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The Connecticut Courant, Vol. LXXXVII, No. 4461

Title:
Newspaper with advertisement for Augustus Washington's photography business
Published by:
Hartford Courant, American, founded 1764  Search this
Subject of:
Augustus Washington, American, 1821 - 1875  Search this
Medium:
ink on newsprint
Dimensions:
H x W: 25 3/4 x 19 1/2 in. (65.4 x 49.5 cm)
Type:
advertisements
Place made:
Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Date:
July 20, 1850
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2010.52.2
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Advertisements
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.52.2
Additional Online Media:

Playbill for Dreamgirls

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Imperial Theatre, American, founded 1923  Search this
Subject of:
Obba Babatunde, born 1951  Search this
Cleavant Derricks, American, born 1953  Search this
Loretta Devine, American, born 1949  Search this
Ben Harney, American, born 1952  Search this
Jennifer Holliday, 1960  Search this
Sheryl Lee Ralph, American, born 1956  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/4 x 5 3/4 in. (22.2 x 14.6 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1982
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Rhythm and blues (Music)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.24
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.24
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Playbill for Five Guys Named Moe

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Created by:
Eugene O'Neill Theatre, American, founded 1925  Search this
Subject of:
Jerry Dixon  Search this
Doug Eskew  Search this
Milton Craig Nealy  Search this
Kevin Ramsey  Search this
Jeffrey D. Sams, American, born 1966  Search this
Glen Turner  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 1/2 x 5 5/8 in. (21.6 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1992
Topic:
African American  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.30.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.30.1
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The Cruel and Unusual Punishment of Henry Winston

Published by:
Harlem Committee to Free Henry Winston, American, 1958 - 1961  Search this
Written by:
Mike Newberry, American  Search this
Subject of:
Henry Winston, American, 1911 - 1986  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 11/16 x 5 1/8 in. (19.5 x 13 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1958-1961
Topic:
African American  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Justice  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.25.1-.2
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.25.1-.2
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Playbill for Fences

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Richard Rodgers Theatre, American, founded 1925  Search this
Subject of:
August Wilson, American, 1945 - 2005  Search this
James Earl Jones, American, born 1931  Search this
Mary Alice, American, born 1941  Search this
Ray Aranha, American, 1939 - 2011  Search this
Charles Brown, American, 1946 - 2004  Search this
Frankie R. Faison, American, born 1949  Search this
Karima Miller  Search this
Courtney Bernard Vance, American, born 1960  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/8 x 5 5/8 in. (21.3 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1987
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Drama (Theatre)  Search this
Families  Search this
Men  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.27
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Exhibition:
Taking the Stage
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Culture/Fourth Floor, 4 054
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.27
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Playbill for Comin' Uptown

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Winter Garden Theatre, American, founded 1911  Search this
Subject of:
Gregory Hines, American, 1946 - 2003  Search this
Larry Marshall  Search this
Robert Jason Jackson, American  Search this
Saundra McClain, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 1/4 x 6 x 1/4 in. (23.5 x 15.2 x 0.6 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
December 1979
Topic:
African American  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.21
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.21
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Playbill for The Pajama Game

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Lunt-Fontanne Theatre, American, founded 1910  Search this
Subject of:
Cab Calloway, American, 1907 - 1994  Search this
Marc Jordan, American, born 1948  Search this
Gerrit de Beer  Search this
Willard Waterman, American, 1914 - 1995  Search this
Sharron Miller, American  Search this
Hal Linden, American, born 1931  Search this
Mary Jo Catlett, American, born 1938  Search this
David Brummel, American, born 1942  Search this
Jon Engstrom  Search this
Tiger Haynes, American, 1914 - 1994  Search this
Barbara McNair, American, 1934 - 2007  Search this
Margret Coleman  Search this
Chris Calloway, American, 1945 - 2008  Search this
Wyetta Turner  Search this
Hal Norman  Search this
Baron Wilson  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 x 5 5/8 in. (22.9 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1973
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Comedy (Theatre)  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.76
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.76
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Playbill for Pippin

