papers, 1923-1994, bulk 1945-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Rand Penney papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pennchar-ref1088

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Penney, Charles Rand, 1923-2010  Search this
Container:
Box 22, Folder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1990
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Charles Rand Penney papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Charles Rand Penney Papers, 1923-1994, bulk 1945-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Rand Penney papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pennchar-ref1141

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Penney, Charles Rand, 1923-2010  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 35
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1980-1986
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Charles Rand Penney papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Charles Rand Penney Papers, 1923-1994, bulk 1945-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Rand Penney papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pennchar-ref289

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Penney, Charles Rand, 1923-2010  Search this
Container:
Box 7, Folder 27
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1986
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Charles Rand Penney papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Charles Rand Penney Papers, 1923-1994, bulk 1945-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Rand Penney papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pennchar-ref371

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Penney, Charles Rand, 1923-2010  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 38
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1992-1993
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Charles Rand Penney papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Charles Rand Penney Papers, 1923-1994, bulk 1945-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Rand Penney papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pennchar-ref474

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Extent:
(3 folders)
Container:
Box 6, Folder 4-6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1940s-1968
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Anton Refregier papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. They may be used for research, study and scholarship. Authorization to quote or reproduce for purposes of publication must be obtained from: Brigit R. Sutton, Box 344D, Woodstock, New York, 12498.
Collection Citation:
Anton Refregier papers, circa 1900-circa 1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Anton Refregier papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-refranto-ref43

ACA Galleries

Collection Creator:
Stamos, Theodoros, 1922-1997  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1990-1991
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Theodoros Stamos papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Theodoros Stamos papers, circa 1922-2008. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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Theodoros Stamos papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-stamtheo-ref32

ACA Galleries, Munich

Collection Creator:
Washburn Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1999
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is ACCESS RESTRICTED; use requires written permission. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Access to original papers, with permission, requires an appointment.
Collection Citation:
Washburn Gallery records, 1906-2017, bulk 1971-2010. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Washburn Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-washbgall-ref235

ACA Galleries, 1987

Collection Creator::
National Museum of American Art. Curatorial Office  Search this
Container:
Box 4 of 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 97-035, National Museum of American Art. Curatorial Office, Exhibition Records
See more items in:
Exhibition Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa97-035-refidd1e2945

New York, ACA Galleries

Collection Creator::
National Collection of Fine Arts. Department of Twentieth Century Painting and Sculpture  Search this
Container:
Box 4 of 23
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 315, National Collection of Fine Arts. Department of Twentieth Century Painting and Sculpture, Records
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0315-refidd1e1837

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