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Robert O. Muller Papers, 1930-1997

Creator:
Muller, Robert O. 1911-2003
Physical description:
7.5 linear feet
Type:
Auction catalogs
Collection descriptions
Exhibition catalogs
Price lists
Photographic prints
Correspondence
Place:
USA, Connecticut, New Haven
Japan
Date:
1930-1997
20th century
19th century
Topic:
Prints, Japanese
Art--Collectors and collecting
Printmakers
shin-hanga
Description and travel
Local number:
A2003.14
Notes:
Born in 1911 in Pelham, New York, art collector, dealer, and connoisseur Robert O. Muller assembled a collection of nearly 4,500 late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Japanese prints throughout his life. As a history student at Harvard University, Mr. Muller's world renowned print collection began to take shape with the purchase of the print 'Kiyosu Bridge" by Kawase Hasui for $5.00 from the Shima Art Company in 1931. Mr. Muller married Ingeborg Lee in 1940 and their honeymoon in Japan played a critical role in Mr. Muller's development as an art dealer and collector. They spent five months there and met with many important artists and dealers and purchased thousands of prints for both their personal art collection and for commerce. Upon their return to the States, Mr. Muller purchased the Shima Art Company's assets and started the Robert Lee Gallery with his partner William Lee Comerford in 1940. With the attack on Pearl Harbor, Muller and Comerford closed the Robert Lee Gallery and later reopened it in a different Manhattan location. The Mullers moved to Newton, Connecticut, in 1946 and reestablished the Robert Lee Gallery there. In 1962, Muller purchased a frame shop, Merwin's Art Shop, in New Haven, Connecticut. Although primarily a framing shop, Muller not only befriended many scholars and academics from nearby Yale University but sold Japanese prints from the back room. From that initial purchase of 'Kiyosu Bridge' in 1931 up until his death in 2003, Robert Muller amassed what many art historians, collectors, and curators regarded as the finest collection of its type in the world. Muller bequeathed his Japanese print collection, archival materials, and library to the Sackler Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution
Summary:
Personal papers created by Robert O. Muller (1911-2003), a Connecticut-based collector who over the course of seventy years had assembled one of the world's finest collections of Japanese prints from the late 1860s through the 1940s.The papers include Muller's correspondence, subject files, business transactions, and research pertaining to Japanese woodblock prints
Cite as:
Robert O. Muller Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Bequest of Robert O. Muller, 2003
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Amb. Richard B. Parker Photographs of Islamic Monuments 1965-1979

Creator:
Parker, Richard Bordeaux 1923-
Physical description:
681 items
Type:
Photographic prints
Collection descriptions
Negatives
Place:
Cairo (Egypt)
Algeria
Fès (Morocco)
Marrakech (Morocco)
Meknès (Morocco)
Morocco
Rabat-Salé (Morocco)
Syria
Jordan
Date:
1965
1965-1979
Topic:
Islamic antiquities
Local number:
A2002.6
Notes:
Richard Bordeaux Parker was born on July 3, 1923, in the Philippines where his father was stationed in the United States Army. He earned a Bachelors of Science in General Science and a Masters of Science in Citizenship Education from Kansas State University. After serving as an infantry soldier during World War II, Parker joined the U.S. Foreign Service in 1949. His first tour was spent in Sydney, Australia. He then focused his career on the Middle East, holding a number of posts in Israel, Jordan, and Egypt. In addition, Parker served as ambassador to Algeria (1974-1977), Lebanon (1977), and Morocco (1978-1979.) Fluent in Arabic, he has written/edited seven books to date on subjects concerning the Middle East. He retired from the U.S. Foreign Service in 1981 and became the editor of, The Middle East Journal, from 1981 through 1987. In addition to his diplomatic career, Parker taught at the University of Virginia, Johns Hopkins University, and Lawrence University. He served as the first president of the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training from 1986-1989. He is also a member of several organizations including the Advisory Council on Near East Studies at Princeton University, the American Academy of Diplomacy, the Cosmos Club, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Middle East Institute. In June, 2004, he received the American Foreign Service Association's lifetime Contributions to American Diplomacy award. Richard B. Parker is married with four children and lives in Washington, D.C
Summary:
The Amb. Richard B. Parker Photographs contains 200 black and white prints, 481 black and white negatives, and two black and white contact sheets of Islamic monuments in Algeria, Cairo, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, and Spain. The Morocco series in the largest in the collection covering four cities. Photographs from Cairo span the years 1965-1968. All other photographs span the years 1970-1979. Originally, the negatives and prints were housed together. Although the negatives are now housed separately from the prints, they are grouped in the original order. All prints are in original order. Most of the photographs have been annotated and/or dated by the creator
Cite as:
Amb. Richard B. Parker Photographs, 1965-1979. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C. Gift of Ambassador Richard B. Parker, 2002
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Architectural drawings by Lionel Bier of Iranian archaeological monuments, 1975-1976