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Imperial Theatre, American, founded 1923  Search this
Subject of:
Eric Berry, British, 1913 - 1993  Search this
Betty Buckley, American, born 1947  Search this
Priscilla Lopez, American, born 1948  Search this
Dorothy Stickney, American, 1896 - 1998  Search this
Ben Vereen, American, born 1946  Search this
John Rubinstein, American, born 1946  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 x 5 5/8 in. (22.9 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1974
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.78
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.78
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Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Amos T. Hall, American, 1896 - 1971  Search this
Subject of:
New York Giants, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Dr. Ralph Bunche, American, 1903 - 1971  Search this
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, American, founded 1957  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
National Black Political Convention, 1971 - 1972  Search this
Logan H. Westbrook, American  Search this
Roy Wilkins, American, 1901 - 1981  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Tufts University, American, founded 1852  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
National Insurance Association  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
The Drifters, Inc., American, founded 1957  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Patti Austin, American, born 1950  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc.  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
George Leslie Brown  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Otha N. Brown Jr., American, 1931 - 2009  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Gladys W. Dixon, American, born 1901  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Shirley Anita Chisholm, American, 1924 - 2005  Search this
National Alliance of Postal and Federal Employees, American, founded 1913  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 11 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (28 × 21.5 × 0.9 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Miami, Dade County, Florida, United States, North and Central America
Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, United States, North and Central America
California, United States, North and Central America
Colorado, United States, North and Central America
Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, North and Central America
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1972
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Sororities  Search this
United States--History--1969-2001  Search this
United States--Social life and customs  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.6
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Playbill for Jelly's Last Jam

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
ANTA Theatre, American, founded 1925  Search this
Subject of:
Jelly Roll Morton, American, 1890 - 1941  Search this
Gregory Hines, American, 1946 - 2003  Search this
Savion Glover, American, born 1973  Search this
Stanley Wayne Mathis, American  Search this
Tonya Pinkins, American, born 1962  Search this
Keith David, American, born 1956  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 1/2 x 5 5/8 in. (21.6 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1992
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.48
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.48
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Calypso Songs

Title:
Song and story magazine about Harry Belafonte
Published by:
Charlton Publications, American, founded 1940  Search this
Subject of:
Harry Belafonte Jr., American, born 1927  Search this
Medium:
ink on printing paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 11 x 8 5/16 in. (27.9 x 21.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
Derby, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1957
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Calypso (Music)  Search this
Instrumentalists (Musicians)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2010.34.13
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown-Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.34.13
Additional Online Media:

Pioneer Electronic Crossover SF-850 for DJ setup

Created by:
Pioneer, established 1938  Search this
Owned by:
Altel Sound Systems, American, founded 1973  Search this
Medium:
metal , plastic and wire
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 5 1/2 × 19 × 17 in., 16 lb. (14 × 48.3 × 43.2 cm, 7.3 kg)
Type:
audio equipment
Place purchased:
Altel Sound Systems, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Place made:
Japan, Asia
Date:
ca. 1970
Topic:
African American  Search this
Hip hop (Music)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.9.1
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Musical Instruments
Tools and Equipment-Audiovisual
Exhibition:
Power of Place
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Community/Third Floor, 3 051
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.9.1

Le Code Noir

Printed by:
Pierre Prault, French  Search this
Medium:
ink , paper , cardboard , leather
Dimensions:
closed: 4 7/8 × 3 5/16 × 1 1/8 in. (12.4 × 8.4 × 2.9 cm)
open: 4 7/8 × 5 1/4 × 3 1/4 in. (12.4 × 13.3 × 8.3 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place collected:
New Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Place printed:
Paris, Île-de-France, France, Europe
Date:
1767
Topic:
African American  Search this
Law  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Slavery  Search this
United States--History--Colonial period  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2014.67
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Exhibition:
Slavery and Freedom
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 3, C3 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.67
Additional Online Media:

Michael Holman Family Home Movie #1

Title:
8mm motion picture film of Michael Holman Family Home Movie #1
Created by:
Pauline Thompson Wood, American, born 1901  Search this
Subject of:
Michael Holman, American, born 1955  Search this
Dorothy Lewis, American  Search this
Alice Holman, American, 1927 - 2009  Search this
Keith Holman, American, born 1959  Search this
Linda Holman, American, born 1953  Search this
Owned by:
Michael Holman, American, born 1955  Search this
Medium:
8mm Film (a): acetate film;
Film Reel (b): plastic;
Film Box (c): cardboard
Dimensions:
Duration: 3 Minutes
Length (Film): 50 Feet
Type:
home movies
Place depicted:
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Place filmed:
Fort Dix, Burlington County, New Jersey, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1960-1961
Topic:
African American  Search this
Children  Search this
Families  Search this
Film  Search this
Military  Search this
Recreation  Search this
Travel  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2016.31.3.1.1abc
Restrictions & Rights:
© Michael Holman
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Michael Holman Family Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Film and Video
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.31.3.1.1abc

The Liberator, Vol. XXIV, No. 16

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (closed): 25 1/4 × 18 3/8 in. (64.1 × 46.7 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
April 21, 1854
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Fugitive enslaved  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Self-liberation  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
United States--History--1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2016.166.41.3
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.166.41.3
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Additional Online Media:

The Liberator, Vol. XXV, No. 8

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (closed): 25 × 17 15/16 in. (63.5 × 45.6 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
February 23, 1855
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Fugitive enslaved  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Self-liberation  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
United States--History--1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2016.166.41.5
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.166.41.5
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Additional Online Media:

Jersey top worn by Carolyn Jones

Manufactured by:
Reebok International Ltd., British, founded 1895  Search this
Subject of:
New England Blizzard, American, 1996 - 1998  Search this
American Basketball League, American, 1996 - 1998  Search this
Worn by:
Carolyn Jones-Young, American, born 1969  Search this
Medium:
polyester and ink
Dimensions:
H x W: 32 9/16 × 24 13/16 in. (82.7 × 63 cm)
Type:
jerseys
sports uniforms
Place used:
Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1996-1998
Topic:
African American  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Basketball  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2014.318.1.1
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Historical
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.318.1.1

The North Star, Vol. I No. 37

Created by:
The North Star, American, 1847 - 1859  Search this
Edited by:
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Martin Robison Delany, American, 1812 - 1885  Search this
Published by:
John Dick, British  Search this
Medium:
ink on newsprint
Dimensions:
H x W (folded): 13 3/16 × 18 1/2 in. (33.5 × 47 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Rochester, Monroe County, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
September 8, 1848
Topic:
African American  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Communities  Search this
Free communities of color  Search this
Freedom  Search this
Fugitive enslaved  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Self-liberation  Search this
Social reform  Search this
United States--History--1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2014.151.3
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Exhibition:
Slavery and Freedom
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 3, C3 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.151.3
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  • View <I>The North Star, Vol. I No. 37</I> digital asset number 1
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Uniform shorts worn by Carolyn Jones

Manufactured by:
Reebok International Ltd., British, founded 1895  Search this
Subject of:
New England Blizzard, American, 1996 - 1998  Search this
American Basketball League, American, 1996 - 1998  Search this
Worn by:
Carolyn Jones-Young, American, born 1969  Search this
Medium:
polyester with ink and elastic
Dimensions:
H x W: 20 5/8 × 19 3/4 in. (52.4 × 50.2 cm)
Type:
athletic shorts
sports uniforms
Place used:
Hartford Civic Center, Hartford, Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1996-1998
Topic:
African American  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Basketball  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2014.318.1.2
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Historical
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.318.1.2

Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis

Creator:
Black, Julian, Mrs.  Search this
Black, Julian (boxing manager)  Search this
Names:
Jacobs, Mike  Search this
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Roxborough, John  Search this
Extent:
109 Volumes
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Volumes
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Date:
1935-1944
Summary:
The collection consists of 109 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings assembled by Julian Black, manager of Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. They document Louis's career from 1935 to 1944.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 109 scrapbooks of newspaper clippings assembled by Julian Black, manager of Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. They document Louis's career from 1935 to 1944. Louis became one of America's most celebrated sports figures both for his extraordinary boxing skills and for his role as a symbol of national pride, especially in his bouts with the German champion Max Schmeling. His national respect and international prominence stood in ironic contrast to the nation's legal and social practices of racial segregation.

Joe Louis's manager, Julian Black, assembled three sets of scrapbooks to document Louis's career. This collection consists of ninety-two volumes from Black's set, sixteen volumes from a similar but not identical set of scrapbooks assembled for Louis, and one oversize miscellaneous volume.

The third set of scrapbooks belonged to John W. Roxborough, Joe's manager or co-manager from 1933 to 1948. It is held by the Bentley Historical Library at the University of Michigan. This set contains ninety-four volumes covering the period 1935 to November 1941. Part of this collection has been microfilmed. Although the numbering of the volumes in each of the three sets is different it appears that each set has the same information.

The scrapbooks contain newspaper clippings from throughout the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1944 and articles from Ring magazine. This collection documents Joe Louis's fights from June 25, 1935, through 1944, including championship fights from June 22, 1937, through September 29, 1941. (The Steve Ketchel fight on January 11, 1937, in Buffalo is not represented. See the scrapbook volume listing at the end of this guide.)

The scrapbooks were assembled with great care using high-quality binding and paper. The clippings are neatly mounted and show great attention to detail. All clippings are identified by the name of the paper; the day of the week and the date; and the author, artist, or photographer. Clippings include full-length articles and brief sketches, cartoons, photographs, and records and statistics of the boxers. The clippings are grouped in volumes by each of Louis's fights and then arranged chronologically.

Hundreds of major and minor newspapers throughout the United States and Canada are represented in the scrapbooks. Coverage extends from very large metropolitan dailies to small-town newspapers. Among the newspapers represented are titles as diverse as: Akron Beacon Journal; Daily Colonist, Victoria, British Columbia; Shreveport Times; Tribune Tulsa; and the Worchester Daily Telegraph.

While these scrapbooks are about the Joe Louis fights, there is a wealth of material on many other people connected with boxing in this period, including all of Joe Louis's opponents, his trainer, his managers, his promoter Mike Jacobs, and most of the sports reporters and writers of the time. Anyone of any importance connected with boxing during this period can be found in the pages of these volumes. There are also retrospective articles on earlier boxers and historical fights.

The two sets of scrapbooks in this collection are numbered separately: the Julian Black Scrapbooks, Volumes 1-92; and the Joe Louis Scrapbooks, Volumes 17-20, 52-58, 61-63, and 71 and 72. Although much of the same material is found in both sets, there are sufficient differences in content and in physical condition of the volumes. The container list indicates the relationship between the two sets. The 109th volume consists of an oversize miscellaneous scrapbook of random news clippings, 1941-1944, of later Louis matches.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series. Clippings arranged chronologically in scrapbooks, grouped in volumes.

Series 1: Julian Black Volumes, 1935-1941

Series 2: Joe Louis Volumes, 1936-1940
Biographical note:
Joe Louis Barrow, the seventh child of Monroe and Lily Barrow, was born May 13, 1914 in a cabin in the cotton fields of Lexington, Alabama. While Joe was still a young boy, his father suffered a mental breakdown and later died in the Searcy State Hospital near mobile, Alabama. His mother later married Pat Brooks, a widower with many children of his own, and the combined family moved to Detroit when Joe was ten.