Creator:
Bier, Lionel D. 1942-2004
Physical description:
29 architectural drawings
Type:
Architectural drawings
Collection descriptions
Place:
USA, New York, New York
Iran
Date:
1975
1975-1976
Topic:
Archaeology
Architecture--Sassanid
Local number:
A2004.05
Notes:
The late Lionel D. Bier, art historian and archaeologist, taught art history at Brooklyn College for more than 30 years. He was primarily active in researching the archaeological record of pre- and early-Islamic Iran. Among his noted publications are: Sarvistan: A Study in Early Iranian Architecture (1986) and The Sassanian Palaces and their Influence in Early Islam, from Ars Orientalis (Vol. 23, 1993)
Summary:
Twenty-nine ink and pencil drawings documenting, usually both in plan and elevation, a number of both pre-Islamic and Islamic Iranian architectural monuments, executed on site between 1975 and 1976. Focus primarily is on Sassanian sites. Sites covered include: Bishapur, Firuzabad, Istakhr, Masjid-i Sang, Sarvistan, and Shari-i Ij
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Carol Bier and Lionel Bier photographic archives: archaeological sites and monuments in Iran (1975-76)

Creator:
Bier, Carol
Bier, Lionel D. 1942-2004
Physical description:
circa 2500 frames : black and white (2 binders)
Culture:
Sassanians
Qashqāʼī (Turkic people) Iran
Type:
Negatives
Collection descriptions
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Iran, Fars
Iran
Mamasānī (Iran)
Date:
1975
1975-1976
1950-2000
Topic:
Archaeology
Architecture, Sassanid
Local number:
A.2008.01
Notes:
Carol Bier is an historian of Islamic art who is Research Associate at The Textile Museum in Washington, DC, where she served as Curator for Eastern Hemisphere Collections from 1984-2001. Her research focuses on Islamic patterns as intersections of art and mathematics
The late Lionel D. Bier, art historian and archaeologist, taught art history at Brooklyn College for more than 30 years. He was primarily active in researching the archaeological record of pre- and early-Islamic Iran. Among his noted publications are: Sarvistan: A Study in Early Iranian Architecture (1986) and The Sassanian Palaces and their Influence in Early Islam, from Ars Orientalis (Vol. 23, 1993)
Summary:
Photographs taken by Carol Bier and Lionel Bier, comprising two binders of black and white 35mm negatives and contact sheets as well as a collection of color slides documenting both pre-Islamic and Islamic Iranian architectural monuments, taken 1975-1976. Focus primarily on the Sasanian sites of Fars province, focusing on built monuments, rock reliefs, and rock-cut monuments. Sites include: Firuzabad, Naqshi-Rustam, Naqshi-Rajab, Bishapur, Sarvistan, and Taq-i Bustan. Also includes a small number of ethnographic images by Carol Bier, predominanly of the Qashqai and Mamasani. Some of these images have been used previously in publications by both the authors themselves as well as other scholars
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Mrs. Harry C. Norcross Collection of Early Photographs of Japan, circa 1890's

Creator:
Norcross, Henry C.
Norcross, Henry C. Mrs
Physical description:
13 albumen prints : color ; 27.9 x 19.2 cm or smaller
Type:
Albumen prints
Collection descriptions
Place:
Japan
Date:
1890-1900
19th century
Topic:
Photography
Local number:
A2003.13
Summary:
Unmounted and hand-colored albumen prints created by unidentified commercial studios for the export market, portraying the people, sites and daily life of Japan during the Meiji period. Originally part of a published photo album. Photographers identified: Tamamura Kozaburo and Ogawa Kazumasa. Images include: Women looking at a sign ; Women enjoying tea on a balcony ; Geikos on a leisure boat ; Cherry trees along Koganei Banks ; A row of Japanese cedar trees along the Nikko Road ; Statue of nio ; Nobi great earthquake
Cite as:
Mrs. Henry C. Norcross Collection of Early Photography of Japan. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Jean Leslie Norcross, 2003
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Martha Smith Collection of Stereographs and Postcards, circa 1904

Creator:
Underwood & Underwood
Mayor, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt) 1901-1980
Underwood & Underwood Studios
Exposition universelle de 1867 (Paris, France)
Subject:
Meiji Emperor of Japan 1852-1912
Physical description:
51 stereographs: black and white
2 postcards: black and white
Type:
Stereographs
Collection descriptions
Postcards
Place:
Japan
Date:
1904
circa 1904
1900-1910
Local number:
A2002.02
Notes:
The cards were most likely assembled by Ms. Smith's father, A. Hyatt Mayor (1901-1980), art historian, writer, and Metropolitan Museum of Art Curator of Prints from 1946-1966
Underwood & Underwood was an early photographic studio who produced steroscopic and photographic images from 1881 to the 1940s. Founded in Ottawa, Kansas by brothers Elmer Underwood and Bert Elias Underwood, the studio worked in Ottawa, Baltimore, and New York City. They sold box sets of photographs and set up distribution offices throughout the world. Underwood & Underwood covered major news events like the Boer War and the Great War
Summary:
43 stereographs from the early twentieth century were produced by the Underwood & Underwood Studio depicting various scenes and people from Meiji Japan, 3 stereographs from the 1867 Exposition Universelle in Paris, France, and two black and white postcards from Japan. Specific Japanese locations depicted include: Yokohama; Mississippi Bay and the Mikado Cliffs; Tokyo; Mt. Haruna, Ikao; Kyoto; Hiroshima; Lake Chuzenji
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Anne J. van Biema papers