After an introduction to boxing and lessons by his friend Thurston McKinney, Joe tried his luck at competition. The Brewster East Side Gymnasium became a second home for him. At sixteen he entered his first amateur tournament.

Joe Louis was an outstanding amateur. He lost only four decisions in fifty-four fights, and forty-one of his wins were by a knockout. Joe fought his last amateur fight on April 13, 1934, in St. Louis.

John Roxborough had encouraged Louis as an amateur and became his manager when Joe turned pro. Roxborough hired Jack Blackburn, a boxer himself, to coach and train the young Joe Louis. At this time Roxborough also teamed up with Julian Black of Chicago in a business venture that carried over into the management of Joe Louis.

Joe's professional debut took place in Bacon's Arena in Chicago on July 4, 1934. He decisively defeated Jack Kracken for a fifty-dollar purse. Only four of his first twenty-seven foes lasted all fifteen rounds.

As Joe Louis worked his way up the ladder as a contender for the heavyweight championship he acquired the nickname the "Brown Bomber." On May 14, 1935, one day after his twenty-first birthday, the young pugilist signed a ten-year contract with Julian Black. The contract stipulated that fifty percent of Joe Louis's gross earnings from boxing contests, exhibitions, movies, and radio would go to Julian Black. Jack Blackburn, the trainer, was paid from Joe's portion of the money. John Roxborough, the other manager, claimed "to have a contract for twenty-five percent of Louis's gross earnings for an indefinite period."

The newly organized 20th Century Sporting Club, with Mike Jacobs as promoter, operated in competition with Madison Square Garden. The club signed the promising young boxer to an exclusive contract. Joe's first appearance in a New York ring took place at Yankee Stadium on June 25, 1935, against Primo Carnera. Joe KO'd Carnera in the sixth round. On September 24, 1935, also at Yankee Stadium, Joe knocked out Max Baer in the fourth round.

After winning twenty-seven straight fights, including twenty-three KO's, Louis was the heir apparent to James J. Braddock's heavyweight title. On June 19, 1936 he battled max Schmeling, the former champ who was considered washed up. Schmeling surprised everyone by punishing and then finishing Louis off with a twelfth-round knockout.

A year later, in his thirty-sixth professional fight, Joe Louis won the heavyweight crown at twenty three years of age by defeating Jim Braddock in Chicago in eight rounds. Braddock fought Louis to avoid a fight with Max Schmeling and the possible loss of the title to a German. Braddock, however, insisted on a percentage of Louis's future purses. It is generally believed he received ten percent of all Joe's earnings over a period of fifteen years.

After defeating two easy opponents, Louis met max Schmeling in a dramatic rematch on June 22, 1938. Like Jesse Owens in the Berlin Olympic Games, Louis symbolized American democracy versus an increasingly menacing Nazi Germany. The irony of a black hero representing a racially segregated society in a symbolic battle between freedom and oppression was not lost on all Americans and, although Louis himself was not a political activist, his example added fuel to the movement for racial equality and civil rights. Louis defeated Schmeling in two minutes and four seconds of the first round.

In the following years promoter Jacobs searched for opponents for Louis. After defeating five former champions - Carnera, Baer, Sharkey, Braddock, and Schmeling-the pickings were slim. on January 25, 1939, Joe "squared-off" with the first Black to fight him professionally -- John Henry Lewis (great-great nephew of Tom Molineaux, the first of America's Black heavyweight champions). Lewis was the light-heavyweight champion of the world and a natural 175 "pounder." He and Joe were close personal friends outside of the ring. Nevertheless, Joe totally outclassed Lewis in the ring.

Joe Louis defended his title twenty times before World War II interrupted his career. He was eventually classified 1-A and inducted into the Army. During the winter of 1941-1942 he staged bouts for the Navy and Army. The service relief fund received $75,000 from the purse of each fight. While in the service the Brown Bomber traveled extensively, giving boxing exhibitions and refereeing bouts. For his service on behalf of the armed forces, he received a citation from the United States government.