Creator:
Biema, Anne van
Subject:
Ukiyo-e Society of America
Physical description:
6 linear feet
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Personal papers
Place:
USA, New York, New York
United States
Date:
19??
Edo period, 1600-1868
Topic:
Color prints, Japanese
Ukiyoe
Ukiyoe--Collectors and collecting
Color prints, Japanese--Collectors and collecting
Local number:
A2004.02
accession number
Notes:
Anne J. van Biema (1916-2004), former active member and officer of the Ukiyo-e Society of America. Collector of Japanese woodblock prints. Some of her collection of prints, now in the permanent collection of the Sackler, were previously displayed as a loan in the Sackler's "Masterful Illusions" exhibition in 2002
Summary:
Correspondence, research files, genealogical files, records pertaining to the Ukiyo-e Society of America, photographs (some framed, some black and white, color snapshots of prints)
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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The A.G. Wenley Papers 1924-1926

Creator:
Wenley, A. G (Archibald Gibson) 1898-1962
Subject:
Wenley, A. G (Archibald Gibson) 1898-1962
Bishop, Carl Whiting 1881-1942
Physical description:
3 boxes
Type:
Field notes
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Maps
Place:
China
Beidaihe (China)
Yun'gang Caves (China)
Date:
1924-1926
Topic:
Archaeological expeditions
Archaeology
Local number:
FSA.A1996.05
Notes:
A.G. Wenley worked for the Freer Gallery of Art from 1924 until his death in 1962. From 1942 to 1962 he was the Director of the Freer Gallery of Art
Summary:
This collection consists of the field journals and maps created by A.G. Wenley when he accompanied Carl Whiting Bishop on his archaeological expedition to China on behalf of the Freer Gallery from 1924-1926. The journals are typewritten, with photographs and captions depicting the different sites Wenley visited. There are also duplicate copies with annotations on several of the entries
Cite as:
The A.G. Wenley Papers, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C
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The A.G. Wenley Papers 1924-1926
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Li Chi Reports 1926-1931

Creator:
Li, Ji 1896-1979
Subject:
Li, Ji 1896-1979
Bishop, Carl Whiting 1881-1942
Physical description:
3 boxes
Type:
Reports
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Maps
Place:
China
Date:
1926-1931
Topic:
Archaeology
Archaeological expeditions
Local number:
A2003.10
Notes:
Li Chi was born in 1896 in Hubei Province, China. He recieved his Ph.D. in anthropology from Harvard in 1923. He was a member of Carl Whiting Bishop's archaeological team during Freer Gallery sponsored expeditions to China from 1926 to 1929. His later activities were funded both by the Freer Gallery and Academia Sinica. His chief contribution to archaeology was the systematic excavation of Anyang, and the establishment of the historical authenticity of the Shang dynasty. After the Japanese invasion and the fall of the Mainland to the Communists, Li fled to Taiwan where he was head of anthropology and archaeology at the National University
Summary:
Li Chi was a prominent Chinese archaeologist, trained in the United States and one of the first Chinese archaeologists to conduct and teach scientific archaeology in China. This collection contains the manuscripts of the reports Li Chi prepared for the Freer Gallery when he was a member of the archaeological expeditions in China sponsored by the Freer Gallery of Art and headed by Carl Whiting Bishop during the years 1926 to 1929. The Li Chi Reports describe the expedition's findings at various Chinese archaeological sites, including Hsi-yin-ts'un which details an archaeological dig co-sponsored by the Freer Gallery of Art and the Tsing Hua Research Institute and the 1928-1929 excavation at Yin-Hsu
Cite as:
The Li Chi Reports, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C
See more items in:
Li Chi Reports 1926-1931
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Lynn McLaren slides: 1960-1969

Creator:
McLaren, Lynn 1922-
Subject:
Nehru, Jawaharlal 1889-1964
Cooke, Hope 1940-
Physical description:
1632 color slides
Type:
Slides (photographs)
Collection descriptions
Place:
India
Date:
1960
1960-1969
Local number:
FSA A2007.01
Notes:
Lynn McLaren was a freelance photojournalist whose work appeared in National Geographic, Newsweek, and other publications. She also produced several books of photography. The State Department career of her first husband, John Y. Millar, took McLaren to various locales around the world, including India, Tanzania, and Berlin, where she was drawn to shots that included architecture and people, especially children. McLaren went on to earn a degree in photojournalism from the University of Missouri. After her divorce from Millar, she moved to Beaufort, South Carolina. Her years there with her second husband, William Demarest, resulted in a book devoted to images of Beaufort County
Summary:
A set of original 35mm color slides, photographed in India in the 1960s by photojournalist Lynn McLaren (1922-2008). Subjects include people, street scenes, and temple and domestic architecture. Images from photo assignments include Nehru's funeral pyre, the Queen of Sikkim, and traditional Indian actors
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Catherine Glynn Benkaim collection, circa 1850-1880