Louis retired an undefeated champion March 1, 1949. He came out of retirement and lost a fifteen-round decision to Ezzard Charles on September 27, 1950 at Yankee Stadium. He won eight more fights from the end of 1950 until the fall of 1951. However, on October 26, 1951, Louis lost by a knockout in the eighth round to Rocky Marciano. He retired for good after this comeback attempt. For many years after he retired, Joe had income tax problems and other financial problem. He also underwent a brief stay in a Denver psychiatric hospital. Joe Louis died in 1981. Click here to go to scope and content note.
Joe Louis Heavyweight Championship Fights, 1937-1950:
1937 June 22 -- Joe Louis knocked out James J. Braddock, 8 rounds, Chicago.

1937 August 30 -- Joe Louis defeated TOUT Farr, 15 rounds, decision, New York City.

1937 August 30 -- Joe Louis defeated TOUT Farr, 15 rounds, decision, New York City.

1938 February 23 -- Joe Louis knocked Out Nathan Mann, 3 rounds, New York City.

1938 April 1 -- Joe Louis knocked out Harry Thomas, 5 rounds, New York city.

1938 June 22 -- Joe Louis knocked out Max Schmeling, one round,, New York City.

1939 January 25 -- Joe Louis knocked out John H. Lewis, one round, New York City.

1939 April 17 -- Joe Louis knocked out Jack Roper, one round, Los Angeles.

1939 June 28 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tony Galento, 4 rounds, New York city.

1939 September 30 -- Joe Louis knocked out Bob Pastor, 11 rounds, Detroit, Michigan.

1940 February 9 -- Joe Louis defeated Arturo Godoy, 15 rounds,decision, New York City.

1940 March 29 -- Joe Louis knocked out John Paychek, 2 rounds, New York city.

1940 June 20 -- Joe Louis knocked out Arturo Godoy, 8 rounds, New York city.

1940 Decenber 16 -- Joe Louis knocked out Al McCoy, 6 rounds, Boston.

1941 January 31 -- Joe Louis knocked Out Red Burman, 5 rounds, New York city.

1941 February 17 -- Joe Louis knocked out Gus Dorazio, 2 rounds, Philadelphia.

1941 March 21 -- Joe Louis knocked out Abe Simon, 13 rounds, Detroit, Michigan.

1941 April 8 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tony musto, 9 rounds, St. Louis, Misssouri.

1941 May 23 -- Joe Louis beat Buddy Baer, 7 rounds, Washington, D.C., on a disqualification.

1941 June 18 -- Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn, 13 rounds, New York city.

1941 September 29 -- Joe Louis knocked out Lou Nova, 6 rounds, New York city.

1942 January 9 -- Joe Louis knocked out Buddy Baer, one round,, New York City.

1942 March 27 -- Joe Louis knocked out Abe Simon, 6 rounds, New York city.

1946 June 19 -- Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn, 8 rounds, New York city.

1946 September 13 -- Joe Louis knocked out Tami Mauriello, one round, New York City.

1947 December 5 -- Joe Louis defeated Joe Walcott in a 15-round bout by a split decision, New York city.

1948 June 25 -- Joe Louis knocked out Joe Walcott 11 rounds, New York city.

1950 September 27 -- Ezzard Charles defeated Joe Louis in latter's attempted comeback, 15 rounds, New York City.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Mrs. Julian Black in two installments to the Division of Community Life (now the Division of Home and Community Life), National Museum of American History: twenty-two volumes in 1976 and eighty-seven volumes in 1977.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of microfiche and microfilm recommended. Some original volumes are fragile.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American athletes  Search this
Boxers (Sports) -- 1930-1950  Search this
Sports -- 1930-1950  Search this
Boxing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0002
See more items in:
Julian Black Scrapbooks of Joe Louis
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0002
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