Collector:
Benkaim, Catherine Glynn
Photographer:
Bourne, Samuel 1834-1912
Murray, Colin Roderick 1840-1884
Johnson, William
Henderson, William
Creator:
Bourne and Shepherd
Physical description:
7 black and white albumen prints
Type:
Albumen prints
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
India
Date:
1857
1880
circa 1850-1880
Local number:
A2006.02
Notes:
Catherine Glynn Benkaim is a trustee of the Freer and Sackler Galleries of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. She graduated from the University of California, Santa Barbara and has a master's degree in Asian art history from U.C.L.A,. as well as a doctorate in Indian art history from the University of Southern California
Samuel Bourne's photographic career in India, which spanned only seven years before his departure in 1870, began with his arrival in Calcutta in 1863. In Simla, he formed a partnership with two established photographers, Howard (likely William Howard) and Charles Shepherd. Howard soon left, and within a few years, Bourne & Shepherd had become the most successful firm in the subcontinent, opening additional studios in Calcutta (1867) and Bombay (1870). Colin Murray (d. 1884) became the main photographer of Bourne & Shepherd in 1870
William Johnson had a daguerrotype studio in Bombay circa 1852-1854 and a photographic studio circa 1854-1860. In partnership with William Henderson, Johnson produced the "Indian Amateur's Photographic Album" (1856-1858)
Summary:
Seven 19th-century albumen photographs taken by Samuel Bourne, Colin Murray and unknown photographers (possibly William Johnson and William Henderson). The photographs depict various scenes and people of India, including a portrait of a hunting party in Nepal, images of the Queen Victoria Monument in Bombay and views of Dal Lake, Calcutta and Kutb Minar
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Edward Steichen portrait of Charles Lang Freer, 1916

Creator:
Steichen, Edward 1879-1973
Subject:
Freer, Charles Lang 1856-1919
Physical description:
1photographic print: black and white; 9 5/8 x 7 5/8 in
Type:
Portraits
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
USA, Michigan, Detroit
Date:
1916
Topic:
Men
Local number:
A1993.05
Notes:
Edward Steichen (1879-1973) was an American painter and photographer born in Bivange, Luxembourg. He became a naturalized citizen in 1900. Steichen began his career as a fine art painter, but he soon took up the pictorialist approach to photography, going on to establish the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession with Alfred Stieglitz. During World War I, Steichen moved into straight photography, serving as Director of the Naval Photographic Institute during World War II and winning an Academy Award for Best Documentary for his 1945 film "The Fighting Lady". He is perhaps most well-known for his curatorial work for the 1955 photography exhibition "The Family of Man" at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Steichen selected more than 500 images from professional and amateur photographers in over 68 countries to depict universal themes of the human experience, such as birth, death, war and illness. The exhibition traveled to 38 countries and was viewed by over 9 million people, resulting in an equally successful book of the same name, which included an introduction by Steichen's brother-in-law, the poet Carl Sandburg
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919) was an American railroad-car manufacturer from Detroit, Michigan who amassed a large fortune as one of the founders of the Peninsular Car Company, which would go on to become American Car and Foundry. In the latter part of the 19th century, Freer was diagnosed with neurasthenia, the prescribed treatment for which was usually rest and avoidance of stressful activities. Freer began collecting art, starting with American masters and impressionist painters. Early on, Freer met and began collecting the works of James Whistler, who advised him to start collecting Asian art. Freer traveled to China, Japan and Korea, amassing a large private collection. Early in the twentieth century, Freer decided to donate his art to the public; in 1916, construction began on what is now known as the Freer Gallery of Art at the Smithsonian Institution. The building, which was paid for by Freer, cost one million dollars. Completion was delayed by World War I and the gallery was not opened until 1923. Freer died in 1919, leaving the bulk of his art collection to the federal government. This photograph comes originally from the Estate of Clarence P. Freer, nephew of Charles Lang Freer
Summary:
One photograph, signed by Steichen in pencil on the image, numbered in an unidentified hand in pencil on the reverse, in the original wood frame
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Felix Bonfils panoramic view of Constantinople, ca. 1870

Photographer:
Bonfils, Félix 1831-1885
Creator:
Bonfils, Lydie 1837-1918
Physical description:
10 prints : albumen; 22.5 x 28.5 cm sheets
Type:
Panoramas
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Albumen prints
Place:
Turkey, Istanbul Province, Constantinople (Istanbul)
Istanbul (Turkey)
Constantinople (Turkey)
Date:
1870
ca 1870
1860-1880
Local number:
A1997.3
Notes:
Felix Bonfils was a French photographer who began his professional career as a bookbinder and printer, specializing in photoengravings. After visiting Lebanon as part of Napoleon III's expeditionary corps, in 1867 he became the first French photographer to settle in the Near East. With his wife Lydie, Bonfils established a studio, Maison Bonfils, in Beirut, then part of the Ottoman Empire. Known for his interest in architectural photography, Bonfils traveled widely in the Near East. His 1876 catalog is credited with introducing the genre of Near Eastern photographic portraiture
Summary:
Panoramic view in 360 degrees of Constantinople, now Istanbul, Turkey, circa 1870. 10 sheets of albumen print, of which five bear the photographer's signature and number
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Felix Bonfils panoramic view of Damascus, Syria, ca. 1870

Photographer:
Bonfils, Félix 1831-1885
Creator:
Bonfils, Lydie 1837-1918
Physical description:
5 prints : albumen; 22.5 x 28.5 cm sheets
Type:
Panoramas
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Albumen prints
Place:
Syria, Damascus, Damascus
Damascus (Syria)
Date:
1870
ca 1870
1860-1880
Local number:
A1997.4
Notes:
Felix Bonfils was a French photographer who began his professional career as a bookbinder and printer, specializing in photoengravings. After visiting Lebanon as part of Napoleon III's expeditionary corps, in 1867 he became the first French photographer to settle in the Near East. With his wife Lydie, Bonfils established a studio, Maison Bonfils, in Beirut, then part of the Ottoman Empire. Known for his interest in architectural photography, Bonfils traveled widely in the Near East. His 1876 catalog is credited with introducing the genre of Near Eastern photographic portraiture
Summary:
Panoramic view of Damascus, Syria, circa 1870. 5 sheets of albumen print, all bearing the photographer's signature and number
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Julia Margaret Cameron photograph of Christina Spartali, ca. 1865-1870

Creator:
Cameron, Julia Margaret 1815-1879
Subject:
Spartali, Christina
Physical description:
1 print : albumen; image 13 x 9.8 cm mounted on board 16.4 x 10.6 cm
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Portraits
Place:
England, London, London
Date:
1865
ca 1865-1870
Local number:
A1996.03
Notes:
Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879) was a British photographer famous for her portraits of celebrities of the day
Christina Spartali, second daughter of Michael Spartali and Euphrosyne Varsini Spartali, was born in Middlesex, England, in the mid to late 1840s. Her father, a prosperous cotton merchant who resided in London, became Consul-General for Greece in 1866. From 1864, the family lived in London at "The Shrubbery" in Clapham Common, and through their relatives the Ionides, prominent patrons of the arts, became acquainted with members of the contemporary art world, including James McNeill Whistler. Julia Margaret Cameron was the Spartalis' neighbor at Sandford, the family's estate on the Isle of Wight. Christina and her sister Marie were extraordinarily well-educated for women of their generation, but they were equally well-known for their beauty. Marie Spartali was an artist who publicly exhibited her work until the end of her life, but she remains better known as a model for Dante Gabriel Rossetti and other Victorian artists. Christina, who pursued no profession, is remembered for only one work, Whistler's "La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine", for which she posed in 1864-1865. Although "La Princesse" was not intended as a portrait, Whistler exhibited it in 1892 as "Portrait of Miss S.---," confident that his contemporaries would recognize the reference
Summary:
Head and shoulders portrait of Christina Spartali, taken by Julia Margaret Cameron circa 1865-1870. One albumen print, mounted on gold cardboard. The line "From life copyright Julia Margaret Cameron" is printed on the board below the photo, followed by a second and third line, written in ink, which read "Christina Spartali" and "now Countess Cahen D'Anvers" respectively
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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East and West, the discovery of America, and minor poems, circa 1893

Creator:
Fenollosa, Ernest Francisco 1853-1908
Bixby, William K (William Keeney) 1857-1931
Physical description:
[180] leaves.; 36 x 23 cm
Type:
Poetry
Collection descriptions
Place:
USA, Massachusetts, Boston
Date:
circa 1893
Local number:
A.2003.03
Notes:
Ernest Francisco Fenollosa (1853-1908) was a poet and student of Asian art. Born in Salem, Massachusetts, Fenollosa studied at Harvard, Cambridge University and the art school at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts before traveling to Japan to teach political economy and philosophy at the Imperial University at Tokyo. In 1988, he helped establish the Tokyo Fine Arts Academy and the Imperial Museum, serving as its director. For his many efforts to preserve temples and shrines and their art work, the Emperor of Japan decorated him with the orders of the Rising Sun and the Sacred Mirror. In 1890 Fenollosa returned to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts to take the position of curator of the department of Oriental arts. However, his public divorce and immediate remarriage in 1895 to the writer Mary McNeill Scott (1865-1954) led to his dismissal from the Museum in 1896 and he returned to Japan to teach English literature at the Tokyo Higher Normal School. He returned to the United States in 1900 to write and lecture on Asia. His works include East and West: The Discovery of America and Other Poems (1893); Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art (1912), compiled by his widow, Mary McNeil Fenollosa; and two works on Japanese drama (ed. by Ezra Pound, 1916)
A former chairman of the board of American Car & Foundry, William Keeney Bixby (1857-1931), like Charles Lang Freer, was an avid patron and collector of the arts. A handwritten note inscribed by Bixby on a flyleaf states that he acquired these manuscripts from a Boston dealer, having become "interested in Japanese Art and in Mr. Fenallosa & his work through seeing the collection of Chas. S. Freer on many delightful visits at his house and from frequent conversations with him [...] I feel that the Ms. of East & West should belong to my friend who taught me to appreciate early Japanese Art." In another inscription, dated March 4, 1910, Bixby dedicates the volume to Freer "with regards of his friend [...] for presentation to Smithsonian Institute or otherwise as he may elect."
Summary:
One volume, three quarter-bound maroon leather with maroon bead-grain cloth and marbled endpapers. Gilt titles on front board, gilt spine, false raised bands. Bookplate of W.K. Bixby on the inside front board. Loosely inserted in the front is an obituary clipping for Fenollosa. Approximately 180 tipped-in leaves, consisting of the manuscripts of Fenollosa's poetry which would eventually be published as East and West: The Discovery of America and Other Poems. The final 10 leaves consist of Fenollosa's explanatory notes
Contains manuscripts of his five-part poem East and West: Part I. The First Meeting of East and West; Part II. The Separated East; Part III. The Separated West; Part IV. The Present Meeting of East and West; Part V. The Future Union of East and West.
Contains manuscripts of his minor poems: Pastoral, December, The Hour, Speak softly, The Dryad, On Opening an Album, The Question, The Snowdrop, Love's Youth, The Golden Age, Sonnet, Sonnet, Sonnet--Fuji at Sunries, Sonnet (She-), Reproach, The Mood Dove, September, New Year's Eve 1875, God's Forests, Music and Poetry, At Her Tomb, In Norway, Telepathy, Reverie, In the Aura, Song of the Wind, In Vain, Karma, Maya, May, With Death, Spring Breath
Contains manuscripts of his symphonic poem, Discovery of America: First Movement. The Sea and the Sky; Second Movement. Dreams; Third Movement. Wedding Music; Fourth Movement. Triumph
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Nautch bungalow Shalimar circa 1860s. bulk dates

Creator:
Bourne, Samuel 1834-1912
Physical description:
1 print : albumen; image, 24 x 29 cm., mounted 31 x 40
Type:
Albumen prints
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
India, Kashmir, Dal Lake
India
Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir, India)
Date:
1860
circa 1860s
bulk dates
Topic:
Shalimar Garden (Srinagar, India)
Gardens
Gardens, Mogul
Local number:
1998.07b
Notes:
Samuel Bourne (1834-1912) had already begun to earn recognition for his work in England, having exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862, when he decided to give up his position in a bank and depart for India to work as a professional photographer. He arrived in Calcutta early in 1863, initially setting up a partnership with William Howard. They moved up to Simla, where they established a new studio Howard & Bourne, to be joined in 1864 by Charles Shepherd, to form Howard, Bourne & Shepherd. By 1866, after the departure of Howard, it became Bourne & Shepherd, the name under which the firm continues to operate to this day. Although Bourne only spent 6 years in India, his time there was extremely productive. He undertook three major expeditions in the Himalayas, creating an impressive body of work which combined the highest technical quality and a keen artistic eye, while working under difficult physical conditions. Bourne left India for good in 1870, selling his interest in Bourne & Shepherd shortly thereafter and abandoning commercial photography
The Shalimar Gardens were built by the Mughal emperor Jahangir (r.1605-27) for his wife Mehrunissa, called Nur Jahan, in 1616. The gardens were the inspiration for other gardens of the same name, notably the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, Pakistan. A simple translation of nautch is "dance" or "dancing". The nautch bungalow was likely a residence for the young girls known as "Nautch girls", who performed one of several styles of popular dance known as Nautch. The performance of Nautch rose to prominence during the later period of Mughal Empire, gradually expanding outside the confines of the Imperial Courts
Summary:
One albumen print of a nautch bungalow at the Shalimar Garden, Srinagar, India, circa 1860s. With two men next to a pool of water. Signed "Bourne 806" in black ink on bottom right of image. "Nautch Bungalow Shalimar" is inscribed on the board beneath the photograph
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Sir Edmund Hillary autograph, November 16, 1998

Creator:
Hillary, Edmund 1919-2008
Physical description:
1 sheet ; 31 x 38 cm
Type:
Ink drawings
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Signatures (names)
Place:
USA, District of Columbia, Washington
Nepal
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1998
November 16, 1998
Topic:
Mountaineering
Local number:
A1998.08
Notes:
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary (1919-2008) was New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. As part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, Hillary and his Sherpa guide Tenzing Norgay were the first men to reach the summit of Mt. Everest, the highest point on Earth, on May 29, 1953. For this feat, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II, while Tenzing received the George Medal, one of Britain's highest civilian awards. Hillary would go on to participate in other expeditions in the Himalayas, as well as an expedition to the South Pole. In 1985, he was appointed New Zealand High Commissioner to India. Hillary also devoted much of his time and energy to various philanthropic causes, particularly those dedicated to preserving the ecology of the Himalayas and improving the living conditions of the Sherpa people. In 1998, Hillary was the recipient of the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal in honor of his "monumental explorations and humanitarian achievements." This autograph drawing was made by Hillary during a press conference at the Freer Gallery on November 16
Summary:
One sheet bearing Hillary's signature, along with a line drawing of two figures climbing a mountain, both in black ink
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Myron Bement Smith Collection, circa 1910-1970

Creator:
Smith, Myron Bement 1897-1970
Subject:
Aga-Oglu, Mehmet 1896-
Yale University
Harvard University
American Council of Learned Societies
Library of Congress
Physical description:
150 linear feet
Type:
Lectures
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Architectural drawings
Photographic prints
Slides (photographs)
Place:
USA, New York, New York
Date:
1910
circa 1910-1970
20th century
Local number:
FSA A.04
Notes:
Classical archaeologist, architect, and art historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970) had a life-long devotion to West Asia, accumulating some 87,000 items now in the Archives documenting Islamic art and culture from Spain to India, with an emphasis on architecture. Established in 1948 to further an appreciation for Persian art and culture, nearly seventy-five percent of Smith's "Islamic Archives" consists of his own work; the remainder obtained from other sources. Smith's own negatives, taken from 1933 to 1947, accompany images in a six-volume logbook portraying Persian architecture and monuments, in particular the vaulting of the Masjid-i D'Juma at Isfahan, Iran. One of the most significant portions of the "Islamic Archives" is the photographic material of Antoin Sevruguin, a commercial photographer in Tehran active during the 1870s to 1930. His nearly 800 photographs depict the shahs, royal palaces, military ceremonies, and daily aspects of Persian life. Other materials in the collection include Smith's personal and professional papers including correspondence, research files, writings, and documentation regarding his 1927-1928 Italian and 1933-1937 Iranian expeditions
Myron Bement Smith was born in Newark Valley, New York in 1897 and grew up in Rochester New York. He died in Washington DC in 1970. He showed an early interest in drawing, and after graduation from high school, he worked as a draftsman for a Rochester architect. He served in the US Army Medical Corps in France during World War I and on return again worked as a architectural draftsman. He studied at Yale University from 1922 to 1926, earning a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree. During summer vacations, he worked as draftsman or designer for architectural firms in New York City. After graduation, he received a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation grant and spent two years in Italy doing research on northern Italian brick and stone work. He used photography as an tool for his research and published several well-illustrated articles. On return he joined an architectural firm in Philadelphia and in 1931 became a registered architect in New York. He enrolled in Harvard University graduate school in 1929 pursuing a Master of Fine Arts degree
In April 1930, Smith was appointed Secretary of the newly created American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology founded by Arthur Upham Pope and located in New York City. He had no prior academic or work experience in Islamic art or architecture, and his job entailed designing publications, arranging lectures, organizing exhibitions and fund raising. That summer he arranged an independent study course at Harvard University on Persian Art and subsequently studied Persian language at Columbia University and attended graduate courses at the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University. His work and academic credentials enabled him to compete successfully for a research fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies in 1933 to study Iranian Islamic architecture
Accompanied by his new bride Katharine Dennis, Smith left for Iran in 1933. They suffered a horrendous motor vehicle accident in Iraq en route and required a lengthy recuperation in Lebanon and Cyprus. The Smiths eventually arrived in Isfahan, Iran, where they established their "Expedition House," as Smith called it, in a rented faculty house at Stuart College. Smith's research consisted of meticulous photographic documentation of Islamic monuments and architectural sketches and drawings of many of them. He concentrated on the Isfahan area but also documented monuments elsewhere in Iran. Smith outfitted his station wagon as a combination camper and research vehicle in which he and his staff traveled widely. Katharine sometimes traveled with him but generally she remained in Isfahan managing the household and logistics for the "expedition." The Smiths left Iran in 1937
Smith published several articles about Iran's Islamic monuments based on his field research and in 1947 completed his PhD thesis for The Johns Hopkins University on the vault in Persian architecture. His professional career from 1938 until his death in 1970 consisted of a series of temporary academic positions, contract work and government or academic sponsored lecture tours and photographic exhibits. He had a long lasting relationship with the Library of Congress where he served as an Honorary Consultant from 1938 to 1940 and again from 1948 to 1970; from 1943 to 1944 he was Chief of the Iranian Section at the Library. Despite his lack of published material, Smith was well-known among academic, government and private citizens who worked, traveled or were otherwise interested Iran and the Islamic world
Smith developed an extensive network of professional and social contacts that dated from his early student days and increased markedly during his time at the Persian Institute and later in Iran. He kept in touch with them and they touted him to others who were interested in Iran or Islamic art and architecture. This network served him well in realizing his ambition of creating a resource for scholars that relied on photographs to document Islamic architecture. This Islamic Archives began with his own collection of photographs from his Iran research and grew to include all manner of photographic and other materials not only on the Islamic world but also other areas. Creating and managing the Archives became the main focus of Smith's professional life and career after his return from Iran in 1937. In 1967 he received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to revise his PhD thesis as a publishable manuscript but died before he could complete it
Summary:
The papers include some biographic material about Myron but little about his wife. Information on his academic and professional experience is sketchy and his diaries and appointment books often contain only sporadic entries. There is material about Myron's field research in Italy in the 1920s and his years working on Islamic architecture in Iran in the 1930s. Correspondence comprises the largest and most potentially useful part of the papers. Letters describe the milieu in which Myron operated in Rochester NY and New York City in the 1920s and early 1930s; the Smiths' life in Iran from 1933 to 1937; and the extensive network of academic and social contacts that Myron and Katharine developed and maintained over his lifetime
The Islamic Archives, a project to which Smith devoted most of his professional life, include both original materials, such as photographs and notes, produced by him and items acquired by him from other scholars or experts on Islamic art and architecture. Most of the latter are photographs or slides. Smith intended the Archives to serve as a resource for scholars interested in the architecture and art of the entire Islamic world although he also included some materials about non-Islamic architecture. The core collection within the Archives is Smith's original photographs and sketches of Iranian Islamic monuments produced during his field research there in the 1930s. He meticulously photographed the interior and exterior of monuments, including their decorative detail. Some of the photographic materials loaned, purchased or donated to the Archives may enable scholars to document sites over time but in many cases the materials are poorly preserved or reproduced. A notable exception to this is the glass negatives and prints of 19th century Iranian photographer Antoin Sevruguin, housed separately as the Antoin Sevruguin Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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Li Yuling portrait of J.C. Ferguson, circa 1936

Creator:
Li, Yuling 19th/20th cent
Fu, Zengxiang 1872-1949
Subject:
Ferguson, John Calvin 1866-1945
Physical description:
1 drawing : ink, mounted on board ; 111 x 50 cm
Type:
Portraits
Collection descriptions
Ink drawings
Place:
China, Peking (Beijing)
Date:
1936
circa 1936
Topic:
Men
Local number:
A1999.32
Notes:
John Calvin Ferguson was an advisor to the Executive Yüan of the National Government of China, college president, author, and art collector. Born in Napanee, Ontario, Canada in 1866, Ferguson was ordained to the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church in 1885, and awarded a Ph.D. degree from Boston University in 1902. Following his marriage to Mary E. Wilson, he went to China in 1887 as a missionary, where he founded a Methodist school, the Hui wen shu yüan, which eventually became the University of Nanking. He assumed the position of first president of Nanyang Public School (Nan-yang kung hsüeh) at Shanghai from 1897-1902. Subsequently, he became a member of the Treaty Commission, secretary to the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and later chief secretary of the Imperial Chinese Railway Administration while being concurrently advisor to the Viceroys of Nanking and Wu-ch'ang
In Shanghai Dr. Ferguson was honorary secretary of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, proprietor of the Shanghai Times (daily), and editor of Sin Wan Pao, the leading daily newspaper, which he owned until 1929. During his last year in Shanghai, he became chairman of the Central China Famine Relief Committee. Moving to Peking in 1911, he became vice-president of the Red Cross Society and was appointed foreign secretary for the Ministry of Posts and Communications until 1912. From 1915 he became counselor of the department of state in China, and later served as advisor to the president of the Republic until 1928. During 1923-1931 Ferguson was joint-editor of The China Journal. Ferguson's art collection was temporarily placed in the Wen hua tien in the Palace in 1935, before going to the University of Nanking. Leaving Peking in 1943, Ferguson and his daughter Mary traveled back to the United States, where he died in 1945. Among his publications were Outlines of Chinese Art, 1919; Chinese Painting, 1927; Noted Porcelains of Successive Dynasties, 1931; Catalogue of Recorded Paintings, 1934; and Catalogue of Recorded Bronzes, 1934
Fu Zengxiang (1872-1949) served as the Minister of Education in China's Beiyang government from December 1917 to May 1919
Summary:
Framed drawing, ink on paper, by Li Yuling (Chinese, 19th/20th century). Full-length profile portrait of John Calvin Ferguson (1866-1945) advisor to the Executive Yuan of the National Government of China, shown wearing the robes of a Chou dynasty scholar and facing left, underneath two Chinese inscriptions. The first two-column inscription was written by the artist, dated Christmas 1936, marking Dr. Ferguson's 70th birthday; the second inscription is a long colophon, dated New Year's Day 1937 and written by Fu Zengxiang (1872-1949)
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
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